What Is A Mooncake?

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Show Notes

Happy Mid-Autumn Festival. Here’s the Chinese Legend behind the Mid-Autumn Festival. For more episodes from How Did We Not Know That, check out our weekly podcast on Anchor, Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or wherever you listen to your podcasts. At How Did We Not Know That or HDWNKT

Sources:

https://www.chinahighlights.com/festivals/mid-autumn-festival-story.htm

https://www.travelchinaguide.com/essential/holidays/mid-autumn-legends.htm

Transcript

0:00:00.240,0:00:04.000
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.240,0:00:04.480
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:04.000,0:00:08.800
that

0:00:04.480,0:00:11.920
i’m nat i’m jack and today

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jack is gonna be talking about a holiday

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that’s going on right now right

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yeah correct okay so uh

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october 1st was

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a special day it is the

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current okay actually let me just i’m

0:00:26.640,0:00:30.960
chinese if anyone do

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i don’t know so we celebrate in like

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chinese heritage and like other asian

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heritages

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we celebrate the mid-autumn festival so

0:00:36.239,0:00:39.520
actually

0:00:36.960,0:00:41.600
that’s in korea right now and then korea

0:00:39.520,0:00:43.440
chuseok should be going on which is like

0:00:41.600,0:00:46.239
the korean version

0:00:43.440,0:00:47.680
um but yeah basically the mid-autumn

0:00:46.239,0:00:50.239
festival is like

0:00:47.680,0:00:52.480
the thanksgiving like chinese

0:00:50.239,0:00:53.360
thanksgiving in a way and like chuseok

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is the

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korean thanksgiving but i’m gonna tell

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everyone

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the legend of the mid-autumn festival

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and

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what it’s about so that’s that we have

0:01:03.440,0:01:08.080
the

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oh yeah yay okay so

0:01:08.080,0:01:13.520
the early mid autumn oh the early form

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of the mid-autumn festival

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is derived from the custom of moon

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worship

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that occurred during the zhou dynasty

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which was 3 000 years ago

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and so in ancient china most emperors

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worship the moon annually

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and then the custom was accepted by the

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masses and became more popular over time

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so the reason why we worship the moon

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which i mean today you don’t really

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worship the moon you kind of talk about

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the moon a little bit but it’s more just

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like being with family

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um but yeah the legend of the moon so

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long ago before the fire nation attacked

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i was kidding

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so okay long ago there used to be

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apparently

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um 10 suns shining in the sky

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and the suns are so hot that

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the crops were drying and people were

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suffering a lot so because 10 suns is

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like

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really hot yeah it’s pretty bad

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let’s see that’s toasty yeah there’s a

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powerful archer

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so he’s like bow and arrow and his name

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was ho yi

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and he was determined to relieve this

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suffering it was like his life’s calling

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so he climbed to the top

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of kunlun mountain there’s no way that

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that’s how you say

0:02:33.760,0:02:37.360
loon kunlun climbed to the top of a

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mountain

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and then he took full strength to pull

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the bow with all his

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what the hell he took full strength

0:02:42.319,0:02:44.959
though pull the bow with all his

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strength anyways

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he took his bow and arrow and he shot

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down nine of the ten sons so he left us

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with

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our main son and

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he said to the last sun in the sky from

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now on you must

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rise on time and fall on time every day

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and benefit the people

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so yeah it’s like so

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uh forward to talk to the sun like that

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yeah right um so from then on everyone

0:03:13.840,0:03:17.280
respects

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ho yi and many people become followers

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of him

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and they learn from him so now ho he has

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his little archers class

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and all this the villagers are coming to

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learn archery

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and a man among the students his name

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was

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fung mung and he was treacherous and

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greedy

0:03:33.200,0:03:38.720
so because ho yi

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shot down nine of the ten sons and saved

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everyone the

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queen of heaven so the queen of heaven

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gives ho yi an elixir as a reward for

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his magnif

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for his magnificent feet okay yeah so

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she gives hoey the elixir of life and so

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what this elixir does is it helps

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whoever drinks it

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it helps them ascend to heaven and

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become immortal so

0:04:02.720,0:04:09.680
okay hoagies like cool immortality but

0:04:06.080,0:04:12.080
ho yi’s wife chong uh is

0:04:09.680,0:04:12.799
awesome and he doesn’t want to leave his

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wife

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so he’s not going to take the elixir he

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decides not to drink it and he gives it

0:04:16.720,0:04:21.680
to chang

0:04:17.440,0:04:24.000
for safe keeping however chonga’s wife

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is beautiful and kind and she helps the

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poor

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and people really like her so fong mang

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the

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student who is really jealous and like

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greedy

0:04:31.919,0:04:38.800
wants this elixir of life so he comes

0:04:35.680,0:04:40.720
on the morning of a 15th day of an

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eighth lunar month

0:04:40.720,0:04:43.840
which is like that’s how we pick because

0:04:42.560,0:04:46.240
um yeah

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uh the madonna festival’s date changes

0:04:46.240,0:04:49.120
each year because it’s according to the

0:04:47.919,0:04:51.840
lunar calendar

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so this year it’s on october 1st so it

0:04:51.840,0:04:55.040
would have already

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it’s already yeah by the time this is up

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it’s locked

0:04:55.759,0:04:59.600
on so you just have to like prepare for

0:04:58.240,0:05:02.080
next year

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but feng mong comes in he breaks into

0:05:02.080,0:05:04.960
chango’s home when ho yi is outside

0:05:04.320,0:05:06.880
hunting

0:05:04.960,0:05:08.479
and he demands that she hands over the

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elixir and

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knowing that chong uh welchanga is like

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yeah i can’t

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beat this person this archer so knowing

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that she can’t defeat him she promptly

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swallows the elixir

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to save it so she’s like i have to get

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rid of it

0:05:21.680,0:05:25.520
and she she takes the elixir and as soon

0:05:24.479,0:05:28.400
as she swallows it

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she flies to the sky towards the moon

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and

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that is where she lives immortally is on

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the moon

0:05:33.039,0:05:38.160
oh my god i am convenient to just be

0:05:36.240,0:05:39.360
like oh i gotta save it let me just

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drink it really quick

0:05:39.360,0:05:43.039
i know i was like i feel like there are

0:05:40.639,0:05:44.880
other ways but yeah

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she did her best quick thinking it’s

0:05:44.880,0:05:51.199
like a high intense situation

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yeah so okay now

0:05:51.199,0:05:54.800
ho yi comes back home and he finds his

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wife has disappeared

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so he rushes out of the door anxiously

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and chang

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uh was standing next to a laurel tree on

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the moon and staring lovingly at her

0:06:02.400,0:06:04.880
husband

0:06:02.880,0:06:06.240
so basically chang was on the moon

0:06:04.880,0:06:09.759
beside a tree

0:06:06.240,0:06:12.560
a laurel tree that’s on the moon and

0:06:09.759,0:06:14.960
yeah she’s like looking down on him from

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the moon

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and he says chong chang uh

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and he’s like gesturing towards the moon

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but once he chases forward the moon goes

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back

0:06:24.639,0:06:27.840
so he can never catch up to the moon and

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he

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misses his wife so much ho he misses his

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wife so much

0:06:31.440,0:06:36.479
that he prepared a banquet towards the

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moon on every 15th day of the 8th lunar

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month

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looking forward to reuniting with chong

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wait that’s so sweet that’s sad though i

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know

0:06:44.880,0:06:48.400
super sad i think that avatar the last

0:06:47.680,0:06:50.000
airbender

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that do you remember that do you hear

0:06:50.000,0:06:53.680
that episode where soccer’s

0:06:52.000,0:06:55.199
love interest turns into the moon i

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think that’s what this is loosely based

0:06:55.199,0:06:59.919
off of

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i never watched avatar

0:06:59.919,0:07:03.919
now that’s your quarantine thing you can

0:07:02.639,0:07:08.400
go watch it

0:07:03.919,0:07:12.639
i’ll watch it during quarantine yeah um

0:07:08.400,0:07:14.720
yeah so basically

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yeah since the the folks really liked

0:07:14.720,0:07:18.960
chong because she was nice

0:07:16.319,0:07:20.080
they all join in with ho yi and they

0:07:18.960,0:07:22.479
also

0:07:20.080,0:07:24.240
put up like sacrifices and well

0:07:22.479,0:07:27.599
sacrifices like fruit

0:07:24.240,0:07:28.000
um they put up like like little fruits

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and

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um cakes and stuff to

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celebrate her and

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[Music]

0:07:35.120,0:07:39.759
yeah and that became the mid-autumn

0:07:37.280,0:07:44.479
festival so everyone gathers together

0:07:39.759,0:07:47.759
and celebrates and so you know today

0:07:44.479,0:07:51.360
the custom is to hang out with your fam

0:07:47.759,0:07:53.759
and yeah enjoy

0:07:51.360,0:07:55.440
oh here it is so the common customs of

0:07:53.759,0:07:57.360
the mid-autumn festival today

0:07:55.440,0:07:59.840
are family members eating dinner

0:07:57.360,0:08:01.120
together sharing moon cakes which i’ll

0:07:59.840,0:08:02.720
tell you about in a second

0:08:01.120,0:08:05.440
worshiping the moon with gifts

0:08:02.720,0:08:07.759
displaying lanterns and

0:08:05.440,0:08:08.879
yeah other other fun activities for

0:08:07.759,0:08:11.599
bonding

0:08:08.879,0:08:13.680
um and then yeah we eat moon cakes so

0:08:11.599,0:08:15.360
wait let me think

0:08:13.680,0:08:17.280
i think we just gave away our last moon

0:08:15.360,0:08:19.520
cake but i can show you later

0:08:17.280,0:08:21.520
um oh maybe i can put a picture in the

0:08:19.520,0:08:24.000
video but

0:08:21.520,0:08:24.879
mooncakes are have you had a mooncake

0:08:24.000,0:08:26.800
yeah

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those are like my favorite oh you like

0:08:26.800,0:08:30.960
them really

0:08:28.400,0:08:32.800
yeah you don’t no i do i do but i think

0:08:30.960,0:08:35.120
that they like

0:08:32.800,0:08:37.120
they got a very like specific taste like

0:08:35.120,0:08:40.880
i gotta be like

0:08:37.120,0:08:43.519
moon cake it’s not like super sweet

0:08:40.880,0:08:45.519
yeah yeah moon cakes are like if you’re

0:08:43.519,0:08:48.800
listening just google moon cakes

0:08:45.519,0:08:49.920
um but they like yeah they’re really

0:08:48.800,0:08:51.839
pretty designs

0:08:49.920,0:08:53.839
and they’re very rich they’re like

0:08:51.839,0:08:55.519
pretty thick because it’s like a paste

0:08:53.839,0:08:58.080
inside

0:08:55.519,0:08:59.839
yeah my favorite is the lotus seed paste

0:08:58.080,0:09:02.080
with two yolk oh actually no

0:08:59.839,0:09:03.360
one yolk i don’t like two yolks because

0:09:02.080,0:09:05.440
i don’t like yolks

0:09:03.360,0:09:06.399
but like it’s like an egg yolk inside of

0:09:05.440,0:09:09.120
it but yeah

0:09:06.399,0:09:11.120
i if you’re gonna go okay yeah to anyone

0:09:09.120,0:09:12.160
listening if you’re interested in trying

0:09:11.120,0:09:13.680
a moon cake

0:09:12.160,0:09:15.360
you should go to your local asian

0:09:13.680,0:09:16.959
grocery store or

0:09:15.360,0:09:18.560
chinese grocery store if you can go to

0:09:16.959,0:09:19.839
the chinese one you’re probably gonna

0:09:18.560,0:09:23.040
have better luck

0:09:19.839,0:09:24.800
but go to one of those and then they

0:09:23.040,0:09:26.399
should be out on display by the time

0:09:24.800,0:09:27.839
this episode comes out hopefully they’re

0:09:26.399,0:09:28.480
still up they should still be selling

0:09:27.839,0:09:31.040
them

0:09:28.480,0:09:32.720
and they’ll come in like a tin and there

0:09:31.040,0:09:33.760
should be four of them or you can buy

0:09:32.720,0:09:36.320
just like one

0:09:33.760,0:09:38.080
um some stores sell just like one or

0:09:36.320,0:09:39.920
they only sell it by ten

0:09:38.080,0:09:42.640
and yeah they’ll have different kinds

0:09:39.920,0:09:44.880
and i think a safe first mooncake to try

0:09:42.640,0:09:47.760
is the lotus seed paste

0:09:44.880,0:09:49.360
with two yolk i think that’s like pretty

0:09:47.760,0:09:50.480
traditional even though i don’t like

0:09:49.360,0:09:53.440
them but

0:09:50.480,0:09:55.680
yeah but yeah that’s the mid-autumn

0:09:53.440,0:09:57.920
festival so happy mid-autumn festival

0:09:55.680,0:09:58.800
and then we say oh i hope my tones sound

0:09:57.920,0:10:01.120
okay but

0:09:58.800,0:10:02.839
we would say like dong tu dia koila

0:10:01.120,0:10:05.279
which means like happy mid-autumn

0:10:02.839,0:10:07.760
festival wow

0:10:05.279,0:10:09.279
well that’s so fun i’m like trying to

0:10:07.760,0:10:11.920
think i

0:10:09.279,0:10:13.360
haven’t left my apartment yet i’m in

0:10:11.920,0:10:15.360
korea right now but i’m

0:10:13.360,0:10:17.279
still stuck in quarantine for the next

0:10:15.360,0:10:20.240
week so i haven’t

0:10:17.279,0:10:21.440
been able to see but like chuseok here

0:10:20.240,0:10:24.640
um

0:10:21.440,0:10:25.600
like all the schools and like businesses

0:10:24.640,0:10:27.600
shut down

0:10:25.600,0:10:29.600
from like wednesday to sunday so it’s

0:10:27.600,0:10:31.279
like a really long holiday you get like

0:10:29.600,0:10:34.240
almost a week off

0:10:31.279,0:10:34.640
um and i think now there’s like a lot of

0:10:34.240,0:10:37.839
like

0:10:34.640,0:10:39.279
sales like two sales um

0:10:37.839,0:10:41.120
and everyone is like supposed to be with

0:10:39.279,0:10:43.440
their family this year however

0:10:41.120,0:10:44.560
like people are you know like with

0:10:43.440,0:10:46.480
everything going on like

0:10:44.560,0:10:48.000
i don’t think you can travel as easily

0:10:46.480,0:10:49.200
and i think like the government here has

0:10:48.000,0:10:51.839
kind of been

0:10:49.200,0:10:53.120
like telling encouraging like virtual to

0:10:51.839,0:10:56.959
suck celebrations

0:10:53.120,0:10:58.800
um but yeah i’m like

0:10:56.959,0:11:01.519
i wish i could see if it’s like all

0:10:58.800,0:11:03.440
decorated nicely

0:11:01.519,0:11:05.760
i don’t know it’s like i don’t know if

0:11:03.440,0:11:09.279
there’s a specifically korean food that

0:11:05.760,0:11:10.640
they eat they do they do wait we can go

0:11:09.279,0:11:12.880
into this so actually

0:11:10.640,0:11:14.399
i didn’t realize that chuseok was the

0:11:12.880,0:11:17.760
mid-autumn festival

0:11:14.399,0:11:20.480
until this year because um so

0:11:17.760,0:11:22.160
one of my friends is oh she listened to

0:11:20.480,0:11:25.200
her podcast

0:11:22.160,0:11:26.000
but one of my friends um that i met in

0:11:25.200,0:11:27.760
korea

0:11:26.000,0:11:30.240
she told me she gets five days off this

0:11:27.760,0:11:32.160
year so she’s she’s having

0:11:30.240,0:11:33.600
um but i guess yeah they always get like

0:11:32.160,0:11:35.760
a lot of time off for it

0:11:33.600,0:11:36.880
but when i was in korea because i

0:11:35.760,0:11:38.959
studied in korea

0:11:36.880,0:11:41.040
i celebrated chuseok with her and her

0:11:38.959,0:11:43.839
family so she invited me to and i didn’t

0:11:41.040,0:11:47.279
realize it was the mid-autumn festival

0:11:43.839,0:11:48.800
um so anyways yeah we like went to her

0:11:47.279,0:11:50.880
house and i got to meet

0:11:48.800,0:11:52.320
both of her grandparents and like her

0:11:50.880,0:11:54.800
cousins and everything

0:11:52.320,0:11:57.040
and we ate so much food and they eat

0:11:54.800,0:11:58.639
something called song

0:11:57.040,0:12:00.880
i hope i’m saying that right but it’s

0:11:58.639,0:12:03.360
like is it just

0:12:00.880,0:12:04.240
let me make sure i’m saying it right but

0:12:03.360,0:12:07.519
it’s like oh

0:12:04.240,0:12:10.560
glutinous oh yes

0:12:07.519,0:12:10.560
nailed it yeah it’s

0:12:10.880,0:12:14.480
so they’re called like half moon shaped

0:12:13.360,0:12:16.880
rice cakes

0:12:14.480,0:12:18.639
and yeah it’s just like a rice cake and

0:12:16.880,0:12:20.880
it’s filled with whatever you want it to

0:12:18.639,0:12:24.160
be so they’ll have that

0:12:20.880,0:12:26.000
which is really delicious i like them

0:12:24.160,0:12:28.000
and then a bunch of other foods i didn’t

0:12:26.000,0:12:29.680
even know half of the things that i was

0:12:28.000,0:12:30.880
eating but it was really good and then

0:12:29.680,0:12:33.279
they’ll play

0:12:30.880,0:12:35.519
yute nori as well we played like ut nori

0:12:33.279,0:12:37.600
with her fam which is like a

0:12:35.519,0:12:38.800
it’s like how do i describe it you like

0:12:37.600,0:12:40.720
throw sticks up

0:12:38.800,0:12:42.959
and then they’ll land and it’s like how

0:12:40.720,0:12:45.120
many spaces you get to move

0:12:42.959,0:12:46.959
on this board that you literally draw

0:12:45.120,0:12:48.480
out like we drew out a board and did

0:12:46.959,0:12:49.839
that

0:12:48.480,0:12:51.839
so yeah it’s really fun but you

0:12:49.839,0:12:53.440
basically just like hang out with family

0:12:51.839,0:12:55.200
and i didn’t speak any korean

0:12:53.440,0:12:56.800
so i did not really know what’s going on

0:12:55.200,0:12:58.399
but i had such a good time it’s still

0:12:56.800,0:12:59.760
like one of my favorite memories in

0:12:58.399,0:13:01.440
korea

0:12:59.760,0:13:03.440
that’s so cute that sounds like it’s

0:13:01.440,0:13:05.920
such a good time and like

0:13:03.440,0:13:07.839
yeah what a fun time i know like all my

0:13:05.920,0:13:08.320
co-workers here have been describing it

0:13:07.839,0:13:10.399
it’s like

0:13:08.320,0:13:11.440
oh green thanksgiving like no one really

0:13:10.399,0:13:13.680
calls it

0:13:11.440,0:13:15.760
like the mid-autumn festival so i think

0:13:13.680,0:13:17.680
maybe there’s less emphasis on like

0:13:15.760,0:13:18.880
the like lunar calendar and the

0:13:17.680,0:13:21.120
tradition behind it

0:13:18.880,0:13:22.800
in korea and maybe more focus on like

0:13:21.120,0:13:26.720
just spending time with family

0:13:22.800,0:13:29.120
yeah celebrities let me

0:13:26.720,0:13:30.720
look it up yeah i think like we you

0:13:29.120,0:13:32.160
could like refer to it as like a

0:13:30.720,0:13:33.440
thanksgiving i think like it’s more

0:13:32.160,0:13:35.200
common to call it the mid-autumn

0:13:33.440,0:13:36.560
festival if you’re from a chinese

0:13:35.200,0:13:38.639
background

0:13:36.560,0:13:39.680
um but they literally occur on the same

0:13:38.639,0:13:42.079
day so

0:13:39.680,0:13:42.880
like it’s the same thing also like japan

0:13:42.079,0:13:45.279
has

0:13:42.880,0:13:47.839
a mid-autumn festival i believe too i

0:13:45.279,0:13:51.199
think it’s called like

0:13:47.839,0:13:54.079
wait let me look it up really quick yeah

0:13:51.199,0:13:54.639
yeah otsukimi which is like that’s a

0:13:54.079,0:13:57.040
different

0:13:54.639,0:13:58.800
oh no that’s literally the same thing

0:13:57.040,0:13:59.279
but it’s like celebrated the same time

0:13:58.800,0:14:02.800
but

0:13:59.279,0:14:05.600
it like when so i last year i was living

0:14:02.800,0:14:08.000
in japan and i came like late september

0:14:05.600,0:14:09.920
so i was there for like old tsukimi

0:14:08.000,0:14:11.600
but you know i had like japanese for

0:14:09.920,0:14:14.959
minutes i was living with japanese

0:14:11.600,0:14:16.959
friends um and it was like it’s

0:14:14.959,0:14:19.199
totally different i think than how they

0:14:16.959,0:14:22.079
celebrate it in korea

0:14:19.199,0:14:23.920
and china at least in tokyo like the

0:14:22.079,0:14:25.040
only thing i really saw was like a bunch

0:14:23.920,0:14:27.920
of sales like

0:14:25.040,0:14:28.560
zucchini sales and like you can get like

0:14:27.920,0:14:31.680
fun

0:14:28.560,0:14:33.199
like desserts for the holiday but it

0:14:31.680,0:14:34.959
seemed more of like kind of like a

0:14:33.199,0:14:37.120
hallmark holiday you know

0:14:34.959,0:14:38.320
um but i think in like other outside of

0:14:37.120,0:14:41.680
tokyo there might be

0:14:38.320,0:14:45.199
like festivals in like other

0:14:41.680,0:14:47.600
towns throughout japan but i think

0:14:45.199,0:14:50.480
yeah from what i experience at least it

0:14:47.600,0:14:54.399
doesn’t seem as

0:14:50.480,0:14:58.560
yeah it’s like not as like a traditional

0:14:54.399,0:15:00.880
yeah i just looked this up and it okay

0:14:58.560,0:15:02.320
case closed so i looked up this like

0:15:00.880,0:15:05.199
mid-autumn festival

0:15:02.320,0:15:06.880
generally and it says that it’s known as

0:15:05.199,0:15:08.399
like the moon festival or

0:15:06.880,0:15:10.399
moon cake festival and it’s a

0:15:08.399,0:15:13.680
traditional festival celebrated by

0:15:10.399,0:15:14.959
a lot of different east southeast asian

0:15:13.680,0:15:17.920
people

0:15:14.959,0:15:19.199
so it’s an asian holiday i guess um but

0:15:17.920,0:15:21.040
yeah it says it’s observed it’s

0:15:19.199,0:15:22.639
literally the same day for everyone and

0:15:21.040,0:15:25.120
you eat moon cakes

0:15:22.639,0:15:26.720
and but in korea we did not have

0:15:25.120,0:15:30.000
mooncakes we had song

0:15:26.720,0:15:32.160
and um yeah it’s observed by china korea

0:15:30.000,0:15:33.920
japan singapore vietnam cambodia

0:15:32.160,0:15:36.560
malaysia indonesia thailand and the

0:15:33.920,0:15:36.560
philippines

0:15:36.800,0:15:40.800
that’s a lot of countries but i’m sure

0:15:38.399,0:15:43.120
each country has like

0:15:40.800,0:15:44.480
different like traditions you know and

0:15:43.120,0:15:45.519
like they celebrate it by like varying

0:15:44.480,0:15:47.600
degrees you know

0:15:45.519,0:15:48.639
absolutely yeah they all do different

0:15:47.600,0:15:51.600
things and they

0:15:48.639,0:15:53.680
like i’m would be american chinese like

0:15:51.600,0:15:55.279
american malaysian chinese and that’s

0:15:53.680,0:15:57.040
we just eat moon cakes and we eat them

0:15:55.279,0:15:58.720
whenever we want we don’t wait till they

0:15:57.040,0:16:01.440
take the day off

0:15:58.720,0:16:02.399
yeah yeah yeah yeah i remember did you

0:16:01.440,0:16:06.480
ever watch the show

0:16:02.399,0:16:08.800
sagua on pbs it was a kids cartoon

0:16:06.480,0:16:09.759
it was about this cat that lived in like

0:16:08.800,0:16:12.480
the chinese

0:16:09.759,0:16:12.800
emperor’s palace in her neighborhood yes

0:16:12.480,0:16:16.160
i

0:16:12.800,0:16:19.600
did her name was saguaro no

0:16:16.160,0:16:21.199
sworn all right lisa was the name of

0:16:19.600,0:16:23.920
this

0:16:21.199,0:16:25.279
sesame show i totally have seen this

0:16:23.920,0:16:27.920
yeah

0:16:25.279,0:16:28.560
yeah because i just remember like the

0:16:27.920,0:16:30.639
mid

0:16:28.560,0:16:31.839
autumn festival episode when they’re all

0:16:30.639,0:16:34.959
eating moon cakes

0:16:31.839,0:16:37.279
like that’s like probably like in my

0:16:34.959,0:16:39.360
brain

0:16:37.279,0:16:40.959
yeah this is such a cute episode oh my

0:16:39.360,0:16:43.440
god i used to love this show actually i

0:16:40.959,0:16:46.959
didn’t realize that was her name

0:16:43.440,0:16:49.040
i thought yeah the life of an emperor’s

0:16:46.959,0:16:53.920
cat

0:16:49.040,0:16:56.160
so entertaining okay yes well

0:16:53.920,0:16:58.079
thanks for being happy monotone festival

0:16:56.160,0:16:59.600
everyone hope you spend some time with

0:16:58.079,0:17:05.839
loved ones

0:16:59.600,0:17:05.839
yeah be safe and be happy

0:17:06.609,0:17:17.679
[Music]

What’s Going On In The Middle East?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

The Middle East is an incredibly diverse and complex region, but itā€™s oftentimes disregarded by Western media as too confusing or too complicated to be ā€œsolvedā€. In order to gain a better understanding of todayā€™s world, Nat covers the Arab Spring, an unprecedented series of pro-democracy uprisings that swept across North Africa and the Middle East in the spring of 2011.

Sources:

The Modern Middle East: A History by William L. Cleveland (5th Edition)

Transcript

0:00:00.080,0:00:06.240
today nat is going to present on

0:00:03.439,0:00:08.480
what are you presenting i’m presenting

0:00:06.240,0:00:10.559
on the arab spring today

0:00:08.480,0:00:12.480
uh have you heard of the arab spring

0:00:10.559,0:00:15.759
before never

0:00:12.480,0:00:16.400
okay so yeah so the reason i chose this

0:00:15.759,0:00:18.960
topic

0:00:16.400,0:00:19.520
uh for the first like episode i wanted

0:00:18.960,0:00:22.080
to cover

0:00:19.520,0:00:23.600
for season two world history i wanted to

0:00:22.080,0:00:26.560
focus on the middle east

0:00:23.600,0:00:28.240
because i really don’t know anything

0:00:26.560,0:00:31.039
about the middle east i have so many

0:00:28.240,0:00:32.480
questions and so many things to learn

0:00:31.039,0:00:34.559
so i knew i wanted to focus on the

0:00:32.480,0:00:36.399
middle east and the

0:00:34.559,0:00:39.360
topic i’m covering today is actually

0:00:36.399,0:00:42.719
super recent like it happened in 2011

0:00:39.360,0:00:44.000
so it’s like i don’t know it’s not like

0:00:42.719,0:00:47.280
super far back in history

0:00:44.000,0:00:48.559
but i think for people who are not

0:00:47.280,0:00:50.239
really sure

0:00:48.559,0:00:52.480
about like they don’t understand korean

0:00:50.239,0:00:55.760
events going on in the middle east today

0:00:52.480,0:00:58.320
this event kind of explains

0:00:55.760,0:00:59.280
what why the middle east looks like it

0:00:58.320,0:01:02.800
does today

0:00:59.280,0:01:04.239
so yeah so okay so do you also like

0:01:02.800,0:01:06.159
what do you what do you know about

0:01:04.239,0:01:07.360
what’s going on what’s happening in the

0:01:06.159,0:01:09.920
middle east today

0:01:07.360,0:01:12.000
like do you know yeah i know a little

0:01:09.920,0:01:15.040
bit because one of my good friends is

0:01:12.000,0:01:16.960
syrian and so he explained to me the

0:01:15.040,0:01:19.439
situation in syria

0:01:16.960,0:01:20.080
yeah um so i think they’re just like a

0:01:19.439,0:01:21.680
bunch of

0:01:20.080,0:01:24.080
like they don’t they didn’t like the

0:01:21.680,0:01:25.520
government in syria and so a bunch of

0:01:24.080,0:01:28.720
different rebel groups or

0:01:25.520,0:01:30.240
did like a coup d’etat but there’s a lot

0:01:28.720,0:01:32.799
of different rebel groups so then

0:01:30.240,0:01:36.000
everyone’s kind of just fighting for

0:01:32.799,0:01:38.320
position of power and control and so

0:01:36.000,0:01:40.640
that has wreaked havoc in syria and

0:01:38.320,0:01:43.200
that’s why it’s like war-torn

0:01:40.640,0:01:45.280
mm-hmm that’s what i know no yeah

0:01:43.200,0:01:46.880
actually like i’ll be talking about

0:01:45.280,0:01:49.520
yeah there’s like a civil war going on

0:01:46.880,0:01:51.119
there and it’s connected to the arab

0:01:49.520,0:01:52.799
spring so i’ll

0:01:51.119,0:01:55.200
like be going into like more detail

0:01:52.799,0:01:56.880
about that but yeah yeah so syria that’s

0:01:55.200,0:01:58.000
like it’s like the biggest refugee

0:01:56.880,0:02:01.600
crisis

0:01:58.000,0:02:04.079
currently so yeah okay so i’m just gonna

0:02:01.600,0:02:05.680
go right in so a brief description of

0:02:04.079,0:02:08.080
what the arab spring is

0:02:05.680,0:02:10.000
basically it was a series of

0:02:08.080,0:02:13.280
pro-democracy revolutions

0:02:10.000,0:02:15.680
that began in the spring of 2011 in

0:02:13.280,0:02:16.319
largely muslim and arabic speaking

0:02:15.680,0:02:19.760
countries

0:02:16.319,0:02:22.239
in north africa and the middle east so

0:02:19.760,0:02:23.599
to list the countries that were affected

0:02:22.239,0:02:26.959
by the arab spring

0:02:23.599,0:02:30.239
there’s a lot so tunisia morocco

0:02:26.959,0:02:33.519
syria libya egypt bahrain

0:02:30.239,0:02:36.640
algeria jordan oman iraq

0:02:33.519,0:02:39.760
sudan and lebanon so it’s like

0:02:36.640,0:02:42.239
a huge amount of countries were

0:02:39.760,0:02:42.800
uh like swept up in this movement there

0:02:42.239,0:02:46.160
were

0:02:42.800,0:02:48.239
widespread protests and revolutions uh

0:02:46.160,0:02:49.519
and it was all like within a very short

0:02:48.239,0:02:51.760
time period

0:02:49.519,0:02:53.440
question is this um so when people talk

0:02:51.760,0:02:56.400
about the middle east conflict

0:02:53.440,0:02:57.280
is this all stemming from that the arab

0:02:56.400,0:02:59.760
spring

0:02:57.280,0:03:02.000
or are they separate things happening

0:02:59.760,0:03:04.080
well the thing is like they’re

0:03:02.000,0:03:05.200
so the middle east there’s a lot of

0:03:04.080,0:03:08.080
conflict

0:03:05.200,0:03:10.000
and war and violence going on um the

0:03:08.080,0:03:13.280
arab spring

0:03:10.000,0:03:16.319
is like one of the events that have

0:03:13.280,0:03:20.000
has stemmed from this conflict so

0:03:16.319,0:03:23.040
the first like uprising revolt

0:03:20.000,0:03:24.319
it was caused by uh

0:03:23.040,0:03:26.480
people who are like unhappy with

0:03:24.319,0:03:28.720
authoritarian governments

0:03:26.480,0:03:30.640
um and like violence that was happening

0:03:28.720,0:03:32.720
in their own country

0:03:30.640,0:03:33.840
but yeah it’s like part and then you’ll

0:03:32.720,0:03:36.000
see that like

0:03:33.840,0:03:37.519
it fuels even more violence in the end

0:03:36.000,0:03:40.480
so it’s kind of just like a

0:03:37.519,0:03:41.280
cycle of like people are really unhappy

0:03:40.480,0:03:43.760
with their government

0:03:41.280,0:03:45.040
they revolt a new government is put in

0:03:43.760,0:03:46.879
power but then

0:03:45.040,0:03:48.720
it falls apart and then they revolt

0:03:46.879,0:03:51.040
again so there’s just been a lot of like

0:03:48.720,0:03:54.000
turmoil in the area

0:03:51.040,0:03:55.040
um yeah does that make sense yeah it

0:03:54.000,0:03:59.200
does

0:03:55.040,0:04:00.959
okay so this the arab spring it all

0:03:59.200,0:04:04.400
began in december

0:04:00.959,0:04:07.120
of 2010 in tunisia when a

0:04:04.400,0:04:08.080
26 year old street vendor named muhammad

0:04:07.120,0:04:11.840
blazizi

0:04:08.080,0:04:14.000
was harassed and publicly humiliated by

0:04:11.840,0:04:14.959
police because he didn’t have a permit

0:04:14.000,0:04:18.239
to sell

0:04:14.959,0:04:20.720
like his fruits and vegetables and

0:04:18.239,0:04:22.479
yeah they like harass him violently and

0:04:20.720,0:04:25.360
he was like obviously really upset

0:04:22.479,0:04:27.120
so he tried to complain about his

0:04:25.360,0:04:29.360
mistreatment

0:04:27.120,0:04:30.479
to local authorities but they like

0:04:29.360,0:04:32.240
wouldn’t listen to him

0:04:30.479,0:04:33.759
they’re like whatever like leave us

0:04:32.240,0:04:36.800
alone and so

0:04:33.759,0:04:37.360
in an act of protest was easy set

0:04:36.800,0:04:39.919
himself

0:04:37.360,0:04:41.199
on fire outside of the local governor’s

0:04:39.919,0:04:43.680
office

0:04:41.199,0:04:44.639
yeah and obviously like he passed away

0:04:43.680,0:04:48.880
um

0:04:44.639,0:04:51.919
and so this yeah so this his death

0:04:48.880,0:04:55.680
sparked outrage amongst the rest of

0:04:51.919,0:04:58.320
people in tunisia because there were

0:04:55.680,0:05:00.000
there was a huge i guess gap between the

0:04:58.320,0:05:01.280
government and the working-class people

0:05:00.000,0:05:02.960
and the working-class people

0:05:01.280,0:05:05.360
were suffering through a lot of economic

0:05:02.960,0:05:08.479
hardships uh and they were so upset

0:05:05.360,0:05:10.080
that this man was treated so poorly just

0:05:08.479,0:05:13.120
because he didn’t have a permit so

0:05:10.080,0:05:16.000
they were like enraged and so protests

0:05:13.120,0:05:17.039
broke out in the streets of the capital

0:05:16.000,0:05:20.160
tunis

0:05:17.039,0:05:23.120
and on january 14th so like

0:05:20.160,0:05:24.639
a few weeks later the authoritarian

0:05:23.120,0:05:26.320
president

0:05:24.639,0:05:27.919
okay um i’m probably going to

0:05:26.320,0:05:28.880
mispronounce all these names so i

0:05:27.919,0:05:31.120
apologize

0:05:28.880,0:05:31.670
okay there’s a lot of difficult names

0:05:31.120,0:05:34.000
but

0:05:31.670,0:05:36.400
[Music]

0:05:34.000,0:05:37.520
he abdicated his position and he fled

0:05:36.400,0:05:40.400
the country

0:05:37.520,0:05:41.840
after 23 years of rule so like this is a

0:05:40.400,0:05:43.360
huge deal

0:05:41.840,0:05:45.840
because they had this awful like

0:05:43.360,0:05:48.960
dictator who had been ruling for decades

0:05:45.840,0:05:50.960
and because of these protests like

0:05:48.960,0:05:52.800
in a matter of like a couple weeks he

0:05:50.960,0:05:55.919
was removed from power

0:05:52.800,0:05:56.479
also okay before i continue just a fair

0:05:55.919,0:05:58.240
warning

0:05:56.479,0:05:59.680
i’m gonna be covering a lot of different

0:05:58.240,0:06:02.880
countries and

0:05:59.680,0:06:05.280
a lot of different names of leaders

0:06:02.880,0:06:06.000
so if you get confused now like just

0:06:05.280,0:06:07.680
interrupt me

0:06:06.000,0:06:10.000
and i could clarify but yeah i’m gonna

0:06:07.680,0:06:13.759
be like bouncing around so

0:06:10.000,0:06:15.759
okay it makes sense so far it’s good

0:06:13.759,0:06:16.880
okay yeah so he’s removed from office

0:06:15.759,0:06:19.280
right and so it was like

0:06:16.880,0:06:20.080
a successful protest right they wanted

0:06:19.280,0:06:23.600
him gone

0:06:20.080,0:06:25.840
and then he left so social media

0:06:23.600,0:06:27.919
because this is 2011 right so social

0:06:25.840,0:06:29.440
media has a huge influence on the

0:06:27.919,0:06:31.680
movement because

0:06:29.440,0:06:33.120
people from tunisia were posting photos

0:06:31.680,0:06:36.160
and videos of their

0:06:33.120,0:06:38.560
successful uprising and these images

0:06:36.160,0:06:39.199
inspired activists in other countries

0:06:38.560,0:06:41.759
nearby

0:06:39.199,0:06:43.120
to fight for more social freedoms and

0:06:41.759,0:06:45.680
more participation

0:06:43.120,0:06:46.400
in the political process so all of a

0:06:45.680,0:06:48.720
sudden

0:06:46.400,0:06:49.440
we see similar movements all across the

0:06:48.720,0:06:51.919
region

0:06:49.440,0:06:53.599
in like a really short period of time so

0:06:51.919,0:06:54.639
again i’m gonna list the countries just

0:06:53.599,0:06:57.440
really quick

0:06:54.639,0:06:58.160
um so we obviously tunisia there’s also

0:06:57.440,0:07:01.280
morocco

0:06:58.160,0:07:04.800
syria libya egypt bahrain algeria

0:07:01.280,0:07:07.280
jordan oman iraq sudan sudan and lebanon

0:07:04.800,0:07:08.960
so a huge amount of countries and

0:07:07.280,0:07:09.680
obviously i don’t have enough time to

0:07:08.960,0:07:11.360
cover

0:07:09.680,0:07:12.880
the protests in every single one of

0:07:11.360,0:07:16.000
these movements

0:07:12.880,0:07:17.759
um so instead i’ll just be focusing on

0:07:16.000,0:07:19.199
a few of these countries especially

0:07:17.759,0:07:21.759
those that had

0:07:19.199,0:07:23.680
regime changes because of the protests

0:07:21.759,0:07:25.280
but i encourage everyone again to do

0:07:23.680,0:07:27.759
further research

0:07:25.280,0:07:30.319
so first i’m going to talk about egypt

0:07:27.759,0:07:33.599
so on january

0:07:30.319,0:07:35.280
2nd mass protests began in

0:07:33.599,0:07:36.639
cairo which is the capital and they

0:07:35.280,0:07:38.800
lasted for 18 days

0:07:36.639,0:07:41.039
and they brought together tens of

0:07:38.800,0:07:43.840
thousands of people so it’s huge crowds

0:07:41.039,0:07:44.639
and then a month later on february 11th

0:07:43.840,0:07:47.840
president

0:07:44.639,0:07:49.759
hosni mubarak is removed from office

0:07:47.840,0:07:51.440
and he had been ruling the country for

0:07:49.759,0:07:54.639
30 years

0:07:51.440,0:07:56.240
so he was a really violent dictator so

0:07:54.639,0:07:57.759
people had been

0:07:56.240,0:08:00.000
having a lot of issues with him they

0:07:57.759,0:08:01.840
obviously do not like his regime

0:08:00.000,0:08:03.520
when the when you say removed is it

0:08:01.840,0:08:06.000
peacefully removed or

0:08:03.520,0:08:07.440
coup d’etat or did they step like did

0:08:06.000,0:08:12.479
they step down

0:08:07.440,0:08:15.759
um yeah he was forcefully removed

0:08:12.479,0:08:18.560
okay yeah yeah by the military

0:08:15.759,0:08:20.160
i believe yeah oh okay hopefully moved

0:08:18.560,0:08:22.639
it’s not

0:08:20.160,0:08:24.639
he doesn’t want to leave but he loses

0:08:22.639,0:08:26.560
public support and then he loses the

0:08:24.639,0:08:30.000
support of the military which is like

0:08:26.560,0:08:30.960
a really big deal and so the military

0:08:30.000,0:08:33.440
takes over

0:08:30.960,0:08:35.440
temporarily because there’s like no

0:08:33.440,0:08:37.120
leader right they had removed mubarak

0:08:35.440,0:08:40.000
from office and now

0:08:37.120,0:08:40.719
they need to step up and in 2012 they

0:08:40.000,0:08:44.080
had

0:08:40.719,0:08:47.200
elections and they voted mohammed morsi

0:08:44.080,0:08:51.120
they voted him into office as president

0:08:47.200,0:08:51.600
however a year after he was sworn into

0:08:51.120,0:08:55.120
office

0:08:51.600,0:08:56.080
he is also removed through a military

0:08:55.120,0:09:00.000
coup

0:08:56.080,0:09:01.440
um so he only was serving for a year and

0:09:00.000,0:09:05.040
then the military

0:09:01.440,0:09:07.680
overthrows him and the

0:09:05.040,0:09:10.000
defense minister at the time his name is

0:09:07.680,0:09:12.959
abdel fattah el-sisi

0:09:10.000,0:09:14.000
and he becomes president and he’s still

0:09:12.959,0:09:17.680
in power today

0:09:14.000,0:09:20.880
so this was in 2012 and he still

0:09:17.680,0:09:22.240
is the president of egypt today and he

0:09:20.880,0:09:26.080
has a very

0:09:22.240,0:09:30.480
he’s a very violent authoritarian leader

0:09:26.080,0:09:33.920
uh the government of egypt is like

0:09:30.480,0:09:34.800
not so great it’s not really great over

0:09:33.920,0:09:37.200
there right now

0:09:34.800,0:09:39.120
and so tens of thousands of peaceful

0:09:37.200,0:09:42.080
activists and critics

0:09:39.120,0:09:43.839
of lcc’s government remain in jail today

0:09:42.080,0:09:45.600
and hundreds of them have been sentenced

0:09:43.839,0:09:48.800
to death so there’s

0:09:45.600,0:09:51.839
virtually like no freedom of speech um

0:09:48.800,0:09:53.680
and yeah so i’m i’m gonna get back into

0:09:51.839,0:09:55.519
the aftermath of egypt later we’ll

0:09:53.680,0:09:57.040
set that aside for now i’m gonna

0:09:55.519,0:10:00.320
continue on to

0:09:57.040,0:10:02.959
some countries that um they

0:10:00.320,0:10:04.880
broke out into civil war because of the

0:10:02.959,0:10:06.399
arab spring so first i’m going to talk

0:10:04.880,0:10:09.920
about libya

0:10:06.399,0:10:11.920
so in the summer of 2011 a civil war

0:10:09.920,0:10:13.200
outbreaks and this is like because of

0:10:11.920,0:10:15.519
all the protests

0:10:13.200,0:10:17.440
that had been inspired by the arab

0:10:15.519,0:10:20.720
spring

0:10:17.440,0:10:23.839
and in october of 2011

0:10:20.720,0:10:24.640
the authoritarian dictator muammar

0:10:23.839,0:10:25.600
gaddafi

0:10:24.640,0:10:28.640
i don’t know if you’ve ever heard of

0:10:25.600,0:10:31.440
qaddafi he’s like talked about a lot

0:10:28.640,0:10:32.959
here but he is overthrown during an

0:10:31.440,0:10:36.160
extremely violent

0:10:32.959,0:10:39.279
civil war he’s tortured and he’s

0:10:36.160,0:10:42.720
literally dragged through the streets um

0:10:39.279,0:10:46.160
and he’s executed by opposition fighters

0:10:42.720,0:10:47.760
and there is because of social media

0:10:46.160,0:10:51.440
like people were recording these

0:10:47.760,0:10:54.560
incidents so video footage of his death

0:10:51.440,0:10:56.560
was shared on social media and was seen

0:10:54.560,0:11:00.079
by millions of people online

0:10:56.560,0:11:03.519
yeah so he’s qaddafi is overthrown

0:11:00.079,0:11:04.480
obviously and then uh even though he was

0:11:03.519,0:11:06.959
overthrown

0:11:04.480,0:11:07.920
libya still remains in a state of civil

0:11:06.959,0:11:11.680
war

0:11:07.920,0:11:13.519
um basically yeah there are two opposing

0:11:11.680,0:11:16.959
there are two rival governments that are

0:11:13.519,0:11:20.160
both claiming authority over the country

0:11:16.959,0:11:23.279
all sides have committed war crimes and

0:11:20.160,0:11:25.600
serious human rights abuses

0:11:23.279,0:11:26.320
and the people of libya have suffered

0:11:25.600,0:11:28.560
terribly

0:11:26.320,0:11:29.360
through political upheaval and they have

0:11:28.560,0:11:31.920
to survive

0:11:29.360,0:11:34.320
like violence on the streets as well as

0:11:31.920,0:11:36.240
limited access to food and resources and

0:11:34.320,0:11:38.000
health care services

0:11:36.240,0:11:39.760
and because of this thousands of people

0:11:38.000,0:11:42.399
have fled the country

0:11:39.760,0:11:42.959
mostly by boat and they are going to

0:11:42.399,0:11:45.519
europe

0:11:42.959,0:11:46.399
to other parts of europe and so it’s

0:11:45.519,0:11:49.760
like an ongoing

0:11:46.399,0:11:51.920
refugee crisis and again i’ll go into

0:11:49.760,0:11:55.120
more detail in a bit

0:11:51.920,0:11:56.079
um yemen is also still currently in a

0:11:55.120,0:11:59.200
civil war

0:11:56.079,0:12:00.720
that has its roots in the area

0:11:59.200,0:12:02.560
isn’t that yemen’s a pretty young

0:12:00.720,0:12:06.320
country aren’t they they’re only like

0:12:02.560,0:12:08.560
50 or 60 years old too i think so yeah

0:12:06.320,0:12:09.440
i just know this because i had a teacher

0:12:08.560,0:12:11.120
whose daughter

0:12:09.440,0:12:14.160
went to yemen and came back and brought

0:12:11.120,0:12:18.240
us hummus and like pita bread and then

0:12:14.160,0:12:21.680
told us about yemen yeah

0:12:18.240,0:12:23.600
but it’s a young country so yeah

0:12:21.680,0:12:25.040
okay i honestly don’t know much about

0:12:23.600,0:12:27.760
the history before

0:12:25.040,0:12:29.120
the year of spring but that’s good yeah

0:12:27.760,0:12:32.560
i didn’t realize it was

0:12:29.120,0:12:35.360
such a young country but yeah so they

0:12:32.560,0:12:37.519
they’re still in a civil war and so

0:12:35.360,0:12:40.240
basically also in 2011

0:12:37.519,0:12:41.360
another long-time authorian president

0:12:40.240,0:12:44.800
his name was ali

0:12:41.360,0:12:47.440
abdullah saleh he’s overthrown

0:12:44.800,0:12:47.440
and then

0:12:48.079,0:12:55.120
oh gosh okay abdullah mansoor

0:12:51.360,0:12:57.839
he assumes power uh and so

0:12:55.120,0:12:58.720
political tensions are they continue to

0:12:57.839,0:13:00.079
grow

0:12:58.720,0:13:02.079
different groups are fighting for

0:13:00.079,0:13:04.399
control over the country

0:13:02.079,0:13:05.519
and one of these groups is known as the

0:13:04.399,0:13:09.360
houthis

0:13:05.519,0:13:11.519
which represent the shia muslim minority

0:13:09.360,0:13:13.920
so just as a refresher there are

0:13:11.519,0:13:14.720
basically two major denominations of

0:13:13.920,0:13:18.079
islam

0:13:14.720,0:13:20.240
it’s shia and sunni and so in a lot of

0:13:18.079,0:13:24.160
these countries in the middle east

0:13:20.240,0:13:27.600
like one there’s one major

0:13:24.160,0:13:29.440
or like one dominant denomination

0:13:27.600,0:13:30.639
does that make sense so yeah

0:13:29.440,0:13:33.279
denomination

0:13:30.639,0:13:36.560
yeah like largely sunni muslim or like

0:13:33.279,0:13:39.839
largely shia muslim um

0:13:36.560,0:13:42.800
the minority shia muslims

0:13:39.839,0:13:44.000
and they started taking control over

0:13:42.800,0:13:47.839
territories

0:13:44.000,0:13:50.079
in yemen and in early 2015 they actually

0:13:47.839,0:13:54.560
overtook the capital of sana

0:13:50.079,0:13:57.760
and so they’re oh gosh

0:13:54.560,0:14:00.560
the houthis the rebel group

0:13:57.760,0:14:02.480
and then security forces like military

0:14:00.560,0:14:04.880
forces who were loyal

0:14:02.480,0:14:05.680
to the original dictator that had been

0:14:04.880,0:14:08.079
overthrown

0:14:05.680,0:14:09.680
saleh so they joined forces forces

0:14:08.079,0:14:12.959
together and they

0:14:09.680,0:14:14.880
forced the current president hadi

0:14:12.959,0:14:17.519
his name was hadi they forced him to

0:14:14.880,0:14:19.279
flee the country in march 2015.

0:14:17.519,0:14:21.760
and so he still is like ruling over the

0:14:19.279,0:14:24.720
country pretty sure he’s returned

0:14:21.760,0:14:26.160
to yemen but they like forced him to

0:14:24.720,0:14:28.959
flee the country

0:14:26.160,0:14:30.079
um and so the civil war obviously is

0:14:28.959,0:14:32.320
still going on today

0:14:30.079,0:14:34.320
and so foreign powers there’s a lot of

0:14:32.320,0:14:35.600
foreign interference in the civil war

0:14:34.320,0:14:37.760
and basically it’s like different

0:14:35.600,0:14:41.360
countries are either supporting the

0:14:37.760,0:14:41.839
houthi rebels or they’re supporting the

0:14:41.360,0:14:45.519
hadi

0:14:41.839,0:14:46.320
government and throughout all of this

0:14:45.519,0:14:48.320
obviously

0:14:46.320,0:14:49.600
civilians are suffering from not only

0:14:48.320,0:14:52.800
the violence of war

0:14:49.600,0:14:56.480
but also a huge famine in the country

0:14:52.800,0:14:57.440
so it’s really upsetting wow wait so all

0:14:56.480,0:14:59.279
of those

0:14:57.440,0:15:02.480
overthrowing of the leaders that’s

0:14:59.279,0:15:04.480
happening in every country in 2011

0:15:02.480,0:15:05.839
yeah like basically the countries i’m

0:15:04.480,0:15:07.680
highlighting so

0:15:05.839,0:15:09.360
all the countries that i listed earlier

0:15:07.680,0:15:12.399
not all of them had regime

0:15:09.360,0:15:13.600
regime changes uh some of them just like

0:15:12.399,0:15:15.279
weren’t as

0:15:13.600,0:15:17.199
successful they didn’t have as much

0:15:15.279,0:15:19.040
momentum and so there were a lot of

0:15:17.199,0:15:20.720
protests in these countries but not a

0:15:19.040,0:15:22.639
lot of change happened

0:15:20.720,0:15:23.920
but then like the countries i’m talking

0:15:22.639,0:15:25.279
about now

0:15:23.920,0:15:27.680
basically like the whole country was

0:15:25.279,0:15:31.440
flipped upside down the governments were

0:15:27.680,0:15:34.639
overthrown and leaders were changed

0:15:31.440,0:15:36.639
and and like it’s just crazy

0:15:34.639,0:15:39.279
like i think i said this earlier but i

0:15:36.639,0:15:41.360
was 12 at the time this happened so

0:15:39.279,0:15:42.399
i was not paying attention to what was

0:15:41.360,0:15:45.759
going on

0:15:42.399,0:15:48.800
but i just i can’t imagine

0:15:45.759,0:15:50.480
i don’t know like the whole region

0:15:48.800,0:15:52.639
all these governments are changing like

0:15:50.480,0:15:55.680
one after another and

0:15:52.639,0:15:58.079
man like i’m sure the people living

0:15:55.680,0:15:59.279
in the region were just so like scared

0:15:58.079,0:16:00.399
and like paranoid

0:15:59.279,0:16:02.639
you don’t know what’s gonna happen

0:16:00.399,0:16:05.360
tomorrow like everything could change

0:16:02.639,0:16:06.560
in a day yeah can you imagine if we

0:16:05.360,0:16:10.079
found news that

0:16:06.560,0:16:12.639
some violent rebel group overtook like

0:16:10.079,0:16:14.160
our president regardless of how you feel

0:16:12.639,0:16:15.360
about the president i’d still be

0:16:14.160,0:16:18.639
concerned

0:16:15.360,0:16:20.720
about that happening so right

0:16:18.639,0:16:22.800
and like these countries are smaller and

0:16:20.720,0:16:24.240
they’re all clustered so close together

0:16:22.800,0:16:26.000
so it’s almost like

0:16:24.240,0:16:27.440
like i’m in illinois now so it’s like if

0:16:26.000,0:16:29.600
wisconsin and then like

0:16:27.440,0:16:30.959
indiana and iowa like all of a sudden

0:16:29.600,0:16:32.639
like there were

0:16:30.959,0:16:34.320
revolutions in all these states and like

0:16:32.639,0:16:36.240
you just see it one after another it’s

0:16:34.320,0:16:39.279
like spreading like wildfire

0:16:36.240,0:16:42.720
so it like it’s just such a chaotic

0:16:39.279,0:16:45.440
time um and yeah

0:16:42.720,0:16:46.160
so okay so last i’m going to talk about

0:16:45.440,0:16:49.600
syria

0:16:46.160,0:16:50.160
so you kind of gave an overview earlier

0:16:49.600,0:16:52.399
but

0:16:50.160,0:16:53.680
just a little more like details so

0:16:52.399,0:16:56.720
basically in march

0:16:53.680,0:16:59.360
15 of 2011

0:16:56.720,0:17:00.320
their peaceful pro-democracy protests

0:16:59.360,0:17:02.240
began

0:17:00.320,0:17:04.480
but they’re met with government

0:17:02.240,0:17:06.559
opposition so the syrian government

0:17:04.480,0:17:08.400
killed and impr imprisoned these

0:17:06.559,0:17:10.319
peaceful protesters

0:17:08.400,0:17:11.679
yeah it was like an extremely violent

0:17:10.319,0:17:14.000
response and it

0:17:11.679,0:17:15.199
was obviously like horrifying and so

0:17:14.000,0:17:17.520
syria

0:17:15.199,0:17:18.400
quickly split into factions like

0:17:17.520,0:17:21.839
different groups

0:17:18.400,0:17:23.600
and violence broke out and this was like

0:17:21.839,0:17:24.880
the beginning of a civil war that

0:17:23.600,0:17:27.360
continues to this day

0:17:24.880,0:17:28.000
the civil war is still going on um and

0:17:27.360,0:17:30.240
so

0:17:28.000,0:17:32.080
basically with the civil war you have

0:17:30.240,0:17:36.160
the oppressive regime

0:17:32.080,0:17:39.200
of long-time dictator bashar al-assad

0:17:36.160,0:17:40.960
so he’s he was the president or dictator

0:17:39.200,0:17:44.720
i guess um

0:17:40.960,0:17:47.520
leader and he’s still in power today

0:17:44.720,0:17:49.120
and he’s fighting against rebel forces

0:17:47.520,0:17:52.559
who are trying to gain control

0:17:49.120,0:17:54.799
over the country so you have yeah

0:17:52.559,0:17:57.440
bashar al-assad’s government and then

0:17:54.799,0:18:00.400
rebel forces who want to overthrow him

0:17:57.440,0:18:02.080
um and then you also have a lot of

0:18:00.400,0:18:05.360
extremist groups that have come

0:18:02.080,0:18:08.480
into syria and infiltrated the country

0:18:05.360,0:18:09.520
um one of these groups is isis and at

0:18:08.480,0:18:13.280
one point

0:18:09.520,0:18:15.919
isis had gained so much territory in

0:18:13.280,0:18:16.960
northeastern syria that they declared a

0:18:15.919,0:18:19.760
caliphate

0:18:16.960,0:18:20.880
and a caliphate is basically a nation

0:18:19.760,0:18:24.000
that’s governed by

0:18:20.880,0:18:25.280
islamic law so they had had all this

0:18:24.000,0:18:27.039
territory in syria and they were like

0:18:25.280,0:18:31.360
okay this is our

0:18:27.039,0:18:33.679
islamic nation like syria

0:18:31.360,0:18:35.280
is in the news a lot today as it should

0:18:33.679,0:18:36.000
be we should be talking about it more

0:18:35.280,0:18:38.160
because

0:18:36.000,0:18:40.799
it has displaced the civil war has

0:18:38.160,0:18:43.919
displaced more than half of all syrians

0:18:40.799,0:18:45.919
so that’s wow about 11 million people

0:18:43.919,0:18:47.120
and it’s killed up to half a million

0:18:45.919,0:18:49.760
people it’s

0:18:47.120,0:18:50.640
the largest refugee crisis of the 21st

0:18:49.760,0:18:53.600
century

0:18:50.640,0:18:54.160
and syrians have been fleeing to seek

0:18:53.600,0:18:56.559
refuge

0:18:54.160,0:18:57.760
in turkey greece and other parts of

0:18:56.559,0:19:01.039
western europe

0:18:57.760,0:19:04.640
they’re not always met with like

0:19:01.039,0:19:08.320
warm welcoming arms um and so

0:19:04.640,0:19:09.440
yeah even like either if they stay in

0:19:08.320,0:19:11.840
syria

0:19:09.440,0:19:12.960
like they could be killed if they leave

0:19:11.840,0:19:15.919
syria

0:19:12.960,0:19:16.480
they’re like leading a very difficult

0:19:15.919,0:19:20.080
life

0:19:16.480,0:19:21.760
um so yeah and

0:19:20.080,0:19:23.120
again like all these civil wars that i

0:19:21.760,0:19:24.080
just mentioned like they’re still going

0:19:23.120,0:19:25.919
on today

0:19:24.080,0:19:27.919
um i think like with covid we’re all

0:19:25.919,0:19:30.960
kind of preoccupied

0:19:27.919,0:19:31.280
with that like that’s pretty distracting

0:19:30.960,0:19:33.840
but

0:19:31.280,0:19:34.559
it’s also like something to remember too

0:19:33.840,0:19:36.160
uh

0:19:34.559,0:19:38.320
that like this stuff is still going on

0:19:36.160,0:19:40.480
it’s not like it gets put on pause

0:19:38.320,0:19:44.160
because of a pandemic but

0:19:40.480,0:19:47.039
yeah so the aftermath of the arab spring

0:19:44.160,0:19:48.640
um so all these like civil wars broke

0:19:47.039,0:19:51.679
out there were regime changes

0:19:48.640,0:19:52.640
there were successful protests

0:19:51.679,0:19:56.240
unsuccessful

0:19:52.640,0:19:59.440
like revolutions and basically tunisia

0:19:56.240,0:20:01.120
where it started with a street vendor uh

0:19:59.440,0:20:02.080
to use is pretty much seen as one of the

0:20:01.120,0:20:04.000
only

0:20:02.080,0:20:05.840
successful revolutions of the arab

0:20:04.000,0:20:09.039
spring

0:20:05.840,0:20:12.000
because in october of 2011

0:20:09.039,0:20:13.600
they had their first democratic

0:20:12.000,0:20:17.200
parliament elections

0:20:13.600,0:20:20.080
and then um

0:20:17.200,0:20:22.080
they had they drafted a new constitution

0:20:20.080,0:20:23.200
and this new constitution protects

0:20:22.080,0:20:25.600
freedom of speech

0:20:23.200,0:20:28.320
freedom of assembly and it also bans

0:20:25.600,0:20:30.559
torture so it was like a lot of progress

0:20:28.320,0:20:32.000
uh and there are a lot of like major

0:20:30.559,0:20:35.760
human rights improvements

0:20:32.000,0:20:38.960
however it’s not perfect yet um

0:20:35.760,0:20:42.240
like there have still been instances of

0:20:38.960,0:20:45.360
like oh my gosh suppression of

0:20:42.240,0:20:48.400
suppression of speech by like

0:20:45.360,0:20:49.760
political opponents um and there have

0:20:48.400,0:20:52.799
been like journalists

0:20:49.760,0:20:55.120
who have been like arrested so

0:20:52.799,0:20:57.120
it’s not perfect yet but they had a like

0:20:55.120,0:21:00.159
a huge amount of improvement

0:20:57.120,0:21:01.200
um however like the overall movements of

0:21:00.159,0:21:03.600
2011

0:21:01.200,0:21:04.480
and the arab spring in general has been

0:21:03.600,0:21:06.960
seen

0:21:04.480,0:21:09.200
as like kind of a failure because the

0:21:06.960,0:21:09.919
original goals of these uprisings were

0:21:09.200,0:21:12.080
to

0:21:09.919,0:21:14.400
increase social freedom freedoms and

0:21:12.080,0:21:18.159
increase democratic participation

0:21:14.400,0:21:21.679
in their government and sadly protesters

0:21:18.159,0:21:23.840
instead saw more war and violence

0:21:21.679,0:21:25.039
and there are now like stronger

0:21:23.840,0:21:28.320
repercussions for

0:21:25.039,0:21:28.880
people who speak out for a fairer a more

0:21:28.320,0:21:31.919
fair

0:21:28.880,0:21:33.919
and more open society so if you

0:21:31.919,0:21:35.600
like if we ask ourselves like why why

0:21:33.919,0:21:38.400
did these movements fail

0:21:35.600,0:21:39.840
like some people will argue that oh it’s

0:21:38.400,0:21:42.799
like the incompetence

0:21:39.840,0:21:44.240
of the revolutionaries or like the

0:21:42.799,0:21:47.280
transitional leaders so

0:21:44.240,0:21:48.720
the leaders that took over after

0:21:47.280,0:21:51.280
the governments were overthrown they

0:21:48.720,0:21:52.640
were like oh they just like

0:21:51.280,0:21:53.760
they failed like they didn’t do a good

0:21:52.640,0:21:54.480
job they didn’t know what they were

0:21:53.760,0:21:58.320
doing

0:21:54.480,0:21:58.960
um however like myself and a lot of

0:21:58.320,0:22:02.640
other people

0:21:58.960,0:22:04.159
argue that the blame can be placed on

0:22:02.640,0:22:07.360
like the failure of

0:22:04.159,0:22:10.320
institutions and so vox

0:22:07.360,0:22:10.799
uh boxes it’s one of my sources um and

0:22:10.320,0:22:13.440
they

0:22:10.799,0:22:15.760
read they wrote a huge article about

0:22:13.440,0:22:18.400
like how the failure of institutions

0:22:15.760,0:22:20.240
was why the revolutions like weren’t

0:22:18.400,0:22:21.039
successful and so they have a really

0:22:20.240,0:22:23.280
good quote

0:22:21.039,0:22:24.559
so i’m just going to read it so

0:22:23.280,0:22:26.799
democratic transition

0:22:24.559,0:22:29.120
it turns out isn’t about whom you can

0:22:26.799,0:22:31.280
overthrow or whom you replace them with

0:22:29.120,0:22:33.679
it’s about whether or how you change the

0:22:31.280,0:22:34.720
vast network of institutions underneath

0:22:33.679,0:22:36.640
that person

0:22:34.720,0:22:39.360
so no matter how many times you topple

0:22:36.640,0:22:40.640
the dictator no matter how pure and good

0:22:39.360,0:22:43.039
your protesters are

0:22:40.640,0:22:45.039
it won’t be enough um so i really like

0:22:43.039,0:22:46.960
that quote and

0:22:45.039,0:22:48.320
so now yeah like i guess i’m gonna go

0:22:46.960,0:22:48.960
into more detail about like what does

0:22:48.320,0:22:51.039
that mean like

0:22:48.960,0:22:52.000
institutions failed like that’s kind of

0:22:51.039,0:22:54.480
confusing so

0:22:52.000,0:22:55.840
if we look at first let’s look at egypt

0:22:54.480,0:22:57.600
so

0:22:55.840,0:22:59.200
uh this like as a refresher because i

0:22:57.600,0:23:00.080
talked about so many different names and

0:22:59.200,0:23:02.960
countries

0:23:00.080,0:23:04.240
so they protesters had originally

0:23:02.960,0:23:07.360
overthrown

0:23:04.240,0:23:08.320
uh the dictator mubarak right and so he

0:23:07.360,0:23:10.799
had been ruling

0:23:08.320,0:23:12.960
for three decades and over these three

0:23:10.799,0:23:16.320
decades he basically ensured

0:23:12.960,0:23:18.080
that no opposition party or civil

0:23:16.320,0:23:21.120
society institution

0:23:18.080,0:23:24.240
grew strong enough to challenge him

0:23:21.120,0:23:26.000
so for example he staffed the interior

0:23:24.240,0:23:28.480
ministry with his supporters

0:23:26.000,0:23:30.559
rather than like effective leaders so

0:23:28.480,0:23:31.440
like the patronage spoil system like we

0:23:30.559,0:23:34.400
talked about

0:23:31.440,0:23:34.720
um and then this made it easier like

0:23:34.400,0:23:37.600
this

0:23:34.720,0:23:39.840
gave way to corruption right and then he

0:23:37.600,0:23:40.720
stripped the judiciary system of its

0:23:39.840,0:23:42.960
power

0:23:40.720,0:23:45.360
and this weakened the rule of law and

0:23:42.960,0:23:48.000
gave him the power to persecute his

0:23:45.360,0:23:49.440
political opponents and so basically he

0:23:48.000,0:23:52.000
made sure that all these

0:23:49.440,0:23:53.039
institutions in the government were like

0:23:52.000,0:23:55.919
very weak

0:23:53.039,0:23:57.200
and they couldn’t support a transition

0:23:55.919,0:24:00.320
if his like

0:23:57.200,0:24:04.080
if his regime fell the only institution

0:24:00.320,0:24:07.440
that grew stronger was the military he

0:24:04.080,0:24:10.000
um he made the military a lot stronger

0:24:07.440,0:24:12.240
and this kind of backfired because he

0:24:10.000,0:24:13.279
lost public support and then he lost the

0:24:12.240,0:24:15.200
loyalty

0:24:13.279,0:24:16.840
of his military so then the military

0:24:15.200,0:24:21.600
like overthrew him

0:24:16.840,0:24:24.640
um and so yeah so he’s overthrown right

0:24:21.600,0:24:26.480
and then the next guy is elected morsi

0:24:24.640,0:24:29.279
is elected into power

0:24:26.480,0:24:30.840
um but he like he was pretty much set up

0:24:29.279,0:24:34.480
for failure because all of these

0:24:30.840,0:24:35.440
institutions were like he was starting

0:24:34.480,0:24:37.440
from

0:24:35.440,0:24:38.799
below ground zero you know because he

0:24:37.440,0:24:40.559
had to like rebuild all these

0:24:38.799,0:24:42.240
institutions

0:24:40.559,0:24:44.240
like there’s corruption throughout the

0:24:42.240,0:24:46.000
government and so you kind of have to

0:24:44.240,0:24:48.640
rebuild everything

0:24:46.000,0:24:49.120
um and that’s a really difficult task so

0:24:48.640,0:24:52.480
he

0:24:49.120,0:24:54.640
failed and instead of

0:24:52.480,0:24:55.840
like democratically electing a new

0:24:54.640,0:24:58.480
president

0:24:55.840,0:24:59.120
um like there were these institutions

0:24:58.480,0:25:02.400
were too

0:24:59.120,0:25:05.520
weak to prevent further

0:25:02.400,0:25:06.640
revolution so he was overthrown by the

0:25:05.520,0:25:09.840
military in a

0:25:06.640,0:25:11.600
coup so like does that make sense yeah

0:25:09.840,0:25:15.840
we which country is this again

0:25:11.600,0:25:19.600
this is egypt okay wow

0:25:15.840,0:25:21.200
and so like yeah basically

0:25:19.600,0:25:22.720
all these institutions were weak and

0:25:21.200,0:25:26.320
then now we still have there’s still a

0:25:22.720,0:25:28.080
dictator in egypt and it’s because

0:25:26.320,0:25:30.799
there’s no like checks and balances you

0:25:28.080,0:25:32.640
know because the original dictator had

0:25:30.799,0:25:34.960
erased all these checks and balances so

0:25:32.640,0:25:36.480
it’s hard to

0:25:34.960,0:25:38.000
it doesn’t matter about the people who

0:25:36.480,0:25:39.679
are in power it’s about

0:25:38.000,0:25:41.600
like the setup of the government you

0:25:39.679,0:25:44.240
know yeah yeah

0:25:41.600,0:25:45.840
yeah and so basically the same thing

0:25:44.240,0:25:48.159
happened in libya

0:25:45.840,0:25:49.600
qaddafi had like been weakening

0:25:48.159,0:25:52.880
institutions over his

0:25:49.600,0:25:54.960
20 years of rule 30 years of rule and so

0:25:52.880,0:25:58.080
no one was able to challenge him

0:25:54.960,0:25:58.559
and so that so now libya is in a civil

0:25:58.080,0:26:00.159
war

0:25:58.559,0:26:02.159
like fighting for control because there

0:26:00.159,0:26:03.279
had been no like strong opposition

0:26:02.159,0:26:06.640
parties

0:26:03.279,0:26:08.000
um yeah like you might be asking like oh

0:26:06.640,0:26:09.039
my god like why are there so many

0:26:08.000,0:26:11.360
dictators

0:26:09.039,0:26:12.640
um it’s because there’s like a lot of

0:26:11.360,0:26:14.799
instability

0:26:12.640,0:26:16.799
after these after britain and france

0:26:14.799,0:26:18.000
like pulled out of the middle east

0:26:16.799,0:26:20.159
and then there’s like a strong sense of

0:26:18.000,0:26:23.600
nationalism and like it was easy

0:26:20.159,0:26:27.120
for people to kind of like take power

0:26:23.600,0:26:29.760
by using nationalism as like a uniting

0:26:27.120,0:26:31.200
identity factor and then also like

0:26:29.760,0:26:32.799
because of oil

0:26:31.200,0:26:34.880
oil reserves in the middle east like

0:26:32.799,0:26:36.400
these leaders were able to make

0:26:34.880,0:26:39.039
a lot of money really quick and then

0:26:36.400,0:26:41.760
they were able to like fund

0:26:39.039,0:26:43.440
their like with the money they’re making

0:26:41.760,0:26:46.159
from oil they’re able to like

0:26:43.440,0:26:47.120
pay off different institutions so like

0:26:46.159,0:26:48.640
the military

0:26:47.120,0:26:50.320
and like they will like bribe people and

0:26:48.640,0:26:52.559
basically like fund

0:26:50.320,0:26:53.760
their dictatorship so that’s that’s

0:26:52.559,0:26:56.960
another reason why we see

0:26:53.760,0:27:00.480
a lot of like authoritarian regimes

0:26:56.960,0:27:04.159
in the region some sense yeah

0:27:00.480,0:27:08.080
so yeah and then also like just

0:27:04.159,0:27:10.240
so for syria so the military

0:27:08.080,0:27:11.600
is really really strong and they have

0:27:10.240,0:27:15.279
remained loyal to

0:27:11.600,0:27:17.919
bashar al-assad because he basically

0:27:15.279,0:27:19.520
engineered the military as an instrument

0:27:17.919,0:27:21.279
to rule the country

0:27:19.520,0:27:23.120
so he weakened all the other

0:27:21.279,0:27:25.200
institutions made

0:27:23.120,0:27:26.240
the military stronger but he made sure

0:27:25.200,0:27:28.640
that they would

0:27:26.240,0:27:30.399
like always remain loyal to him and do

0:27:28.640,0:27:33.200
whatever he said

0:27:30.399,0:27:35.840
and because of this syria is pretty much

0:27:33.200,0:27:39.039
the worst case scenario because

0:27:35.840,0:27:40.000
like there’s a brutal evil dictator that

0:27:39.039,0:27:43.279
has

0:27:40.000,0:27:46.080
like a really a good amount of territory

0:27:43.279,0:27:47.360
and he’s attacking civilians and he

0:27:46.080,0:27:50.080
remains in power

0:27:47.360,0:27:52.159
but there’s also a power vacuum in the

0:27:50.080,0:27:55.039
territory that he lost

0:27:52.159,0:27:57.279
and that has opened the door for isis

0:27:55.039,0:27:57.840
and other extremist groups to infiltrate

0:27:57.279,0:28:01.919
the country

0:27:57.840,0:28:03.440
so it’s like that’s why it’s such a

0:28:01.919,0:28:06.720
violent situation and that’s why

0:28:03.440,0:28:07.360
it hasn’t been resolved yet uh it’s just

0:28:06.720,0:28:09.279
like

0:28:07.360,0:28:10.799
literally the worst case scenario and

0:28:09.279,0:28:13.600
then so if you’re asking yourself

0:28:10.799,0:28:15.360
so why did tunisia succeed why were they

0:28:13.600,0:28:17.240
like the only country to succeed

0:28:15.360,0:28:18.880
um basically their first

0:28:17.240,0:28:21.440
post-revolutionary government

0:28:18.880,0:28:21.919
had remained stable and when the people

0:28:21.440,0:28:24.559
started

0:28:21.919,0:28:26.080
disagreeing with their leader they he

0:28:24.559,0:28:28.640
was defeated in the polls

0:28:26.080,0:28:29.520
rather than through a coup like they

0:28:28.640,0:28:32.080
just voted him

0:28:29.520,0:28:32.960
out of office after his term was up and

0:28:32.080,0:28:35.679
yeah did

0:28:32.960,0:28:38.240
sorry did any of the other countries uh

0:28:35.679,0:28:43.360
write constitutions

0:28:38.240,0:28:46.000
um i think bahrain

0:28:43.360,0:28:47.760
they have a constitutional monarchy and

0:28:46.000,0:28:49.600
i think they tried to draft a new

0:28:47.760,0:28:52.000
constitution

0:28:49.600,0:28:54.080
yeah i feel like writing it down helps

0:28:52.000,0:28:56.640
i’m just like studying

0:28:54.080,0:28:58.799
other countries when you have a

0:28:56.640,0:29:00.080
constitution and you write like

0:28:58.799,0:29:02.159
this is how the government should be

0:29:00.080,0:29:03.760
formed um

0:29:02.159,0:29:05.679
but i don’t know that’s not to like

0:29:03.760,0:29:08.399
diminish what happened in

0:29:05.679,0:29:09.120
egypt but i just tunisia had the or

0:29:08.399,0:29:13.200
tunisia

0:29:09.120,0:29:14.880
tunisia yeah i thought it was tunisia

0:29:13.200,0:29:16.720
i’ve been saying it wrong my whole life

0:29:14.880,0:29:18.880
tunisia um

0:29:16.720,0:29:20.320
yeah i feel like the one differing thing

0:29:18.880,0:29:23.520
you told me is that tunisia

0:29:20.320,0:29:26.240
had a constitution that outlawed certain

0:29:23.520,0:29:28.000
elements yeah yeah like they were able

0:29:26.240,0:29:30.000
to draft the constitution but that’s

0:29:28.000,0:29:32.559
because they had

0:29:30.000,0:29:33.919
stronger civil institutions before the

0:29:32.559,0:29:36.640
protest began

0:29:33.919,0:29:38.480
so like they did have a dictator but

0:29:36.640,0:29:41.600
they still had

0:29:38.480,0:29:45.200
um strong like opposition

0:29:41.600,0:29:46.320
and they had like human rights groups

0:29:45.200,0:29:48.480
and like lawyers

0:29:46.320,0:29:50.000
and like clerks like were still strong

0:29:48.480,0:29:50.799
and present and like that’s a really big

0:29:50.000,0:29:53.520
deal

0:29:50.799,0:29:54.640
um because like those people were able

0:29:53.520,0:29:56.960
to

0:29:54.640,0:29:57.679
like come together and diffuse political

0:29:56.960,0:29:58.960
tensions

0:29:57.679,0:30:01.120
they were able to write a new

0:29:58.960,0:30:02.880
constitution and then

0:30:01.120,0:30:04.480
they were able to continue with like

0:30:02.880,0:30:07.120
fair elections because

0:30:04.480,0:30:08.640
they had like these strong institutions

0:30:07.120,0:30:10.640
i know i’m like repeating myself but

0:30:08.640,0:30:13.039
no that makes sense how does one

0:30:10.640,0:30:13.840
diminish the power of an institution do

0:30:13.039,0:30:16.320
you just remove

0:30:13.840,0:30:18.640
funding yeah well like kind of like what

0:30:16.320,0:30:19.600
i i guess like using egypt as an example

0:30:18.640,0:30:22.799
again

0:30:19.600,0:30:24.880
like he just replaced all the government

0:30:22.799,0:30:26.559
officials with his supporters so it was

0:30:24.880,0:30:27.440
like super corrupt so there’s no one

0:30:26.559,0:30:28.799
who’s like

0:30:27.440,0:30:30.720
knows what they’re doing like no one who

0:30:28.799,0:30:32.240
is like an expert at their job it’s not

0:30:30.720,0:30:35.200
like

0:30:32.240,0:30:36.720
like the people who are like leading the

0:30:35.200,0:30:39.200
country

0:30:36.720,0:30:40.880
are not necessarily like the best people

0:30:39.200,0:30:43.679
they’re just like people who

0:30:40.880,0:30:45.279
gave him money right yeah it’s like so

0:30:43.679,0:30:46.240
much corruption and so now it’s like

0:30:45.279,0:30:47.600
okay

0:30:46.240,0:30:49.440
we have to like fill all these

0:30:47.600,0:30:50.159
government roles but like how do we do

0:30:49.440,0:30:54.240
that

0:30:50.159,0:30:57.039
and then he um

0:30:54.240,0:30:58.960
i like i guess if you yeah if you

0:30:57.039,0:31:01.039
replace like all your country’s judges

0:30:58.960,0:31:03.039
with again like supporters or like

0:31:01.039,0:31:05.679
people that you could pay off

0:31:03.039,0:31:07.440
then there’s a judicial system and so

0:31:05.679,0:31:09.279
basically it’s like you’re

0:31:07.440,0:31:10.640
you’re replacing the entire government

0:31:09.279,0:31:13.120
with people

0:31:10.640,0:31:13.679
for you yeah it’s like the patronage

0:31:13.120,0:31:16.880
system

0:31:13.679,0:31:19.360
but like extreme i guess how would you

0:31:16.880,0:31:21.279
even rise up against that

0:31:19.360,0:31:23.840
like as the people there’s not really

0:31:21.279,0:31:27.440
other way than by force

0:31:23.840,0:31:28.640
if and that’s why like a lot

0:31:27.440,0:31:30.320
like if you look at these countries who

0:31:28.640,0:31:32.320
are in civil wars the reason they go

0:31:30.320,0:31:35.600
into civil war wars because they

0:31:32.320,0:31:36.080
like rebel forces gain they join forces

0:31:35.600,0:31:38.480
with

0:31:36.080,0:31:39.840
at least part of the military you know

0:31:38.480,0:31:43.039
because you need that

0:31:39.840,0:31:44.559
physical force like you can’t just like

0:31:43.039,0:31:47.120
protest forever

0:31:44.559,0:31:48.960
yeah peaceful protest is not gonna work

0:31:47.120,0:31:50.640
in that situation

0:31:48.960,0:31:53.039
cause if it did then you wouldn’t be in

0:31:50.640,0:31:55.120
that situation like obviously that’s not

0:31:53.039,0:31:57.120
what the people would want

0:31:55.120,0:31:59.600
exactly so a lot of times it’s like okay

0:31:57.120,0:32:01.919
well when the military

0:31:59.600,0:32:04.320
starts questioning who they’re like

0:32:01.919,0:32:06.399
supporting then that’s when

0:32:04.320,0:32:08.399
like yeah that’s when it goes south you

0:32:06.399,0:32:12.080
know um

0:32:08.399,0:32:13.519
yeah so it’s like super complicated

0:32:12.080,0:32:15.200
and obviously there are a lot of

0:32:13.519,0:32:18.240
different reasons why

0:32:15.200,0:32:20.480
certain countries succeeded and certain

0:32:18.240,0:32:22.159
like most countries didn’t but that’s

0:32:20.480,0:32:22.720
kind of just like my oversimplification

0:32:22.159,0:32:24.480
of like

0:32:22.720,0:32:26.799
oh blame it on the institutions but

0:32:24.480,0:32:29.200
obviously there’s a lot of other factors

0:32:26.799,0:32:30.559
um but basically like what we learned

0:32:29.200,0:32:34.480
and what we saw from the

0:32:30.559,0:32:36.799
uprisings in the spring of 2011 is that

0:32:34.480,0:32:38.000
like there’s mass demonstrations and

0:32:36.799,0:32:40.480
peaceful protests

0:32:38.000,0:32:42.080
are actually really powerful and can

0:32:40.480,0:32:44.240
result in change

0:32:42.080,0:32:45.200
and it really showcased the ability of

0:32:44.240,0:32:48.000
social media

0:32:45.200,0:32:49.600
to fuel protests and like also

0:32:48.000,0:32:52.799
communicate the goals of

0:32:49.600,0:32:55.440
the protesters to the outside world um

0:32:52.799,0:32:56.559
i think that’s kind of why it spread so

0:32:55.440,0:32:58.640
quickly

0:32:56.559,0:33:00.399
and it was so far-reaching was because

0:32:58.640,0:33:02.000
like social media you could reach the

0:33:00.399,0:33:05.919
whole world you know

0:33:02.000,0:33:09.600
and yeah it’s just that’s basically it

0:33:05.919,0:33:11.919
um oh wait no yeah also finally

0:33:09.600,0:33:13.440
it showed autocratic governments and the

0:33:11.919,0:33:14.399
rest of the world that millions of

0:33:13.440,0:33:16.240
people living in

0:33:14.399,0:33:17.679
islamic nations believe in free

0:33:16.240,0:33:20.480
expression and

0:33:17.679,0:33:21.039
democratic governance and yeah basically

0:33:20.480,0:33:24.480
like what

0:33:21.039,0:33:28.159
started as a single active protest from

0:33:24.480,0:33:29.440
like one individual resulted in a huge

0:33:28.159,0:33:33.120
movement that

0:33:29.440,0:33:36.559
like spread across an entire region and

0:33:33.120,0:33:38.880
yeah that’s basically the arab spring

0:33:36.559,0:33:40.240
uh it’s really complicated there’s a lot

0:33:38.880,0:33:42.960
more yeah

0:33:40.240,0:33:44.320
but hopefully that kind of gives people

0:33:42.960,0:33:46.399
like

0:33:44.320,0:33:48.640
some background on what’s going on today

0:33:46.399,0:33:51.600
and a little bit more understanding of

0:33:48.640,0:33:52.080
like why there’s so much unrest yeah no

0:33:51.600,0:33:54.880
definitely

0:33:52.080,0:33:56.399
that’s like the tip of the iceberg into

0:33:54.880,0:34:00.159
what’s happening in the middle

0:33:56.399,0:34:02.080
in the middle east and yeah yeah

0:34:00.159,0:34:03.679
also like i just want to like before we

0:34:02.080,0:34:05.760
end i just want to say like

0:34:03.679,0:34:08.000
i don’t know i feel like the region is

0:34:05.760,0:34:11.040
extremely diverse and they’re

0:34:08.000,0:34:13.440
like the situation varies

0:34:11.040,0:34:15.760
extremely like between each country and

0:34:13.440,0:34:17.679
i i kind of chose to focus on

0:34:15.760,0:34:19.760
countries that like were in similar

0:34:17.679,0:34:22.399
situations with like civil war

0:34:19.760,0:34:23.919
and regime changes but like that’s not

0:34:22.399,0:34:26.639
what all of the middle east looks like

0:34:23.919,0:34:29.679
and it’s not just all like war-torn

0:34:26.639,0:34:32.960
uh yeah it’s not yeah it’s not all

0:34:29.679,0:34:34.079
not everyone is suffering and like in a

0:34:32.960,0:34:36.960
similar way

0:34:34.079,0:34:38.240
um yeah each country is very different

0:34:36.960,0:34:40.480
so

0:34:38.240,0:34:42.000
yeah i didn’t need to oversimplify with

0:34:40.480,0:34:45.200
this but

0:34:42.000,0:34:47.440
yeah yeah no i think you did good

0:34:45.200,0:34:49.440
thank you nat for presenting on the arab

0:34:47.440,0:34:51.440
spring and

0:34:49.440,0:34:52.480
yeah we learned a lot and i hope that we

0:34:51.440,0:34:54.399
can continue

0:34:52.480,0:34:55.679
talking about different events in the

0:34:54.399,0:34:57.680
middle east so we get a

0:34:55.679,0:34:59.520
more diverse perspective on what’s

0:34:57.680,0:35:01.280
happening because i for one

0:34:59.520,0:35:02.640
have a very i think of it as a

0:35:01.280,0:35:05.119
monolithic

0:35:02.640,0:35:05.920
area and it’s definitely not in any

0:35:05.119,0:35:09.520
sense

0:35:05.920,0:35:11.040
so this will be a good opening topic for

0:35:09.520,0:35:13.040
us

0:35:11.040,0:35:14.839
for sure all right thanks for listening

0:35:13.040,0:35:16.550
everyone

0:35:14.839,0:35:36.800
bye

0:35:16.550,0:35:38.880
[Music]

The Partition of Ireland

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

Ireland: the home of gorgeous coastal mountains and grassy plains. Yet, despite the beauty and charm, the island of Ireland has a long history of conflict. So much so, that the island is split into two *not physically of course*. In our Season 2, World History premiere, Jac takes us through the conflict between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland .

Sources:

https://www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irish-news/a-history-of-ireland-for-outsiders-from-henry-viii-to-the-troubles-1.3816898

Derry Girls Clip:

Transcript

0:00:00.240,0:00:04.560
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.399,0:00:04.960
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:04.560,0:00:08.960
that

0:00:04.960,0:00:12.000
i’m Nat i’m jack and we’re back

0:00:08.960,0:00:12.000
with season two

0:00:12.480,0:00:17.039
so exciting so exciting um yeah it’s

0:00:15.280,0:00:17.600
season two this season we’re going to be

0:00:17.039,0:00:21.119
talking

0:00:17.600,0:00:24.080
about world history so we have a lot of

0:00:21.119,0:00:24.560
fun and exciting topics coming your way

0:00:24.080,0:00:27.279
so

0:00:24.560,0:00:28.320
today jack i i actually don’t know what

0:00:27.279,0:00:30.160
you’re going to talk about

0:00:28.320,0:00:32.480
today i’m going to talk about ireland

0:00:30.160,0:00:34.800
for our irish viewers who are so

0:00:32.480,0:00:37.920
dedicated we see you

0:00:34.800,0:00:40.079
wow shout out to our irish viewers

0:00:37.920,0:00:41.600
yeah so actually i’m gonna talk about

0:00:40.079,0:00:42.399
let’s just get right into it happy

0:00:41.600,0:00:45.680
season two

0:00:42.399,0:00:48.000
missed you guys very excited so

0:00:45.680,0:00:50.480
nat did you know that ireland is

0:00:48.000,0:00:53.520
actually split

0:00:50.480,0:00:57.039
isn’t it like northern southern ireland

0:00:53.520,0:00:59.280
but i honestly like i hear about

0:00:57.039,0:01:01.440
like issues going on with north north

0:00:59.280,0:01:04.559
and south ireland today but i don’t know

0:01:01.440,0:01:09.600
the history behind it yeah me neither

0:01:04.559,0:01:09.600
i never knew i yeah i knew that um

0:01:09.920,0:01:13.520
actually no i really didn’t know much i

0:01:11.360,0:01:14.640
thought i heard that like ireland was

0:01:13.520,0:01:16.640
part of the uk

0:01:14.640,0:01:18.000
and it wasn’t part of the uk and then i

0:01:16.640,0:01:21.119
wasn’t sure

0:01:18.000,0:01:23.680
what was going on there and so actually

0:01:21.119,0:01:24.720
ireland like is an island like the

0:01:23.680,0:01:26.799
actual

0:01:24.720,0:01:28.080
just like the name of the island is

0:01:26.799,0:01:30.880
called ireland

0:01:28.080,0:01:31.600
and that’s an island for our viewers who

0:01:30.880,0:01:34.079
are like

0:01:31.600,0:01:35.360
not familiar of the location of ireland

0:01:34.079,0:01:38.479
it’s an island that’s off

0:01:35.360,0:01:39.520
western europe and it’s in the atlantic

0:01:38.479,0:01:43.920
sea so it’s like

0:01:39.520,0:01:43.920
north west from europe

0:01:44.000,0:01:47.040
europe it’s like the northwest section

0:01:45.680,0:01:50.240
it’s not in like

0:01:47.040,0:01:51.920
yeah is it closest to england like is it

0:01:50.240,0:01:54.320
like right off the coast or is it yeah

0:01:51.920,0:01:58.320
it’s like right off the coast of england

0:01:54.320,0:02:00.479
okay and um yeah so

0:01:58.320,0:02:02.320
that island is split into two parts with

0:02:00.479,0:02:04.880
the south being called

0:02:02.320,0:02:07.040
ireland like what we we formally know is

0:02:04.880,0:02:09.360
ireland or the republic of ireland

0:02:07.040,0:02:12.560
and then the north is northern ireland

0:02:09.360,0:02:16.640
and it’s actually part of the uk

0:02:12.560,0:02:19.440
okay yeah so then records of like

0:02:16.640,0:02:20.080
the island of ireland date back to

0:02:19.440,0:02:23.520
forever

0:02:20.080,0:02:24.640
like ten 000 a.d prehistoric times

0:02:23.520,0:02:28.000
there’s records

0:02:24.640,0:02:29.040
and then they’re like it’s very well

0:02:28.000,0:02:32.160
recorded

0:02:29.040,0:02:34.959
everything that happened in ireland so

0:02:32.160,0:02:37.040
we’re actually going to start in 500 bc

0:02:34.959,0:02:40.319
with the arrival of celts

0:02:37.040,0:02:42.959
so around 500 bc

0:02:40.319,0:02:43.840
people immigrated to ireland and that

0:02:42.959,0:02:45.760
group of people

0:02:43.840,0:02:47.360
were called celtic people was like

0:02:45.760,0:02:50.480
celtic heritage

0:02:47.360,0:02:54.160
and that was that later became known

0:02:50.480,0:02:57.519
as the dominant irish ethnic group

0:02:54.160,0:02:59.040
okay and so the religion uh

0:02:57.519,0:03:01.120
well actually do you know why i like

0:02:59.040,0:03:03.200
ireland split can you take a guess

0:03:01.120,0:03:05.200
isn’t it like one half of it they’re

0:03:03.200,0:03:06.159
protestants and then the other half is

0:03:05.200,0:03:09.680
like catholic

0:03:06.159,0:03:11.280
yeah literally so it’s a it’s a witch

0:03:09.680,0:03:13.599
yeah okay we’ll talk about it it’s

0:03:11.280,0:03:15.760
really interesting um

0:03:13.599,0:03:17.040
but yeah i know basically it’s like a

0:03:15.760,0:03:20.159
religious

0:03:17.040,0:03:21.680
difference and

0:03:20.159,0:03:24.239
we’re gonna go back but the celts that

0:03:21.680,0:03:27.599
like um settled ireland

0:03:24.239,0:03:29.760
had religious beliefs that were not the

0:03:27.599,0:03:32.159
same as the main world and so

0:03:29.760,0:03:34.080
any time that you have differing like

0:03:32.159,0:03:36.720
beliefs at least back then

0:03:34.080,0:03:37.200
from like the dominant religions you’re

0:03:36.720,0:03:39.360
called

0:03:37.200,0:03:42.879
pagan so that religion that celtics

0:03:39.360,0:03:42.879
practiced was called paganism

0:03:42.959,0:03:47.360
and it wasn’t until the 5th century so

0:03:45.680,0:03:50.319
that’s 400 bc

0:03:47.360,0:03:51.120
when a 16 year old boy from roman

0:03:50.319,0:03:54.560
britain

0:03:51.120,0:03:57.519
was kidnapped and roman britain is not

0:03:54.560,0:03:59.920
like england it’s like another i can’t

0:03:57.519,0:04:01.280
really describe it that well but it’s

0:03:59.920,0:04:04.400
he’s kidnapped from

0:04:01.280,0:04:04.879
like a different area the 16 year old

0:04:04.400,0:04:07.599
boy

0:04:04.879,0:04:10.080
this is just like a fun fact and he um

0:04:07.599,0:04:13.280
he’s taken to ireland as a slave

0:04:10.080,0:04:16.799
and then he escapes ireland and

0:04:13.280,0:04:17.120
he goes and like studies catholicism so

0:04:16.799,0:04:19.359
the

0:04:17.120,0:04:20.479
okay the major religion at the time is

0:04:19.359,0:04:22.720
catholicism

0:04:20.479,0:04:23.919
at least like that form of christianity

0:04:22.720,0:04:25.040
there’s like judaism

0:04:23.919,0:04:27.280
i know you’re not religious so i’m

0:04:25.040,0:04:29.840
trying to break it down

0:04:27.280,0:04:30.880
yeah so like basically okay rough

0:04:29.840,0:04:33.600
religious

0:04:30.880,0:04:35.040
like religion history lesson there’s

0:04:33.600,0:04:38.560
like judaism

0:04:35.040,0:04:41.680
and judaism is like jewish and then

0:04:38.560,0:04:43.120
jesus who is i don’t know if anyone’s

0:04:41.680,0:04:46.080
heard of jesus christ

0:04:43.120,0:04:48.800
he’s like the head of christianity but

0:04:46.080,0:04:52.880
jesus was originally a jew so he studied

0:04:48.800,0:04:57.280
he practiced judaism and then when jesus

0:04:52.880,0:05:00.000
um was he became known as the son of

0:04:57.280,0:05:00.800
god in the eyes of christians and he

0:05:00.000,0:05:04.479
died

0:05:00.800,0:05:07.280
for our sins and everything and so jesus

0:05:04.479,0:05:10.479
then like if you believe that jesus is

0:05:07.280,0:05:12.400
like the coming of christ then that is

0:05:10.479,0:05:14.639
christianity so you believe in jesus

0:05:12.400,0:05:18.000
christ you believe in

0:05:14.639,0:05:19.120
like god and everything does that make

0:05:18.000,0:05:20.560
sense i feel like i need to bring a

0:05:19.120,0:05:21.280
whiteboard out here and like sketch it

0:05:20.560,0:05:23.680
out

0:05:21.280,0:05:25.120
like draw lines so like the difference

0:05:23.680,0:05:27.840
like the main difference between

0:05:25.120,0:05:30.000
judaism and christianity is that

0:05:27.840,0:05:31.039
christians believe that jesus is the son

0:05:30.000,0:05:34.800
of god

0:05:31.039,0:05:36.400
but judaism doesn’t necessarily

0:05:34.800,0:05:38.880
believe that he’s the son of god yeah

0:05:36.400,0:05:41.120
they don’t they believe he’s like a guy

0:05:38.880,0:05:42.960
um but like not that he was like the

0:05:41.120,0:05:46.400
coming of christ or anything

0:05:42.960,0:05:47.280
okay um i hope that’s right i’m not fact

0:05:46.400,0:05:51.039
check myself

0:05:47.280,0:05:54.479
but um yeah so anyway so

0:05:51.039,0:05:56.319
jesus forms this branch it’s

0:05:54.479,0:05:58.400
christianity and like

0:05:56.319,0:06:00.160
the biggest first branch of christianity

0:05:58.400,0:06:03.199
is actually catholicism

0:06:00.160,0:06:05.680
so that’s the roman catholic faith and

0:06:03.199,0:06:06.800
that was the only form of christianity

0:06:05.680,0:06:09.680
back then so you’re

0:06:06.800,0:06:10.560
like it’s catholic you’re like okay

0:06:09.680,0:06:12.960
catholic

0:06:10.560,0:06:13.680
um if you believe in jesus christ and

0:06:12.960,0:06:16.960
like god you’re

0:06:13.680,0:06:20.319
you would be a catholic so um

0:06:16.960,0:06:22.240
the boy he flees and he’s catholic and

0:06:20.319,0:06:24.720
then he comes back to ireland

0:06:22.240,0:06:26.639
to convert the irish to christianity

0:06:24.720,0:06:29.919
because again the irish at this time

0:06:26.639,0:06:31.440
um celtic heritage was paganism and

0:06:29.919,0:06:34.639
paganism was a religion

0:06:31.440,0:06:37.120
and um so he converts the irish to

0:06:34.639,0:06:39.919
christianity specifically catholicism

0:06:37.120,0:06:41.520
and that boy later becomes known as the

0:06:39.919,0:06:44.319
patron saint of ireland

0:06:41.520,0:06:46.160
aka st patrick so that’s how we have st

0:06:44.319,0:06:49.280
patrick’s day

0:06:46.160,0:06:51.360
oh okay yeah so that’s what that’s about

0:06:49.280,0:06:53.680
and then the big quote with

0:06:51.360,0:06:56.319
st patrick is that he’s credited with

0:06:53.680,0:06:59.360
driving the snakes out of ireland

0:06:56.319,0:07:00.800
and that’s a metaphor because ireland

0:06:59.360,0:07:03.440
never had snakes

0:07:00.800,0:07:04.960
the snakes are a metaphor for pagans

0:07:03.440,0:07:07.520
long story short ireland

0:07:04.960,0:07:09.120
has turned completely catholic by about

0:07:07.520,0:07:12.479
480

0:07:09.120,0:07:15.039
and ireland and england during this time

0:07:12.479,0:07:16.080
are all catholic and that lasts for

0:07:15.039,0:07:19.520
centuries

0:07:16.080,0:07:21.919
and eventually we hit the 16th century

0:07:19.520,0:07:24.160
and then something big happens with

0:07:21.919,0:07:26.160
religion and do you remember what that

0:07:24.160,0:07:30.720
was

0:07:26.160,0:07:32.880
um i’m guessing that there’s like a like

0:07:30.720,0:07:33.840
division oh then i have to do like pokes

0:07:32.880,0:07:36.160
there’s two popes

0:07:33.840,0:07:38.000
am i thinking well tell me what you’re

0:07:36.160,0:07:40.960
thinking with the popes

0:07:38.000,0:07:43.440
like a division in christianity so like

0:07:40.960,0:07:45.840
there’s catholics and then like a new

0:07:43.440,0:07:47.759
division yeah there’s a they weren’t

0:07:45.840,0:07:49.199
hopes but it’s um you’re right that

0:07:47.759,0:07:52.560
there is a division

0:07:49.199,0:07:53.919
in christianity so there is a man called

0:07:52.560,0:07:56.720
martin luther

0:07:53.919,0:07:58.560
and he was a monk and he posted like a

0:07:56.720,0:07:59.360
bunch of complaints about the catholic

0:07:58.560,0:08:03.039
church

0:07:59.360,0:08:06.240
on a door i believe the story goes and

0:08:03.039,0:08:08.319
that was when then he he broke off from

0:08:06.240,0:08:09.919
catholicism and formed his own branch of

0:08:08.319,0:08:13.280
christianity called luther

0:08:09.919,0:08:15.199
lutheranism lutheranism

0:08:13.280,0:08:16.960
so that’s one that’s one break off of

0:08:15.199,0:08:19.039
catholicism and then also

0:08:16.960,0:08:21.280
king henry viii wanted a divorce from

0:08:19.039,0:08:22.720
his wife and in catholicism you’re not

0:08:21.280,0:08:25.520
allowed to get a divorce

0:08:22.720,0:08:26.080
i mean nowadays you can if it’s a very

0:08:25.520,0:08:28.560
serious

0:08:26.080,0:08:29.599
issue like abuse or anything that’s you

0:08:28.560,0:08:31.199
can get a divorce

0:08:29.599,0:08:33.599
but i think he wanted it because his

0:08:31.199,0:08:35.919
wife was not birthing boys

0:08:33.599,0:08:37.039
um so he wanted a divorce and the pope

0:08:35.919,0:08:40.080
would not allow it

0:08:37.039,0:08:42.399
so he broke off from

0:08:40.080,0:08:44.000
the he broke out he created his own

0:08:42.399,0:08:44.880
religion so he could get a divorce and

0:08:44.000,0:08:48.160
it was like another

0:08:44.880,0:08:48.880
branch of christianity and so anglican i

0:08:48.160,0:08:51.680
believe

0:08:48.880,0:08:52.560
um is that religion now started by king

0:08:51.680,0:08:55.360
henry viii

0:08:52.560,0:08:55.839
so the main thing to get from that is

0:08:55.360,0:08:57.680
that

0:08:55.839,0:08:58.959
we now have these other branches of

0:08:57.680,0:09:02.399
christianity

0:08:58.959,0:09:05.120
so those anything that’s not catholic

0:09:02.399,0:09:06.000
is known as protestant so that includes

0:09:05.120,0:09:10.720
baptists

0:09:06.000,0:09:12.880
that includes um what other is there

0:09:10.720,0:09:13.839
yeah there’s did i write them down yeah

0:09:12.880,0:09:16.399
like lutherism

0:09:13.839,0:09:17.360
anglican baptist presbyterian all these

0:09:16.399,0:09:19.760
christian

0:09:17.360,0:09:20.720
terms that you may or may not have heard

0:09:19.760,0:09:22.080
of

0:09:20.720,0:09:24.160
all those branches are known as

0:09:22.080,0:09:25.760
protestant branches and then catholicism

0:09:24.160,0:09:29.040
is its own branch

0:09:25.760,0:09:30.480
okay yeah catholicism was the main one

0:09:29.040,0:09:32.160
and then everyone else broke off from

0:09:30.480,0:09:34.959
catholicism so

0:09:32.160,0:09:36.240
okay so just to clarify so christianity

0:09:34.959,0:09:38.959
and then there’s like two

0:09:36.240,0:09:39.760
it splits up into two groups catholic

0:09:38.959,0:09:42.959
protestant

0:09:39.760,0:09:43.920
and then there’s like all these other

0:09:42.959,0:09:46.080
branches

0:09:43.920,0:09:47.279
yeah which i don’t know i like to think

0:09:46.080,0:09:50.320
of it as like

0:09:47.279,0:09:51.519
christianity okay this is just me being

0:09:50.320,0:09:52.240
picky and it’s probably because i’m

0:09:51.519,0:09:54.320
catholic

0:09:52.240,0:09:56.160
but like i think it’s like christianity

0:09:54.320,0:09:57.839
and catholic there’s like one branches

0:09:56.160,0:10:01.279
catholicism right so like

0:09:57.839,0:10:03.760
like judaism christianity right yeah

0:10:01.279,0:10:06.399
judaism then we get christianity and

0:10:03.760,0:10:08.640
then for christianity we get catholicism

0:10:06.399,0:10:09.760
and then from under catholicism it

0:10:08.640,0:10:11.760
breaks out

0:10:09.760,0:10:13.440
now your example’s probably better that

0:10:11.760,0:10:13.920
like out of christianity breaks these

0:10:13.440,0:10:15.279
other ones

0:10:13.920,0:10:17.760
but they really broke off from

0:10:15.279,0:10:20.079
catholicism yeah like

0:10:17.760,0:10:21.200
chronologically it goes catholic to

0:10:20.079,0:10:23.920
catholicism to

0:10:21.200,0:10:25.279
all the other ones yeah but yeah they

0:10:23.920,0:10:29.760
did they broke off

0:10:25.279,0:10:32.880
so that’s huge so basically now

0:10:29.760,0:10:34.959
um england which is

0:10:32.880,0:10:36.560
they had the king of england everything

0:10:34.959,0:10:39.920
uh england’s now

0:10:36.560,0:10:41.680
protestant and maybe not everyone’s

0:10:39.920,0:10:42.160
protestant yet but now there’s like a

0:10:41.680,0:10:45.440
push

0:10:42.160,0:10:47.600
for you to be protestant in england

0:10:45.440,0:10:49.680
because that’s like the king’s religion

0:10:47.600,0:10:52.560
and so now you’re under

0:10:49.680,0:10:54.399
the king and you follow the king’s form

0:10:52.560,0:10:57.760
of christianity

0:10:54.399,0:11:00.720
okay so

0:10:57.760,0:11:03.040
then we will go into so that’s important

0:11:00.720,0:11:06.000
to know is that

0:11:03.040,0:11:07.120
ireland’s catholic and england was

0:11:06.000,0:11:09.200
catholic but now

0:11:07.120,0:11:11.360
england has broken off into these little

0:11:09.200,0:11:13.760
forms of christianity called

0:11:11.360,0:11:14.480
that or like protestantism we’ll call it

0:11:13.760,0:11:18.560
protestants

0:11:14.480,0:11:20.000
gotcha now to talk about like the actual

0:11:18.560,0:11:23.760
border in ireland

0:11:20.000,0:11:24.800
we have to start with the 17th century

0:11:23.760,0:11:26.399
so there’s something called the

0:11:24.800,0:11:29.839
plantations of ulster

0:11:26.399,0:11:31.279
in the 17th century so that’s when the

0:11:29.839,0:11:34.079
border starts to begin

0:11:31.279,0:11:35.680
since the 12th century british had been

0:11:34.079,0:11:37.360
present in ireland like they’re just

0:11:35.680,0:11:39.040
doing trade they’re hanging out in

0:11:37.360,0:11:42.160
ireland anyways

0:11:39.040,0:11:44.640
and the english we’re doing

0:11:42.160,0:11:46.079
like their regular oppressive practices

0:11:44.640,0:11:48.399
as they’re while they’re present like

0:11:46.079,0:11:50.160
they’re always doing this i feel like

0:11:48.399,0:11:51.760
england just has a checklist like go to

0:11:50.160,0:11:56.160
a new place um

0:11:51.760,0:11:59.279
forbid marriage between the locals

0:11:56.160,0:12:01.519
their language so they did all of that

0:11:59.279,0:12:03.519
when they came to ireland and they’re

0:12:01.519,0:12:05.120
just living on the coast too it’s like

0:12:03.519,0:12:07.760
one or two people trying to do this

0:12:05.120,0:12:10.959
whole thing to like an entire country

0:12:07.760,0:12:13.680
and yeah they banned

0:12:10.959,0:12:15.120
gaelic irish which is actually like

0:12:13.680,0:12:18.399
native

0:12:15.120,0:12:21.360
language of irish people is gaelic

0:12:18.399,0:12:23.040
ulster is a province in ireland and it’s

0:12:21.360,0:12:24.079
the most gaelic irish province in

0:12:23.040,0:12:27.040
ireland

0:12:24.079,0:12:28.720
and basically there was a war between

0:12:27.040,0:12:33.120
protestant english

0:12:28.720,0:12:35.440
and the catholic lords in that area

0:12:33.120,0:12:36.639
and the protestant english ended up

0:12:35.440,0:12:40.160
defeating the catholic

0:12:36.639,0:12:43.040
like the irish catholics and

0:12:40.160,0:12:44.320
so then the irish lord the irish the

0:12:43.040,0:12:46.800
irish catholic lords

0:12:44.320,0:12:47.760
in that area fled and they left behind

0:12:46.800,0:12:49.760
the land

0:12:47.760,0:12:52.000
so the protestant settlers just took

0:12:49.760,0:12:53.519
over that land and those protestant

0:12:52.000,0:12:56.720
settlers were from scotland

0:12:53.519,0:13:00.480
and england and

0:12:56.720,0:13:02.639
they just settled in ulster so after

0:13:00.480,0:13:04.000
that war was fought okay does that make

0:13:02.639,0:13:08.320
sense you look confused

0:13:04.000,0:13:08.320
no but so wait this is ulcer

0:13:08.639,0:13:11.839
ulcers in the south or you said it was

0:13:10.800,0:13:14.880
east where

0:13:11.839,0:13:15.600
no dublin so okay the the english come

0:13:14.880,0:13:17.279
and they’re like

0:13:15.600,0:13:19.360
they settle in this area known as the

0:13:17.279,0:13:21.120
pale and like they didn’t experiment on

0:13:19.360,0:13:22.399
that but the pale is like on the east

0:13:21.120,0:13:23.120
coast so that’s just like they’ve

0:13:22.399,0:13:25.680
arrived

0:13:23.120,0:13:27.200
from like trades okay and then ulster is

0:13:25.680,0:13:31.040
oh i don’t even have my world map

0:13:27.200,0:13:32.839
but also ulster is like um

0:13:31.040,0:13:34.399
like a province in the north like

0:13:32.839,0:13:38.160
northeast okay

0:13:34.399,0:13:41.440
yeah and then right

0:13:38.160,0:13:43.279
in the north it’s not protestant yet

0:13:41.440,0:13:46.320
there’s like english settlers

0:13:43.279,0:13:48.079
and then ulster was still catholic

0:13:46.320,0:13:50.000
irish catholic but you have all these

0:13:48.079,0:13:50.720
english protestants that are settling

0:13:50.000,0:13:54.240
there

0:13:50.720,0:13:56.639
and then they had this war between them

0:13:54.240,0:13:57.760
yeah because you know the english are

0:13:56.639,0:13:59.920
like kind of

0:13:57.760,0:14:01.279
pushing them around and like taking land

0:13:59.920,0:14:02.720
and banning

0:14:01.279,0:14:05.600
or trying to ban these things and

0:14:02.720,0:14:07.600
enforce these laws and so

0:14:05.600,0:14:08.800
they have a they have a war and then the

0:14:07.600,0:14:11.440
irish catholics

0:14:08.800,0:14:12.240
lose the war and then they flee the area

0:14:11.440,0:14:14.959
and

0:14:12.240,0:14:16.160
the english protestants just take over

0:14:14.959,0:14:18.720
the area and like

0:14:16.160,0:14:19.760
claim it as theirs right they’re fleeing

0:14:18.720,0:14:23.279
the north area

0:14:19.760,0:14:26.079
so they’re going to okay that’s not

0:14:23.279,0:14:28.000
clear so they they did flee but i think

0:14:26.079,0:14:31.519
some things said that they split

0:14:28.000,0:14:34.560
they fleed they flew fled i think

0:14:31.519,0:14:36.240
they fled yes they fled to england or

0:14:34.560,0:14:38.480
they fled to the south either way

0:14:36.240,0:14:39.760
long story short they like left the area

0:14:38.480,0:14:42.720
like they’re gone

0:14:39.760,0:14:44.240
yeah so then that’s when they took over

0:14:42.720,0:14:47.279
the protestant english takeover

0:14:44.240,0:14:49.519
and then okay

0:14:47.279,0:14:52.720
so now there’s a lot of protestants in

0:14:49.519,0:14:55.839
that area of ulster

0:14:52.720,0:14:57.120
so although and it’s a province right so

0:14:55.839,0:14:59.279
the province is quite big

0:14:57.120,0:15:01.199
but although there are still some native

0:14:59.279,0:15:04.639
irish catholics in the area

0:15:01.199,0:15:06.720
now the province is now dominated by

0:15:04.639,0:15:08.800
protestants and the protestants are all

0:15:06.720,0:15:14.079
loyal to the british crown

0:15:08.800,0:15:15.920
okay so then we go to 1641

0:15:14.079,0:15:17.199
and we have something called the irish

0:15:15.920,0:15:19.600
confederate wars

0:15:17.199,0:15:20.639
so it’s a war between ireland scotland

0:15:19.600,0:15:22.800
and england

0:15:20.639,0:15:24.079
and i don’t know if this is clear i kind

0:15:22.800,0:15:26.079
of mentioned it but

0:15:24.079,0:15:28.639
uh the protestant settlers were actually

0:15:26.079,0:15:30.720
scottish and english

0:15:28.639,0:15:31.839
okay so keep that in mind too it’s

0:15:30.720,0:15:33.920
really irish is

0:15:31.839,0:15:35.600
the irish are still catholic but and i

0:15:33.920,0:15:38.160
don’t know the history of scotland but

0:15:35.600,0:15:40.240
it’s just from history it was scotland

0:15:38.160,0:15:41.120
and england together that were the

0:15:40.240,0:15:44.639
protestant

0:15:41.120,0:15:47.920
invaders um yeah

0:15:44.639,0:15:50.639
yeah so basically

0:15:47.920,0:15:52.399
1641 irish confederate wars between

0:15:50.639,0:15:54.320
ireland scotland and england

0:15:52.399,0:15:56.480
and it’s really scotland and england

0:15:54.320,0:15:58.399
together against ireland so ireland

0:15:56.480,0:16:01.440
tries to push back against the

0:15:58.399,0:16:05.120
anti-catholic protestant countries

0:16:01.440,0:16:07.839
scotland and um yeah england

0:16:05.120,0:16:08.560
the english end up winning that as well

0:16:07.839,0:16:11.519
again

0:16:08.560,0:16:14.480
and now the catholic majority ireland is

0:16:11.519,0:16:18.320
run by a protestant minority

0:16:14.480,0:16:21.440
okay sounds a lot like the states

0:16:18.320,0:16:24.639
yeah yeah so

0:16:21.440,0:16:26.800
so then we’ll go to 1798 there’s

0:16:24.639,0:16:30.079
something known as the irish rebellion

0:16:26.800,0:16:31.600
so this was inspired by the french and

0:16:30.079,0:16:33.759
american revolutions

0:16:31.600,0:16:36.959
and it was an uprising of the irish

0:16:33.759,0:16:38.560
against british rule in ireland

0:16:36.959,0:16:40.399
but then the french tried to help the

0:16:38.560,0:16:43.600
irish in the uprising

0:16:40.399,0:16:45.360
and again the uprising was suppressed by

0:16:43.600,0:16:48.240
the british crown so the irish

0:16:45.360,0:16:48.880
lost it was really really violent too so

0:16:48.240,0:16:52.000
they lost

0:16:48.880,0:16:55.440
10 000 to 30 000 lives

0:16:52.000,0:16:57.440
wow that’s a that’s a lot

0:16:55.440,0:16:59.120
and i’m sure like the population is like

0:16:57.440,0:17:02.399
really tiny at the time

0:16:59.120,0:17:05.600
yeah oh then that happens in 1781

0:17:02.399,0:17:08.079
again it’s still protestant english

0:17:05.600,0:17:09.520
rural ireland and then we have the

0:17:08.079,0:17:13.520
active union in

0:17:09.520,0:17:14.720
1800s so in the in the year 1800 the

0:17:13.520,0:17:17.199
united kingdom

0:17:14.720,0:17:19.439
which at the time just consisted of

0:17:17.199,0:17:21.360
england and scotland

0:17:19.439,0:17:24.720
because i don’t know are you familiar

0:17:21.360,0:17:28.559
with like the history of the uk

0:17:24.720,0:17:32.240
um no i’d say like isn’t just the uk

0:17:28.559,0:17:36.640
scotland part of ireland and then

0:17:32.240,0:17:39.120
wales is whales in the uk yeah it’s like

0:17:36.640,0:17:40.240
is england not in no england just okay

0:17:39.120,0:17:42.400
england yeah it’s like

0:17:40.240,0:17:43.600
england scotland part of ireland and

0:17:42.400,0:17:46.080
then

0:17:43.600,0:17:47.919
wales yeah i didn’t know what it was

0:17:46.080,0:17:49.520
either but like the

0:17:47.919,0:17:51.280
when i was doing research they showed

0:17:49.520,0:17:54.640
the animation of

0:17:51.280,0:17:56.480
each part joining the uk so it was

0:17:54.640,0:17:59.280
england and then the first country to

0:17:56.480,0:18:02.320
join england and form the uk was

0:17:59.280,0:18:06.720
scotland so

0:18:02.320,0:18:09.360
uh sure um so 1800’s

0:18:06.720,0:18:11.120
uk has been formed and now they’re

0:18:09.360,0:18:11.440
concerned that ireland is going to break

0:18:11.120,0:18:13.440
off

0:18:11.440,0:18:14.480
and join with france in fighting against

0:18:13.440,0:18:16.960
the british again

0:18:14.480,0:18:19.520
because this is only two years after the

0:18:16.960,0:18:23.200
irish rebellion

0:18:19.520,0:18:26.960
so because of this fear the uk absorbs

0:18:23.200,0:18:30.640
ireland into them as well in the active

0:18:26.960,0:18:32.799
union 1800 or 1801 it’s called vote

0:18:30.640,0:18:34.559
um so there’s a lot of opposition to

0:18:32.799,0:18:37.039
this obviously

0:18:34.559,0:18:39.919
and throughout the 1800s there was

0:18:37.039,0:18:42.480
horizon violent rebellions to oppose it

0:18:39.919,0:18:45.120
and demand self-governing

0:18:42.480,0:18:46.400
wow okay so this is like sorry i’m like

0:18:45.120,0:18:47.200
just trying to like think about it this

0:18:46.400,0:18:50.000
is like a big

0:18:47.200,0:18:50.480
a really big deal because at this time

0:18:50.000,0:18:53.280
like

0:18:50.480,0:18:54.799
britain has colonies all over the world

0:18:53.280,0:18:56.000
but then that’s just considered like the

0:18:54.799,0:18:58.400
british empire

0:18:56.000,0:18:59.039
but the fact that ireland was acquired

0:18:58.400,0:19:01.360
into the

0:18:59.039,0:19:02.559
united kingdom that’s saying like you’re

0:19:01.360,0:19:05.760
not just a colony

0:19:02.559,0:19:08.799
you’re like one of us

0:19:05.760,0:19:10.160
you’re the united kingdom so right like

0:19:08.799,0:19:12.960
that’s a lot more significant

0:19:10.160,0:19:14.080
than just having them as a part of the

0:19:12.960,0:19:17.600
empire

0:19:14.080,0:19:19.200
right yeah well how do the empires work

0:19:17.600,0:19:20.720
though because

0:19:19.200,0:19:22.400
like even though they’re they didn’t

0:19:20.720,0:19:25.600
absorb them into the uk

0:19:22.400,0:19:28.080
it’s still like territory and

0:19:25.600,0:19:29.120
rule i think that’s just known as like

0:19:28.080,0:19:30.799
great britain then

0:19:29.120,0:19:32.559
right like because there’s like there’s

0:19:30.799,0:19:33.039
so many terms oh my god it’s like united

0:19:32.559,0:19:34.720
kingdom

0:19:33.039,0:19:36.400
great britain and then england england

0:19:34.720,0:19:37.440
is just like the country i think great

0:19:36.400,0:19:38.880
britain is like

0:19:37.440,0:19:40.640
the whole british empire all the

0:19:38.880,0:19:41.679
colonies they have and then the united

0:19:40.640,0:19:45.600
kingdom

0:19:41.679,0:19:48.559
is just like those few oh

0:19:45.600,0:19:50.880
that they’re like okay but this is like

0:19:48.559,0:19:53.919
that makes so much more sense

0:19:50.880,0:19:55.760
okay i was using england uk

0:19:53.919,0:19:57.440
and great britain all interchangeably

0:19:55.760,0:19:58.080
but that makes so much sense because

0:19:57.440,0:20:01.200
great britain

0:19:58.080,0:20:02.720
is like the great like everything and

0:20:01.200,0:20:05.280
then kingdom is like

0:20:02.720,0:20:06.480
texas but i’m pretty sure okay yeah i’ll

0:20:05.280,0:20:08.559
look into that too i

0:20:06.480,0:20:10.640
never knew i i just called them all the

0:20:08.559,0:20:13.919
same thing

0:20:10.640,0:20:15.919
okay well yeah it’s a pretty big deal so

0:20:13.919,0:20:18.960
ireland is now part of the uk

0:20:15.919,0:20:20.000
okay and uh yeah they’re not having a

0:20:18.960,0:20:22.640
good time they don’t like

0:20:20.000,0:20:23.679
it and well i shouldn’t say that

0:20:22.640,0:20:27.679
northern ireland’s

0:20:23.679,0:20:29.679
having a ball ulster protestant english

0:20:27.679,0:20:31.600
and then the rest of ireland not really

0:20:29.679,0:20:38.080
liking it so

0:20:31.600,0:20:41.039
then in 1920 the official border happens

0:20:38.080,0:20:42.080
under the government of ireland act the

0:20:41.039,0:20:44.000
british government

0:20:42.080,0:20:45.840
made an attempt to reconcile the two

0:20:44.000,0:20:48.480
demands of both areas of ireland

0:20:45.840,0:20:49.120
because north part of ireland which is

0:20:48.480,0:20:50.720
also

0:20:49.120,0:20:52.720
well not just ulster but the north part

0:20:50.720,0:20:54.159
of ireland is like protestant and the

0:20:52.720,0:20:56.000
south part is catholic

0:20:54.159,0:20:57.919
and there’s all these fights and

0:20:56.000,0:21:01.280
uprisings and rebellions and

0:20:57.919,0:21:02.640
civil wars trying to like push for

0:21:01.280,0:21:06.159
independent rule so

0:21:02.640,0:21:09.039
to reconcile the demands they

0:21:06.159,0:21:10.320
create a partition between the parts of

0:21:09.039,0:21:13.039
ireland

0:21:10.320,0:21:14.720
so the irish nationalist which is known

0:21:13.039,0:21:17.520
as southern ireland demands

0:21:14.720,0:21:18.960
for the separation of ireland from

0:21:17.520,0:21:19.360
britain so they don’t want to be a part

0:21:18.960,0:21:21.280
of

0:21:19.360,0:21:22.480
the uk they don’t want to be associated

0:21:21.280,0:21:24.159
with britain

0:21:22.480,0:21:26.240
like they just want to be ireland and

0:21:24.159,0:21:27.440
then the unionist which is the northern

0:21:26.240,0:21:29.360
part of ireland

0:21:27.440,0:21:30.480
demands to remain part of the united

0:21:29.360,0:21:32.880
kingdom so they

0:21:30.480,0:21:33.760
they want to be a part of the uk they

0:21:32.880,0:21:37.039
like it

0:21:33.760,0:21:38.960
and they’re in conflict

0:21:37.039,0:21:41.039
okay oh wait okay i have two questions

0:21:38.960,0:21:42.320
really quick okay first

0:21:41.039,0:21:44.240
this is like a stupid question this

0:21:42.320,0:21:45.679
partition is it just like

0:21:44.240,0:21:47.919
invisible is there like a physical

0:21:45.679,0:21:50.000
structure that’s actually like is there

0:21:47.919,0:21:52.080
a wall or like a fence or something or

0:21:50.000,0:21:56.000
is it just like

0:21:52.080,0:21:57.520
no so uh

0:21:56.000,0:22:00.000
you’re asking a good question there’s

0:21:57.520,0:22:03.039
not i’m sure there’s like a gate

0:22:00.000,0:22:04.960
maybe but it’s not like a physical wall

0:22:03.039,0:22:05.360
yet but in northern ireland which i’ll

0:22:04.960,0:22:08.080
get to

0:22:05.360,0:22:08.720
later is like there’s actually walls

0:22:08.080,0:22:11.919
between

0:22:08.720,0:22:13.360
protestant and catholics like they build

0:22:11.919,0:22:14.799
they’re called peace walls but they

0:22:13.360,0:22:16.240
literally build them separating the

0:22:14.799,0:22:17.039
neighborhoods because there’s so much

0:22:16.240,0:22:20.480
violence

0:22:17.039,0:22:21.360
like it’s really bad um and then but

0:22:20.480,0:22:23.520
between like

0:22:21.360,0:22:25.520
the partition that we’re talking about

0:22:23.520,0:22:26.880
where there’s an official border now

0:22:25.520,0:22:28.799
i don’t know if they built an actual

0:22:26.880,0:22:31.360
wall for that yeah

0:22:28.799,0:22:32.799
okay yeah okay probably yeah i’m

0:22:31.360,0:22:34.320
guessing there’s not like a

0:22:32.799,0:22:36.880
yeah along the entire border but

0:22:34.320,0:22:39.919
probably around parts but maybe because

0:22:36.880,0:22:41.600
it’s not a huge island so that’s true

0:22:39.919,0:22:42.000
and if they hate each other that much

0:22:41.600,0:22:44.240
like

0:22:42.000,0:22:46.240
yeah if it gets that violent then yeah

0:22:44.240,0:22:48.000
and then okay like this my second it’s

0:22:46.240,0:22:49.280
mostly like just a remark but like i

0:22:48.000,0:22:51.840
guess

0:22:49.280,0:22:53.200
so like in 1920 this is like after world

0:22:51.840,0:22:56.960
war one

0:22:53.200,0:22:57.760
so like the whole everyone in ireland

0:22:56.960,0:23:00.000
probably had to

0:22:57.760,0:23:01.120
fight world war one under the british

0:23:00.000,0:23:04.480
flag so i’m sure

0:23:01.120,0:23:06.799
that’s like kind of what caused

0:23:04.480,0:23:09.600
uh like the this is what really like

0:23:06.799,0:23:11.039
flared the argument into

0:23:09.600,0:23:12.559
like people actually like declaring

0:23:11.039,0:23:13.440
themselves as like unit versus

0:23:12.559,0:23:15.840
nationalists

0:23:13.440,0:23:16.559
right am i that’s just like no you are

0:23:15.840,0:23:18.640
literally

0:23:16.559,0:23:20.240
spot on like you really know your

0:23:18.640,0:23:23.679
history because

0:23:20.240,0:23:25.120
that’s exactly like what happened okay

0:23:23.679,0:23:28.240
i’m just gonna go right into it

0:23:25.120,0:23:29.840
so in 1922 we

0:23:28.240,0:23:31.600
there was the irish free state

0:23:29.840,0:23:34.240
constitution act

0:23:31.600,0:23:35.120
and that established that island was a

0:23:34.240,0:23:36.799
free state

0:23:35.120,0:23:38.640
but a dominion of the british

0:23:36.799,0:23:41.919
commonwealth so that

0:23:38.640,0:23:43.039
is like canada australia new zealand

0:23:41.919,0:23:45.360
south africa

0:23:43.039,0:23:48.320
they’re their own country but they also

0:23:45.360,0:23:51.039
the queen is technically their queen too

0:23:48.320,0:23:52.320
yeah okay i don’t know how it works

0:23:51.039,0:23:55.520
because we’re american

0:23:52.320,0:23:57.919
of like u.s territories

0:23:55.520,0:24:00.000
like we talked about in our minisones

0:23:57.919,0:24:02.240
where they have their

0:24:00.000,0:24:03.039
own local governments but then they’re

0:24:02.240,0:24:04.799
under the

0:24:03.039,0:24:08.480
ultimate jurisdiction of the president

0:24:04.799,0:24:12.080
of the united states kind of similar

0:24:08.480,0:24:15.200
but yeah okay and so yeah

0:24:12.080,0:24:16.480
ireland ireland becomes one of those in

0:24:15.200,0:24:18.480
this treaty

0:24:16.480,0:24:20.000
or is it a treaty in the irish free

0:24:18.480,0:24:23.200
state constitution act

0:24:20.000,0:24:26.000
they gave the north part of ireland a

0:24:23.200,0:24:28.480
clause that allowed them to opt out of

0:24:26.000,0:24:30.240
the agreement and stay part of the uk

0:24:28.480,0:24:32.799
and they took that immediately like they

0:24:30.240,0:24:35.919
were yes opt me out i don’t want to be

0:24:32.799,0:24:37.919
like i want to be part of the uk so

0:24:35.919,0:24:39.760
now there are two british parliaments

0:24:37.919,0:24:41.440
because of this there’s one in dublin

0:24:39.760,0:24:44.559
for the south and then there’s one

0:24:41.440,0:24:47.279
in belfast for the north

0:24:44.559,0:24:49.600
and some of the people in the south are

0:24:47.279,0:24:52.080
okay with the treaty because

0:24:49.600,0:24:54.159
it’s they’re an irish free state so

0:24:52.080,0:24:56.080
they’re like wow like we’re

0:24:54.159,0:24:57.440
we’re free we’re irish we’re like

0:24:56.080,0:24:59.120
independent and

0:24:57.440,0:25:01.360
other people are against the treaty

0:24:59.120,0:25:03.679
because they’re like no we’re still

0:25:01.360,0:25:04.400
under the british crown we’re like a

0:25:03.679,0:25:06.640
formerly

0:25:04.400,0:25:07.919
a territory you know like we don’t like

0:25:06.640,0:25:09.840
it it’s not good enough we want to be

0:25:07.919,0:25:14.720
fully independent

0:25:09.840,0:25:15.200
so that leads to a civil war oh also too

0:25:14.720,0:25:17.679
so

0:25:15.200,0:25:19.679
and also people who are anti-treaty felt

0:25:17.679,0:25:22.080
that no we’re also entitled to

0:25:19.679,0:25:23.840
the whole country of ireland not just a

0:25:22.080,0:25:24.799
part of it like northern ireland is ours

0:25:23.840,0:25:26.640
as well

0:25:24.799,0:25:28.320
oh so that’s okay so as the nationalists

0:25:26.640,0:25:31.919
they’re not just like oh

0:25:28.320,0:25:33.760
like southern ireland will secede

0:25:31.919,0:25:35.440
from like the uk like will be our own

0:25:33.760,0:25:38.559
thing they want everyone

0:25:35.440,0:25:40.720
in the whole island to yeah so i mean

0:25:38.559,0:25:42.080
because it but right the south has like

0:25:40.720,0:25:43.440
split ideas too right

0:25:42.080,0:25:45.360
some of the south people are like it’s

0:25:43.440,0:25:47.279
cool it’s fine

0:25:45.360,0:25:49.440
like everything’s fine and then like

0:25:47.279,0:25:52.159
we’re free and the other part is like

0:25:49.440,0:25:53.840
no we get all of it i’m sure within that

0:25:52.159,0:25:55.360
there’s arguments too like no maybe we

0:25:53.840,0:25:56.559
don’t get all of it but like no we don’t

0:25:55.360,0:25:58.480
want to be a part of

0:25:56.559,0:25:59.760
like a free state anyways it should just

0:25:58.480,0:26:01.840
be independent

0:25:59.760,0:26:03.679
um so obviously there’s differing

0:26:01.840,0:26:07.440
opinions on

0:26:03.679,0:26:09.679
the treaty gotcha but that

0:26:07.440,0:26:12.159
disagreement led to a civil war in the

0:26:09.679,0:26:14.960
south which was pro and anti-treaty

0:26:12.159,0:26:16.400
the pro-treaty side wins and solidifies

0:26:14.960,0:26:19.360
the irish free state as

0:26:16.400,0:26:19.360
british dominion

0:26:19.440,0:26:26.880
so then in 1937

0:26:23.840,0:26:29.440
there they held a vote in

0:26:26.880,0:26:31.440
i think south ireland so in 1937 a vote

0:26:29.440,0:26:34.159
was held for a new constitution

0:26:31.440,0:26:35.840
to remove all british ties from ireland

0:26:34.159,0:26:37.760
and 56 percent

0:26:35.840,0:26:39.679
of people who voted in that were in

0:26:37.760,0:26:42.159
favor of the new constitution

0:26:39.679,0:26:44.559
and renaming the country to ireland or

0:26:42.159,0:26:47.200
the republic of ireland to differentiate

0:26:44.559,0:26:50.400
itself from the island ireland

0:26:47.200,0:26:52.960
and so

0:26:50.400,0:26:53.600
south of ireland is all cool they’re

0:26:52.960,0:26:56.400
like yeah

0:26:53.600,0:26:58.000
let’s remove like all british ties and

0:26:56.400,0:27:00.799
because they removed

0:26:58.000,0:27:02.400
their british ties from it or because

0:27:00.799,0:27:04.000
like you mentioned the war right and

0:27:02.400,0:27:07.120
like how they had to fight under the

0:27:04.000,0:27:09.600
crown so after this constitution passed

0:27:07.120,0:27:11.840
ireland’s now its own country and they

0:27:09.600,0:27:13.600
used that to exercise their right to

0:27:11.840,0:27:17.440
remain neutral in world war

0:27:13.600,0:27:20.399
ii oh okay yeah

0:27:17.440,0:27:22.000
so anyways south island is peachy keen

0:27:20.399,0:27:24.480
it’s just ireland now

0:27:22.000,0:27:26.000
and now we go to northern ireland

0:27:24.480,0:27:27.679
because remember there are still irish

0:27:26.000,0:27:30.480
catholics in northern ireland

0:27:27.679,0:27:31.520
so then we enter a time period known as

0:27:30.480,0:27:35.279
the troubles

0:27:31.520,0:27:37.679
so this started in 1969 and it was

0:27:35.279,0:27:38.320
like a lot of violence in northern

0:27:37.679,0:27:41.360
ireland

0:27:38.320,0:27:42.640
ireland in 1969 violence broke out in

0:27:41.360,0:27:44.720
northern ireland

0:27:42.640,0:27:46.720
because although a majority of northern

0:27:44.720,0:27:48.559
ireland is protestant there is still a

0:27:46.720,0:27:50.080
minority of irish catholics and

0:27:48.559,0:27:52.399
nationalists

0:27:50.080,0:27:53.919
so the catholic minority surprise

0:27:52.399,0:27:56.240
surprise

0:27:53.919,0:27:58.320
not really it’s not a surprise um they

0:27:56.240,0:27:58.880
were subjected to discrimination when it

0:27:58.320,0:28:01.679
came to

0:27:58.880,0:28:03.840
employment housing and education like

0:28:01.679,0:28:08.399
routine british oppression

0:28:03.840,0:28:11.600
we we know the story as americans and

0:28:08.399,0:28:13.679
the result um of that was

0:28:11.600,0:28:15.279
violent conflict for three decades

0:28:13.679,0:28:16.720
between the irish

0:28:15.279,0:28:19.520
and the british catholics and

0:28:16.720,0:28:22.559
protestants wow three decades

0:28:19.520,0:28:24.960
oh yeah it was very bad and uh

0:28:22.559,0:28:26.640
like we just said a little earlier the

0:28:24.960,0:28:29.039
like physical it was so bad that

0:28:26.640,0:28:30.240
physical walls got put up between

0:28:29.039,0:28:31.919
neighborhoods

0:28:30.240,0:28:34.399
because separating catholics and

0:28:31.919,0:28:37.760
protestants because the violence was

0:28:34.399,0:28:41.039
very bad it was actually quote unquote

0:28:37.760,0:28:42.480
um spoken about as mild warfare like

0:28:41.039,0:28:44.960
that’s how bad it was maybe not like a

0:28:42.480,0:28:46.960
full-on war but like bullets are going

0:28:44.960,0:28:50.240
off and everything

0:28:46.960,0:28:53.279
wow that’s crazy

0:28:50.240,0:28:54.960
it’s bad actually yeah okay this is just

0:28:53.279,0:28:56.320
i guess i know but i was gonna take a

0:28:54.960,0:28:58.720
class on terrorism

0:28:56.320,0:29:00.080
at osu and i was like so i was like

0:28:58.720,0:29:02.159
reading the description and it was like

0:29:00.080,0:29:03.440
focusing on ireland and i remember

0:29:02.159,0:29:06.799
reading it being like

0:29:03.440,0:29:08.640
terrorism in ireland and then i get it

0:29:06.799,0:29:10.720
but it’s like just not something you

0:29:08.640,0:29:12.880
would think of i guess

0:29:10.720,0:29:14.640
yeah no i was surprised because i was

0:29:12.880,0:29:15.120
like i wonder why ireland’s separate and

0:29:14.640,0:29:17.360
it’s a

0:29:15.120,0:29:18.559
big deal this has been this has lasted

0:29:17.360,0:29:20.799
since

0:29:18.559,0:29:21.840
like the english have come to ireland

0:29:20.799,0:29:25.679
they’ve been having

0:29:21.840,0:29:29.600
this issue right it’s still ongoing

0:29:25.679,0:29:32.960
so that you know the violence

0:29:29.600,0:29:37.200
lasts until 1995 so it’s literally

0:29:32.960,0:29:40.399
like 25 years long and 3 500

0:29:37.200,0:29:44.240
people lose their lives wow

0:29:40.399,0:29:46.080
so to end the troubles there

0:29:44.240,0:29:48.080
or the troubles was resolved through the

0:29:46.080,0:29:51.520
signing of the good friday agreement

0:29:48.080,0:29:55.039
also known as the belfast agreement

0:29:51.520,0:29:56.960
and ireland okay so what what it said in

0:29:55.039,0:29:59.120
this like agreement was that ireland has

0:29:56.960,0:29:59.760
to remove their claim over northern

0:29:59.120,0:30:02.159
ireland

0:29:59.760,0:30:03.520
because their constitution was like yeah

0:30:02.159,0:30:06.080
we’re independent and

0:30:03.520,0:30:07.840
we get all of ireland and so that’s why

0:30:06.080,0:30:08.880
there’s a lot of conflict too because

0:30:07.840,0:30:11.679
the nationalists are like

0:30:08.880,0:30:12.399
no like we’re this is all ireland and

0:30:11.679,0:30:14.559
then

0:30:12.399,0:30:15.840
the protestants are like no like we’re

0:30:14.559,0:30:18.480
the uk

0:30:15.840,0:30:20.240
you know and so ireland has to remove

0:30:18.480,0:30:22.240
their claim over northern ireland

0:30:20.240,0:30:23.360
in the constitution and the british and

0:30:22.240,0:30:26.720
irish governments

0:30:23.360,0:30:29.520
agreed that if the time comes that

0:30:26.720,0:30:31.200
the majority of northern ireland ever

0:30:29.520,0:30:33.279
wants to break off

0:30:31.200,0:30:34.399
and become independent or rejoin

0:30:33.279,0:30:36.720
southern ireland

0:30:34.399,0:30:38.159
then it will be allowed to do so like

0:30:36.720,0:30:42.080
peacefully

0:30:38.159,0:30:42.799
okay yeah cool yeah i know it’s a good

0:30:42.080,0:30:44.559
resolution

0:30:42.799,0:30:46.240
granted i don’t know if that’s ever

0:30:44.559,0:30:47.520
gonna happen since the majority is

0:30:46.240,0:30:50.559
protestant

0:30:47.520,0:30:52.159
um so basically northern ireland is not

0:30:50.559,0:30:53.600
going to become a part of ireland until

0:30:52.159,0:30:56.159
a majority decide to

0:30:53.600,0:30:57.919
and it has kept the peace so far between

0:30:56.159,0:31:00.000
the regions there hasn’t been

0:30:57.919,0:31:02.080
there’s still mild violence and conflict

0:31:00.000,0:31:05.279
between the two but it’s not as bad as

0:31:02.080,0:31:06.799
it was during the troubles era okay oh

0:31:05.279,0:31:08.240
so okay i don’t know if you’re like

0:31:06.799,0:31:11.039
about to talk about this but are you

0:31:08.240,0:31:12.720
gonna talk about brexit at any point

0:31:11.039,0:31:14.480
that’s a good question i was i had a

0:31:12.720,0:31:15.120
feeling you’re gonna ask about brexit do

0:31:14.480,0:31:17.200
you

0:31:15.120,0:31:19.360
like do you have questions on it yeah

0:31:17.200,0:31:22.000
because i’m just confused because i know

0:31:19.360,0:31:26.000
there was a lot of confusion when

0:31:22.000,0:31:28.720
england originally voted to um

0:31:26.000,0:31:30.559
to remove themselves from the european

0:31:28.720,0:31:34.320
union right because then it was like

0:31:30.559,0:31:35.840
oh northern ire would northern ireland

0:31:34.320,0:31:37.440
go with them and then like would

0:31:35.840,0:31:38.960
scotland go with them

0:31:37.440,0:31:41.120
and then i think in like the rest of the

0:31:38.960,0:31:42.559
uk like is it just england or is it all

0:31:41.120,0:31:46.240
of the uk

0:31:42.559,0:31:48.399
um and then i think oh

0:31:46.240,0:31:49.760
i would try to check this but i think

0:31:48.399,0:31:52.080
also like scotland

0:31:49.760,0:31:54.399
they had a vote to see if they wanted to

0:31:52.080,0:31:57.360
uh remove themselves from the uk

0:31:54.399,0:31:58.240
but then it was like it was like 55 or

0:31:57.360,0:32:00.159
like 45

0:31:58.240,0:32:02.240
but basically they voted to stay in the

0:32:00.159,0:32:03.760
uk so i think

0:32:02.240,0:32:06.159
they’re no longer part of the european

0:32:03.760,0:32:07.519
union but honestly i don’t know brexit

0:32:06.159,0:32:09.120
is very confusing

0:32:07.519,0:32:11.039
and europe is really not like my

0:32:09.120,0:32:13.039
fortitude yeah

0:32:11.039,0:32:14.640
no i didn’t i tried to look a little

0:32:13.039,0:32:16.240
into brexit with it because i didn’t

0:32:14.640,0:32:18.080
understand what that was about

0:32:16.240,0:32:19.360
but it really what i got from the

0:32:18.080,0:32:22.080
research was

0:32:19.360,0:32:24.240
yeah like england wanted to remove

0:32:22.080,0:32:25.760
themselves from the european or uk

0:32:24.240,0:32:28.320
the uk wanted to remove themselves from

0:32:25.760,0:32:30.960
the european union and

0:32:28.320,0:32:31.919
the main concerns with that with ireland

0:32:30.960,0:32:33.760
is because

0:32:31.919,0:32:35.919
like right now it’s a soft border

0:32:33.760,0:32:37.039
between northern ireland and southern

0:32:35.919,0:32:39.360
ireland but

0:32:37.039,0:32:41.440
if you were to leave that’s a hard

0:32:39.360,0:32:44.000
border now because it it’s not just

0:32:41.440,0:32:46.480
a border between ireland and the uk it’s

0:32:44.000,0:32:48.080
a border between like the eu

0:32:46.480,0:32:50.720
and then this country that’s not a part

0:32:48.080,0:32:53.200
of it you would need a visa right

0:32:50.720,0:32:54.320
to like go because like you’re not like

0:32:53.200,0:32:56.480
if you have a

0:32:54.320,0:32:58.799
eu visa then you could just travel

0:32:56.480,0:33:01.440
freely freely to any eu country

0:32:58.799,0:33:03.519
but if there’s a hard border there half

0:33:01.440,0:33:05.039
of it is in the eu half of it isn’t like

0:33:03.519,0:33:06.240
yeah then you would i mean

0:33:05.039,0:33:07.279
i don’t know if that actually happened

0:33:06.240,0:33:09.519
but like yeah you’re right like

0:33:07.279,0:33:12.080
immigration would be like restricted

0:33:09.519,0:33:13.919
or like it’d be filtered you know also

0:33:12.080,0:33:16.480
don’t they have different currencies

0:33:13.919,0:33:17.200
like yeah the eu has the same currencies

0:33:16.480,0:33:19.679
and then

0:33:17.200,0:33:20.720
but then again do they we have to ask a

0:33:19.679,0:33:23.440
european friend

0:33:20.720,0:33:24.080
because i’m pretty sure isn’t sweden in

0:33:23.440,0:33:28.240
the eu

0:33:24.080,0:33:30.320
they are aren’t they um

0:33:28.240,0:33:32.080
i i don’t think so actually oh okay

0:33:30.320,0:33:33.200
never mind that because sweden uses they

0:33:32.080,0:33:36.159
don’t use like

0:33:33.200,0:33:37.200
the same do they use the pound in the eu

0:33:36.159,0:33:39.600
i’m gonna

0:33:37.200,0:33:41.039
i’m gonna look up i’m gonna pick up

0:33:39.600,0:33:43.600
ireland currency

0:33:41.039,0:33:46.000
and then i’m gonna look up who’s in the

0:33:43.600,0:33:49.039
eat you

0:33:46.000,0:33:50.720
like is sweden let me see okay sorry i

0:33:49.039,0:33:55.039
think you cut out for a second

0:33:50.720,0:33:55.039
sorry european union country

0:33:55.440,0:33:58.350
yeah swedenborg but sweden doesn’t use

0:33:57.760,0:33:59.679
the same

0:33:58.350,0:34:06.320
[Music]

0:33:59.679,0:34:08.480
currency what is uh

0:34:06.320,0:34:09.760
um okay so the republic of ireland is

0:34:08.480,0:34:11.760
the euro

0:34:09.760,0:34:13.599
and then northern ireland they use the

0:34:11.760,0:34:16.879
british pound

0:34:13.599,0:34:19.520
did the uk already split

0:34:16.879,0:34:20.000
yeah didn’t brexit like already happen

0:34:19.520,0:34:23.200
yeah

0:34:20.000,0:34:26.480
so i can’t believe that you

0:34:23.200,0:34:28.800
i think so oh no it says

0:34:26.480,0:34:30.079
the you oh the uk has left the eu and

0:34:28.800,0:34:32.879
the transition period

0:34:30.079,0:34:36.320
after brexit comes to an end this year

0:34:32.879,0:34:39.440
in january 2020.

0:34:36.320,0:34:42.000
so why are they wow so i wonder what’s

0:34:39.440,0:34:44.399
going on with ireland

0:34:42.000,0:34:45.520
to our irish viewers please let us know

0:34:44.399,0:34:48.240
what’s up

0:34:45.520,0:34:48.639
send us a message at how did we not know

0:34:48.240,0:34:51.919
that

0:34:48.639,0:34:53.679
gmail.com let us know how you’re doing

0:34:51.919,0:34:55.760
and what what’s going on over there

0:34:53.679,0:34:58.079
what’s it like do you do you need a visa

0:34:55.760,0:35:02.480
to go to northern ireland

0:34:58.079,0:35:04.800
yeah that was a good question and

0:35:02.480,0:35:07.040
basically yeah i talked about yeah signs

0:35:04.800,0:35:10.320
of the conflict can still be seen today

0:35:07.040,0:35:12.160
especially in belfast and uh

0:35:10.320,0:35:13.760
yeah there are physical walls separating

0:35:12.160,0:35:15.599
the communities

0:35:13.760,0:35:17.839
and there’s still occasional violence

0:35:15.599,0:35:20.160
but the government has a goal to remove

0:35:17.839,0:35:23.359
all of these so-called peace walls

0:35:20.160,0:35:25.440
by 2023. wow

0:35:23.359,0:35:27.040
okay interesting i also okay just

0:35:25.440,0:35:29.359
another remark i was just

0:35:27.040,0:35:31.119
like thinking about i wonder for the

0:35:29.359,0:35:33.520
brexit vote

0:35:31.119,0:35:35.599
i i’d be really interested to see what

0:35:33.520,0:35:38.880
the breakdown was like what each

0:35:35.599,0:35:41.040
region and like um what each

0:35:38.880,0:35:44.560
like country within the uk like voted

0:35:41.040,0:35:48.079
for like i wonder if like ireland

0:35:44.560,0:35:49.680
voted like strongly in favor or against

0:35:48.079,0:35:52.000
it compared to like yeah i wonder if

0:35:49.680,0:35:55.440
like the vote percentage is

0:35:52.000,0:35:58.160
like differed between

0:35:55.440,0:35:59.520
like england ireland scotland rails

0:35:58.160,0:36:02.640
that’d be really interesting

0:35:59.520,0:36:03.760
yeah let me see i will see if it breaks

0:36:02.640,0:36:07.119
down yeah it does break down

0:36:03.760,0:36:09.599
okay so the

0:36:07.119,0:36:11.040
wow this is so interesting i never

0:36:09.599,0:36:14.000
understood it and now

0:36:11.040,0:36:15.119
i’m like okay that’s what’s going on so

0:36:14.000,0:36:19.040
england

0:36:15.119,0:36:23.200
wow it was very close well okay scotland

0:36:19.040,0:36:26.960
um basically so england voted to leave

0:36:23.200,0:36:30.720
by 53 percent so close

0:36:26.960,0:36:32.640
northern ireland voted to stay by 55

0:36:30.720,0:36:35.440
percent

0:36:32.640,0:36:35.920
super close as well scotland voted to

0:36:35.440,0:36:38.960
stay

0:36:35.920,0:36:41.040
for 62 percent and then wales voted to

0:36:38.960,0:36:44.560
leave for 52

0:36:41.040,0:36:47.119
wow so it’s really close all

0:36:44.560,0:36:47.839
wow those like aren’t really big margins

0:36:47.119,0:36:49.760
you know

0:36:47.839,0:36:50.880
yeah it’s very close just scotland’s

0:36:49.760,0:36:53.200
like okay

0:36:50.880,0:36:54.720
it’s pretty clear you want to stay but

0:36:53.200,0:36:57.119
they lost still

0:36:54.720,0:36:59.200
because most people wanted to leave

0:36:57.119,0:37:00.880
after that then they had to vote like oh

0:36:59.200,0:37:02.560
should we stay in the uk

0:37:00.880,0:37:05.200
and then they were like yeah let’s stay

0:37:02.560,0:37:07.119
in the uk but then that vote was also

0:37:05.200,0:37:10.240
like very slim

0:37:07.119,0:37:13.839
yeah wow that’s so interesting

0:37:10.240,0:37:16.640
yeah i like never realized how

0:37:13.839,0:37:18.240
yeah the history of the uk was the

0:37:16.640,0:37:21.359
history of the uk is

0:37:18.240,0:37:21.920
a lot there’s a lot of stuff i have a

0:37:21.359,0:37:24.240
bias

0:37:21.920,0:37:26.400
towards european history but i’m going

0:37:24.240,0:37:29.119
to like challenge myself in season two

0:37:26.400,0:37:29.839
to become more aware and more informed

0:37:29.119,0:37:34.000
of

0:37:29.839,0:37:36.960
the history oh that’s nice i’m not

0:37:34.000,0:37:38.320
printing press i’m done that was enough

0:37:36.960,0:37:40.640
european history

0:37:38.320,0:37:42.000
that’s true but i guess like okay here’s

0:37:40.640,0:37:43.680
the thing it’s like even when we talked

0:37:42.000,0:37:46.720
about european history

0:37:43.680,0:37:47.359
in you like in the us in history class

0:37:46.720,0:37:48.880
and high school

0:37:47.359,0:37:50.400
like i feel like we didn’t talk about

0:37:48.880,0:37:52.800
this like

0:37:50.400,0:37:53.440
like uh just how the british came into

0:37:52.800,0:37:54.880
ireland

0:37:53.440,0:37:55.839
and like how there’s this huge division

0:37:54.880,0:37:57.280
and we didn’t like talk about like

0:37:55.839,0:38:00.240
minority voices

0:37:57.280,0:38:01.599
within the uk so i think true also

0:38:00.240,0:38:04.800
that’s really good to know

0:38:01.599,0:38:06.400
because for our viewers who aren’t aware

0:38:04.800,0:38:09.440
or even our american viewers

0:38:06.400,0:38:10.400
anytime you want to talk about racism in

0:38:09.440,0:38:12.880
the states

0:38:10.400,0:38:15.200
there’s always a white irish person

0:38:12.880,0:38:17.200
irish-american person who says

0:38:15.200,0:38:18.560
look at how the irish were treated and

0:38:17.200,0:38:20.240
this shows you

0:38:18.560,0:38:22.000
right now if you look into the history

0:38:20.240,0:38:24.400
of ireland that

0:38:22.000,0:38:25.520
the discrimination against irish was not

0:38:24.400,0:38:28.240
because they’re white

0:38:25.520,0:38:29.920
it’s because they were catholic so next

0:38:28.240,0:38:31.200
time you hear someone say that you can

0:38:29.920,0:38:33.440
say

0:38:31.200,0:38:35.200
it’s catholics versus protestants

0:38:33.440,0:38:36.640
because for people who don’t know about

0:38:35.200,0:38:37.280
the history of the united states if you

0:38:36.640,0:38:40.800
missed

0:38:37.280,0:38:42.560
season one um the

0:38:40.800,0:38:44.640
i guess biggest bullies in american

0:38:42.560,0:38:47.680
history are the protestant

0:38:44.640,0:38:49.359
english that came over well yeah and

0:38:47.680,0:38:52.160
like that’s the whole thing is like even

0:38:49.359,0:38:53.839
irish catholics in america were like

0:38:52.160,0:38:55.359
discriminated against

0:38:53.839,0:38:56.560
when they first came like you can’t

0:38:55.359,0:38:57.920
argue against that there’s a lot of

0:38:56.560,0:39:01.280
discrimination

0:38:57.920,0:39:04.720
however like yes irish catholics

0:39:01.280,0:39:07.599
in the us were paid less than american

0:39:04.720,0:39:08.480
like them protestant christians in the

0:39:07.599,0:39:10.400
us

0:39:08.480,0:39:12.400
but they were still paid more than

0:39:10.400,0:39:15.599
people of color within the u.s

0:39:12.400,0:39:16.560
and then once irish catholics started

0:39:15.599,0:39:19.760
unionizing

0:39:16.560,0:39:22.079
they did not include people of color

0:39:19.760,0:39:23.040
in their union protests and yeah they

0:39:22.079,0:39:26.160
like

0:39:23.040,0:39:28.560
so right there is intersectionality

0:39:26.160,0:39:30.240
between oppressions right it’s like

0:39:28.560,0:39:32.320
muslims who come to the states

0:39:30.240,0:39:34.160
especially from african countries

0:39:32.320,0:39:35.599
you’re discriminated on religion you’re

0:39:34.160,0:39:37.599
discriminated against by

0:39:35.599,0:39:40.000
color you’re discriminated against by

0:39:37.599,0:39:40.400
gender if you identify as transgender or

0:39:40.000,0:39:44.000
you

0:39:40.400,0:39:45.520
are female yeah like which country

0:39:44.000,0:39:46.960
you’re coming from like which continent

0:39:45.520,0:39:49.440
like yeah i know it’s like

0:39:46.960,0:39:50.079
there’s a lot of different degrees and

0:39:49.440,0:39:52.560
like

0:39:50.079,0:39:54.320
various layers yeah but yeah that that’s

0:39:52.560,0:39:57.599
the partition of ireland

0:39:54.320,0:40:00.720
wow that’s really interesting um i

0:39:57.599,0:40:02.480
really had no idea how intense their

0:40:00.720,0:40:04.400
history was so i’m really glad

0:40:02.480,0:40:05.599
we learned about that and now i got to

0:40:04.400,0:40:08.079
pay attention

0:40:05.599,0:40:09.599
to what’s going on in ireland like today

0:40:08.079,0:40:12.800
i really know nothing about

0:40:09.599,0:40:16.319
it so yeah thank you so much jack for

0:40:12.800,0:40:18.560
sharing this and for starting off season

0:40:16.319,0:40:19.520
two i’m so excited for the rest of

0:40:18.560,0:40:25.130
season two

0:40:19.520,0:40:35.860
yes of course yes bye

0:40:25.130,0:40:35.860
[Music]

How Many US Presidents Have Been Assassinated?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

Most Americans are familiar with the assassinations of JFK and Lincoln, but what about James Garfield? Despite the fact that he was considered to be one of the most promising presidents of his time, his life and unfortunate death is mostly forgotten today. In the Season 1 finale, Nat covers the assassination of President James Garfield and the man who was insane enough to carry out the deed.

Sources:

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:03.679
hi everyone welcome back to another

0:00:01.760,0:00:06.720
episode of how did we not know that

0:00:03.679,0:00:11.040
my name’s jack i’m nat

0:00:06.720,0:00:13.599
and today is our season finale

0:00:11.040,0:00:15.839
so nat is going to present on the last

0:00:13.599,0:00:19.359
topic for season one

0:00:15.839,0:00:21.920
yeah so we started with an

0:00:19.359,0:00:24.080
assassination story and we’re ending

0:00:21.920,0:00:26.240
with an assassination story

0:00:24.080,0:00:28.080
so today i’ll be talking about the

0:00:26.240,0:00:29.439
assassination of president james

0:00:28.080,0:00:32.000
garfield

0:00:29.439,0:00:32.880
and this story like it’s literally so

0:00:32.000,0:00:36.239
wild

0:00:32.880,0:00:36.640
so before i get into it jack what do you

0:00:36.239,0:00:39.840
know

0:00:36.640,0:00:40.800
about president garfield um i’m trying

0:00:39.840,0:00:42.480
to think

0:00:40.800,0:00:44.480
because someone gets assassinated

0:00:42.480,0:00:47.440
towards the end of the

0:00:44.480,0:00:49.280
gilded age and then that did he get

0:00:47.440,0:00:52.320
assassinated in the gilded age

0:00:49.280,0:00:54.239
it’s like he’s assassinated in 1881

0:00:52.320,0:00:56.079
okay so i think this is the one where

0:00:54.239,0:00:56.800
after he’s actually think i know a bit

0:00:56.079,0:01:00.399
about this

0:00:56.800,0:01:03.440
because i was gonna cover it but then he

0:01:00.399,0:01:05.119
basically got didn’t get shot at like a

0:01:03.440,0:01:07.600
train station

0:01:05.119,0:01:09.840
and this was and then it led to a bunch

0:01:07.600,0:01:12.159
of civil reform because it was a time

0:01:09.840,0:01:13.920
where everyone just had like one term as

0:01:12.159,0:01:16.960
president

0:01:13.920,0:01:18.640
yeah yeah like i think in the

0:01:16.960,0:01:21.280
gilded age episode you talked about the

0:01:18.640,0:01:23.600
patronage and spoil system right

0:01:21.280,0:01:25.119
so there’s a lot of reforms about that

0:01:23.600,0:01:26.400
system like because of president

0:01:25.119,0:01:28.240
garfield and he was like really

0:01:26.400,0:01:31.360
progressive about

0:01:28.240,0:01:33.200
like yeah okay it’s reform and

0:01:31.360,0:01:36.640
everything yeah so

0:01:33.200,0:01:38.720
okay he said i’m out i literally

0:01:36.640,0:01:39.680
like i had heard his name before but i

0:01:38.720,0:01:42.320
don’t think i knew

0:01:39.680,0:01:43.759
anything about him until i started doing

0:01:42.320,0:01:47.439
research on this

0:01:43.759,0:01:49.759
um but now that i’ve done my research

0:01:47.439,0:01:51.680
i’m actually a huge garfield fan

0:01:49.759,0:01:54.399
this dude is amazing and like i don’t

0:01:51.680,0:01:58.719
know why we don’t talk about it more um

0:01:54.399,0:02:01.040
so let’s get right into it so

0:01:58.719,0:02:02.079
james at the time considered president

0:02:01.040,0:02:03.840
garfield to be

0:02:02.079,0:02:05.680
like one of the most promising

0:02:03.840,0:02:09.039
presidents of era

0:02:05.680,0:02:11.520
he was born to a poor family in ohio

0:02:09.039,0:02:13.599
shout out to ohio and he was actually

0:02:11.520,0:02:14.319
the last president to be born in a log

0:02:13.599,0:02:18.000
cabin

0:02:14.319,0:02:19.920
so like that’s how long ago this was um

0:02:18.000,0:02:21.760
he worked his way through college he

0:02:19.920,0:02:25.360
attended williams college

0:02:21.760,0:02:26.080
and then he was a professor at ohio’s

0:02:25.360,0:02:29.120
eclectic

0:02:26.080,0:02:30.720
university which is now known as like i

0:02:29.120,0:02:32.640
think it’s hiram college i don’t know

0:02:30.720,0:02:34.080
how to pronounce it hiram college maybe

0:02:32.640,0:02:36.879
i’ve literally never heard of that

0:02:34.080,0:02:38.800
university i’ve never heard of it either

0:02:36.879,0:02:40.080
but he also like became president of

0:02:38.800,0:02:43.280
this university

0:02:40.080,0:02:43.840
so that’s cool to see like how much he

0:02:43.280,0:02:47.920
like

0:02:43.840,0:02:50.720
he appreciates education and he’s also

0:02:47.920,0:02:51.040
a lifelong abolitionist so he fought to

0:02:50.720,0:02:54.319
end

0:02:51.040,0:02:58.000
slavery and wow in general

0:02:54.319,0:03:00.640
during the civil war so he like is

0:02:58.000,0:03:02.959
an amazing man yeah solid this is like

0:03:00.640,0:03:05.680
unheard of for this time period

0:03:02.959,0:03:06.080
i know i’m like what the heck how did i

0:03:05.680,0:03:08.720
not

0:03:06.080,0:03:10.239
know this and then he later he decided

0:03:08.720,0:03:13.599
to go into politics right

0:03:10.239,0:03:16.560
so in 1863 he was elected to serve

0:03:13.599,0:03:18.000
as an ohio congressman and he was a

0:03:16.560,0:03:20.640
super big deal in the house

0:03:18.000,0:03:21.200
of representatives and he played a big

0:03:20.640,0:03:24.159
role

0:03:21.200,0:03:24.640
in like almost every major issue of the

0:03:24.159,0:03:26.720
time

0:03:24.640,0:03:29.040
people really respected him and he

0:03:26.720,0:03:31.440
helped win the passage of the 14th and

0:03:29.040,0:03:33.360
the 15th amendments which guaranteed

0:03:31.440,0:03:35.920
equal rights for freed slaves

0:03:33.360,0:03:37.599
so we love that what a progressive man

0:03:35.920,0:03:40.239
what a decent human being

0:03:37.599,0:03:40.720
and he was also just like known as a

0:03:40.239,0:03:44.480
really

0:03:40.720,0:03:47.040
great person overall he is described

0:03:44.480,0:03:48.879
as having like a great amount of energy

0:03:47.040,0:03:51.280
eloquence and charm

0:03:48.879,0:03:52.000
he had five children and he was a really

0:03:51.280,0:03:53.680
good dad

0:03:52.000,0:03:55.280
he loved to play with his children and

0:03:53.680,0:03:58.560
spent so much time with them

0:03:55.280,0:04:00.239
which is like super unique i guess for

0:03:58.560,0:04:01.760
this time period i feel like this is

0:04:00.239,0:04:04.080
like the time period

0:04:01.760,0:04:06.720
where like people think children should

0:04:04.080,0:04:09.040
be seen not heard and like it’s very

0:04:06.720,0:04:10.480
like strict you know like i don’t think

0:04:09.040,0:04:12.959
you yeah

0:04:10.480,0:04:14.560
they’re children back then but he was

0:04:12.959,0:04:17.600
like such a good father

0:04:14.560,0:04:19.519
and this is so sad that he

0:04:17.600,0:04:20.880
dies in this episode you’re really

0:04:19.519,0:04:23.199
hyping him up

0:04:20.880,0:04:24.080
i know that as i was reading this i was

0:04:23.199,0:04:27.040
like no

0:04:24.080,0:04:28.080
not well i think this is so sad i wish

0:04:27.040,0:04:31.840
they had a different ending

0:04:28.080,0:04:35.919
but a spoiler alert like he dies

0:04:31.840,0:04:38.960
but in 1881 he was elected as president

0:04:35.919,0:04:41.520
he was a member of the republican party

0:04:38.960,0:04:42.000
and he became the 20th president and he

0:04:41.520,0:04:44.560
was only

0:04:42.000,0:04:45.919
49 years old when he was elected and

0:04:44.560,0:04:47.919
that made him the third

0:04:45.919,0:04:49.680
youngest president when he took office

0:04:47.919,0:04:54.160
so he was just a super young

0:04:49.680,0:04:56.880
progressive guy and so he

0:04:54.160,0:04:57.440
assumes office he becomes president and

0:04:56.880,0:05:00.320
sadly

0:04:57.440,0:05:02.800
his presidency only lasts four months

0:05:00.320,0:05:05.840
and it actually yeah i know it’s like

0:05:02.800,0:05:08.320
it’s really really short and really sad

0:05:05.840,0:05:09.120
but his presidency actually had kind of

0:05:08.320,0:05:11.440
a rocky

0:05:09.120,0:05:14.320
beginning because he wanted to make

0:05:11.440,0:05:17.120
really progressive changes right away

0:05:14.320,0:05:18.479
and his biggest focus as soon as he

0:05:17.120,0:05:21.280
assumed office was to

0:05:18.479,0:05:23.280
eradicate the patronage and spoil system

0:05:21.280,0:05:25.120
that was dominating the us government

0:05:23.280,0:05:26.320
so jack kind of mentioned it in a

0:05:25.120,0:05:28.720
previous episode

0:05:26.320,0:05:30.720
in our last episode about the gilded age

0:05:28.720,0:05:33.440
but just as a refresher

0:05:30.720,0:05:33.919
the patronage system is when a political

0:05:33.440,0:05:36.960
party

0:05:33.919,0:05:39.759
gives important influential seats in

0:05:36.960,0:05:41.520
government to its donors and supporters

0:05:39.759,0:05:44.400
as a like a reward

0:05:41.520,0:05:46.560
and it’s also an incentive to like have

0:05:44.400,0:05:49.199
them keep working for the party

0:05:46.560,0:05:49.840
so obviously like that’s not great

0:05:49.199,0:05:51.840
because

0:05:49.840,0:05:53.120
they’re being rewarded for their

0:05:51.840,0:05:55.919
donations and that

0:05:53.120,0:05:56.720
their merit so president garfield was

0:05:55.919,0:06:00.479
like

0:05:56.720,0:06:03.280
uh no this is no bueno himself

0:06:00.479,0:06:04.960
he like had he clashed with a lot of

0:06:03.280,0:06:06.000
wealthy republicans who were trying to

0:06:04.960,0:06:08.400
buy their way into

0:06:06.000,0:06:09.600
his administration and these wealthy

0:06:08.400,0:06:11.680
republicans were

0:06:09.600,0:06:13.680
pretty upset because they had donated a

0:06:11.680,0:06:15.120
lot of money to his campaign and they

0:06:13.680,0:06:18.000
were like okay like give me

0:06:15.120,0:06:19.120
give me the power now and he’s like no

0:06:18.000,0:06:21.520
no thank you

0:06:19.120,0:06:22.720
and so they were like really mad at him

0:06:21.520,0:06:26.240
i met at him

0:06:22.720,0:06:28.639
but garfield was so determined to

0:06:26.240,0:06:29.440
get rid of corruption in order to clear

0:06:28.639,0:06:32.240
the way

0:06:29.440,0:06:34.319
for policies focus on civil rights

0:06:32.240,0:06:39.520
education and economic growth

0:06:34.319,0:06:39.520
so oh my gosh i’m i love this man

0:06:39.600,0:06:44.880
on top of all this like so he’s fighting

0:06:42.240,0:06:48.240
with all of his wealthy supporters

0:06:44.880,0:06:51.360
and then um to top it off like his wife

0:06:48.240,0:06:52.479
lucretia almost dies from malaria like

0:06:51.360,0:06:56.080
his first few months

0:06:52.479,0:06:58.160
in office um yeah oh my gosh

0:06:56.080,0:06:59.440
he’s like going through a lot well

0:06:58.160,0:07:01.360
besides like i mean he hasn’t been

0:06:59.440,0:07:02.560
assassinated yet but he goes through a

0:07:01.360,0:07:04.639
lot

0:07:02.560,0:07:05.840
yeah it’s about to get worse for him but

0:07:04.639,0:07:09.120
like so far

0:07:05.840,0:07:12.479
it’s not super great um and so

0:07:09.120,0:07:14.880
on july 2nd 1881

0:07:12.479,0:07:16.080
president james garfield was leaving

0:07:14.880,0:07:18.160
washington dc

0:07:16.080,0:07:20.000
to take a much-needed vacation in new

0:07:18.160,0:07:22.479
england he just needed

0:07:20.000,0:07:24.800
a break and he was so excited because he

0:07:22.479,0:07:25.360
was bringing his two teenage sons with

0:07:24.800,0:07:28.160
him

0:07:25.360,0:07:28.960
and his good friend secretary of state

0:07:28.160,0:07:32.479
james

0:07:28.960,0:07:34.639
g blaine and he was also planning on

0:07:32.479,0:07:36.960
giving a speech to his alma mater

0:07:34.639,0:07:38.720
williams college so he was really

0:07:36.960,0:07:40.400
looking forward to this vacation

0:07:38.720,0:07:41.759
so he leaves the white house and he

0:07:40.400,0:07:44.240
takes a carriage ride

0:07:41.759,0:07:44.879
to the baltimore and potomac train

0:07:44.240,0:07:48.000
station

0:07:44.879,0:07:50.080
where he would leave for new england

0:07:48.000,0:07:52.160
uh and for those of you who are like

0:07:50.080,0:07:54.000
familiar with washington dc

0:07:52.160,0:07:55.520
the train station no longer exists today

0:07:54.000,0:07:58.639
but it was located

0:07:55.520,0:08:00.160
near the national mall also just like a

0:07:58.639,0:08:01.759
side note when i was doing my research

0:08:00.160,0:08:03.440
i’m like wow he took a carriage ride i’m

0:08:01.759,0:08:06.080
like obviously that makes sense because

0:08:03.440,0:08:09.120
it’s 1881 but in my head i was like

0:08:06.080,0:08:12.639
that’s like so ancient he’s an

0:08:09.120,0:08:14.639
ancient guy yeah right and

0:08:12.639,0:08:16.879
okay so president garfield he wasn’t

0:08:14.639,0:08:18.160
accompanied by any bodyguards or

0:08:16.879,0:08:20.960
security

0:08:18.160,0:08:22.960
because like at the time they didn’t

0:08:20.960,0:08:25.360
they weren’t as worried about

0:08:22.960,0:08:27.039
assassination attempts yeah like you

0:08:25.360,0:08:29.680
said in the

0:08:27.039,0:08:31.120
uh assassination or william mckinley was

0:08:29.680,0:08:33.039
assassinated episode

0:08:31.120,0:08:35.599
that wasn’t a thing to have secret

0:08:33.039,0:08:38.320
service until after his assassination

0:08:35.599,0:08:39.279
so it’s like non-existent for garfield

0:08:38.320,0:08:42.880
as well

0:08:39.279,0:08:44.320
yeah yeah so like uh james garfield

0:08:42.880,0:08:45.680
would be the second president to be

0:08:44.320,0:08:48.959
assassinated and then it was

0:08:45.680,0:08:51.440
it isn’t it for it isn’t until after

0:08:48.959,0:08:52.959
president mckinley the third president

0:08:51.440,0:08:56.240
to be assassinated where they’re like

0:08:52.959,0:08:59.040
oh maybe we should get some

0:08:56.240,0:09:00.720
security on these guys but yeah also

0:08:59.040,0:09:02.160
it’s just like so crazy about it’s crazy

0:09:00.720,0:09:04.640
to think about

0:09:02.160,0:09:05.519
like man how much has changed from 1881

0:09:04.640,0:09:09.760
to today

0:09:05.519,0:09:13.120
because uh like a few in 2016 i saw

0:09:09.760,0:09:15.440
president barack obama speak at ohio

0:09:13.120,0:09:17.519
and i like attended yeah i saw his

0:09:15.440,0:09:20.080
speech and there was so

0:09:17.519,0:09:21.200
much security at that whole event and it

0:09:20.080,0:09:24.320
was like

0:09:21.200,0:09:27.120
super scary and intimidating um

0:09:24.320,0:09:28.080
but also okay not to get too much into

0:09:27.120,0:09:31.200
rant

0:09:28.080,0:09:32.640
um i guess our level of security

0:09:31.200,0:09:35.120
that we’re used to seeing around the

0:09:32.640,0:09:36.320
president isn’t necessarily like a

0:09:35.120,0:09:38.880
global norm

0:09:36.320,0:09:40.640
so when i was in canada like working in

0:09:38.880,0:09:42.959
the canadian government

0:09:40.640,0:09:44.399
i would just see prime minister justin

0:09:42.959,0:09:46.399
trudeau like

0:09:44.399,0:09:47.839
crossing the street to go to like center

0:09:46.399,0:09:49.760
block which is like the main he would go

0:09:47.839,0:09:51.279
from the prime minister’s office to the

0:09:49.760,0:09:52.640
main parliament building

0:09:51.279,0:09:55.360
i would just like see him i’m like yeah

0:09:52.640,0:09:55.839
there’d be a couple like security guys

0:09:55.360,0:09:59.680
with him

0:09:55.839,0:09:59.680
obviously but like yeah

0:09:59.839,0:10:02.880
yeah actually same with new zealand i

0:10:02.320,0:10:05.360
remember

0:10:02.880,0:10:07.760
on their anzac day which is similar to

0:10:05.360,0:10:10.160
our memorial day in the united states

0:10:07.760,0:10:11.920
jacinda arden the prime minister of new

0:10:10.160,0:10:14.560
zealand was just right there

0:10:11.920,0:10:15.279
watching like the anzac parade and

0:10:14.560,0:10:17.360
everything

0:10:15.279,0:10:18.720
i was like i could talk to her right now

0:10:17.360,0:10:21.279
i have never seen

0:10:18.720,0:10:22.640
like any of our presidents this close

0:10:21.279,0:10:23.680
and just cinda’s just sitting right

0:10:22.640,0:10:26.640
there

0:10:23.680,0:10:28.000
dude that’s so exciting and that’s so

0:10:26.640,0:10:29.440
it’s like just so wild

0:10:28.000,0:10:31.120
i can’t think of a better word for it

0:10:29.440,0:10:33.600
but it’s so wild like

0:10:31.120,0:10:35.680
i saw like prime minister trudeau like

0:10:33.600,0:10:37.279
exiting the restroom one time and i was

0:10:35.680,0:10:39.760
just like what the heck

0:10:37.279,0:10:41.839
and like actually the most amount of

0:10:39.760,0:10:42.720
security i ever encountered in canada

0:10:41.839,0:10:45.519
was with

0:10:42.720,0:10:46.000
when vice president mike pence he

0:10:45.519,0:10:47.920
visited

0:10:46.000,0:10:50.720
canada and there was like the whole

0:10:47.920,0:10:54.560
street was like shut down and i was like

0:10:50.720,0:10:58.079
wow how much we have like changed since

0:10:54.560,0:10:58.720
james garfield to today yeah i wonder if

0:10:58.079,0:11:01.680
any of

0:10:58.720,0:11:03.680
these other countries have had like

0:11:01.680,0:11:04.800
multiple assassinations of their leaders

0:11:03.680,0:11:07.360
though because

0:11:04.800,0:11:08.079
yeah by the third one we’re like okay

0:11:07.360,0:11:11.200
maybe

0:11:08.079,0:11:13.440
it’s a dangerous position i don’t know i

0:11:11.200,0:11:14.240
yeah i think it depends like on the

0:11:13.440,0:11:16.320
region

0:11:14.240,0:11:18.000
in the country but like did there have

0:11:16.320,0:11:20.560
been countries like where there are like

0:11:18.000,0:11:21.519
military coups and like completely over

0:11:20.560,0:11:24.480
the

0:11:21.519,0:11:25.680
government too so i don’t know yeah i

0:11:24.480,0:11:28.880
just don’t know yeah i’d

0:11:25.680,0:11:30.000
like to compare standards of security

0:11:28.880,0:11:31.440
details for

0:11:30.000,0:11:33.279
government leaders around the world i

0:11:31.440,0:11:36.560
think it’d be interesting to

0:11:33.279,0:11:39.839
see the differences but yeah

0:11:36.560,0:11:43.279
so anyway um at 9

0:11:39.839,0:11:43.920
20 a.m president garfield entered the

0:11:43.279,0:11:45.920
station

0:11:43.920,0:11:47.839
and he’s walking arm-in-arm with his

0:11:45.920,0:11:51.120
friend secretary blaine

0:11:47.839,0:11:54.800
and as the men were crossing the lobby

0:11:51.120,0:11:56.959
charles j bruto gutel

0:11:54.800,0:11:58.480
yeah it’s a french last name i think i’m

0:11:56.959,0:12:01.519
pronouncing it right hopefully

0:11:58.480,0:12:02.000
but he sneaks up behind the two men and

0:12:01.519,0:12:04.959
he

0:12:02.000,0:12:06.160
drew his pistol and a witness would

0:12:04.959,0:12:09.600
later recall that

0:12:06.160,0:12:11.839
gutel’s eyes were steady and quote

0:12:09.600,0:12:13.680
his face presented the appearance of a

0:12:11.839,0:12:16.320
brave man who is determined

0:12:13.680,0:12:17.680
upon a desperate deed and meant to do it

0:12:16.320,0:12:20.880
calmly and well

0:12:17.680,0:12:21.920
unquote so guto fired two shots at the

0:12:20.880,0:12:24.000
president from

0:12:21.920,0:12:26.240
point blank rage range which we

0:12:24.000,0:12:28.240
discovered in our first episode is like

0:12:26.240,0:12:30.480
from right in front of you like directly

0:12:28.240,0:12:32.160
yeah like directly on your like skin or

0:12:30.480,0:12:34.000
something not skin but like directly

0:12:32.160,0:12:36.959
touching like your body

0:12:34.000,0:12:38.639
yeah like you’re super close um and so

0:12:36.959,0:12:41.040
the first bullet

0:12:38.639,0:12:41.839
grace garfield’s right arm and he

0:12:41.040,0:12:45.360
shouted

0:12:41.839,0:12:48.480
my god what is this um just so

0:12:45.360,0:12:51.120
like it’s so sad he was like like so

0:12:48.480,0:12:52.079
shocked obviously yeah his kids are with

0:12:51.120,0:12:55.200
him too

0:12:52.079,0:12:56.320
right yeah his kids are in the lobby not

0:12:55.200,0:12:59.360
directly next to him

0:12:56.320,0:13:00.959
but okay this train station but he’s

0:12:59.360,0:13:04.079
directly next to his friend

0:13:00.959,0:13:04.560
secretary of state james blaine and the

0:13:04.079,0:13:07.760
second

0:13:04.560,0:13:10.399
bullet that pluto shot was more accurate

0:13:07.760,0:13:10.880
and it struck president garfield’s lower

0:13:10.399,0:13:13.839
back

0:13:10.880,0:13:14.240
which knocked him to the floor and yeah

0:13:13.839,0:13:16.800
it was

0:13:14.240,0:13:17.680
so sad and immediately the station lobby

0:13:16.800,0:13:20.000
is filled with

0:13:17.680,0:13:21.440
screams from terrified and panicked

0:13:20.000,0:13:23.200
bystanders

0:13:21.440,0:13:24.959
and guteo actually tried to flee the

0:13:23.200,0:13:27.600
station but a man

0:13:24.959,0:13:28.639
blocked the door and then a ticket agent

0:13:27.600,0:13:30.560
and a police officer

0:13:28.639,0:13:31.760
came and grabbed him so he couldn’t

0:13:30.560,0:13:34.399
leave and

0:13:31.760,0:13:35.360
gutel is immediately surrounded by an

0:13:34.399,0:13:37.839
angry mob of

0:13:35.360,0:13:38.560
bystanders and they’re all shouting

0:13:37.839,0:13:41.760
lynch him

0:13:38.560,0:13:43.680
lynch him and like because they

0:13:41.760,0:13:45.440
could tell like obviously he was the one

0:13:43.680,0:13:47.040
who shot the president

0:13:45.440,0:13:48.639
and yeah so they’re like swarming up

0:13:47.040,0:13:51.600
against him and they’re getting violent

0:13:48.639,0:13:53.360
and so at pluto’s own request the police

0:13:51.600,0:13:54.320
escort him to the safety of the

0:13:53.360,0:13:56.320
jailhouse

0:13:54.320,0:13:57.839
so that he’s like not attacked by the

0:13:56.320,0:14:01.600
angry mob

0:13:57.839,0:14:05.519
so you might be wondering who is charles

0:14:01.600,0:14:06.079
j guto so he at the time he’s 39 years

0:14:05.519,0:14:09.519
old

0:14:06.079,0:14:09.519
he’s from illinois

0:14:10.240,0:14:14.320
oh from my fellow listeners from

0:14:12.399,0:14:17.519
illinois he’s from freeport

0:14:14.320,0:14:21.440
if that gives you any insight

0:14:17.519,0:14:25.440
and he lived a very unique life

0:14:21.440,0:14:28.000
um he’s also not very mentally sane

0:14:25.440,0:14:28.480
and family members and acquaintances had

0:14:28.000,0:14:30.880
always

0:14:28.480,0:14:32.320
suspected that he was insane he was not

0:14:30.880,0:14:34.160
mentally sound

0:14:32.320,0:14:36.480
he spent the majority of his life

0:14:34.160,0:14:39.760
drifting from city to city

0:14:36.480,0:14:42.240
he had a million different jobs

0:14:39.760,0:14:43.279
he at one point he was a lawyer a

0:14:42.240,0:14:46.560
preacher

0:14:43.279,0:14:49.680
a bill collector and a salesman

0:14:46.560,0:14:50.480
and he even spent some time living in a

0:14:49.680,0:14:53.519
free love

0:14:50.480,0:14:55.440
religious commune um but

0:14:53.519,0:14:57.120
even though the commune practiced like

0:14:55.440,0:14:59.839
group marriage and they

0:14:57.120,0:15:00.399
wanted to love everyone they kicked

0:14:59.839,0:15:03.440
guteo

0:15:00.399,0:15:04.560
out because he was he did not vibe well

0:15:03.440,0:15:08.320
with them i guess

0:15:04.560,0:15:09.040
um but i think the craziest thing he

0:15:08.320,0:15:11.920
ever

0:15:09.040,0:15:13.440
did was decide to attend the university

0:15:11.920,0:15:16.399
of michigan

0:15:13.440,0:15:17.680
oh my god makes sense michigan still

0:15:16.399,0:15:20.480
sucks

0:15:17.680,0:15:20.720
michigan still sucks sorry guys but this

0:15:20.480,0:15:22.560
is

0:15:20.720,0:15:23.760
yeah no offense to our michigan

0:15:22.560,0:15:26.959
listeners we’re not

0:15:23.760,0:15:28.880
i’m just kidding it’s not all of our

0:15:26.959,0:15:31.199
michigan listeners just immediately like

0:15:28.880,0:15:34.240
unsubscribe but

0:15:31.199,0:15:37.519
all right guys it’s all me meanwhile but

0:15:34.240,0:15:39.920
um and so additionally he is very

0:15:37.519,0:15:40.959
involved in politics and he’s a hardcore

0:15:39.920,0:15:44.399
republican

0:15:40.959,0:15:45.120
he wrote a speech on garfield’s behalf

0:15:44.399,0:15:47.600
during the

0:15:45.120,0:15:49.440
1880 presidential election and even

0:15:47.600,0:15:51.519
though like literally no one heard it

0:15:49.440,0:15:53.279
or paid attention to it it was just like

0:15:51.519,0:15:56.079
his own speech whatever

0:15:53.279,0:15:58.480
gutel believed that his speech was a key

0:15:56.079,0:16:00.959
factor in garfield’s victory

0:15:58.480,0:16:02.880
um and so like in his mind he was like

0:16:00.959,0:16:05.920
one of the main reasons why garfield

0:16:02.880,0:16:07.040
won and so after president garfield is

0:16:05.920,0:16:11.279
inaugurated

0:16:07.040,0:16:12.079
guto moves to dc and he visits the white

0:16:11.279,0:16:15.440
house

0:16:12.079,0:16:16.959
very frequently and he i don’t know the

0:16:15.440,0:16:19.440
details but somehow

0:16:16.959,0:16:21.120
he managed to arrange a personal meeting

0:16:19.440,0:16:24.320
with president garfield

0:16:21.120,0:16:26.800
which is so messed up in this meeting

0:16:24.320,0:16:27.519
he gave president garfield a copy of his

0:16:26.800,0:16:29.920
speech

0:16:27.519,0:16:31.759
and he was like hey i wrote you the

0:16:29.920,0:16:34.880
speech i helped you in this election

0:16:31.759,0:16:38.079
can you reward me with a

0:16:34.880,0:16:41.279
diplomatic position in paris and

0:16:38.079,0:16:44.160
obviously garfield said no and

0:16:41.279,0:16:45.120
bhutto was like was furious he was

0:16:44.160,0:16:47.920
enraged

0:16:45.120,0:16:48.399
uh he was really upset with garfield’s

0:16:47.920,0:16:51.440
view

0:16:48.399,0:16:52.959
on like his work towards removing the

0:16:51.440,0:16:55.279
patronage system

0:16:52.959,0:16:56.880
and he wanted revenge because he thought

0:16:55.279,0:16:59.279
he had been

0:16:56.880,0:17:00.160
like screwed over yeah i remember

0:16:59.279,0:17:02.839
reading that

0:17:00.160,0:17:04.079
he really thought that he deserved this

0:17:02.839,0:17:05.919
position

0:17:04.079,0:17:07.360
and then to not get it was like which

0:17:05.919,0:17:09.679
that’s hard because that’s like

0:17:07.360,0:17:11.679
a diplomatic position to be sent

0:17:09.679,0:17:13.120
overseas and like the government pays

0:17:11.679,0:17:14.799
for you to handle international

0:17:13.120,0:17:16.959
relations like you have to take

0:17:14.799,0:17:19.039
you see like nan and i are studying to

0:17:16.959,0:17:19.600
just take a test for a chance to get to

0:17:19.039,0:17:22.880
do that

0:17:19.600,0:17:24.400
so like to just demand it in that time

0:17:22.880,0:17:25.919
which i don’t know how diplomats were

0:17:24.400,0:17:28.400
assigned back then was it

0:17:25.919,0:17:31.120
probably part of the spoils system too

0:17:28.400,0:17:34.080
yeah i think it was kind of like you

0:17:31.120,0:17:35.679
rewarded your friends and like your your

0:17:34.080,0:17:37.360
top donors at the time

0:17:35.679,0:17:38.559
but that’s why garfield wanted to change

0:17:37.360,0:17:40.559
all that because he’s like we should be

0:17:38.559,0:17:44.240
sending our best and our brightest

0:17:40.559,0:17:46.240
not the most wealthiest so yeah so like

0:17:44.240,0:17:48.240
really took it personally and he like

0:17:46.240,0:17:52.240
became obsessed over

0:17:48.240,0:17:55.520
um this um and so

0:17:52.240,0:17:58.240
one night while lying in bed guto had

0:17:55.520,0:17:59.520
what he described as a flash of divine

0:17:58.240,0:18:01.360
inspiration

0:17:59.520,0:18:03.679
he thought that god wanted him to kill

0:18:01.360,0:18:06.320
the president and that this

0:18:03.679,0:18:06.880
the murder of james garfield was a

0:18:06.320,0:18:10.240
mission

0:18:06.880,0:18:12.160
from god he was convinced that

0:18:10.240,0:18:14.160
the death of james garfield would save

0:18:12.160,0:18:17.120
the country because it would allow

0:18:14.160,0:18:18.480
his vice president chester a arthur to

0:18:17.120,0:18:21.200
take his place

0:18:18.480,0:18:22.480
and after this decision guteo stalked

0:18:21.200,0:18:24.640
garfield across

0:18:22.480,0:18:26.559
washington for weeks waiting to shoot

0:18:24.640,0:18:28.320
him so he

0:18:26.559,0:18:30.080
like was really determined it wasn’t

0:18:28.320,0:18:34.080
just like a one-time thing

0:18:30.080,0:18:36.400
it was like a really long process he

0:18:34.080,0:18:37.679
was so methodical about planning this

0:18:36.400,0:18:40.240
murder it’s really

0:18:37.679,0:18:41.360
frightening he conducted target practice

0:18:40.240,0:18:44.720
with an

0:18:41.360,0:18:47.120
handed 44 caliber pistol and he bought

0:18:44.720,0:18:49.600
this specific gun because he thought it

0:18:47.120,0:18:51.840
would look good in a museum one day

0:18:49.600,0:18:53.840
he tried to take a tour of the district

0:18:51.840,0:18:54.640
jail because he assumed he would be

0:18:53.840,0:18:57.200
living there

0:18:54.640,0:18:58.960
once he was arrested and that’s

0:18:57.200,0:19:02.080
literally so creepy

0:18:58.960,0:19:04.480
what dude and then listen to this

0:19:02.080,0:19:06.720
he carried a letter in his pocket that

0:19:04.480,0:19:09.360
was addressed to the white house saying

0:19:06.720,0:19:10.880
quote the president’s tragic death was a

0:19:09.360,0:19:13.360
sad necessity but it will

0:19:10.880,0:19:14.240
unite the republican party and save the

0:19:13.360,0:19:16.240
republic

0:19:14.240,0:19:17.679
life is a fleeting dream and it matters

0:19:16.240,0:19:21.120
little when one goes

0:19:17.679,0:19:24.559
unquote like this it’s so

0:19:21.120,0:19:27.919
creepy yeah that’s creepy yeah

0:19:24.559,0:19:30.559
um so yeah

0:19:27.919,0:19:31.039
wait okay i’m curious does he have any

0:19:30.559,0:19:32.960
money

0:19:31.039,0:19:34.960
because we know during the gilded age

0:19:32.960,0:19:36.080
from the last episode so you want to be

0:19:34.960,0:19:38.640
a billionaire

0:19:36.080,0:19:40.880
um there’s just like insane amounts of

0:19:38.640,0:19:45.120
wealth disparity between

0:19:40.880,0:19:47.760
uh people in the united states so

0:19:45.120,0:19:48.960
i’m curious as to how much money he had

0:19:47.760,0:19:51.520
and if he was able to

0:19:48.960,0:19:52.480
buy his position like or if he attempted

0:19:51.520,0:19:54.400
to

0:19:52.480,0:19:55.760
yeah i actually don’t know the answer to

0:19:54.400,0:19:57.039
that i don’t know how much money he had

0:19:55.760,0:19:59.840
but i would assume

0:19:57.039,0:20:02.080
he had enough to live comfortably

0:19:59.840,0:20:05.280
because like he keeps changing his

0:20:02.080,0:20:08.159
job and he keeps moving location so

0:20:05.280,0:20:09.760
i mean i don’t know what his yeah i

0:20:08.159,0:20:10.480
don’t really know the specifics but i

0:20:09.760,0:20:11.600
would assume

0:20:10.480,0:20:14.159
i don’t think he came from like an

0:20:11.600,0:20:17.200
incredibly wealthy family but i think he

0:20:14.159,0:20:20.080
like made just enough to be able to

0:20:17.200,0:20:20.960
switch careers like every year and then

0:20:20.080,0:20:24.320
move

0:20:20.960,0:20:26.799
across the country all the time um yeah

0:20:24.320,0:20:28.720
i’m sure yeah he doesn’t sound like he

0:20:26.799,0:20:31.120
has a lot of like

0:20:28.720,0:20:32.240
high morals either so yeah it doesn’t

0:20:31.120,0:20:34.640
sound like he’s working

0:20:32.240,0:20:34.640
like for

0:20:37.120,0:20:40.559
like he doesn’t have a 401k i don’t

0:20:38.960,0:20:43.919
think

0:20:40.559,0:20:45.039
a retirement um yeah but that’s a good

0:20:43.919,0:20:48.400
question

0:20:45.039,0:20:51.919
and okay so after

0:20:48.400,0:20:54.240
he is shot by gutel president garfield

0:20:51.919,0:20:55.360
is lying down on the train station floor

0:20:54.240,0:20:58.720
and he is bleeding

0:20:55.360,0:21:01.440
profusely and after only a few minutes

0:20:58.720,0:21:03.600
10 different doctors arrive at the scene

0:21:01.440,0:21:04.720
to examine him and try to locate the

0:21:03.600,0:21:05.919
second bullet

0:21:04.720,0:21:07.760
and so this will be like the whole

0:21:05.919,0:21:08.799
struggle is like no one can ever find a

0:21:07.760,0:21:12.240
second bullet

0:21:08.799,0:21:15.039
and at the time nobody knew it but this

0:21:12.240,0:21:16.000
bullet had missed garfield’s major

0:21:15.039,0:21:18.799
arteries and

0:21:16.000,0:21:20.640
vital organs and it like lodged itself

0:21:18.799,0:21:23.679
near his pancreas

0:21:20.640,0:21:26.960
which this is like a survivable injury

0:21:23.679,0:21:29.520
however the group of doctors that were

0:21:26.960,0:21:30.559
like there at the scene they were

0:21:29.520,0:21:32.799
well-meaning

0:21:30.559,0:21:34.159
but they only made the situation worse

0:21:32.799,0:21:37.360
because they were using

0:21:34.159,0:21:39.120
unsterilized instruments and like dirty

0:21:37.360,0:21:40.960
fingers to treat the wound

0:21:39.120,0:21:42.960
and so this introduced a lot of germs to

0:21:40.960,0:21:46.559
it and caused a major effect

0:21:42.960,0:21:47.600
infection yeah that’s so sad because

0:21:46.559,0:21:49.600
isn’t the

0:21:47.600,0:21:51.039
william mckinley assassination if i’m

0:21:49.600,0:21:51.919
remembering correctly wasn’t it the

0:21:51.039,0:21:54.000
second bullet

0:21:51.919,0:21:55.360
as well that ended up getting infected

0:21:54.000,0:21:57.520
and he died

0:21:55.360,0:21:58.640
yeah yeah it was like the same thing

0:21:57.520,0:22:01.360
where like the first

0:21:58.640,0:22:02.720
bullet like barely bothered him and like

0:22:01.360,0:22:04.640
it barely

0:22:02.720,0:22:06.000
uh hurt him and then the second one was

0:22:04.640,0:22:08.799
like and they also had

0:22:06.000,0:22:09.440
they never removed the bullet so there

0:22:08.799,0:22:11.679
are

0:22:09.440,0:22:12.720
like quite a few similarities between

0:22:11.679,0:22:15.120
the two

0:22:12.720,0:22:16.960
assassinations but and they’re like very

0:22:15.120,0:22:20.400
close to each other also

0:22:16.960,0:22:23.600
um and so after a full hour

0:22:20.400,0:22:24.640
of excruciating prodding i don’t have a

0:22:23.600,0:22:27.200
better there’s probably no

0:22:24.640,0:22:29.120
anesthesia just fingers in there

0:22:27.200,0:22:30.559
literally like and he’s just on this

0:22:29.120,0:22:32.320
train station floor for an

0:22:30.559,0:22:33.600
hour and like all these people are just

0:22:32.320,0:22:35.840
like poking at him

0:22:33.600,0:22:37.039
oh my gosh i can’t even imagine um so

0:22:35.840,0:22:39.039
after an hour of this

0:22:37.039,0:22:40.720
president garfield was carried from the

0:22:39.039,0:22:42.880
train station to a bedroom

0:22:40.720,0:22:44.559
in the white house and the doctors

0:22:42.880,0:22:47.600
didn’t think he would survive

0:22:44.559,0:22:49.600
the night but garfield was like really

0:22:47.600,0:22:50.880
strong and he put on a brave face for

0:22:49.600,0:22:52.640
his children

0:22:50.880,0:22:54.159
because they were like with him at the

0:22:52.640,0:22:55.600
scene and he like told his shoulder and

0:22:54.159,0:22:58.320
that like he was gonna be okay

0:22:55.600,0:22:59.840
he’s gonna make it um and the newspapers

0:22:58.320,0:23:02.960
reported medical updates

0:22:59.840,0:23:06.640
updates daily and americans read

0:23:02.960,0:23:09.520
each update extremely intently and

0:23:06.640,0:23:11.120
he stayed strong the first few days but

0:23:09.520,0:23:14.480
his condition got worse

0:23:11.120,0:23:17.200
after his doctor his doctor’s name is

0:23:14.480,0:23:19.120
dr willard bliss like literally his

0:23:17.200,0:23:22.240
first name is doctor

0:23:19.120,0:23:26.320
i like what yeah i know

0:23:22.240,0:23:28.559
so it’s dr dr willis liss yeah yeah yeah

0:23:26.320,0:23:29.440
it’s interesting it’s not what his mom

0:23:28.559,0:23:32.799
wanted him to be

0:23:29.440,0:23:35.520
like yeah i’m like he had no choice in

0:23:32.799,0:23:37.520
his future that’s some pressure yeah

0:23:35.520,0:23:38.640
yeah like if your name is doctor and

0:23:37.520,0:23:42.320
then you become

0:23:38.640,0:23:46.080
like a stand-up comedian

0:23:42.320,0:23:48.799
you got no choice but anyway so dr bliss

0:23:46.080,0:23:50.559
he administered heavy doses of morphine

0:23:48.799,0:23:52.640
and alcohol

0:23:50.559,0:23:55.679
and this made garfield really sick and

0:23:52.640,0:23:58.559
it left him weak and emaciated

0:23:55.679,0:24:00.000
and still like none of these doctors

0:23:58.559,0:24:02.880
could find a second bullet

0:24:00.000,0:24:04.000
so dr bliss actually invited alexander

0:24:02.880,0:24:06.640
graham bell

0:24:04.000,0:24:08.880
the inventor of the telephone uh he

0:24:06.640,0:24:12.000
invited him to the white house to

0:24:08.880,0:24:14.000
try his new invention the metal detector

0:24:12.000,0:24:15.840
uh he wanted him to use it to try to

0:24:14.000,0:24:17.600
find the second bullet

0:24:15.840,0:24:19.279
but like this didn’t work for two

0:24:17.600,0:24:20.960
reasons so first

0:24:19.279,0:24:22.400
there was a lot of interference from the

0:24:20.960,0:24:25.919
metal springs on

0:24:22.400,0:24:28.400
garfield’s bed and then second

0:24:25.919,0:24:29.200
bell like alexander graham bell was only

0:24:28.400,0:24:31.919
allowed to search

0:24:29.200,0:24:32.480
the right side of his body because dr

0:24:31.919,0:24:34.559
bliss

0:24:32.480,0:24:35.919
incorrectly believed that where that was

0:24:34.559,0:24:37.760
where the bullet was lodged

0:24:35.919,0:24:40.000
so he’s like only check the right side

0:24:37.760,0:24:43.120
even though like the dude i feel like

0:24:40.000,0:24:44.080
dr bliss is not a doctor i feel like his

0:24:43.120,0:24:47.120
first name was

0:24:44.080,0:24:48.320
doctor and they misunderstood like is

0:24:47.120,0:24:51.360
that his only credential

0:24:48.320,0:24:53.600
is that his name like

0:24:51.360,0:24:55.679
he really was a stand-up comedian this

0:24:53.600,0:24:57.919
is what actually happened

0:24:55.679,0:25:00.000
honestly oh my gosh yeah it’s really

0:24:57.919,0:25:02.720
frustrating like in hindsight

0:25:00.000,0:25:05.120
to see how poorly yeah you could just

0:25:02.720,0:25:06.559
put him on the ground and then check his

0:25:05.120,0:25:08.640
whole body

0:25:06.559,0:25:10.720
yeah i don’t know why he was like so

0:25:08.640,0:25:12.640
stubborn about only the right side like

0:25:10.720,0:25:13.360
i don’t know if it took a long time and

0:25:12.640,0:25:16.320
like was

0:25:13.360,0:25:17.520
hard for president garfield to like bear

0:25:16.320,0:25:18.720
but like i don’t know why wouldn’t you

0:25:17.520,0:25:19.440
just take the whole body while you’re

0:25:18.720,0:25:22.960
there

0:25:19.440,0:25:25.440
conspiracy theory what what if

0:25:22.960,0:25:27.039
dr bliss actually supported the

0:25:25.440,0:25:29.520
assassination because he wanted the

0:25:27.039,0:25:32.960
patronage system to continue

0:25:29.520,0:25:32.960
dude oh my gosh

0:25:33.120,0:25:37.760
yeah i mean it sounds like it why would

0:25:35.440,0:25:40.799
you what doctor would just

0:25:37.760,0:25:42.000
be like nah check just one side and if

0:25:40.799,0:25:44.799
it’s not there then you’re like

0:25:42.000,0:25:47.200
well um like just check the other side

0:25:44.799,0:25:49.520
like if you couldn’t find it on one side

0:25:47.200,0:25:51.039
right and it’s it’s the president of the

0:25:49.520,0:25:52.960
united states like you guys

0:25:51.039,0:25:54.799
like you have the whole country like

0:25:52.960,0:25:57.360
kind of like

0:25:54.799,0:26:00.000
a guy really yeah literally anyone like

0:25:57.360,0:26:03.440
get another doctor please

0:26:00.000,0:26:06.000
honestly um yeah i mean i don’t i know

0:26:03.440,0:26:08.400
nothing about medicine but it seems

0:26:06.000,0:26:08.400
fishy

0:26:08.559,0:26:14.400
but so okay so by september

0:26:11.919,0:26:15.279
um so as a reminder so garfield was shot

0:26:14.400,0:26:18.159
in july

0:26:15.279,0:26:19.120
and by september president garfield had

0:26:18.159,0:26:22.080
a massive

0:26:19.120,0:26:23.840
infection like he was in sepsis i think

0:26:22.080,0:26:25.520
that’s what you call it like sepsis

0:26:23.840,0:26:28.000
where like your entire body

0:26:25.520,0:26:30.000
and all your organs are infected and

0:26:28.000,0:26:31.600
this was most likely caused by his

0:26:30.000,0:26:34.400
medical treatment

0:26:31.600,0:26:36.720
and he was left with a persistent fever

0:26:34.400,0:26:39.279
and he had like abscesses

0:26:36.720,0:26:40.240
all over his body like i think that’s

0:26:39.279,0:26:43.440
like

0:26:40.240,0:26:43.840
welts kind of like i yeah i don’t really

0:26:43.440,0:26:47.039
know

0:26:43.840,0:26:47.760
um like blisters almost like boiled or

0:26:47.039,0:26:50.960
something

0:26:47.760,0:26:52.960
yeah kind of like that like okay

0:26:50.960,0:26:54.880
really painful though and like

0:26:52.960,0:26:57.919
everything like festering and

0:26:54.880,0:27:02.320
he’s really not doing well he

0:26:57.919,0:27:04.960
so before his shooting he was 210 pounds

0:27:02.320,0:27:06.240
and by the time of his death he’s 130

0:27:04.960,0:27:09.760
pounds

0:27:06.240,0:27:13.200
so wow so much weight

0:27:09.760,0:27:16.000
like from all these infections how

0:27:13.200,0:27:17.039
what was the time progression sorry no

0:27:16.000,0:27:21.200
you’re fine it was

0:27:17.039,0:27:23.840
july um it was beginning of july

0:27:21.200,0:27:24.960
and then he spoiler he dies early

0:27:23.840,0:27:28.720
september

0:27:24.960,0:27:30.640
so whoa he lived a long time actually

0:27:28.720,0:27:32.159
okay i was like i was assuming it was

0:27:30.640,0:27:34.480
gonna happen in a few days i was like

0:27:32.159,0:27:37.679
how do you drop a hundred pounds

0:27:34.480,0:27:39.440
in like a week or something dude no

0:27:37.679,0:27:41.200
yeah it’s like really sad though like

0:27:39.440,0:27:41.919
the doctors did not think he would

0:27:41.200,0:27:43.600
survive

0:27:41.919,0:27:45.360
the first day like they thought he was

0:27:43.600,0:27:48.720
gonna die within a matter of hours

0:27:45.360,0:27:50.559
but he held on but like he was in

0:27:48.720,0:27:52.240
an extreme amount of pain this whole

0:27:50.559,0:27:55.520
time so he’s like suffering

0:27:52.240,0:27:59.039
for months so it’s like really

0:27:55.520,0:28:01.279
sad um and so like so

0:27:59.039,0:28:03.200
president garfield is finally taken to a

0:28:01.279,0:28:03.679
cottage on the jersey shore because they

0:28:03.200,0:28:06.720
thought

0:28:03.679,0:28:07.919
that the cold sea air might help revive

0:28:06.720,0:28:09.520
him

0:28:07.919,0:28:11.600
and he wanted to be like in a peaceful

0:28:09.520,0:28:15.520
place and

0:28:11.600,0:28:16.320
however after 79 days of excruciating

0:28:15.520,0:28:18.399
pain

0:28:16.320,0:28:19.520
james garfield died on the night of

0:28:18.399,0:28:23.039
september 19

0:28:19.520,0:28:24.640
1881 and he was president for only 200

0:28:23.039,0:28:27.760
days

0:28:24.640,0:28:30.880
so that really sucks it really

0:28:27.760,0:28:33.679
sucks and like i don’t know

0:28:30.880,0:28:35.279
just the reason for his murder is kind

0:28:33.679,0:28:37.840
of frustrating too

0:28:35.279,0:28:38.480
yeah they kill all the best presidents

0:28:37.840,0:28:41.039
yeah

0:28:38.480,0:28:41.919
like they really do be like that really

0:28:41.039,0:28:44.799
what the heck

0:28:41.919,0:28:45.440
honestly he had so much potential he

0:28:44.799,0:28:48.640
seemed like

0:28:45.440,0:28:52.159
he was he wanted to do make a lot of

0:28:48.640,0:28:52.880
good change in his time uh it just shows

0:28:52.159,0:28:54.960
like i guess

0:28:52.880,0:28:56.000
when you try to challenge the status quo

0:28:54.960,0:28:59.679
how dangerous

0:28:56.000,0:29:03.360
it can be that’s true that’s true like

0:28:59.679,0:29:06.000
people are not super excited about

0:29:03.360,0:29:08.559
big change yeah especially really

0:29:06.000,0:29:12.240
important changes like ending slavery

0:29:08.559,0:29:15.279
shot your pyramid god like

0:29:12.240,0:29:18.320
oh it’s pretty bad command

0:29:15.279,0:29:22.000
yeah it’s it’s a it’s a difficult thing

0:29:18.320,0:29:24.799
um and so yeah now let’s do

0:29:22.000,0:29:26.159
let’s see what happens to guto so

0:29:24.799,0:29:29.360
charles guiteau

0:29:26.159,0:29:33.279
his myrtle chart murder trial began

0:29:29.360,0:29:35.679
in november 1881 so like pretty much

0:29:33.279,0:29:36.320
like a couple months after president

0:29:35.679,0:29:39.600
garfield

0:29:36.320,0:29:40.240
passes away and he was hated so much by

0:29:39.600,0:29:43.360
the public

0:29:40.240,0:29:44.159
that the court had to go through 150

0:29:43.360,0:29:47.279
different men

0:29:44.159,0:29:50.720
in order to assemble an impartial jury

0:29:47.279,0:29:52.399
and on two separate occasions people had

0:29:50.720,0:29:55.440
like come and tried to shoot him

0:29:52.399,0:29:57.840
so like everyone oh man okay

0:29:55.440,0:29:58.799
we’re so pissed they were like dude we

0:29:57.840,0:30:02.399
really liked him

0:29:58.799,0:30:06.399
and you suck um yeah

0:30:02.399,0:30:09.440
yeah and so at his trial gutel pleaded

0:30:06.399,0:30:11.840
not guilty by reason of insanity

0:30:09.440,0:30:13.760
arguing that the murder had been god’s

0:30:11.840,0:30:16.000
act and not his

0:30:13.760,0:30:17.840
and this is like fun fact this is

0:30:16.000,0:30:19.760
actually one of the first high profile

0:30:17.840,0:30:22.799
cases in american history

0:30:19.760,0:30:23.840
um that uses for like someone to use the

0:30:22.799,0:30:27.200
insanity plea

0:30:23.840,0:30:30.559
in court so it was like a first

0:30:27.200,0:30:32.720
for them and guto his lawyers

0:30:30.559,0:30:36.240
also argued that president garfield’s

0:30:32.720,0:30:37.679
death was the doctor’s fault and not his

0:30:36.240,0:30:39.520
and i thought this was like super

0:30:37.679,0:30:42.240
interesting and this is actually

0:30:39.520,0:30:44.720
like partly true many historians believe

0:30:42.240,0:30:47.279
that garfield would have survived

0:30:44.720,0:30:48.000
if it weren’t for the limitations in

0:30:47.279,0:30:52.320
medicine

0:30:48.000,0:30:54.960
in the 18 in the late 1800s um

0:30:52.320,0:30:56.399
yeah but it still like would have been

0:30:54.960,0:30:58.960
difficult to survive so

0:30:56.399,0:31:00.000
who really knows right and also

0:30:58.960,0:31:01.600
absolutely

0:31:00.000,0:31:04.720
because we talked about in the last

0:31:01.600,0:31:07.279
episode how low health standards were

0:31:04.720,0:31:09.840
and they didn’t get changed until 1916.

0:31:07.279,0:31:11.919
that’s so gross that all just these

0:31:09.840,0:31:14.559
random people from the train station

0:31:11.919,0:31:16.000
well not random but random doctors show

0:31:14.559,0:31:17.919
up at this train station

0:31:16.000,0:31:19.519
you assume they’re doctors maybe their

0:31:17.919,0:31:22.080
first name is just doctor

0:31:19.519,0:31:25.279
and they’re just touching your wounds

0:31:22.080,0:31:27.600
with no gloves no sanitary equipment

0:31:25.279,0:31:28.799
i don’t know if they wash their hands

0:31:27.600,0:31:31.519
well dude probably not

0:31:28.799,0:31:32.880
they’re just like trying to act and help

0:31:31.519,0:31:34.399
him immediately and they don’t think

0:31:32.880,0:31:34.880
about it and actually i think i was

0:31:34.399,0:31:38.159
reading

0:31:34.880,0:31:38.880
i’m pretty sure but i think like right

0:31:38.159,0:31:40.559
after

0:31:38.880,0:31:42.159
like very soon after president

0:31:40.559,0:31:43.840
garfield’s death like maybe within like

0:31:42.159,0:31:46.960
the next 20 or 30 years

0:31:43.840,0:31:49.760
that’s when they like discovered

0:31:46.960,0:31:50.399
that like you can introduce germs into

0:31:49.760,0:31:52.000
the body

0:31:50.399,0:31:54.559
and like cause infections if you don’t

0:31:52.000,0:31:58.159
sterilize things properly and so like

0:31:54.559,0:32:00.960
that yeah people like medicine

0:31:58.159,0:32:01.600
changed like soon after this yeah okay

0:32:00.960,0:32:04.000
so even

0:32:01.600,0:32:05.279
during this time then the doctors didn’t

0:32:04.000,0:32:07.279
even know that that

0:32:05.279,0:32:08.799
you could infect if you touched like

0:32:07.279,0:32:12.399
that okay yeah it like

0:32:08.799,0:32:13.279
wasn’t common knowledge or common

0:32:12.399,0:32:15.200
practice

0:32:13.279,0:32:18.000
or like maybe like there were

0:32:15.200,0:32:20.240
sterilization efforts but it was not

0:32:18.000,0:32:21.039
like up to the standard it is today like

0:32:20.240,0:32:23.200
it wasn’t

0:32:21.039,0:32:24.960
completely scary yeah i don’t know this

0:32:23.200,0:32:27.200
is that’s a smart lawyer

0:32:24.960,0:32:28.159
that lawyer is very smart if before you

0:32:27.200,0:32:30.799
even understand

0:32:28.159,0:32:31.279
infections like no one understands on a

0:32:30.799,0:32:33.360
on a

0:32:31.279,0:32:35.120
like national scale people don’t really

0:32:33.360,0:32:37.120
understand how infections work

0:32:35.120,0:32:38.559
that the lawyer used that and said that

0:32:37.120,0:32:39.679
the doctors had killed him from

0:32:38.559,0:32:42.000
infection

0:32:39.679,0:32:42.799
yeah for real and like well they said it

0:32:42.000,0:32:44.320
was like their

0:32:42.799,0:32:46.320
medical treatment so i don’t know if you

0:32:44.320,0:32:48.240
specified infection but like i thought

0:32:46.320,0:32:49.120
that was still such a clever argument to

0:32:48.240,0:32:51.840
be like

0:32:49.120,0:32:52.720
yo like obviously it had to do with the

0:32:51.840,0:32:56.000
doctors

0:32:52.720,0:32:57.200
and so yeah yeah that is really smart

0:32:56.000,0:32:59.600
i don’t even think i would have come up

0:32:57.200,0:33:02.960
with that i’d be like clearly this man

0:32:59.600,0:33:04.080
killed him but he was insane that’s what

0:33:02.960,0:33:07.360
i would go with

0:33:04.080,0:33:08.960
yeah but like despite all of this

0:33:07.360,0:33:10.640
lawyers like all of his lawyers

0:33:08.960,0:33:13.279
arguments the jury took

0:33:10.640,0:33:15.519
less than an hour to deliberate and

0:33:13.279,0:33:16.480
charles guteau was found guilty in the

0:33:15.519,0:33:19.919
murder of james

0:33:16.480,0:33:20.679
garfield surprise surprise and on june

0:33:19.919,0:33:23.919
30th

0:33:20.679,0:33:24.640
1882 nearly a year after he shot the

0:33:23.919,0:33:27.279
president

0:33:24.640,0:33:28.559
charles gutel was executed by hanging in

0:33:27.279,0:33:31.600
washington dc

0:33:28.559,0:33:34.720
oh okay death penalty yeah yeah

0:33:31.600,0:33:35.440
death penalty um yeah it was like by

0:33:34.720,0:33:38.640
hanging too

0:33:35.440,0:33:40.720
because i think the president william

0:33:38.640,0:33:42.000
mckinley’s assassin was executed like

0:33:40.720,0:33:45.200
through

0:33:42.000,0:33:48.559
electric care i want to say um

0:33:45.200,0:33:52.320
but yeah i’m like hanging it so so

0:33:48.559,0:33:55.919
ancient medieval-ish whoa that’s scary

0:33:52.320,0:33:59.279
but uh yeah so he was executed

0:33:55.919,0:34:00.000
um and so obviously president garfield’s

0:33:59.279,0:34:02.320
death

0:34:00.000,0:34:04.000
had a huge effect on the whole country

0:34:02.320,0:34:07.360
and in honor of

0:34:04.000,0:34:09.359
his death the 1883 pendleton civil

0:34:07.360,0:34:11.280
service act was passed

0:34:09.359,0:34:12.480
and yeah i think you’re familiar with

0:34:11.280,0:34:15.040
this but this

0:34:12.480,0:34:15.520
act mandated that government jobs had to

0:34:15.040,0:34:18.000
be

0:34:15.520,0:34:18.879
awarded on merit rather than political

0:34:18.000,0:34:20.480
affiliation

0:34:18.879,0:34:22.240
and it’s one of the most progressive

0:34:20.480,0:34:23.200
political reforms of the late 19th

0:34:22.240,0:34:26.320
century

0:34:23.200,0:34:29.119
aka the gilded age

0:34:26.320,0:34:30.000
so yay and then chester president

0:34:29.119,0:34:33.520
chester a

0:34:30.000,0:34:34.079
arthur became president um i tried to do

0:34:33.520,0:34:37.040
research

0:34:34.079,0:34:38.480
on him like not a lot happened he kind

0:34:37.040,0:34:42.800
of just

0:34:38.480,0:34:45.839
uh like tried to yeah he was focused on

0:34:42.800,0:34:49.359
civil service reform like

0:34:45.839,0:34:52.639
president garfield uh he only served

0:34:49.359,0:34:54.320
like three years though so yeah like he

0:34:52.639,0:34:56.639
served the remainder of president

0:34:54.320,0:34:59.280
garfield’s term and then he didn’t

0:34:56.639,0:35:00.640
run for election uh because he had like

0:34:59.280,0:35:03.680
poor health

0:35:00.640,0:35:04.880
so yeah that’s all i couldn’t find about

0:35:03.680,0:35:06.640
him but

0:35:04.880,0:35:08.480
yeah no that’s okay it’s i’ve never

0:35:06.640,0:35:10.400
heard of this president too sorry

0:35:08.480,0:35:12.160
but yeah it’s hard to make a lot of

0:35:10.400,0:35:14.560
change especially during that era

0:35:12.160,0:35:16.320
with all the really big money and the

0:35:14.560,0:35:19.520
government was like in debt

0:35:16.320,0:35:22.480
indebted and debt dude yeah

0:35:19.520,0:35:23.119
yeah indebted to all the wealthy robber

0:35:22.480,0:35:25.760
barons

0:35:23.119,0:35:27.520
so for sure for sure like that’s some

0:35:25.760,0:35:29.200
big shoes to fill so

0:35:27.520,0:35:31.280
that’s like a lot of work you have on

0:35:29.200,0:35:33.440
your plate um

0:35:31.280,0:35:34.560
and kind of spooky yeah like the

0:35:33.440,0:35:36.400
president just got

0:35:34.560,0:35:38.000
shot and now you want to continue his

0:35:36.400,0:35:40.480
policies

0:35:38.000,0:35:42.160
yeah yeah like he got killed for these

0:35:40.480,0:35:42.720
same policies so maybe that’s another

0:35:42.160,0:35:45.359
reason

0:35:42.720,0:35:46.800
why like president arthur was kind of

0:35:45.359,0:35:49.839
like oh i’m gonna

0:35:46.800,0:35:51.920
i’m gonna try to stay alive during this

0:35:49.839,0:35:54.960
term

0:35:51.920,0:35:55.520
that’s true um yeah and so like i

0:35:54.960,0:35:57.680
mentioned

0:35:55.520,0:35:59.359
earlier the train station where

0:35:57.680,0:36:01.280
president garfield was shot

0:35:59.359,0:36:02.960
no longer exists it was actually

0:36:01.280,0:36:06.240
demolished later

0:36:02.960,0:36:08.480
um but the location where

0:36:06.240,0:36:10.240
yeah the location of the train station

0:36:08.480,0:36:12.640
is somewhere between

0:36:10.240,0:36:14.160
the national gallery of art and the

0:36:12.640,0:36:15.520
federal trade commission

0:36:14.160,0:36:17.920
and this is actually like one of the

0:36:15.520,0:36:19.599
most busiest spots in dc

0:36:17.920,0:36:21.599
but most of the people don’t know the

0:36:19.599,0:36:24.960
history of behind the location

0:36:21.599,0:36:27.280
or the legacy of james garfield and it

0:36:24.960,0:36:29.920
wasn’t until 2018

0:36:27.280,0:36:32.000
that memorial plaques were finally put

0:36:29.920,0:36:35.760
up on the national mall in order to

0:36:32.000,0:36:38.560
memorial memorialize yeah memorialize

0:36:35.760,0:36:39.200
president garfield so it like took so

0:36:38.560,0:36:42.480
long

0:36:39.200,0:36:45.359
like this so very recently that

0:36:42.480,0:36:46.400
we’re finally like trying to recognize

0:36:45.359,0:36:49.359
this history

0:36:46.400,0:36:50.800
and yeah that’s the assassination of

0:36:49.359,0:36:53.520
president james garfield

0:36:50.800,0:36:55.680
i’m so sad i it took me so long to like

0:36:53.520,0:36:57.520
learn about him

0:36:55.680,0:36:59.520
and it’s really sad because i think he

0:36:57.520,0:37:00.400
could have had a lot of he had a lot of

0:36:59.520,0:37:03.599
potential

0:37:00.400,0:37:03.599
as president um

0:37:03.760,0:37:07.359
like how different the world would be if

0:37:05.920,0:37:10.160
he

0:37:07.359,0:37:10.800
wasn’t killed yeah if he had gotten his

0:37:10.160,0:37:13.359
chance

0:37:10.800,0:37:14.800
yeah yeah that’s sad but that’s yeah

0:37:13.359,0:37:16.800
thank you so much for

0:37:14.800,0:37:18.480
covering him there’s so many presidents

0:37:16.800,0:37:20.960
that i don’t really know what they did

0:37:18.480,0:37:23.520
and garfield sounds like an awesome

0:37:20.960,0:37:24.000
uh president and just person in general

0:37:23.520,0:37:27.200
so

0:37:24.000,0:37:27.839
i’m glad you covered this thanks yeah it

0:37:27.200,0:37:30.160
was

0:37:27.839,0:37:31.359
i mean it’s a wild story yeah i wanted

0:37:30.160,0:37:33.760
to end

0:37:31.359,0:37:35.599
see this season our first season with an

0:37:33.760,0:37:38.000
assassination also

0:37:35.599,0:37:39.599
so come full circle it’s really cool i

0:37:38.000,0:37:40.800
like that we like ended in on that it’s

0:37:39.599,0:37:43.520
really good

0:37:40.800,0:37:44.640
and just like a reminder to everyone for

0:37:43.520,0:37:45.760
there have been four

0:37:44.640,0:37:48.400
four presidents who have been

0:37:45.760,0:37:51.280
assassinated president abraham lincoln

0:37:48.400,0:37:52.560
uh james garfield william mckinley and

0:37:51.280,0:37:55.599
john f kennedy so

0:37:52.560,0:37:56.320
now we know um yeah and so i guess that

0:37:55.599,0:37:59.280
wraps up

0:37:56.320,0:38:00.880
season one oh my god yeah oh my gosh any

0:37:59.280,0:38:04.560
announcements though should we

0:38:00.880,0:38:06.880
don’t forget everyone to like us on

0:38:04.560,0:38:10.320
facebook and how do we not know that

0:38:06.880,0:38:12.079
follow us on twitter at hdwnkt instagram

0:38:10.320,0:38:14.079
as well hdwnkt

0:38:12.079,0:38:15.839
check out our patreon at how did we not

0:38:14.079,0:38:16.480
know that where you can become a history

0:38:15.839,0:38:20.160
hero

0:38:16.480,0:38:21.200
and support us and get exclusive access

0:38:20.160,0:38:24.160
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0:38:21.200,0:38:26.640
behind the scenes things and pull access

0:38:24.160,0:38:29.760
so you can help us choose some topics

0:38:26.640,0:38:32.320
yeah subscribe to us on youtube

0:38:29.760,0:38:34.480
heck yeah and then we’re coming back in

0:38:32.320,0:38:36.079
a couple weeks so you guys don’t have to

0:38:34.480,0:38:39.119
worry don’t miss this too much

0:38:36.079,0:38:42.160
we’ll be back shortly uh with season two

0:38:39.119,0:38:44.960
which is world history um

0:38:42.160,0:38:47.440
we’re super duper excited about that so

0:38:44.960,0:38:47.920
stay tuned thanks everyone for listening

0:38:47.440,0:38:51.119
and

0:38:47.920,0:38:53.599
we’ll see you guys soon yeah thanks for

0:38:51.119,0:38:56.240
all the support for season one

0:38:53.599,0:38:58.720
yeah you guys are great all right

0:38:56.240,0:38:58.720
healthy

0:38:58.839,0:39:17.200
bye

0:39:00.090,0:39:19.280
[Music]

0:39:17.200,0:39:19.280
you

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How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

In a time where billionaires roamed the earth, it seemed as if everything in the United States was gold. Spoiler Alert: it wasn’t. If your last name isn’t Rockefeller, Carnegie, or Vanderbilt, there’s a good chance your ancestors were dirt poor and pawns in the grips of capitalism and corruption. In this Episode, Jac takes you through the history of the Gilded Age, striping off the thin gold on top and exposing the rusted, abused tin underneath. For more episodes from How Did We Not Know That, check out our weekly podcast on Anchor, Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or wherever you listen to your podcasts. At How Did We Not Know That or HDWNKT

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/early-20th-century-us/triangle-shirtwaist-fire

https://www.history.com/topics/19th-century/gilded-age#:~:text=%E2%80%9CThe%20Gilded%20Age%E2%80%9D%20is%20the,1800s%2C%20and%20was%20its%20namesake.

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/the-gilded-age/gilded-age/v/the-gilded-age-part-1

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/the-gilded-age/gilded-age/v/what-was-the-gilded-age

https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/gold/golden-ages/the-gilded-age#:~:text=The%20term%20%22Gilded%20Age%2C%22,class%20of%20the%20super%2Drich.

http://sageamericanhistory.net/gildedage/topics/gildedagepolitics.html

Transcript

0:00:00.240,0:00:04.160
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.240,0:00:07.759
another episode of how did we not

0:00:04.160,0:00:10.480
know that i’m nat i’m jack

0:00:07.759,0:00:10.960
and today uh jack is going to be talking

0:00:10.480,0:00:13.040
about

0:00:10.960,0:00:14.960
a part of history that i don’t know

0:00:13.040,0:00:18.080
about

0:00:14.960,0:00:21.439
it is the gilded age

0:00:18.080,0:00:22.720
but before we start i have some

0:00:21.439,0:00:25.760
announcements

0:00:22.720,0:00:26.880
so firstly follow us on social media at

0:00:25.760,0:00:30.000
hdw

0:00:26.880,0:00:32.719
nkt please subscribe to us

0:00:30.000,0:00:33.600
on youtube give us a like on facebook

0:00:32.719,0:00:35.520
and then

0:00:33.600,0:00:36.719
if you’re listening to us on apple

0:00:35.520,0:00:39.040
podcast

0:00:36.719,0:00:41.280
um give us a reading and like let us

0:00:39.040,0:00:42.480
know what you think of it we’d really

0:00:41.280,0:00:44.879
appreciate that

0:00:42.480,0:00:46.719
yeah leave it give a comment it would

0:00:44.879,0:00:48.879
help us a lot we love reading yeah

0:00:46.719,0:00:50.480
just like let us know how we’re doing

0:00:48.879,0:00:53.520
let us know how you’re doing we would

0:00:50.480,0:00:56.960
really just like some interaction it

0:00:53.520,0:00:59.199
makes our day uh also as always

0:00:56.960,0:01:00.399
please check out our patreon at how did

0:00:59.199,0:01:02.239
we not know that

0:01:00.399,0:01:03.840
and we want to give a shout out to our

0:01:02.239,0:01:06.880
most recent patreon

0:01:03.840,0:01:09.280
caroline from california thank you so

0:01:06.880,0:01:10.960
much for becoming a history hero

0:01:09.280,0:01:13.360
and let us know if you have a topic you

0:01:10.960,0:01:16.960
want us to cover because we will do that

0:01:13.360,0:01:18.799
yeah thank you caroline you’re great

0:01:16.960,0:01:20.880
and then also the biggest announcements

0:01:18.799,0:01:24.080
we have for

0:01:20.880,0:01:26.000
i guess today are um

0:01:24.080,0:01:28.560
we have recently started a monthly

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newsletter so at the end of each month

0:01:28.560,0:01:31.600
we’ll just

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send out a quick email telling you what

0:01:31.600,0:01:36.560
episodes we released that month

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and you can go to our website

0:01:36.560,0:01:42.640
at hdwnkt.com to sign up for

0:01:40.000,0:01:43.840
it it’s under the contact page yeah we

0:01:42.640,0:01:46.799
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0:01:43.840,0:01:48.240
um big updates coming to this show soon

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plans and things so yes

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subscribe to that for sure and then we

0:02:02.079,0:02:06.840
can like just see

0:02:03.520,0:02:08.080
who’s listening which would be nice

0:02:06.840,0:02:12.720
sometimes

0:02:08.080,0:02:16.319
like are you guys there yeah police

0:02:12.720,0:02:20.400
hello anyways okay the gilded age

0:02:16.319,0:02:23.840
so let me know uh nat what do you

0:02:20.400,0:02:26.720
first off do you know what gilded means

0:02:23.840,0:02:27.840
um gilded is that like oh my gosh i’m

0:02:26.720,0:02:29.200
about to sound

0:02:27.840,0:02:30.879
real stupid but it doesn’t have to do

0:02:29.200,0:02:34.080
with like

0:02:30.879,0:02:34.480
like metal and like gilded i think of

0:02:34.080,0:02:37.680
like

0:02:34.480,0:02:40.959
gold and metal stuff yeah

0:02:37.680,0:02:42.080
yeah gilded well yeah so gilded actually

0:02:40.959,0:02:44.879
means like

0:02:42.080,0:02:46.640
it’s like metal like tin a cheap metal

0:02:44.879,0:02:50.160
and then it’s thinly covered

0:02:46.640,0:02:52.480
with gold paint um and then it also

0:02:50.160,0:02:55.440
means wealthy or privileged

0:02:52.480,0:02:56.319
and the term gilded age was coined by

0:02:55.440,0:02:59.280
mark twain

0:02:56.319,0:02:59.680
and charles dudley warner in their 1873

0:02:59.280,0:03:02.879
book

0:02:59.680,0:03:06.319
the gilded age a tale of today and that

0:03:02.879,0:03:07.280
book was a criticism on basically social

0:03:06.319,0:03:10.560
inequality

0:03:07.280,0:03:12.720
during that time in america and

0:03:10.560,0:03:14.720
it was to draw a contrast between like

0:03:12.720,0:03:15.840
the golden age where the golden age is

0:03:14.720,0:03:17.840
everyone’s doing well

0:03:15.840,0:03:18.879
everyone’s thriving and it’s a golden

0:03:17.840,0:03:23.120
era

0:03:18.879,0:03:25.519
but gilded is kind of a sarcastic

0:03:23.120,0:03:27.120
comment on what’s happening because it

0:03:25.519,0:03:28.000
seems like everything’s great because we

0:03:27.120,0:03:31.599
have these

0:03:28.000,0:03:33.280
mega millionaire billionaires

0:03:31.599,0:03:34.879
but everyone else is suffering so it

0:03:33.280,0:03:37.599
just looks like it’s golden

0:03:34.879,0:03:40.400
it’s actually just gilded that’s tea

0:03:37.599,0:03:42.799
that’s major tea

0:03:40.400,0:03:44.959
so yeah basically america seems great

0:03:42.799,0:03:46.000
but it literally sucked for basically

0:03:44.959,0:03:49.599
everyone

0:03:46.000,0:03:51.360
who wasn’t thriving and this is the time

0:03:49.599,0:03:54.560
period in america of

0:03:51.360,0:03:57.360
the mega wealthy who are known as barons

0:03:54.560,0:03:58.319
so that’s rockefeller that’s carnegie

0:03:57.360,0:04:01.680
vanderbilt

0:03:58.319,0:04:02.080
jp morgan and this is a time where

0:04:01.680,0:04:05.599
there’s

0:04:02.080,0:04:06.080
like huge huge huge monopolies in very

0:04:05.599,0:04:09.599
very

0:04:06.080,0:04:12.159
expensive industries like oil

0:04:09.599,0:04:13.599
and steel and the railroads and also

0:04:12.159,0:04:17.519
finances

0:04:13.599,0:04:19.280
so why did this age start

0:04:17.519,0:04:22.919
so the gilded age started after the

0:04:19.280,0:04:25.919
civil war in 1865 and it ended around

0:04:22.919,0:04:27.680
1898 and do you know why it might have

0:04:25.919,0:04:32.080
ended

0:04:27.680,0:04:34.720
uh the spanish-american war yeah it did

0:04:32.080,0:04:35.919
yes oh my gosh you guys where we talk

0:04:34.720,0:04:37.120
about i feel like we keep bringing up

0:04:35.919,0:04:38.800
spanish-american war

0:04:37.120,0:04:41.520
well we’re gonna do an episode about it

0:04:38.800,0:04:42.080
but yeah we drop it every single episode

0:04:41.520,0:04:44.720
we’re saying

0:04:42.080,0:04:45.280
like we will do the spanish-american war

0:04:44.720,0:04:48.160
but yes

0:04:45.280,0:04:49.680
it ends around 1898 with the

0:04:48.160,0:04:52.720
spanish-american war

0:04:49.680,0:04:54.840
so the reason the gilded age started was

0:04:52.720,0:04:56.800
because we had a second industrial

0:04:54.840,0:04:59.520
revolution so do you remember what the

0:04:56.800,0:05:01.280
first industrial revolution was like

0:04:59.520,0:05:03.039
yeah wasn’t that with the invention of

0:05:01.280,0:05:06.160
like the cotton gin

0:05:03.039,0:05:10.320
um right and it was like

0:05:06.160,0:05:10.320
it was like during the slavery era so

0:05:10.560,0:05:16.720
what’s a cotton gin oh isn’t that like

0:05:13.840,0:05:18.720
they process like you can process cotton

0:05:16.720,0:05:21.039
easily to like turn it into fabric

0:05:18.720,0:05:22.240
yeah like a textile textile mills

0:05:21.039,0:05:23.919
basically

0:05:22.240,0:05:25.280
wait didn’t the first industrial

0:05:23.919,0:05:27.360
revolution start in

0:05:25.280,0:05:28.960
england and like the great britain and

0:05:27.360,0:05:31.440
then like it made its way over to

0:05:28.960,0:05:33.120
yeah it bleeds into the us anyways

0:05:31.440,0:05:36.080
because we’re doing trade with britain

0:05:33.120,0:05:36.880
so any first industrial revolution

0:05:36.080,0:05:38.880
industrial

0:05:36.880,0:05:40.160
revolution is gonna we’re gonna adapt

0:05:38.880,0:05:43.680
that anyways

0:05:40.160,0:05:46.639
gotcha but yeah it’s like textile mills

0:05:43.680,0:05:48.000
um and canal boats and like the steam

0:05:46.639,0:05:50.479
engine

0:05:48.000,0:05:53.759
oh yeah yeah yeah so then the second

0:05:50.479,0:05:56.800
industrial revolution is mainly

0:05:53.759,0:05:59.360
this new process to create

0:05:56.800,0:06:00.880
steel and steel isn’t like a new

0:05:59.360,0:06:05.520
technology they already

0:06:00.880,0:06:07.440
made steel it was just there was a new

0:06:05.520,0:06:09.280
process called the bessemer steel

0:06:07.440,0:06:11.120
process and that’s how you

0:06:09.280,0:06:12.560
that was a way that you blew out like

0:06:11.120,0:06:15.280
toxins within

0:06:12.560,0:06:16.960
the iron to create steel and that would

0:06:15.280,0:06:20.000
make it high quality

0:06:16.960,0:06:23.840
well it produced higher quality steel

0:06:20.000,0:06:26.319
that was faster and cheaper okay

0:06:23.840,0:06:28.160
yeah and then also there’s like the

0:06:26.319,0:06:30.639
assembly line with henry ford

0:06:28.160,0:06:32.479
so that made cars really cheap so much

0:06:30.639,0:06:34.479
so that even his workers could afford to

0:06:32.479,0:06:36.880
buy them which just helped his company

0:06:34.479,0:06:38.160
because then you’re selling more cars

0:06:36.880,0:06:40.319
yeah

0:06:38.160,0:06:42.400
wow okay yeah now this is all coming

0:06:40.319,0:06:44.479
back to me it’s like

0:06:42.400,0:06:46.720
fifth grade i didn’t even remember the

0:06:44.479,0:06:48.000
first one i was like oh yeah canal boats

0:06:46.720,0:06:51.440
that’s a

0:06:48.000,0:06:52.319
that’s a thing okay so then around this

0:06:51.440,0:06:54.800
time too

0:06:52.319,0:06:57.000
with all of this like technology

0:06:54.800,0:06:59.840
emerging and the industrial

0:06:57.000,0:07:02.160
industrialization uh we also see

0:06:59.840,0:07:04.160
an urbanization effect and so

0:07:02.160,0:07:06.479
urbanization is

0:07:04.160,0:07:07.680
basically the process of moving to

0:07:06.479,0:07:11.120
cities from

0:07:07.680,0:07:13.120
outside so during this time before the

0:07:11.120,0:07:14.160
gilded age most people were living in

0:07:13.120,0:07:17.759
rural areas

0:07:14.160,0:07:19.919
and farms and by the late 1800s

0:07:17.759,0:07:22.639
the united states industrial output and

0:07:19.919,0:07:24.560
gdp which is your gross domestic product

0:07:22.639,0:07:26.960
was growing faster than that of any

0:07:24.560,0:07:30.800
other country in the world

0:07:26.960,0:07:34.160
wow yeah and so by 1890

0:07:30.800,0:07:37.360
28 of americans lived in urban areas and

0:07:34.160,0:07:39.360
by 1920 more americans lived in towns

0:07:37.360,0:07:41.360
and cities than in rural areas

0:07:39.360,0:07:42.479
and this was all because of like a

0:07:41.360,0:07:45.199
technological

0:07:42.479,0:07:47.280
advancement stage which not only pushed

0:07:45.199,0:07:50.800
more people from rural areas into

0:07:47.280,0:07:53.840
the cities to find work but also it

0:07:50.800,0:07:57.120
attracted more immigrants from other

0:07:53.840,0:07:59.360
countries mostly europe to pursue

0:07:57.120,0:08:01.599
a better life because the country’s

0:07:59.360,0:08:04.080
growing so fast it was like

0:08:01.599,0:08:05.759
um the american dream kind of starts to

0:08:04.080,0:08:07.360
form where you can build a better life

0:08:05.759,0:08:10.240
for yourself

0:08:07.360,0:08:11.599
wow so there ended up being about 11

0:08:10.240,0:08:14.560
million americans

0:08:11.599,0:08:16.800
so like american-born people who

0:08:14.560,0:08:19.919
migrated from the countryside to cities

0:08:16.800,0:08:22.560
between 1870 and 1920 and then an

0:08:19.919,0:08:25.360
additional 25 million immigrants

0:08:22.560,0:08:27.520
mostly again from europe who hadn’t

0:08:25.360,0:08:30.960
moved to the united states

0:08:27.520,0:08:32.560
wow that’s a lot and another thing too

0:08:30.960,0:08:34.719
for like immigrants not moving

0:08:32.560,0:08:36.159
is mostly because when you move to a new

0:08:34.719,0:08:37.519
country you kind of have to stay with

0:08:36.159,0:08:40.080
your support system

0:08:37.519,0:08:40.560
so you really can’t afford to move that

0:08:40.080,0:08:43.360
far

0:08:40.560,0:08:44.959
out of where you’re first arriving and

0:08:43.360,0:08:47.279
one of the big ports is going to be like

0:08:44.959,0:08:50.399
ellis island in new york

0:08:47.279,0:08:54.640
okay so with

0:08:50.399,0:08:57.680
all of these new jobs the big question

0:08:54.640,0:08:59.920
is who are the laborers and how did they

0:08:57.680,0:09:03.440
get treated

0:08:59.920,0:09:05.920
so with all of these big big fortunes

0:09:03.440,0:09:08.240
that are getting billed during this time

0:09:05.920,0:09:09.680
they were built off of the backs of

0:09:08.240,0:09:13.279
immigrants

0:09:09.680,0:09:16.399
um and one of the biggest examples of

0:09:13.279,0:09:19.279
that is the transcontinental rail

0:09:16.399,0:09:20.880
the trans-continental railroad and we’re

0:09:19.279,0:09:21.680
going to do a whole nother episode in

0:09:20.880,0:09:24.320
depth on this

0:09:21.680,0:09:24.959
because it’s like a very chunky piece of

0:09:24.320,0:09:26.720
history

0:09:24.959,0:09:28.560
in the united states that they often do

0:09:26.720,0:09:31.440
not cover

0:09:28.560,0:09:32.320
but the plan uh for the transcontinental

0:09:31.440,0:09:35.519
railroad

0:09:32.320,0:09:38.640
was to connect the entire usa

0:09:35.519,0:09:41.519
by railroad and so over

0:09:38.640,0:09:43.200
40 000 miles of steel were laid down to

0:09:41.519,0:09:46.720
create the tracks

0:09:43.200,0:09:48.399
and to put that into perspective coast

0:09:46.720,0:09:50.080
to coast if you’re going to drive from

0:09:48.399,0:09:52.080
california to

0:09:50.080,0:09:55.200
new york or like west coast to east

0:09:52.080,0:09:58.080
coast that’s only about 3 000 miles

0:09:55.200,0:09:59.519
and so to lay down 40 000 miles of steel

0:09:58.080,0:10:01.600
they’re really connecting

0:09:59.519,0:10:04.160
all of the united states as much as they

0:10:01.600,0:10:07.120
possibly can i

0:10:04.160,0:10:08.079
can’t imagine i know i know it’s so much

0:10:07.120,0:10:11.360
work

0:10:08.079,0:10:12.800
and because of the railroad they were

0:10:11.360,0:10:15.040
able to greatly improve

0:10:12.800,0:10:16.399
our ability to transport goods across

0:10:15.040,0:10:18.720
the country which helps us

0:10:16.399,0:10:20.720
being self-sufficient as well which will

0:10:18.720,0:10:22.800
just increase our like gdp

0:10:20.720,0:10:25.200
because we can ship things out and we

0:10:22.800,0:10:28.640
don’t have to depend so heavily on trade

0:10:25.200,0:10:29.680
yeah that’s huge and the railroad was

0:10:28.640,0:10:33.120
built by

0:10:29.680,0:10:34.480
90 percent chinese immigrants so that’s

0:10:33.120,0:10:36.720
like

0:10:34.480,0:10:38.160
of the workers 90 of them are chinese

0:10:36.720,0:10:41.200
they’re not like i’m a 90

0:10:38.160,0:10:42.320
chinese person just to like clarify when

0:10:41.200,0:10:44.720
i said that i was like

0:10:42.320,0:10:45.519
is that clear to everyone anyways and

0:10:44.720,0:10:47.519
then

0:10:45.519,0:10:49.600
like the last 10 percent were irish

0:10:47.519,0:10:52.320
immigrants which we can go into more but

0:10:49.600,0:10:54.800
irish immigrants were actually seen as

0:10:52.320,0:10:55.760
um non-whites and they were treated

0:10:54.800,0:10:57.839
probably the worst

0:10:55.760,0:10:59.680
out of potentially the worst i don’t

0:10:57.839,0:11:01.279
want to say that like for sure but they

0:10:59.680,0:11:04.959
were treated potentially

0:11:01.279,0:11:06.320
the worst um out of like the white class

0:11:04.959,0:11:08.240
they weren’t treated very well

0:11:06.320,0:11:10.000
it was built by like mostly chinese

0:11:08.240,0:11:10.720
immigrants and the chinese immigrants

0:11:10.000,0:11:14.079
were always

0:11:10.720,0:11:16.079
paid less than their white counterparts

0:11:14.079,0:11:19.200
which were usually irish

0:11:16.079,0:11:20.480
immigrants i know and they would like go

0:11:19.200,0:11:23.279
on strike a lot

0:11:20.480,0:11:24.959
to protest the injustice and they never

0:11:23.279,0:11:27.920
did get to the same fair

0:11:24.959,0:11:28.880
like but they never got to equal wages

0:11:27.920,0:11:32.600
wow

0:11:28.880,0:11:33.920
yeah so the railroad finished in may of

0:11:32.600,0:11:36.240
1869

0:11:33.920,0:11:37.680
and this was a project of leland

0:11:36.240,0:11:40.320
stanford who is the

0:11:37.680,0:11:43.200
founder of stanford university and he

0:11:40.320,0:11:45.200
got extremely wealthy from the railroad

0:11:43.200,0:11:46.880
and the work of chinese immigrants and

0:11:45.200,0:11:49.920
it’s just ironic

0:11:46.880,0:11:51.760
because leland stanford is was the

0:11:49.920,0:11:54.320
governor of california

0:11:51.760,0:11:56.639
and his campaign was made on the basis

0:11:54.320,0:11:59.360
of being anti-chinese

0:11:56.639,0:12:01.200
so basically he advocated against giving

0:11:59.360,0:12:04.240
chinese people rights

0:12:01.200,0:12:05.680
and he abused them during their time

0:12:04.240,0:12:08.160
working on the railroads

0:12:05.680,0:12:09.040
and then he became like disgustingly

0:12:08.160,0:12:12.240
rich

0:12:09.040,0:12:16.079
because of them so

0:12:12.240,0:12:18.079
so upsetting i had no idea

0:12:16.079,0:12:19.600
yeah it’s pretty sad and like fun fact

0:12:18.079,0:12:22.560
i’m half chinese and

0:12:19.600,0:12:24.000
like this didn’t affect my ancestors so

0:12:22.560,0:12:24.720
much as like they didn’t work on the

0:12:24.000,0:12:29.360
railroad

0:12:24.720,0:12:32.000
but the next thing did so in 1882

0:12:29.360,0:12:33.120
the chinese exclusion act was put into

0:12:32.000,0:12:35.760
place so

0:12:33.120,0:12:37.360
the railroad gets finished in 1869 you

0:12:35.760,0:12:38.000
have this huge group of immigrants who

0:12:37.360,0:12:40.399
just worked so

0:12:38.000,0:12:41.680
hard to build it and now what they’ve

0:12:40.399,0:12:43.519
built has

0:12:41.680,0:12:44.959
extremely benefited the country beyond

0:12:43.519,0:12:46.880
our greatest like

0:12:44.959,0:12:48.720
imagination it’s connecting us it’s

0:12:46.880,0:12:52.320
increasing like our output

0:12:48.720,0:12:54.000
and then they decided to ban all chinese

0:12:52.320,0:12:56.240
immigrants like a complete ban

0:12:54.000,0:12:58.399
no immigration from china at all so that

0:12:56.240,0:13:00.000
did affect my family because my family

0:12:58.399,0:13:02.639
was not able to come to the us

0:13:00.000,0:13:04.000
and they immigrated to malaysia instead

0:13:02.639,0:13:06.880
so

0:13:04.000,0:13:08.959
the chinese exclusion act not only bans

0:13:06.880,0:13:10.639
chinese immigrants but it also denies

0:13:08.959,0:13:13.519
the ones who were are

0:13:10.639,0:13:15.440
already there who built the railroad

0:13:13.519,0:13:18.839
that it denied them citizenship and it

0:13:15.440,0:13:20.399
also segregated them from the rest of

0:13:18.839,0:13:23.680
society

0:13:20.399,0:13:26.480
awful yeah it’s so disgusting

0:13:23.680,0:13:27.600
like oh thanks for your cheap labor and

0:13:26.480,0:13:30.800
like thanks for

0:13:27.600,0:13:34.639
like working extremely hard over this

0:13:30.800,0:13:38.000
railroad and like now get out like yeah

0:13:34.639,0:13:41.519
that’s so upsetting it’s horrific

0:13:38.000,0:13:42.639
but it’s a reoccurring theme in american

0:13:41.519,0:13:45.199
history

0:13:42.639,0:13:47.279
okay so yeah the exclusion act uh was

0:13:45.199,0:13:51.120
not fully lifted until the immigration

0:13:47.279,0:13:52.880
and nationality act of 1965. so

0:13:51.120,0:13:55.279
you’re wondering why there aren’t a ton

0:13:52.880,0:13:58.240
of chinese immigrants where you’re from

0:13:55.279,0:13:59.360
could be it wow that’s such a long

0:13:58.240,0:14:01.279
period of time

0:13:59.360,0:14:03.839
yeah literally they started to lift it

0:14:01.279,0:14:07.120
in 1943 but it was a quota

0:14:03.839,0:14:09.199
of only 105 max

0:14:07.120,0:14:11.440
chinese immigrants could be taken in per

0:14:09.199,0:14:13.760
year and so it was like a

0:14:11.440,0:14:16.240
very very very tiny amount would be let

0:14:13.760,0:14:18.000
in and then 1965 they finally got rid of

0:14:16.240,0:14:20.240
it

0:14:18.000,0:14:22.639
that’s like really recently i did not

0:14:20.240,0:14:26.880
realize it took that long

0:14:22.639,0:14:30.240
to be repealed holy moly wild

0:14:26.880,0:14:31.440
so um so those workers work six days a

0:14:30.240,0:14:34.320
week and they made

0:14:31.440,0:14:34.800
26 dollars a month which is a little

0:14:34.320,0:14:38.560
over

0:14:34.800,0:14:41.920
one dollar a day and that’s about 31

0:14:38.560,0:14:42.720
today so roughly only three dollars an

0:14:41.920,0:14:45.519
hour

0:14:42.720,0:14:46.399
in today’s money and that’s being

0:14:45.519,0:14:49.600
conservative

0:14:46.399,0:14:51.519
with me considering i’m i’m saying that

0:14:49.600,0:14:53.440
they worked only 10 hours a day and

0:14:51.519,0:14:56.560
that’s a conservative estimate

0:14:53.440,0:14:57.680
yeah i’m sure it was and it’s like hard

0:14:56.560,0:15:00.000
labor

0:14:57.680,0:15:01.199
jeez yeah a lot of them died you would

0:15:00.000,0:15:04.320
get paid

0:15:01.199,0:15:05.519
um one extra dollar if you did the

0:15:04.320,0:15:07.519
tunneling work

0:15:05.519,0:15:08.720
which is the most dangerous part that’s

0:15:07.519,0:15:10.480
where a lot of

0:15:08.720,0:15:12.000
people would die because the tunnels

0:15:10.480,0:15:15.279
would cave in on them

0:15:12.000,0:15:18.399
oh my god that’s so scary that’s

0:15:15.279,0:15:21.120
awful with that extra dollar though

0:15:18.399,0:15:21.839
yeah but like if you’re getting paid so

0:15:21.120,0:15:24.079
little

0:15:21.839,0:15:24.880
like one dollar like that’s a third of

0:15:24.079,0:15:26.800
your

0:15:24.880,0:15:28.959
it’s ridiculous and the wage gap was

0:15:26.800,0:15:32.560
about nine dollars between

0:15:28.959,0:15:35.279
chinese and irish workers oh man

0:15:32.560,0:15:37.440
yeah anyway so that’s just the biggest

0:15:35.279,0:15:38.959
example i wanted to put into there

0:15:37.440,0:15:40.959
there are bad working conditions

0:15:38.959,0:15:43.120
basically all around for immigrants

0:15:40.959,0:15:44.959
but that is one of the biggest ones and

0:15:43.120,0:15:46.720
overall

0:15:44.959,0:15:48.079
yeah bad working conditions in the

0:15:46.720,0:15:51.360
cities for immigrants

0:15:48.079,0:15:54.160
they all lived in very tiny rooms with

0:15:51.360,0:15:56.639
sometimes 10 of them crammed in together

0:15:54.160,0:15:57.759
with basically no light there’s no light

0:15:56.639,0:16:00.480
in these

0:15:57.759,0:16:02.000
tiny rooms and all the fortunes that

0:16:00.480,0:16:03.839
we’re going to talk about were built on

0:16:02.000,0:16:06.000
the backs

0:16:03.839,0:16:07.440
and labor of immigrants there are lots

0:16:06.000,0:16:09.920
of preventable deaths

0:16:07.440,0:16:11.040
they’re very long work days bad working

0:16:09.920,0:16:12.720
conditions

0:16:11.040,0:16:14.399
and a book that i think i’m going to

0:16:12.720,0:16:15.279
read we were supposed to read this in

0:16:14.399,0:16:17.279
high school but i

0:16:15.279,0:16:18.399
did not read it because i wasn’t a

0:16:17.279,0:16:21.040
reader in high school

0:16:18.399,0:16:23.199
but if you’re interested you can read

0:16:21.040,0:16:25.680
the jungle by upton sinclair

0:16:23.199,0:16:27.920
it’s a 1906 novel that illustrates the

0:16:25.680,0:16:30.959
harsh working conditions in chicago

0:16:27.920,0:16:34.160
specifically the meat industry i think

0:16:30.959,0:16:36.480
yeah yeah did you read it no

0:16:34.160,0:16:38.639
because like i was so scared i was like

0:16:36.480,0:16:41.839
a vegetarian for so long and i was like

0:16:38.639,0:16:43.759
i’m scared to read about me like i think

0:16:41.839,0:16:45.360
it’s a really important book i

0:16:43.759,0:16:47.920
should read it this leads to the

0:16:45.360,0:16:49.360
question how bad was the wealth gap in

0:16:47.920,0:16:52.959
the gilded age

0:16:49.360,0:16:55.920
so there’s a very sharp contrast

0:16:52.959,0:16:57.199
to the poor immigrant workers that we

0:16:55.920,0:17:00.399
just talked about

0:16:57.199,0:17:01.199
and so on the complete other end of the

0:17:00.399,0:17:03.519
spectrum

0:17:01.199,0:17:05.120
are what are known as barons they’re

0:17:03.519,0:17:06.799
also called robber barons

0:17:05.120,0:17:09.360
just because basically like the amount

0:17:06.799,0:17:12.959
of wealth they had was criminal

0:17:09.360,0:17:14.400
um and they really exploited the flaws

0:17:12.959,0:17:17.199
of capitalism

0:17:14.400,0:17:19.360
to the worst extent which also in case

0:17:17.199,0:17:22.079
anyone doesn’t know

0:17:19.360,0:17:23.280
nat do you want to define capitalism

0:17:22.079,0:17:26.559
capitalism

0:17:23.280,0:17:28.400
the definition of capitalism um it’s

0:17:26.559,0:17:32.640
like

0:17:28.400,0:17:35.360
yeah market market determined

0:17:32.640,0:17:37.200
it’s a free market so the government

0:17:35.360,0:17:41.120
like doesn’t get involved

0:17:37.200,0:17:44.400
with the market economy

0:17:41.120,0:17:47.679
and they leave it up to like consumers

0:17:44.400,0:17:48.559
and companies yeah and like competition

0:17:47.679,0:17:51.600
is good

0:17:48.559,0:17:52.880
in capitalism so basically everyone gets

0:17:51.600,0:17:55.919
to compete

0:17:52.880,0:17:56.960
and everyone can own like

0:17:55.919,0:17:59.039
entrepreneurship

0:17:56.960,0:18:00.559
is stuff i don’t have a textbook

0:17:59.039,0:18:03.039
definition for capitalism but

0:18:00.559,0:18:04.880
anyways so they made their well through

0:18:03.039,0:18:07.679
the monopolization

0:18:04.880,0:18:07.679
monopolization

0:18:09.480,0:18:13.039
monopolization of huge industries like

0:18:12.240,0:18:16.640
oil

0:18:13.039,0:18:20.480
steel railroads and financing

0:18:16.640,0:18:22.160
um jp morgan dominated corporate finance

0:18:20.480,0:18:26.240
on wall street

0:18:22.160,0:18:29.440
and okay this the stat is literally wild

0:18:26.240,0:18:30.000
but they were as calculated making ten

0:18:29.440,0:18:33.039
dollars

0:18:30.000,0:18:33.600
a minute in their time so ten dollars a

0:18:33.039,0:18:37.880
minute

0:18:33.600,0:18:42.000
back in the late 1800s and that’s about

0:18:37.880,0:18:44.320
310 a minute in today’s terms

0:18:42.000,0:18:45.600
which is approximately eighteen thousand

0:18:44.320,0:18:48.640
six hundred dollars an

0:18:45.600,0:18:49.520
hour which is way more than i make i

0:18:48.640,0:18:51.200
don’t know about you

0:18:49.520,0:18:53.919
now if you’re like a secret wealthy

0:18:51.200,0:18:57.280
person uh i wish

0:18:53.919,0:18:59.200
i was like what you couldn’t and

0:18:57.280,0:19:00.640
maybe okay there’s a big range too

0:18:59.200,0:19:02.799
because rockefeller

0:19:00.640,0:19:04.640
is by far the wealthiest out of all the

0:19:02.799,0:19:05.679
barons we’re going to talk about he’s

0:19:04.640,0:19:08.400
like

0:19:05.679,0:19:10.400
i will tell you how much he makes in a

0:19:08.400,0:19:12.960
bet but he’s way wealthier

0:19:10.400,0:19:14.880
and so this estimate is more like an

0:19:12.960,0:19:18.240
average between all of the barons

0:19:14.880,0:19:21.360
but that’s insane like 18

0:19:18.240,0:19:23.120
600 an hour

0:19:21.360,0:19:24.799
do you know how much bezos makes is it

0:19:23.120,0:19:27.200
like similar

0:19:24.799,0:19:28.640
to that bezos hun okay i’m just gonna go

0:19:27.200,0:19:31.440
right into the next die

0:19:28.640,0:19:33.039
uh rockefeller’s wealth and rock okay

0:19:31.440,0:19:34.960
john d rockefeller for anyone who

0:19:33.039,0:19:36.559
doesn’t know he was the founder of the

0:19:34.960,0:19:39.280
standard oil company

0:19:36.559,0:19:41.039
which was the monopoly and then i should

0:19:39.280,0:19:43.600
define monopoly monopoly

0:19:41.039,0:19:44.799
is basically if you ever played the game

0:19:43.600,0:19:46.799
monopoly

0:19:44.799,0:19:49.520
your the goal of that is to make sure

0:19:46.799,0:19:51.840
that you buy up as much property so that

0:19:49.520,0:19:53.200
anytime someone lands they’re always

0:19:51.840,0:19:56.320
paying you money

0:19:53.200,0:19:59.520
i guess and so in

0:19:56.320,0:20:02.720
the real world a monopoly is

0:19:59.520,0:20:05.200
where you hold so many companies or

0:20:02.720,0:20:07.200
control of so much of an industry

0:20:05.200,0:20:09.360
that people have no choice but to come

0:20:07.200,0:20:10.799
to you and when that happens it’s really

0:20:09.360,0:20:13.919
bad because then

0:20:10.799,0:20:16.159
without competition there’s no

0:20:13.919,0:20:18.159
limitation on how you can price your

0:20:16.159,0:20:18.720
products so with the standard oil

0:20:18.159,0:20:21.600
company

0:20:18.720,0:20:22.880
since rockefeller held a monopoly on all

0:20:21.600,0:20:25.919
oil companies

0:20:22.880,0:20:27.200
if you need oil which basically every

0:20:25.919,0:20:29.280
industry does

0:20:27.200,0:20:30.559
you have no choice but to get oil from

0:20:29.280,0:20:32.159
rockefeller and

0:20:30.559,0:20:34.080
since no one else is competing with

0:20:32.159,0:20:37.520
rockefeller he can just price oil

0:20:34.080,0:20:40.799
as high as he wants to price it so

0:20:37.520,0:20:45.039
he made a ton of money and at his

0:20:40.799,0:20:49.120
peak he was worth about 318.3 billion

0:20:45.039,0:20:50.799
in today’s money whoa but that’s

0:20:49.120,0:20:52.640
ridiculous and to put that into

0:20:50.799,0:20:54.320
perspective the richest man in the world

0:20:52.640,0:20:57.559
right now jeff bezos

0:20:54.320,0:21:01.679
is currently only at a measly

0:20:57.559,0:21:05.280
189 billion his pocket change

0:21:01.679,0:21:07.440
for a rockefeller like i don’t think

0:21:05.280,0:21:08.640
mentally can you comprehend a billion

0:21:07.440,0:21:10.720
dollars can you come

0:21:08.640,0:21:13.039
okay just think about a million and

0:21:10.720,0:21:13.919
that’s like a hundred times that is one

0:21:13.039,0:21:17.600
billion

0:21:13.919,0:21:19.760
and bezos has a hundred of those

0:21:17.600,0:21:21.600
plus 89 more of those and then

0:21:19.760,0:21:25.600
rockefeller has 300

0:21:21.600,0:21:28.320
plus 18 like it’s it’s an insane amount

0:21:25.600,0:21:31.520
of wealth like you can’t even imagine

0:21:28.320,0:21:33.600
how much there’s literally like there’s

0:21:31.520,0:21:35.600
a website and it’s like

0:21:33.600,0:21:37.280
like something like spend can you spend

0:21:35.600,0:21:39.120
bill gates money because he

0:21:37.280,0:21:41.039
bill gates also has a lot of money not

0:21:39.120,0:21:43.360
as much as jeff bezos or

0:21:41.039,0:21:44.799
rockefeller but a lot and like literally

0:21:43.360,0:21:46.400
it’s like you could like buy like a cup

0:21:44.799,0:21:47.919
of coffee and like you could see like

0:21:46.400,0:21:50.159
your total net worth and like

0:21:47.919,0:21:51.679
one cup of coffee like there’s nothing

0:21:50.159,0:21:53.360
and it’s it’s just funny

0:21:51.679,0:21:55.840
to see like how much stuff people buy

0:21:53.360,0:21:56.880
because i cannot i cannot like mentally

0:21:55.840,0:21:59.919
comprehend

0:21:56.880,0:22:01.919
that much money like oh my gosh i could

0:21:59.919,0:22:04.240
pay off my loans like

0:22:01.919,0:22:05.520
i could your loans are pocket change

0:22:04.240,0:22:08.960
it’s a penny to them

0:22:05.520,0:22:10.960
it’s nothing oh my god okay jeffy

0:22:08.960,0:22:12.799
here what do you think about even like

0:22:10.960,0:22:15.039
what is it the kardashians they’re

0:22:12.799,0:22:16.400
like they’re so wealthy and famous and

0:22:15.039,0:22:18.159
everything

0:22:16.400,0:22:19.600
like they don’t even have a billion

0:22:18.159,0:22:22.480
dollars

0:22:19.600,0:22:23.919
like it’s nothing if there are any

0:22:22.480,0:22:26.559
billionaires listening

0:22:23.919,0:22:29.280
please consider donating please become a

0:22:26.559,0:22:32.640
history hero and sponsor us on patreon

0:22:29.280,0:22:36.320
yeah it’s only three dollars a month

0:22:32.640,0:22:41.360
please it’s like not even a

0:22:36.320,0:22:45.440
penny to you

0:22:41.360,0:22:48.960
yeah so wild it’s incredible wealth um

0:22:45.440,0:22:50.320
and also so another big barren during

0:22:48.960,0:22:53.679
this time

0:22:50.320,0:22:56.640
is vanderbilt so

0:22:53.679,0:22:58.400
i don’t really know specifically what is

0:22:56.640,0:22:58.880
it cornelius vanderbilt let me look it

0:22:58.400,0:23:00.960
up

0:22:58.880,0:23:02.720
i don’t even know i think of vanderbilt

0:23:00.960,0:23:06.159
i think it’s serena vanderbilt from

0:23:02.720,0:23:07.280
gossip oh my god is she a vanderbilt in

0:23:06.159,0:23:08.799
that show

0:23:07.280,0:23:10.559
well she’s on vanderbilt i guess i don’t

0:23:08.799,0:23:12.159
know if she’s like the vanderbilt

0:23:10.559,0:23:14.400
i would imagine because her family is

0:23:12.159,0:23:17.360
like super rich you know who is a

0:23:14.400,0:23:17.919
vanderbilt um anderson cooper did you

0:23:17.360,0:23:22.159
know that

0:23:17.919,0:23:22.559
no oh yeah his mom’s a vanderville what

0:23:22.159,0:23:24.640
the heck

0:23:22.559,0:23:26.080
he’s super wealthy i found that out when

0:23:24.640,0:23:29.280
i was researching and i was like

0:23:26.080,0:23:31.200
anderson cooper what random

0:23:29.280,0:23:33.679
i mean probably not but like he’s such a

0:23:31.200,0:23:35.840
nice guy too i was like oh my god

0:23:33.679,0:23:37.200
but honestly the wealth has been like

0:23:35.840,0:23:39.840
diluted

0:23:37.200,0:23:41.360
for the generation so they’re still

0:23:39.840,0:23:44.640
obviously really wealthy like he

0:23:41.360,0:23:48.320
inherited like 1.5 million but it’s like

0:23:44.640,0:23:50.640
i mean whatever it’s not like yeah

0:23:48.320,0:23:52.080
i’ll take it if you’re gonna give it to

0:23:50.640,0:23:54.000
me

0:23:52.080,0:23:56.480
anyways so yeah it’s cornelius

0:23:54.000,0:23:59.679
vanderbilt so cornelius vanderbilt

0:23:56.480,0:24:01.279
built his wealth through railroads and

0:23:59.679,0:24:04.640
shipping

0:24:01.279,0:24:06.320
and um something interesting is

0:24:04.640,0:24:07.840
uh because like how are these people

0:24:06.320,0:24:10.080
spending their money right so

0:24:07.840,0:24:10.960
vanderbilt built these really huge

0:24:10.080,0:24:13.679
estates

0:24:10.960,0:24:16.159
and an estate is basically a big house

0:24:13.679,0:24:16.880
and a lot of land just tons of acres of

0:24:16.159,0:24:20.880
it

0:24:16.880,0:24:22.559
so um i actually went to

0:24:20.880,0:24:24.240
one of his estates it’s called the

0:24:22.559,0:24:25.120
biltmore estate and that’s in north

0:24:24.240,0:24:27.279
carolina

0:24:25.120,0:24:28.799
which i also just realized when i was

0:24:27.279,0:24:30.799
doing this research that that is only

0:24:28.799,0:24:32.159
one of their estates that’s not they

0:24:30.799,0:24:34.720
have multiple estates

0:24:32.159,0:24:37.039
but this is just one and i i don’t even

0:24:34.720,0:24:38.159
think it’s cornelius’s it was one of his

0:24:37.039,0:24:41.360
descendants

0:24:38.159,0:24:44.159
who built this estate just for himself

0:24:41.360,0:24:45.840
it is if you can go just search biltmore

0:24:44.159,0:24:47.600
estate and go buy some tickets and go to

0:24:45.840,0:24:49.600
north carolina and check it out

0:24:47.600,0:24:50.799
if you can go it is literally the most

0:24:49.600,0:24:53.440
greedy thing

0:24:50.799,0:24:53.840
you will ever lay your eyes on the house

0:24:53.440,0:24:55.679
is

0:24:53.840,0:24:57.279
huge i just remember walking through and

0:24:55.679,0:25:00.240
i was like why does this exist

0:24:57.279,0:25:02.240
like who who needed this much it’s i

0:25:00.240,0:25:03.120
don’t even like so many rooms and

0:25:02.240,0:25:05.919
there’s like

0:25:03.120,0:25:06.559
golden maybe gilded maybe not golden but

0:25:05.919,0:25:08.880
like

0:25:06.559,0:25:10.880
just like golden um what are they called

0:25:08.880,0:25:14.240
the things like that people put

0:25:10.880,0:25:16.640
like in their houses like on the corners

0:25:14.240,0:25:17.679
you don’t have any like the the things

0:25:16.640,0:25:21.840
like on the bottom

0:25:17.679,0:25:23.600
oh i’m too poor i’m just kidding i know

0:25:21.840,0:25:25.520
like what you’re talking about i don’t

0:25:23.600,0:25:26.640
know they’re like crown crownings maybe

0:25:25.520,0:25:29.440
or something

0:25:26.640,0:25:30.720
crowning yeah maybe crownings yeah

0:25:29.440,0:25:32.799
something like that i don’t

0:25:30.720,0:25:34.080
even know what to google like yeah like

0:25:32.799,0:25:36.320
an image search or something

0:25:34.080,0:25:38.240
but yeah they had like golden gold

0:25:36.320,0:25:41.120
everywhere like golden accents

0:25:38.240,0:25:42.400
um and they would have they had a

0:25:41.120,0:25:44.559
swimming pool

0:25:42.400,0:25:46.960
in the basement and they had a bowling

0:25:44.559,0:25:49.120
alley and the swimming pool’s nice

0:25:46.960,0:25:50.000
like i would use it in a whole changing

0:25:49.120,0:25:54.000
room

0:25:50.000,0:25:54.720
and um yeah it’s just an insane amount

0:25:54.000,0:25:57.120
of wealth

0:25:54.720,0:25:58.559
and keep in mind that’s like late 1800s

0:25:57.120,0:26:00.320
just that much wealth

0:25:58.559,0:26:02.480
and they’re not just paying for all of

0:26:00.320,0:26:04.000
that land and all like this enormous

0:26:02.480,0:26:05.360
house you’re also paying for all of

0:26:04.000,0:26:07.360
these servants

0:26:05.360,0:26:08.840
too who run the house and clean the

0:26:07.360,0:26:10.720
house

0:26:08.840,0:26:11.919
so yeah hopefully

0:26:10.720,0:26:14.240
[Music]

0:26:11.919,0:26:15.360
a whole city like you’re like employing

0:26:14.240,0:26:17.279
the whole town

0:26:15.360,0:26:18.960
it literally is like a that just shows

0:26:17.279,0:26:21.520
you

0:26:18.960,0:26:22.799
how much how ridiculous the amount of

0:26:21.520,0:26:26.799
wealth

0:26:22.799,0:26:30.799
it was in the 1800s

0:26:26.799,0:26:33.200
so as you might ask

0:26:30.799,0:26:35.360
as i did why were those people allowed

0:26:33.200,0:26:36.720
to get so wealthy and why were other

0:26:35.360,0:26:38.559
people so poor

0:26:36.720,0:26:40.159
like how did that happen why did no one

0:26:38.559,0:26:41.440
say anything so

0:26:40.159,0:26:43.360
during this time there’s actually

0:26:41.440,0:26:46.000
something called the social darwinism

0:26:43.360,0:26:46.000
mindset

0:26:46.320,0:26:52.640
so as you may know charles darwin

0:26:49.760,0:26:54.240
in 1859 published this book on the

0:26:52.640,0:26:57.200
theory of evolution

0:26:54.240,0:26:58.880
and this became known as darwinism no

0:26:57.200,0:27:01.440
not social darwinism

0:26:58.880,0:27:02.640
so people twisted the concept of

0:27:01.440,0:27:04.880
darwinism

0:27:02.640,0:27:06.159
and they created a field called social

0:27:04.880,0:27:09.600
darwinism

0:27:06.159,0:27:11.679
and basically social darwinism was used

0:27:09.600,0:27:14.960
as a justification for racism

0:27:11.679,0:27:18.159
sexism and poverty in the world

0:27:14.960,0:27:19.440
and herbert spencer spearheaded this

0:27:18.159,0:27:21.520
philosophy saying

0:27:19.440,0:27:23.600
you shouldn’t help the poor because it

0:27:21.520,0:27:25.039
was survival of the fittest

0:27:23.600,0:27:28.480
and by helping the poor you’re

0:27:25.039,0:27:31.279
preventing weaker genes from dying out

0:27:28.480,0:27:32.399
so we’re going to go into why this is

0:27:31.279,0:27:34.080
wrong

0:27:32.399,0:27:35.520
basically in case you didn’t know it

0:27:34.080,0:27:38.559
gives you things like

0:27:35.520,0:27:41.520
oh sounds about right like um

0:27:38.559,0:27:42.320
which i think like okay if i were like

0:27:41.520,0:27:45.679
growing up

0:27:42.320,0:27:48.159
and i like heard darwinism

0:27:45.679,0:27:50.559
maybe if i if you didn’t talk to me more

0:27:48.159,0:27:53.279
about evolution if i just heard about

0:27:50.559,0:27:55.039
like the theory of evolution i might

0:27:53.279,0:27:55.840
come to this incorrect conclusion as

0:27:55.039,0:27:57.679
well

0:27:55.840,0:27:59.200
and so we’re going to talk about why

0:27:57.679,0:28:01.200
it’s not what i feel like

0:27:59.200,0:28:03.039
oh i just was going to say like i feel

0:28:01.200,0:28:05.360
like rich people

0:28:03.039,0:28:06.960
wealthy people at the time and today too

0:28:05.360,0:28:09.440
like trying to use this mindset

0:28:06.960,0:28:10.480
to like make themselves feel better like

0:28:09.440,0:28:12.000
oh no i

0:28:10.480,0:28:14.000
like deserve this amount of wealth

0:28:12.000,0:28:16.320
because i work hard and like it’s not

0:28:14.000,0:28:17.039
just because i inherited it like i work

0:28:16.320,0:28:19.200
harder

0:28:17.039,0:28:21.039
than like people who don’t have as much

0:28:19.200,0:28:22.640
wealth when like

0:28:21.039,0:28:24.559
that’s not true that’s not the whole

0:28:22.640,0:28:27.679
picture but yeah

0:28:24.559,0:28:30.799
yeah and it’s not like not to discredit

0:28:27.679,0:28:32.960
obviously like to build empires and

0:28:30.799,0:28:36.320
entrepreneurs you do have to work hard

0:28:32.960,0:28:39.520
but everyone’s got certain benefits

0:28:36.320,0:28:42.080
especially all these barons so

0:28:39.520,0:28:43.279
the reason why social darwinism is wrong

0:28:42.080,0:28:45.360
is because

0:28:43.279,0:28:47.200
a lot of people will wrongly think about

0:28:45.360,0:28:48.720
evolution in terms of a linear

0:28:47.200,0:28:51.120
progression

0:28:48.720,0:28:52.720
uh like you see with there’s that one

0:28:51.120,0:28:54.799
picture and it’s like the ape

0:28:52.720,0:28:56.880
that turns into the human people think

0:28:54.799,0:29:00.240
that it’s like a linear

0:28:56.880,0:29:00.559
thing so the human is more developed

0:29:00.240,0:29:03.679
than

0:29:00.559,0:29:05.200
an ape so we are by nature superior

0:29:03.679,0:29:07.360
and that’s incorrect that’s not the

0:29:05.200,0:29:09.919
correct way to think about evolution

0:29:07.360,0:29:11.440
i also blame evernote here i also blame

0:29:09.919,0:29:13.039
the pokemon game

0:29:11.440,0:29:14.559
uh for distorting how we think about

0:29:13.039,0:29:16.399
evolving because even i

0:29:14.559,0:29:18.080
like i’ve thought about evolution

0:29:16.399,0:29:20.559
incorrectly as well because

0:29:18.080,0:29:21.360
when your pokemon evolves unless you

0:29:20.559,0:29:23.679
press b

0:29:21.360,0:29:25.520
you don’t stunt its growth and so when

0:29:23.679,0:29:26.559
it evolves it’s supposed to become this

0:29:25.520,0:29:29.120
like stronger

0:29:26.559,0:29:31.039
better creature and that’s actually not

0:29:29.120,0:29:33.279
how evolution works

0:29:31.039,0:29:35.200
yeah so evolution is not a time thing

0:29:33.279,0:29:37.600
where other species

0:29:35.200,0:29:38.960
are less evolved or have not been

0:29:37.600,0:29:41.200
evolving for as much

0:29:38.960,0:29:42.559
time basically everything that you see

0:29:41.200,0:29:45.440
today has been

0:29:42.559,0:29:48.159
evolving for the same amount of time

0:29:45.440,0:29:51.679
evolution is when the adaptations or

0:29:48.159,0:29:54.159
traits or mutations that suit a species

0:29:51.679,0:29:54.720
better for a specific environment will

0:29:54.159,0:29:56.480
survive

0:29:54.720,0:29:58.399
and thrive better than others without

0:29:56.480,0:29:59.039
the same gene but they’re coming from

0:29:58.399,0:30:02.080
the same

0:29:59.039,0:30:02.880
shared ancestor so it helps if you think

0:30:02.080,0:30:05.760
of it like

0:30:02.880,0:30:06.640
a tree where the branches will come out

0:30:05.760,0:30:09.840
and

0:30:06.640,0:30:11.440
maybe like there’s more leaves on one

0:30:09.840,0:30:12.880
branch than the other but it doesn’t

0:30:11.440,0:30:14.640
mean that the branches

0:30:12.880,0:30:16.159
one branch is more superior because

0:30:14.640,0:30:17.200
you’re coming from the same branch if

0:30:16.159,0:30:19.440
that makes sense

0:30:17.200,0:30:20.240
i think that’s a bad example yeah i get

0:30:19.440,0:30:23.679
that

0:30:20.240,0:30:25.919
okay but yeah it’s basically like

0:30:23.679,0:30:27.360
there’s a good beetle example but

0:30:25.919,0:30:30.480
basically like

0:30:27.360,0:30:31.279
um they’re like there’s like a group of

0:30:30.480,0:30:34.880
beetles

0:30:31.279,0:30:36.880
and the beetles are some beetles are

0:30:34.880,0:30:39.200
green some beetles are blue

0:30:36.880,0:30:40.960
and in their environment and it’s

0:30:39.200,0:30:42.880
because there’s a genetic mutation that

0:30:40.960,0:30:45.120
some are blue some are green

0:30:42.880,0:30:47.520
and in the environment there happens to

0:30:45.120,0:30:49.919
be a lot of green foliage

0:30:47.520,0:30:50.880
and the birds in the environment that

0:30:49.919,0:30:52.720
eat beetles

0:30:50.880,0:30:54.559
are having a better time seeing the blue

0:30:52.720,0:30:57.679
ones instead of the green ones

0:30:54.559,0:31:01.200
so just in that environment there

0:30:57.679,0:31:02.559
happens to be more green beetle survival

0:31:01.200,0:31:04.000
because they’re blending in and the blue

0:31:02.559,0:31:04.880
ones aren’t it doesn’t mean that the

0:31:04.000,0:31:07.279
blue ones

0:31:04.880,0:31:07.919
are inferior to the green ones it just

0:31:07.279,0:31:10.399
means

0:31:07.919,0:31:11.360
in that scenario like in that specific

0:31:10.399,0:31:14.080
environment

0:31:11.360,0:31:14.880
those traits were able to live on that’s

0:31:14.080,0:31:18.399
why you see

0:31:14.880,0:31:20.880
trait variation between species

0:31:18.399,0:31:23.360
wow you did a good job explaining that

0:31:20.880,0:31:25.760
we should become a science podcast

0:31:23.360,0:31:27.600
if history doesn’t work out special

0:31:25.760,0:31:30.559
season yeah

0:31:27.600,0:31:31.679
so a lot of people today even still

0:31:30.559,0:31:34.720
think this way

0:31:31.679,0:31:37.360
especially with poorer countries so

0:31:34.720,0:31:39.200
for example with a lot of african

0:31:37.360,0:31:41.440
countries a lot of people

0:31:39.200,0:31:43.200
modern day like to claim that africans

0:31:41.440,0:31:45.919
by nature are inferior

0:31:43.200,0:31:46.880
or not as smart or civilized and that

0:31:45.919,0:31:49.279
these are why

0:31:46.880,0:31:50.880
these countries are poor and that

0:31:49.279,0:31:52.960
completely ignores the fact that

0:31:50.880,0:31:54.399
westernized countries have been stealing

0:31:52.960,0:31:58.000
natural resources

0:31:54.399,0:32:00.799
including human labor slavery

0:31:58.000,0:32:01.760
for over 400 years and they continue to

0:32:00.799,0:32:04.559
do so

0:32:01.760,0:32:06.320
so social darwinism just completely

0:32:04.559,0:32:09.519
disregards the effect

0:32:06.320,0:32:12.559
of colonization on different groups of

0:32:09.519,0:32:12.559
people around the world

0:32:12.720,0:32:17.519
anyways so this also supported the idea

0:32:15.840,0:32:20.000
that you shouldn’t mix

0:32:17.519,0:32:21.279
as we saw with miscegenation laws which

0:32:20.000,0:32:25.440
we covered in

0:32:21.279,0:32:29.200
our episode we were illegal and

0:32:25.440,0:32:32.320
that’s really bad so because um

0:32:29.200,0:32:34.320
when you do not mix with different

0:32:32.320,0:32:35.919
race or the less you tend to mix with

0:32:34.320,0:32:36.559
people who have different traits than

0:32:35.919,0:32:38.960
you

0:32:36.559,0:32:40.399
then the lower your genetic variation is

0:32:38.960,0:32:43.440
for your descendants

0:32:40.399,0:32:46.399
and the reason why that’s bad is because

0:32:43.440,0:32:48.880
you not only have a lower ability to

0:32:46.399,0:32:50.799
survive you also will have

0:32:48.880,0:32:52.000
um it’s very common to develop a lot of

0:32:50.799,0:32:54.880
health issues

0:32:52.000,0:32:56.240
and rare diseases so for example in

0:32:54.880,0:32:59.200
amish country

0:32:56.240,0:32:59.519
or the royal family there we see a lot

0:32:59.200,0:33:02.720
of

0:32:59.519,0:33:04.240
um i don’t

0:33:02.720,0:33:05.919
want to see this like nicely but we see

0:33:04.240,0:33:09.039
a lot of like rare genetic

0:33:05.919,0:33:12.320
mutations or diseases because there’s a

0:33:09.039,0:33:14.240
um there’s a practice of inbreeding

0:33:12.320,0:33:15.840
within those communities especially with

0:33:14.240,0:33:18.240
the royal family the

0:33:15.840,0:33:20.159
consideration of being pure bread or

0:33:18.240,0:33:22.000
pure blood or something like that

0:33:20.159,0:33:23.519
um they would tend not to mix with

0:33:22.000,0:33:25.679
anyone who wasn’t

0:33:23.519,0:33:27.679
within the family and as a result you

0:33:25.679,0:33:30.960
see a lot of

0:33:27.679,0:33:31.760
diseases and mental disorders because of

0:33:30.960,0:33:34.159
that

0:33:31.760,0:33:36.159
one of the biggest ones within the royal

0:33:34.159,0:33:38.159
family was hemophilia

0:33:36.159,0:33:39.840
which is the inability of your blood to

0:33:38.159,0:33:41.120
clot and that was actually known as the

0:33:39.840,0:33:43.279
royals disease

0:33:41.120,0:33:45.120
because it was very common in the royal

0:33:43.279,0:33:48.399
family

0:33:45.120,0:33:51.120
so and to go off of that

0:33:48.399,0:33:52.399
yeah so the lack of genetic variation so

0:33:51.120,0:33:55.200
the main reason

0:33:52.399,0:33:57.440
endangered species become endangered is

0:33:55.200,0:33:59.360
because of the low genetic variation in

0:33:57.440,0:34:02.159
their gene pool

0:33:59.360,0:34:03.679
so the same thing with literally every

0:34:02.159,0:34:05.760
living thing that you see

0:34:03.679,0:34:06.960
the lower the genetic variation the

0:34:05.760,0:34:10.960
worse off you are

0:34:06.960,0:34:15.520
because you’re not able to let’s say

0:34:10.960,0:34:15.520
like you’re not able to withstand

0:34:15.919,0:34:19.200
what is it like natural disasters like

0:34:17.599,0:34:21.280
you’re less able to adapt to different

0:34:19.200,0:34:24.800
surroundings when you only have

0:34:21.280,0:34:26.960
a set amount of traits so

0:34:24.800,0:34:28.000
a fun fact actually is even banana

0:34:26.960,0:34:30.800
fruits

0:34:28.000,0:34:32.879
are like the ones we see today have very

0:34:30.800,0:34:34.960
very little genetic variation

0:34:32.879,0:34:36.480
and it’s only a matter of time before

0:34:34.960,0:34:39.200
the banana that we know

0:34:36.480,0:34:40.240
gets completely wiped out have you heard

0:34:39.200,0:34:41.679
of this

0:34:40.240,0:34:44.879
yeah i feel like i’ve heard of this

0:34:41.679,0:34:46.480
before yeah the banana we know today is

0:34:44.879,0:34:49.040
like the cavendish banana

0:34:46.480,0:34:50.480
and it’s really um how they made it

0:34:49.040,0:34:53.200
because our first banana

0:34:50.480,0:34:54.480
that we had was the gross michelle

0:34:53.200,0:34:57.760
banana

0:34:54.480,0:34:59.599
and that one died out so what they did

0:34:57.760,0:35:00.000
is they took a cavendish banana and then

0:34:59.599,0:35:02.720
they

0:35:00.000,0:35:04.640
i believe mutated it so that every

0:35:02.720,0:35:06.800
single banana has like literally the

0:35:04.640,0:35:09.520
same genetic makeup

0:35:06.800,0:35:11.920
so there’s absolutely like no genetic

0:35:09.520,0:35:15.119
variation between banana plants today

0:35:11.920,0:35:17.359
so as soon as we have one disease

0:35:15.119,0:35:18.560
that the banana is not resistant to it’s

0:35:17.359,0:35:20.240
gonna completely

0:35:18.560,0:35:21.720
die out and we’ll never have bananas

0:35:20.240,0:35:24.800
again i like

0:35:21.720,0:35:28.720
bananas what the heck

0:35:24.800,0:35:32.079
save the bananas it’s gonna happen like

0:35:28.720,0:35:34.880
it’s coming okay

0:35:32.079,0:35:35.599
so then also to yeah the government was

0:35:34.880,0:35:38.240
not like

0:35:35.599,0:35:39.680
involved basically during this time too

0:35:38.240,0:35:40.560
it’s like where is everyone in the

0:35:39.680,0:35:42.320
government

0:35:40.560,0:35:43.839
government did very little to help

0:35:42.320,0:35:45.440
laborers

0:35:43.839,0:35:48.000
yeah politics were actually

0:35:45.440,0:35:49.440
characterized by scandal and corruption

0:35:48.000,0:35:52.880
during this time

0:35:49.440,0:35:56.320
jp morgan who was a wealthy baron

0:35:52.880,0:35:58.400
gave 400 million dollars as a loan to

0:35:56.320,0:36:01.040
the u.s government

0:35:58.400,0:36:01.680
and so the government is basically a

0:36:01.040,0:36:03.359
pawn

0:36:01.680,0:36:06.320
to the wealthy because that’s where

0:36:03.359,0:36:07.680
they’re getting their money from

0:36:06.320,0:36:10.640
there’s also something known as the

0:36:07.680,0:36:12.640
patronage or spoils system

0:36:10.640,0:36:13.760
which is where the elected president is

0:36:12.640,0:36:15.920
allowed to give

0:36:13.760,0:36:17.680
government positions to their friends or

0:36:15.920,0:36:22.079
close political supporters

0:36:17.680,0:36:25.119
so that makes for a very homogenous

0:36:22.079,0:36:28.480
cabinet like government that

0:36:25.119,0:36:31.040
has only one idea um

0:36:28.480,0:36:31.680
so lots of opportunity for corruption

0:36:31.040,0:36:34.720
yeah

0:36:31.680,0:36:37.359
yeah and so the final reform of this

0:36:34.720,0:36:37.920
policy comes after the assassination of

0:36:37.359,0:36:41.200
president

0:36:37.920,0:36:44.320
james garfield in 1881

0:36:41.200,0:36:44.800
oh my gosh which we should cover at some

0:36:44.320,0:36:48.000
point

0:36:44.800,0:36:48.880
and they after this they reformed civil

0:36:48.000,0:36:51.520
service and

0:36:48.880,0:36:53.040
ended the spoils system in 1883 with the

0:36:51.520,0:36:54.720
pendleton act

0:36:53.040,0:36:57.680
and another big problem with the

0:36:54.720,0:37:01.040
government is laissez-faire government

0:36:57.680,0:37:04.560
so laissez faire is a key part

0:37:01.040,0:37:07.920
in capitalist economics and

0:37:04.560,0:37:09.440
laissez-faire policies basically oppose

0:37:07.920,0:37:13.119
government intervention

0:37:09.440,0:37:14.160
in society or the market i think laissez

0:37:13.119,0:37:16.560
faire

0:37:14.160,0:37:18.480
because it comes from like a french word

0:37:16.560,0:37:19.520
right and i think it means let it be or

0:37:18.480,0:37:23.119
something

0:37:19.520,0:37:25.440
yeah yeah let it be that sounds correct

0:37:23.119,0:37:26.320
it’s like hands off like just let it do

0:37:25.440,0:37:30.800
whatever

0:37:26.320,0:37:33.280
yeah don’t touch it don’t do anything

0:37:30.800,0:37:35.200
so proponents of laissez faire so

0:37:33.280,0:37:36.000
supporters of laissez faire were

0:37:35.200,0:37:39.280
actually known as

0:37:36.000,0:37:42.320
liberals this is really interesting and

0:37:39.280,0:37:44.720
the liberals had the belief that a free

0:37:42.320,0:37:47.119
market would naturally produce the best

0:37:44.720,0:37:48.640
and most efficient solutions to economic

0:37:47.119,0:37:51.280
and social problems

0:37:48.640,0:37:53.520
and this is extremely different from the

0:37:51.280,0:37:56.800
definition of liberalism

0:37:53.520,0:38:00.000
that we have today so

0:37:56.800,0:38:01.520
liberals today are like perhaps some of

0:38:00.000,0:38:04.800
the polar opposites of

0:38:01.520,0:38:07.839
the original definition for liberals um

0:38:04.800,0:38:09.440
so today liberals would

0:38:07.839,0:38:11.680
typically advocate for government

0:38:09.440,0:38:14.320
intervention to solve social problems

0:38:11.680,0:38:16.240
so libertarians are more closely

0:38:14.320,0:38:17.680
equivalent to the gilded age liberals in

0:38:16.240,0:38:21.520
u.s politics

0:38:17.680,0:38:22.960
i see yeah and the combo of

0:38:21.520,0:38:24.720
laissez-faire capitalism

0:38:22.960,0:38:26.240
social darwinism and a corrupt

0:38:24.720,0:38:30.400
government was basically

0:38:26.240,0:38:33.520
a recipe for some very terrible lives

0:38:30.400,0:38:35.119
um for basically anyone who was not a

0:38:33.520,0:38:37.760
baron

0:38:35.119,0:38:39.119
and then of course people rose up

0:38:37.760,0:38:41.359
because if they didn’t we would not be

0:38:39.119,0:38:45.359
here today

0:38:41.359,0:38:46.640
so between 1881 and 1900s 35 000 workers

0:38:45.359,0:38:49.280
per year

0:38:46.640,0:38:51.440
lost their lives in industrial and other

0:38:49.280,0:38:56.240
accidents at work

0:38:51.440,0:38:56.240
wow yeah so because of

0:38:56.640,0:39:00.000
yeah because it’s not even like like i

0:38:58.079,0:39:03.760
know our population is a lot bigger now

0:39:00.000,0:39:07.280
but during the this time period

0:39:03.760,0:39:07.280
it at most would be like

0:39:07.440,0:39:12.000
35 million maybe maybe like 40 million

0:39:10.480,0:39:15.119
at most

0:39:12.000,0:39:16.000
yeah i don’t even know so people started

0:39:15.119,0:39:18.640
going on strike

0:39:16.000,0:39:19.760
literally all the time there are no

0:39:18.640,0:39:22.880
fewer than 100

0:39:19.760,0:39:27.040
000 workers who are on strike each year

0:39:22.880,0:39:30.880
and in 1892 about 1200 strikes

0:39:27.040,0:39:33.200
involving roughly 164 000 workers took

0:39:30.880,0:39:36.960
place across the nation

0:39:33.200,0:39:39.520
wow that’s a lot

0:39:36.960,0:39:42.160
yeah well it shows too that like people

0:39:39.520,0:39:43.680
have always been and will always fight

0:39:42.160,0:39:47.040
against injustice

0:39:43.680,0:39:47.760
and it’s because of the efforts of those

0:39:47.040,0:39:49.440
people

0:39:47.760,0:39:50.960
that change was made because the

0:39:49.440,0:39:54.480
government was not doing

0:39:50.960,0:39:54.480
jack squat for them

0:39:54.560,0:39:58.960
so um another thing that happened in

0:39:58.000,0:40:02.240
addition to strikes

0:39:58.960,0:40:04.240
is that labor unions started to form

0:40:02.240,0:40:06.319
so labor unions work to limit the

0:40:04.240,0:40:08.240
influence of big businesses and gain

0:40:06.319,0:40:10.480
rights for all laborers

0:40:08.240,0:40:12.880
and they would come together in larger

0:40:10.480,0:40:14.880
numbers to strike and protest unfair

0:40:12.880,0:40:16.640
labor wages and conditions

0:40:14.880,0:40:20.000
an example of this was the knights of

0:40:16.640,0:40:23.040
labor which was founded in 1869

0:40:20.000,0:40:24.000
they unfortunately collapsed and like

0:40:23.040,0:40:26.640
the 1886

0:40:24.000,0:40:28.160
haymarket square right in chicago do you

0:40:26.640,0:40:30.000
know about this

0:40:28.160,0:40:32.480
i like didn’t know about it until i was

0:40:30.000,0:40:36.880
researching topics to talk about

0:40:32.480,0:40:39.839
but yeah it was like a riot

0:40:36.880,0:40:42.000
because of labor right yeah they wanted

0:40:39.839,0:40:45.200
like an eight-hour workday

0:40:42.000,0:40:47.839
yeah yeah it was like a bomb

0:40:45.200,0:40:48.319
at some point and then police shot into

0:40:47.839,0:40:52.400
the

0:40:48.319,0:40:54.160
protesters also i don’t know if you like

0:40:52.400,0:40:56.240
read about like saw this in your

0:40:54.160,0:40:58.480
research about nights of labor but i was

0:40:56.240,0:41:00.720
also like looking into covering them i

0:40:58.480,0:41:03.119
remember reading that like

0:41:00.720,0:41:05.040
um knights of labor like they were

0:41:03.119,0:41:06.640
really strong union but they supported

0:41:05.040,0:41:09.200
the chinese exclusion act

0:41:06.640,0:41:10.000
because it would be chinese immigrants

0:41:09.200,0:41:13.119
would be

0:41:10.000,0:41:14.480
competition for them so like that’s just

0:41:13.119,0:41:16.240
like something to consider

0:41:14.480,0:41:19.119
too is like these late a lot of these

0:41:16.240,0:41:21.599
labor unions it was like yeah we want

0:41:19.119,0:41:24.000
not all of them but like like the

0:41:21.599,0:41:26.160
general trend is like yeah we want like

0:41:24.000,0:41:27.839
fair wages and like safe working

0:41:26.160,0:41:30.480
standards but like

0:41:27.839,0:41:32.640
we’re only including like we’re only

0:41:30.480,0:41:34.000
representing white americans and like

0:41:32.640,0:41:36.400
we’re only fighting for white

0:41:34.000,0:41:38.240
americans so again like americans of

0:41:36.400,0:41:39.359
people of color working in america are

0:41:38.240,0:41:41.920
like left out of the

0:41:39.359,0:41:43.040
picture or are like trying to be

0:41:41.920,0:41:45.280
excluded yeah so

0:41:43.040,0:41:46.880
yeah no that’s so thank you for adding

0:41:45.280,0:41:50.000
that looks literally like such a

0:41:46.880,0:41:52.240
common theme that color does affect the

0:41:50.000,0:41:55.440
way you get treated

0:41:52.240,0:41:57.520
yep yep anyways

0:41:55.440,0:42:00.160
and so yeah the knights of labor

0:41:57.520,0:42:04.000
eventually got disbanded after that

0:42:00.160,0:42:07.520
and by 1886 the american federation of

0:42:04.000,0:42:09.359
labor was formed and it was growing

0:42:07.520,0:42:12.079
and there was also the people’s populist

0:42:09.359,0:42:14.000
party and this was a political party

0:42:12.079,0:42:16.880
that arose in 1890

0:42:14.000,0:42:18.800
to champion the interest of farmers and

0:42:16.880,0:42:22.319
that party

0:42:18.800,0:42:24.000
rallied with the labor movement

0:42:22.319,0:42:25.359
but they eventually just folded into the

0:42:24.000,0:42:28.400
democratic party

0:42:25.359,0:42:32.720
in 1896 and

0:42:28.400,0:42:34.160
they ended up disbanding in 1908.

0:42:32.720,0:42:36.160
and then this is important because this

0:42:34.160,0:42:39.359
one’s on our this is on our test

0:42:36.160,0:42:40.319
like the term so muckrakers you know

0:42:39.359,0:42:42.079
what this is

0:42:40.319,0:42:44.160
i remember it from high school but i

0:42:42.079,0:42:45.839
don’t i don’t remember what it means

0:42:44.160,0:42:47.359
yeah i literally it was like one of the

0:42:45.839,0:42:47.920
questions on the test and i was like

0:42:47.359,0:42:50.000
okay

0:42:47.920,0:42:51.200
it’s actually very important so a

0:42:50.000,0:42:54.560
muckraker

0:42:51.200,0:42:55.040
is a reform-minded journalist who formed

0:42:54.560,0:42:57.920
in the

0:42:55.040,0:42:59.760
progressive era so not necessarily the

0:42:57.920,0:43:01.359
gilded age but there’s a bit of overlap

0:42:59.760,0:43:04.480
the progressive era

0:43:01.359,0:43:06.000
is from the 1890s to the 1920s which is

0:43:04.480,0:43:08.319
basically

0:43:06.000,0:43:09.200
we made a lot of progress in human

0:43:08.319,0:43:12.079
rights and

0:43:09.200,0:43:13.760
civil rights uh overlapping with the

0:43:12.079,0:43:16.720
gilded age

0:43:13.760,0:43:18.800
so muckrakers basically exposed

0:43:16.720,0:43:19.599
established institutions and leaders as

0:43:18.800,0:43:22.720
corrupt

0:43:19.599,0:43:26.480
and they worked with oh the work was

0:43:22.720,0:43:29.040
usually published in magazines

0:43:26.480,0:43:29.839
okay so to close how did things change

0:43:29.040,0:43:32.480
and how did it

0:43:29.839,0:43:34.960
end so we eventually hit an economic

0:43:32.480,0:43:38.319
depression in 1893 known as

0:43:34.960,0:43:41.040
the panic of 1893. millions of people

0:43:38.319,0:43:43.599
were unemployed homeless and hungry

0:43:41.040,0:43:45.440
unemployment reaches about 50 percent

0:43:43.599,0:43:48.880
and

0:43:45.440,0:43:52.319
50 yeah that’s pretty bad

0:43:48.880,0:43:55.599
wait that’s like literally insane yeah

0:43:52.319,0:43:58.160
well it was a depression so

0:43:55.599,0:44:01.680
i’m like so desensitized to like stats

0:43:58.160,0:44:01.680
nowadays i’m like yeah it’s rough

0:44:03.440,0:44:07.599
and because of that this leads to lots

0:44:06.480,0:44:09.680
of anger

0:44:07.599,0:44:11.440
from the low and middle class with

0:44:09.680,0:44:12.800
political corruption and social

0:44:11.440,0:44:16.240
inequality

0:44:12.800,0:44:17.920
started the progressive movement which

0:44:16.240,0:44:20.640
oh so then the progressive movement

0:44:17.920,0:44:22.160
starts and that was because of president

0:44:20.640,0:44:26.079
theodore roosevelt

0:44:22.160,0:44:31.920
teddy roosevelt who took office in 1901

0:44:26.079,0:44:35.359
after the assassination of mckinley

0:44:31.920,0:44:37.119
yeah i’m excited

0:44:35.359,0:44:41.520
literally check out our president

0:44:37.119,0:44:41.520
mckinley was assassinated episode

0:44:41.760,0:44:49.760
yeah go back to our first episode

0:44:44.960,0:44:51.680
we’ve come so far and yeah roosevelt

0:44:49.760,0:44:52.880
corporate america but he believed

0:44:51.680,0:44:55.280
federal checks

0:44:52.880,0:44:57.040
and control should be in place to limit

0:44:55.280,0:44:59.280
excessive corporate greed

0:44:57.040,0:45:01.359
off the backs of immigrants and the

0:44:59.280,0:45:04.640
lower class

0:45:01.359,0:45:08.160
so with the work of the government and

0:45:04.640,0:45:08.720
muckrakers so the people the progressive

0:45:08.160,0:45:11.040
era

0:45:08.720,0:45:12.160
was able to usher in a lot of reform

0:45:11.040,0:45:16.000
that helped shift away

0:45:12.160,0:45:18.960
power from robber barons such as

0:45:16.000,0:45:20.400
trust busting with the sherman

0:45:18.960,0:45:22.640
anti-trust laws

0:45:20.400,0:45:25.440
so that’s just basically outlawing

0:45:22.640,0:45:27.520
monopolies like you cannot own

0:45:25.440,0:45:29.119
every single thing in an industry you

0:45:27.520,0:45:32.240
have to have competition

0:45:29.119,0:45:34.400
between the industries and within

0:45:32.240,0:45:37.200
industry

0:45:34.400,0:45:38.720
and there’s also labor reform so eight

0:45:37.200,0:45:43.200
hour work day

0:45:38.720,0:45:46.480
no child labor child labor laws

0:45:43.200,0:45:49.079
wow women’s suffrage birth control

0:45:46.480,0:45:51.119
trade unions food and medicine

0:45:49.079,0:45:54.960
regulations

0:45:51.119,0:45:56.800
yeah lots of stuff fair labor standards

0:45:54.960,0:45:58.880
that’s a lot of reform like if you can’t

0:45:56.800,0:46:02.720
like can you imagine like

0:45:58.880,0:46:05.280
i don’t know if you’re like born in like

0:46:02.720,0:46:05.680
the late 1800s and then you lived to

0:46:05.280,0:46:09.839
like

0:46:05.680,0:46:10.480
the mid 1900s and then like you see how

0:46:09.839,0:46:12.960
much

0:46:10.480,0:46:13.520
the work working for us has changed and

0:46:12.960,0:46:16.000
like

0:46:13.520,0:46:17.359
working standards has changed like

0:46:16.000,0:46:20.400
that’s a lot that’s

0:46:17.359,0:46:21.119
happened yeah yeah it shows just like

0:46:20.400,0:46:25.680
how much

0:46:21.119,0:46:28.880
growth like each generation had to do

0:46:25.680,0:46:32.160
and i think it didn’t occur to me

0:46:28.880,0:46:34.640
until i was doing this that these are

0:46:32.160,0:46:36.720
real people i think with history

0:46:34.640,0:46:38.720
i like at least will tend to think that

0:46:36.720,0:46:41.119
these people didn’t exist

0:46:38.720,0:46:42.240
and that this stuff is like so so long

0:46:41.119,0:46:45.359
ago and like

0:46:42.240,0:46:47.680
beast i’m just looking at like history

0:46:45.359,0:46:49.599
and it’s like fictional to me but like

0:46:47.680,0:46:50.720
it’s a real problem that people really

0:46:49.599,0:46:52.079
had and

0:46:50.720,0:46:53.760
i think it was really weird for me to

0:46:52.079,0:46:55.119
look at images of people during this

0:46:53.760,0:46:56.720
time because i don’t know what i was

0:46:55.119,0:46:58.720
expecting them to look like

0:46:56.720,0:47:00.400
but they look like us like we literally

0:46:58.720,0:47:02.960
look the same and i was like

0:47:00.400,0:47:04.480
there’s no indication that they’re old

0:47:02.960,0:47:06.800
or anything

0:47:04.480,0:47:08.240
and just because like your grandma is

0:47:06.800,0:47:10.560
really old doesn’t mean

0:47:08.240,0:47:11.440
that she wasn’t your age at once and

0:47:10.560,0:47:14.960
there weren’t

0:47:11.440,0:47:17.280
problems during that time that’s so true

0:47:14.960,0:47:18.319
it really is like especially just

0:47:17.280,0:47:20.640
reading from

0:47:18.319,0:47:22.079
a really boring old textbook like it’s

0:47:20.640,0:47:25.839
so hard to emphasize

0:47:22.079,0:47:25.839
and emphasize

0:47:27.520,0:47:31.520
it’s so hard to empathize with people

0:47:30.400,0:47:33.280
because

0:47:31.520,0:47:34.880
like if you don’t hear about individual

0:47:33.280,0:47:36.400
stories or like if you’re just getting

0:47:34.880,0:47:40.240
like numbers and like

0:47:36.400,0:47:42.000
facts and just statistics it’s hard to

0:47:40.240,0:47:43.839
really think about like put yourself in

0:47:42.000,0:47:45.520
some in their shoes and i think about

0:47:43.839,0:47:45.839
what life was like at that time and how

0:47:45.520,0:47:48.640
much

0:47:45.839,0:47:51.280
people struggled and yeah it’s weird to

0:47:48.640,0:47:53.680
like think of people in like the 1800s

0:47:51.280,0:47:54.880
like normal people like it does sound

0:47:53.680,0:47:58.480
like silly to say

0:47:54.880,0:48:00.400
but i don’t know no it’s literally so

0:47:58.480,0:48:03.280
true okay so to close us out

0:48:00.400,0:48:04.319
uh by 1916 america’s cities were cleaner

0:48:03.280,0:48:06.720
and healthier

0:48:04.319,0:48:07.520
factories were safer governments less

0:48:06.720,0:48:09.599
corrupt

0:48:07.520,0:48:10.960
and many people had better housing

0:48:09.599,0:48:14.000
working hours

0:48:10.960,0:48:15.520
and wages so there are fewer monopolies

0:48:14.000,0:48:17.359
which meant that more people could

0:48:15.520,0:48:18.960
pursue the american dream and start

0:48:17.359,0:48:21.920
their own businesses

0:48:18.960,0:48:23.119
just before we hit world war one the

0:48:21.920,0:48:26.079
spanish flu

0:48:23.119,0:48:28.960
and the roaring twenties so most of the

0:48:26.079,0:48:31.119
robber barons and their families however

0:48:28.960,0:48:32.079
remained wealthy for generations of

0:48:31.119,0:48:34.559
course

0:48:32.079,0:48:36.319
and progressives still continued their

0:48:34.559,0:48:38.960
mission to close the gap between the

0:48:36.319,0:48:42.240
wealthy and poor and champion the needy

0:48:38.960,0:48:46.559
and disenfranchised wow

0:48:42.240,0:48:48.880
that’s the gilly dave amazing job jack

0:48:46.559,0:48:50.000
okay next week is our last episode for

0:48:48.880,0:48:52.800
season one

0:48:50.000,0:48:54.559
and if you didn’t notice season one has

0:48:52.800,0:48:58.720
basically only been us

0:48:54.559,0:49:02.960
history so season two is going to be

0:48:58.720,0:49:04.640
world history um

0:49:02.960,0:49:06.559
yeah we’re really excited for that so

0:49:04.640,0:49:09.760
stay tuned we’re also gonna have a

0:49:06.559,0:49:10.319
break in between seasons so after next

0:49:09.760,0:49:13.280
week

0:49:10.319,0:49:15.119
we will take a two-week break and then

0:49:13.280,0:49:16.720
we’ll come back at it

0:49:15.119,0:49:19.520
yeah excited because we’re going to

0:49:16.720,0:49:20.079
cover topics from other countries and we

0:49:19.520,0:49:21.680
see

0:49:20.079,0:49:23.760
a lot of our viewers from different

0:49:21.680,0:49:25.760
countries so please

0:49:23.760,0:49:26.960
leave us a rating tell us where you’re

0:49:25.760,0:49:28.960
from tell us

0:49:26.960,0:49:30.319
what about your country what you want us

0:49:28.960,0:49:34.319
to cover

0:49:30.319,0:49:35.040
and yeah tweet us i would tweet us yes

0:49:34.319,0:49:38.240
please

0:49:35.040,0:49:38.880
email us follow us on instagram send us

0:49:38.240,0:49:41.839
a um

0:49:38.880,0:49:44.000
an owl do something anything there are

0:49:41.839,0:49:46.880
so many ways to get in touch with us and

0:49:44.000,0:49:48.000
we’re just so excited to hear from you

0:49:46.880,0:49:58.130
all right

0:49:48.000,0:50:10.179
for the city guys bye

0:49:58.130,0:50:10.179
[Music]

0:50:10.960,0:50:13.040
you

What’s The Big Deal With Voting In 2020?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

We’ve got a HUGE election coming up in 2020 during a PANDEMIC! In this special episode, our good friend David teaches us everything we know about preparing to vote this year and the history and ongoing issue of voter suppression in the USA!  

VOTING LINKS BELOW! LET’S GO!  

PSA GENERAL ELECTION IS NOVEMBER 3rd 2020!!!  

What do I need to do today?Register to vote!  Request an Absentee Ballot NOW (THOSE ARE DUE ~3 WEEKS BEFORE NOV 3RD)  Research WHO is up for election  Choose who you plan to vote for  VOTE + SEND IT BACK OR DROP IT OFF AT YOUR LOCAL ELECTION OFFICE (if absentee)   Am I registered? https://www.vote.org/   When are the Elections? https://www.vote.org/election-reminders/   Who are the candidates? https://www.ballotready.org/

Sources:

One Person No Vote by Carol Anderson

https://www.newsobserver.com/opinion/op-ed/article122593759.html

https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/7-years-gutting-voting-rights

https://www.pbs.org/weta/washingtonweek/blog-post/numbers-voter-fraud

https://www.census.gov/newsroom/blogs/random-samplings/2017/05/voting_in_america.html

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/11/12/about-100-million-people-couldnt-be-bothered-to-vote-this-year/

Transcript

0:00:00.320,0:00:04.240
hi everyone welcome back to another

0:00:02.159,0:00:05.600
episode of how did we not know that my

0:00:04.240,0:00:09.280
name is jack

0:00:05.600,0:00:12.400
i’m nat and i’m david

0:00:09.280,0:00:15.440
and we have a very special guest

0:00:12.400,0:00:18.080
david is going to be talking to us about

0:00:15.440,0:00:19.520
something exciting related to voting

0:00:18.080,0:00:22.400
very excited to hear about it

0:00:19.520,0:00:23.680
uh yeah because voting is coming up so

0:00:22.400,0:00:25.359
in the united states

0:00:23.680,0:00:27.039
the us is about to have a really big

0:00:25.359,0:00:30.800
election this fall

0:00:27.039,0:00:34.800
so david’s gonna educate us on voting

0:00:30.800,0:00:38.160
yeah so as of today

0:00:34.800,0:00:40.879
we are 93 days out from the election

0:00:38.160,0:00:42.160
it’s going to be pretty insane probably

0:00:40.879,0:00:43.280
the most unique election of our

0:00:42.160,0:00:45.360
lifetimes

0:00:43.280,0:00:48.000
during a pandemic countless americans

0:00:45.360,0:00:50.239
are getting prepared to vote by mail

0:00:48.000,0:00:51.120
we have no idea what things are going to

0:00:50.239,0:00:53.039
look like

0:00:51.120,0:00:55.039
lines that are already pretty long are

0:00:53.039,0:00:58.559
going to be

0:00:55.039,0:00:59.120
social distanced with six feet between

0:00:58.559,0:01:01.920
people

0:00:59.120,0:01:03.280
we might have some lines stretching a

0:01:01.920,0:01:06.479
mile long across

0:01:03.280,0:01:08.720
cities not to discourage people but

0:01:06.479,0:01:11.600
people need to be prepared ahead of time

0:01:08.720,0:01:14.080
with how they’re gonna vote this year

0:01:11.600,0:01:16.400
if people are going to vote by mail they

0:01:14.080,0:01:20.320
should be applying for ballots

0:01:16.400,0:01:22.960
already david actually

0:01:20.320,0:01:25.200
is the one who encouraged me to register

0:01:22.960,0:01:28.240
absentee so i can vote by ballot

0:01:25.200,0:01:31.360
this fall so good job yeah

0:01:28.240,0:01:32.079
oh thank you thank you for doing so but

0:01:31.360,0:01:34.560
yeah

0:01:32.079,0:01:36.640
uh voting by mail is pretty interesting

0:01:34.560,0:01:40.000
in the united states too because like i

0:01:36.640,0:01:43.360
i live in montana 40 of people here vote

0:01:40.000,0:01:44.799
by mail on a normal year just everyone

0:01:43.360,0:01:47.600
does it

0:01:44.799,0:01:48.799
polling places are far apart or like

0:01:47.600,0:01:50.720
that’s a big part of it

0:01:48.799,0:01:52.479
because i mean montana is insanely

0:01:50.720,0:01:54.640
spread out but

0:01:52.479,0:01:55.920
also kind of the culture of the west you

0:01:54.640,0:01:58.000
know like

0:01:55.920,0:01:59.680
oregon and washington ballots are

0:01:58.000,0:02:00.399
automatically mailed to registered

0:01:59.680,0:02:03.680
voters

0:02:00.399,0:02:05.680
even like all across the west in

0:02:03.680,0:02:06.960
arizona eighty percent of people vote by

0:02:05.680,0:02:10.319
mail

0:02:06.960,0:02:11.280
it’s come out yeah you go out west and

0:02:10.319,0:02:14.640
it’s

0:02:11.280,0:02:17.280
it’s the norm yeah question david

0:02:14.640,0:02:18.480
because don’t you oh sorry david’s from

0:02:17.280,0:02:20.400
nebraska

0:02:18.480,0:02:22.080
i just know this because we’re pals but

0:02:20.400,0:02:25.520
um so you’re voting

0:02:22.080,0:02:27.520
in montana this fall are you or

0:02:25.520,0:02:29.440
okay so how does that work if you’re

0:02:27.520,0:02:31.680
from nebraska what if you’re from one

0:02:29.440,0:02:33.599
state and you move to another state

0:02:31.680,0:02:35.440
which state do you vote for where do you

0:02:33.599,0:02:38.959
register absentee

0:02:35.440,0:02:41.920
well you can only vote in one state and

0:02:38.959,0:02:42.800
it has to be a state where you live so

0:02:41.920,0:02:45.120
for me

0:02:42.800,0:02:45.840
i could vote in either nebraska or

0:02:45.120,0:02:47.519
montana

0:02:45.840,0:02:48.959
because i’m a permanent resident of

0:02:47.519,0:02:51.440
nebraska technically

0:02:48.959,0:02:53.200
and i’m i’m registered to vote there but

0:02:51.440,0:02:55.599
there are different rules for each state

0:02:53.200,0:02:56.239
for who can vote in montana they’re

0:02:55.599,0:02:58.480
really

0:02:56.239,0:02:59.680
relaxed you have to live here for 30

0:02:58.480,0:03:02.640
days

0:02:59.680,0:03:02.959
like that’s i don’t know what else but

0:03:02.640,0:03:05.360
it’s

0:03:02.959,0:03:06.319
it’s very simple and i will have been

0:03:05.360,0:03:09.280
here for

0:03:06.319,0:03:10.720
a lot more than 30 days so so yeah i’ll

0:03:09.280,0:03:14.000
be voting in montana

0:03:10.720,0:03:15.680
but then like i’m also like i voted in

0:03:14.000,0:03:17.840
ohio

0:03:15.680,0:03:19.920
two years ago but i don’t have an

0:03:17.840,0:03:23.200
address there anymore so

0:03:19.920,0:03:24.959
i i can’t vote there yeah

0:03:23.200,0:03:26.480
okay yeah i did the same thing like i

0:03:24.959,0:03:29.760
was out of state at

0:03:26.480,0:03:32.640
when i was at osu but i still voted in

0:03:29.760,0:03:33.840
ohio in the 2016 elections also i have a

0:03:32.640,0:03:36.959
question for you too

0:03:33.840,0:03:38.480
um can you vote by mail in every state

0:03:36.959,0:03:40.319
or are there some states that don’t

0:03:38.480,0:03:42.080
allow it you can in

0:03:40.319,0:03:44.879
every state but there are some states

0:03:42.080,0:03:48.080
where you need a reason

0:03:44.879,0:03:52.480
you need to prove why

0:03:48.080,0:03:54.319
you want to vote by mail and uh

0:03:52.480,0:03:55.519
for the pandemic since we’re in a

0:03:54.319,0:03:58.159
pandemic you would hope

0:03:55.519,0:03:59.519
that everyone would say yeah you can

0:03:58.159,0:04:02.000
vote by mail but

0:03:59.519,0:04:03.120
unfortunately not i think that like 40

0:04:02.000,0:04:04.799
states you can

0:04:03.120,0:04:06.319
vote by mail at least during the

0:04:04.799,0:04:09.840
pandemic though

0:04:06.319,0:04:11.360
gotcha okay you have a list of states by

0:04:09.840,0:04:12.560
any chance off the top of your head

0:04:11.360,0:04:14.480
where you

0:04:12.560,0:04:15.599
would have to prove that you need to

0:04:14.480,0:04:19.199
vote by mail

0:04:15.599,0:04:22.320
overwhelmingly be from the south okay um

0:04:19.199,0:04:24.320
the thing about voting by mail is uh

0:04:22.320,0:04:26.000
it can be tricky for the infrastructure

0:04:24.320,0:04:29.600
infrastructure of a state

0:04:26.000,0:04:32.560
like in michigan uh in 2016

0:04:29.600,0:04:33.199
500 000 people voted absentee in their

0:04:32.560,0:04:36.160
primary

0:04:33.199,0:04:36.800
but for the 2020 primary two million

0:04:36.160,0:04:40.560
people

0:04:36.800,0:04:43.520
voted absentee whoa and

0:04:40.560,0:04:44.160
it’s it’s hard for states to handle that

0:04:43.520,0:04:47.120
uptick

0:04:44.160,0:04:47.840
of volume which is why if you’re voting

0:04:47.120,0:04:50.639
by mail

0:04:47.840,0:04:52.080
you want to do so way ahead of time you

0:04:50.639,0:04:55.199
want to be super prepared

0:04:52.080,0:04:56.000
also for mail-in ballots or absentee

0:04:55.199,0:04:57.360
voting

0:04:56.000,0:04:59.680
your ballot will be mailed to your

0:04:57.360,0:05:01.360
address then you can either mail it back

0:04:59.680,0:05:04.160
out to your election office

0:05:01.360,0:05:05.280
or you can drop it off in person at your

0:05:04.160,0:05:07.919
election office or

0:05:05.280,0:05:09.520
secure dropbox and that’s a good idea

0:05:07.919,0:05:12.800
for this election to not

0:05:09.520,0:05:15.360
overwhelm the mail services yeah

0:05:12.800,0:05:16.560
yeah how is oh my gosh that’s crazy like

0:05:15.360,0:05:17.600
because also i’m thinking about the

0:05:16.560,0:05:19.360
people who have to like

0:05:17.600,0:05:21.360
count these ballots and like count these

0:05:19.360,0:05:22.960
votes and like you also have to be

0:05:21.360,0:05:25.759
safe and like socially distance while

0:05:22.960,0:05:28.240
you’re doing that as well so i

0:05:25.759,0:05:29.280
that must be really stressful like i

0:05:28.240,0:05:31.680
can’t even imagine

0:05:29.280,0:05:32.960
there’s not a lot of time too to prepare

0:05:31.680,0:05:35.520
um

0:05:32.960,0:05:36.320
yeah to go from 500 000 people to 2

0:05:35.520,0:05:39.360
million

0:05:36.320,0:05:41.680
so and i think too at least in ohio

0:05:39.360,0:05:43.199
has to be received before a certain date

0:05:41.680,0:05:46.479
like they can’t receive it

0:05:43.199,0:05:49.120
on election day from my understanding so

0:05:46.479,0:05:50.080
is that like a standard for all of the

0:05:49.120,0:05:51.360
states

0:05:50.080,0:05:52.880
is there like a certain time that you

0:05:51.360,0:05:54.160
should be making sure you’ve mailed your

0:05:52.880,0:05:56.479
ballot in

0:05:54.160,0:05:58.720
it varies per state there are some

0:05:56.479,0:06:00.880
states where it has to be received

0:05:58.720,0:06:02.000
by election day there are other states

0:06:00.880,0:06:05.199
where it has to be

0:06:02.000,0:06:07.680
postmarked by election day so they can

0:06:05.199,0:06:10.560
come in days later and still count

0:06:07.680,0:06:11.759
but especially out east like i think i

0:06:10.560,0:06:13.440
was reading that michigan

0:06:11.759,0:06:15.520
ballots have to be received by election

0:06:13.440,0:06:18.080
day like i don’t think it matters when

0:06:15.520,0:06:18.880
it was sent and election day is what day

0:06:18.080,0:06:22.479
this year

0:06:18.880,0:06:23.440
november 3rd okay so if you’re voting

0:06:22.479,0:06:25.520
absentee

0:06:23.440,0:06:27.039
make sure that you send out your ballot

0:06:25.520,0:06:29.280
way before

0:06:27.039,0:06:31.360
november 3rd so you can make sure that i

0:06:29.280,0:06:33.360
would i would say like three weeks

0:06:31.360,0:06:34.639
if you’re mailing it yeah and if you’re

0:06:33.360,0:06:36.960
pushing it close

0:06:34.639,0:06:37.919
bring it to a secure dropbox or your

0:06:36.960,0:06:40.639
election office

0:06:37.919,0:06:42.160
if i register to vote absentee do you

0:06:40.639,0:06:42.880
know when they’re supposed to send that

0:06:42.160,0:06:45.840
to me

0:06:42.880,0:06:47.039
if i like haven’t received my ballot by

0:06:45.840,0:06:48.560
a certain date

0:06:47.039,0:06:50.000
is there something i should do someone i

0:06:48.560,0:06:51.840
should contact well you would want to

0:06:50.000,0:06:53.840
contact your local election office

0:06:51.840,0:06:55.120
it honestly varies by state there’s some

0:06:53.840,0:06:56.080
states where this is a lot more

0:06:55.120,0:06:58.319
difficult than others

0:06:56.080,0:07:00.560
i can speak mostly from montana where

0:06:58.319,0:07:02.240
it’s it’s pretty easy here you can track

0:07:00.560,0:07:04.560
your ballot but i don’t think

0:07:02.240,0:07:07.199
that’s offered in every state you want

0:07:04.560,0:07:08.160
to talk to your local election office or

0:07:07.199,0:07:09.840
check the

0:07:08.160,0:07:12.319
secretary of state website for your

0:07:09.840,0:07:13.120
state so yeah when you ask a lot of

0:07:12.319,0:07:14.560
people why they’re

0:07:13.120,0:07:16.160
why they vote i think they’ll say

0:07:14.560,0:07:18.000
because we live in a democracy

0:07:16.160,0:07:19.759
and it’s important to make your voice

0:07:18.000,0:07:20.400
heard or you can’t complain about what

0:07:19.759,0:07:22.880
happened

0:07:20.400,0:07:24.639
that’s definitely true and the reason

0:07:22.880,0:07:26.720
voting is important for me is that you

0:07:24.639,0:07:27.360
know in a democracy the more people that

0:07:26.720,0:07:29.440
vote

0:07:27.360,0:07:30.479
the harder it is for the government to

0:07:29.440,0:07:33.199
get away with

0:07:30.479,0:07:34.000
doing whatever they want no matter how

0:07:33.199,0:07:37.039
it

0:07:34.000,0:07:38.639
might impact their citizens so the more

0:07:37.039,0:07:40.960
people that vote the more

0:07:38.639,0:07:42.560
politicians feel the consequences of

0:07:40.960,0:07:44.240
their constituents

0:07:42.560,0:07:46.319
and have to accurately represent

0:07:44.240,0:07:48.560
everyone unfortunately a lot of

0:07:46.319,0:07:51.199
america’s history has been the story

0:07:48.560,0:07:52.400
of some people trying to stop others

0:07:51.199,0:07:55.280
from voting

0:07:52.400,0:07:56.800
i think we like to think that that’s

0:07:55.280,0:08:00.720
something of the past that

0:07:56.800,0:08:03.680
ended with the civil rights era but

0:08:00.720,0:08:05.360
we have not progressed past voter

0:08:03.680,0:08:08.479
suppression being an issue

0:08:05.360,0:08:11.280
and it’s actually been revving up

0:08:08.479,0:08:13.039
a lot recently as people have relaxed

0:08:11.280,0:08:13.440
their focus in recent years thinking

0:08:13.039,0:08:15.599
we’ve

0:08:13.440,0:08:17.280
moved on from certain issues voter

0:08:15.599,0:08:19.840
suppression today is actually

0:08:17.280,0:08:20.800
as serious as it’s been in a long time

0:08:19.840,0:08:23.280
i’ve seen a lot of

0:08:20.800,0:08:24.879
people talking about how like 46 of

0:08:23.280,0:08:27.199
americans didn’t vote in the last

0:08:24.879,0:08:28.000
election like get off your couch you

0:08:27.199,0:08:30.479
need to go

0:08:28.000,0:08:31.120
like it’s your fault that for whatever’s

0:08:30.479,0:08:33.599
happened

0:08:31.120,0:08:34.320
and like i even read a washington post

0:08:33.599,0:08:37.039
article

0:08:34.320,0:08:38.800
was titled about 100 million americans

0:08:37.039,0:08:42.479
couldn’t be bothered to vote this year

0:08:38.800,0:08:43.279
wait 46 did not vote in the last

0:08:42.479,0:08:45.920
election

0:08:43.279,0:08:47.279
yeah but the thing is it’s not always

0:08:45.920,0:08:49.279
that simple as saying

0:08:47.279,0:08:50.880
100 million people couldn’t be bothered

0:08:49.279,0:08:51.279
to get up and go vote a lot of those

0:08:50.880,0:08:53.920
people

0:08:51.279,0:08:54.480
wanted to vote may have actively tried

0:08:53.920,0:08:56.959
to vote

0:08:54.480,0:08:59.040
and simply not been able to because for

0:08:56.959,0:09:01.200
some people the barriers for voting

0:08:59.040,0:09:02.560
are impossible to get past it’s hard to

0:09:01.200,0:09:03.360
wrap your mind around sometimes

0:09:02.560,0:09:05.360
especially like

0:09:03.360,0:09:07.360
voting’s always been so easy for me i’ve

0:09:05.360,0:09:09.839
been able to just walk right in

0:09:07.360,0:09:11.519
no line cast my vote and go but it’s not

0:09:09.839,0:09:12.800
like that for everyone can we talk about

0:09:11.519,0:09:15.920
some of the barriers

0:09:12.800,0:09:18.880
that people face when going to vote

0:09:15.920,0:09:19.920
yeah one of the big ones is shutting

0:09:18.880,0:09:22.000
polling locations

0:09:19.920,0:09:23.120
in a second i’ll talk about the the

0:09:22.000,0:09:26.240
voting rights act

0:09:23.120,0:09:28.560
and how it was rolled back in 2013.

0:09:26.240,0:09:29.920
that caused a lot of states to flat out

0:09:28.560,0:09:32.880
start closing

0:09:29.920,0:09:34.399
mass amounts of polling locations and

0:09:32.880,0:09:37.519
implementing these strict

0:09:34.399,0:09:38.399
voter id laws yeah those are two of the

0:09:37.519,0:09:40.160
main reasons

0:09:38.399,0:09:41.519
that all really starts with the voting

0:09:40.160,0:09:43.760
rights act so

0:09:41.519,0:09:45.040
i’ll backtrack a second to talk about

0:09:43.760,0:09:46.720
that so yeah i think

0:09:45.040,0:09:48.880
everyone associates the voting rights

0:09:46.720,0:09:50.080
act with you know one of the landslide

0:09:48.880,0:09:53.519
victories of the civil rights

0:09:50.080,0:09:56.000
era and it was certainly prior to that

0:09:53.519,0:09:57.440
some states in the south used loopholes

0:09:56.000,0:10:00.399
to make their primaries

0:09:57.440,0:10:01.680
whites only so minorities could vote in

0:10:00.399,0:10:03.680
the general election

0:10:01.680,0:10:05.200
but it wouldn’t matter by then because

0:10:03.680,0:10:05.920
the candidates would pretty much already

0:10:05.200,0:10:08.560
be selected

0:10:05.920,0:10:10.000
african americans would be intimidated

0:10:08.560,0:10:11.920
by the police and

0:10:10.000,0:10:13.519
local militias when they attempted to

0:10:11.920,0:10:16.800
vote like you would have to be

0:10:13.519,0:10:18.480
a hero to even try to vote in certain

0:10:16.800,0:10:20.959
states back then but with the

0:10:18.480,0:10:21.600
voting rights act that cut back poll

0:10:20.959,0:10:23.680
taxes

0:10:21.600,0:10:25.680
literacy tests it increased polling

0:10:23.680,0:10:29.040
locations in minority areas

0:10:25.680,0:10:31.440
and it was a very proactive

0:10:29.040,0:10:32.320
policy so areas that had a history of

0:10:31.440,0:10:34.720
discriminating

0:10:32.320,0:10:36.640
had to have new laws they were trying to

0:10:34.720,0:10:37.920
implement be approved before they were

0:10:36.640,0:10:40.560
even put into place

0:10:37.920,0:10:41.839
so states couldn’t just try and pass

0:10:40.560,0:10:44.640
this discriminatory

0:10:41.839,0:10:46.399
act and wait for someone to step in they

0:10:44.640,0:10:47.200
had to get that approved ahead of time

0:10:46.399,0:10:48.720
which

0:10:47.200,0:10:50.640
wouldn’t happen most of the time that

0:10:48.720,0:10:52.320
was a major turning point in voting

0:10:50.640,0:10:53.519
rights in the united states can we do a

0:10:52.320,0:10:56.000
refresher on like the

0:10:53.519,0:10:56.800
poll taxes and the literary literacy

0:10:56.000,0:11:00.160
test right

0:10:56.800,0:11:00.959
yeah right right yeah so uh poll taxes

0:11:00.160,0:11:04.240
essentially

0:11:00.959,0:11:07.200
uh voters would have to pay a tax

0:11:04.240,0:11:09.920
every time they wanted to vote and for a

0:11:07.200,0:11:12.320
lot of places this tax was cumulative

0:11:09.920,0:11:14.399
so if you took elections off that poll

0:11:12.320,0:11:16.640
tax would grow higher and higher so

0:11:14.399,0:11:18.720
if someone was 40 years old and was like

0:11:16.640,0:11:20.720
i want to go vote for the first time

0:11:18.720,0:11:21.760
boom look they’d have this massive poll

0:11:20.720,0:11:24.480
tax they had to pay

0:11:21.760,0:11:24.880
wow i didn’t realize it was cumulative

0:11:24.480,0:11:28.079
that’s

0:11:24.880,0:11:30.399
insane yeah at least in some states

0:11:28.079,0:11:31.360
and it was targeted at mostly african

0:11:30.399,0:11:34.959
americans and

0:11:31.360,0:11:38.000
hispanic voters and uh literacy tests

0:11:34.959,0:11:40.640
citizens would have to take these insane

0:11:38.000,0:11:42.079
tests proving that they know the laws of

0:11:40.640,0:11:44.320
their local community

0:11:42.079,0:11:45.760
and if you read those literacy tests

0:11:44.320,0:11:49.279
they’re insane

0:11:45.760,0:11:52.639
like no one and no one could possibly

0:11:49.279,0:11:54.880
pass them yeah and they they pretty much

0:11:52.639,0:11:56.000
only administered them to minority

0:11:54.880,0:11:59.120
voters so like

0:11:56.000,0:12:00.320
they they selectively used these uh like

0:11:59.120,0:12:02.720
poll taxes and

0:12:00.320,0:12:03.360
literacy tests to stop minorities from

0:12:02.720,0:12:06.720
voting

0:12:03.360,0:12:10.639
yeah back to the voting rights act uh

0:12:06.720,0:12:13.120
in 2013 the supreme court decided

0:12:10.639,0:12:14.160
to roll back the voting rights act by

0:12:13.120,0:12:17.440
their logic

0:12:14.160,0:12:20.399
issues of voter suppression racism

0:12:17.440,0:12:22.480
wasn’t really an issue anymore in the

0:12:20.399,0:12:24.800
states the voting rights act

0:12:22.480,0:12:27.040
initially targeted they said at this

0:12:24.800,0:12:30.000
point it’s kind of discriminatory

0:12:27.040,0:12:30.560
towards these southern states who have

0:12:30.000,0:12:33.200
to get

0:12:30.560,0:12:34.320
all of their policies approved so they

0:12:33.200,0:12:37.440
decided to

0:12:34.320,0:12:40.639
roll back the voting rights act

0:12:37.440,0:12:41.440
because there was in their words no no

0:12:40.639,0:12:44.560
need

0:12:41.440,0:12:47.680
for it anymore as you can imagine

0:12:44.560,0:12:49.519
as soon as they did that uh insidious

0:12:47.680,0:12:50.880
voter suppression tactics started coming

0:12:49.519,0:12:53.279
back after that

0:12:50.880,0:12:55.519
about a thousand polling locations were

0:12:53.279,0:12:59.200
closed in nine states alone

0:12:55.519,0:13:00.160
a thousand yeah and that happens

0:12:59.200,0:13:04.160
primarily

0:13:00.160,0:13:06.320
in african-american hispanic communities

0:13:04.160,0:13:07.360
where residents might not have access to

0:13:06.320,0:13:09.120
a vehicle’s

0:13:07.360,0:13:10.800
vehicle maybe not even public

0:13:09.120,0:13:13.279
transportation and have to walk

0:13:10.800,0:13:14.320
miles to vote and there may be one

0:13:13.279,0:13:16.959
polling location

0:13:14.320,0:13:17.680
that’s ridiculous voting voting day

0:13:16.959,0:13:19.920
isn’t

0:13:17.680,0:13:22.160
a holiday federally but are there some

0:13:19.920,0:13:25.040
states that make it a paid

0:13:22.160,0:13:26.720
work holiday you know i don’t believe

0:13:25.040,0:13:28.399
there are any states i’m not sure but

0:13:26.720,0:13:29.040
there has been a lot of talk about that

0:13:28.399,0:13:30.959
recently

0:13:29.040,0:13:32.839
i know i’ve seen some companies letting

0:13:30.959,0:13:36.079
their their workers off

0:13:32.839,0:13:37.040
oh on election day but there has been

0:13:36.079,0:13:39.519
more talk about that

0:13:37.040,0:13:41.360
recently at the same time states started

0:13:39.519,0:13:43.680
implementing voter id laws

0:13:41.360,0:13:44.399
along with this a lot of them started

0:13:43.680,0:13:46.959
shutting down

0:13:44.399,0:13:48.000
dmvs which is where you go to get a

0:13:46.959,0:13:50.800
driver’s license

0:13:48.000,0:13:51.600
and again this happened mostly in black

0:13:50.800,0:13:54.240
communities

0:13:51.600,0:13:54.880
i read that in some areas in texas you

0:13:54.240,0:13:58.320
have to drive

0:13:54.880,0:14:02.240
250 miles to get a voter id

0:13:58.320,0:14:04.160
oh my gosh what yeah ridiculous

0:14:02.240,0:14:05.839
and you have to have certain you have to

0:14:04.160,0:14:07.040
have like a birth certificate or certain

0:14:05.839,0:14:08.800
documents to prove

0:14:07.040,0:14:10.480
you are who you are and not everyone has

0:14:08.800,0:14:12.399
those maybe if you weren’t born in a

0:14:10.480,0:14:14.399
hospital that’s not so easy to get

0:14:12.399,0:14:16.000
it takes a long time to get like a copy

0:14:14.399,0:14:18.240
of your birth certificate and it’s a lot

0:14:16.000,0:14:19.199
of money too yeah like it’s ridiculous

0:14:18.240,0:14:22.160
unreasonable

0:14:19.199,0:14:23.360
so uh to see the actual effects of that

0:14:22.160,0:14:26.880
in milwaukee

0:14:23.360,0:14:29.360
in 2016 compared to 2012 50

0:14:26.880,0:14:30.320
000 fewer votes were cast in the

0:14:29.360,0:14:33.440
presidential

0:14:30.320,0:14:35.600
election whoa and

0:14:33.440,0:14:38.079
a lot of media was saying like the

0:14:35.600,0:14:38.639
african-american enthusiasm is not as

0:14:38.079,0:14:41.440
high

0:14:38.639,0:14:43.360
but no they weren’t able to vote because

0:14:41.440,0:14:45.440
their polling locations were gutted and

0:14:43.360,0:14:48.000
they implemented a strict voter id

0:14:45.440,0:14:50.000
law sorry i have another question so

0:14:48.000,0:14:51.279
what is like the justification that

0:14:50.000,0:14:52.880
these states use

0:14:51.279,0:14:54.320
to implement these laws why are they

0:14:52.880,0:14:56.160
saying this is a beneficial

0:14:54.320,0:14:58.320
thing yeah well for the polling

0:14:56.160,0:15:01.120
locations it’s basically

0:14:58.320,0:15:01.760
efficiency reasons or like saving money

0:15:01.120,0:15:04.560
but

0:15:01.760,0:15:05.279
they mostly only cut them in minority

0:15:04.560,0:15:08.079
communities

0:15:05.279,0:15:08.480
keeping multiple polling locations open

0:15:08.079,0:15:11.360
in

0:15:08.480,0:15:13.440
white communities with significantly

0:15:11.360,0:15:16.639
fewer citizens oh my god

0:15:13.440,0:15:17.279
for the voter id laws it’s in an effort

0:15:16.639,0:15:19.680
to

0:15:17.279,0:15:20.480
fight voter fraud i’ll touch on that

0:15:19.680,0:15:23.680
near the end

0:15:20.480,0:15:24.720
okay but spoiler alert those voter id

0:15:23.680,0:15:27.920
laws don’t

0:15:24.720,0:15:29.519
have any impact at all on voter fraud

0:15:27.920,0:15:31.040
so that’s why they’re justified but

0:15:29.519,0:15:32.959
there’s no statistical

0:15:31.040,0:15:34.959
basis for it another voting rights

0:15:32.959,0:15:37.600
debacle in america

0:15:34.959,0:15:38.079
is felon voting rights in the united

0:15:37.600,0:15:41.120
states

0:15:38.079,0:15:42.320
it’s really difficult for felons to vote

0:15:41.120,0:15:44.480
sometimes impossible

0:15:42.320,0:15:45.440
there are only four democracies in the

0:15:44.480,0:15:47.199
world

0:15:45.440,0:15:48.959
that restrict voting rights after

0:15:47.199,0:15:50.000
someone leaves prison and the united

0:15:48.959,0:15:52.800
states is one of them

0:15:50.000,0:15:53.519
wow felon disenfranchisement or like

0:15:52.800,0:15:55.600
felons

0:15:53.519,0:15:57.519
not being able to vote that varies state

0:15:55.600,0:15:59.839
by state in maine and vermont

0:15:57.519,0:16:01.600
felons can vote in prison okay they

0:15:59.839,0:16:03.600
don’t lose their voting rights but

0:16:01.600,0:16:05.360
that is the exception it’s a big deal

0:16:03.600,0:16:08.240
because like we have the most

0:16:05.360,0:16:10.079
like the highest per capita rate of

0:16:08.240,0:16:12.480
incarceration or like what are you

0:16:10.079,0:16:13.600
like we just have like yeah in the world

0:16:12.480,0:16:16.480
oh yeah

0:16:13.600,0:16:17.600
like we have like a historical high for

0:16:16.480,0:16:19.279
citizens in prison

0:16:17.600,0:16:21.680
even when rights are restored to felons

0:16:19.279,0:16:25.040
though it’s it’s not always that simple

0:16:21.680,0:16:27.920
in florida in 2018 the state voted

0:16:25.040,0:16:29.279
to restore voting rights to felons which

0:16:27.920,0:16:31.120
was a big deal

0:16:29.279,0:16:32.959
but then the florida legislature came

0:16:31.120,0:16:34.240
out and said but you have to pay your

0:16:32.959,0:16:37.120
court fees first

0:16:34.240,0:16:37.920
and for some of those felons their court

0:16:37.120,0:16:40.000
fees are

0:16:37.920,0:16:41.120
thousands upon thousands of dollars it’s

0:16:40.000,0:16:43.120
hard to get a job

0:16:41.120,0:16:45.759
after you’re out of prison and paying

0:16:43.120,0:16:48.240
that off is no easy task at all

0:16:45.759,0:16:50.720
so that’s basically a modern day poll

0:16:48.240,0:16:52.240
tax yeah like being required to pay

0:16:50.720,0:16:55.360
money to vote like that

0:16:52.240,0:16:57.600
that does not sound very democratic yeah

0:16:55.360,0:17:00.959
spoiler alert it’s not

0:16:57.600,0:17:02.160
yeah so yeah in alabama the legislature

0:17:00.959,0:17:04.240
came out and said that

0:17:02.160,0:17:05.520
felons couldn’t vote if they had

0:17:04.240,0:17:08.640
committed a crime

0:17:05.520,0:17:09.600
of moral turpitude but they didn’t state

0:17:08.640,0:17:11.919
what that meant

0:17:09.600,0:17:12.799
and they didn’t tell the vote the felons

0:17:11.919,0:17:15.919
whose

0:17:12.799,0:17:19.199
rights had been restored oh no

0:17:15.919,0:17:21.039
so no one knew if that meant them or not

0:17:19.199,0:17:22.240
yeah they didn’t tell you like your

0:17:21.039,0:17:24.000
crime was moral

0:17:22.240,0:17:25.600
what does that even mean that sounds

0:17:24.000,0:17:29.039
like a fake word it’s like

0:17:25.600,0:17:30.799
severity okay and if if they went to

0:17:29.039,0:17:32.720
sign up to vote they would have to check

0:17:30.799,0:17:33.840
if they had committed a crime of moral

0:17:32.720,0:17:36.640
turpitude

0:17:33.840,0:17:37.600
under fear of prosecution well who’s the

0:17:36.640,0:17:40.320
one deciding

0:17:37.600,0:17:42.160
like yeah is it a judge or what and then

0:17:40.320,0:17:44.880
do they have to pay court fees for that

0:17:42.160,0:17:46.640
judge to decide if it’s a moral tribute

0:17:44.880,0:17:48.320
it would be the like the attorney

0:17:46.640,0:17:50.320
general wow

0:17:48.320,0:17:51.600
the courts so no one knew they would go

0:17:50.320,0:17:53.520
to vote and be like

0:17:51.600,0:17:55.360
i don’t know if this is me or not yeah

0:17:53.520,0:17:57.200
and it’s like are they classifying like

0:17:55.360,0:17:58.559
do they have to do case by case person

0:17:57.200,0:18:00.400
by person or is it like

0:17:58.559,0:18:02.559
caught with a certain offense like all

0:18:00.400,0:18:03.760
people if it’s like a drug offense like

0:18:02.559,0:18:04.559
but i don’t know but like what if it’s

0:18:03.760,0:18:06.400
like person

0:18:04.559,0:18:08.320
per person and then that’s going to take

0:18:06.400,0:18:11.200
forever to like figure out if

0:18:08.320,0:18:12.240
you qualified yeah i think that was the

0:18:11.200,0:18:14.480
point to make it

0:18:12.240,0:18:16.320
difficult to make people confused to not

0:18:14.480,0:18:18.480
know if they can build or not yeah

0:18:16.320,0:18:19.600
but yeah all in all there are six

0:18:18.480,0:18:21.600
million

0:18:19.600,0:18:22.799
americans who have lost the right to

0:18:21.600,0:18:24.880
vote and like that

0:18:22.799,0:18:25.840
only hurts our democracy i was like

0:18:24.880,0:18:28.080
talking to like my

0:18:25.840,0:18:30.480
australian friends and then i think it’s

0:18:28.080,0:18:32.320
the same in britain in malaysia

0:18:30.480,0:18:34.160
in those countries apparently voting is

0:18:32.320,0:18:36.320
mandatory so they always have to like

0:18:34.160,0:18:37.039
you’re legally required to vote in every

0:18:36.320,0:18:39.039
election

0:18:37.039,0:18:40.880
and so they always have 100 turnout you

0:18:39.039,0:18:42.240
can choose to abstain your vote but you

0:18:40.880,0:18:44.160
still have to like tell

0:18:42.240,0:18:46.160
the government like i’m staying in my

0:18:44.160,0:18:48.400
vote and like at first i was like my

0:18:46.160,0:18:49.360
like gut reaction to that was like i’m

0:18:48.400,0:18:50.890
an american

0:18:49.360,0:18:52.559
government can’t tell me what to do

0:18:50.890,0:18:55.120
[Laughter]

0:18:52.559,0:18:57.039
classic but like i don’t know like what

0:18:55.120,0:18:58.799
i feel like that’s kind of like

0:18:57.039,0:19:00.799
like what a true democracy means like

0:18:58.799,0:19:02.799
everyone that way like you can’t

0:19:00.799,0:19:03.760
be restricting people’s votes what do

0:19:02.799,0:19:05.760
you guys think about that because i’m

0:19:03.760,0:19:07.679
sure there’s like a lot of pros and cons

0:19:05.760,0:19:10.000
i think there’s so many barriers that

0:19:07.679,0:19:12.080
we’re talking about right now to voting

0:19:10.000,0:19:13.520
if you required like felons to vote

0:19:12.080,0:19:15.120
which means you’d require them to pay

0:19:13.520,0:19:17.280
court fees i think that’s not

0:19:15.120,0:19:18.880
awesome not super feasible for our

0:19:17.280,0:19:21.039
country right now but i think that

0:19:18.880,0:19:22.799
that’s the point that we want to get to

0:19:21.039,0:19:24.480
i think having the option to abstain

0:19:22.799,0:19:26.480
easily i think that we should also

0:19:24.480,0:19:27.600
utilize technology with voting

0:19:26.480,0:19:30.240
i don’t know if we have a bunch of

0:19:27.600,0:19:31.760
luddites in politics or what

0:19:30.240,0:19:34.000
luddite is like someone who’s scared of

0:19:31.760,0:19:34.640
technology but like i think that oh

0:19:34.000,0:19:36.080
definitely

0:19:34.640,0:19:37.520
i think we should start utilizing

0:19:36.080,0:19:38.240
technology to make voting more

0:19:37.520,0:19:39.520
accessible

0:19:38.240,0:19:40.720
ideally that’s where we’d want to be i

0:19:39.520,0:19:42.240
think that’s a better idea it’s

0:19:40.720,0:19:43.520
mandatory to at least say that you’re

0:19:42.240,0:19:45.919
abstaining from voting

0:19:43.520,0:19:46.799
or to actually place your vote if anyone

0:19:45.919,0:19:50.080
happened to

0:19:46.799,0:19:52.960
watch a bit of the of congress

0:19:50.080,0:19:54.160
questioning the uh the tech ceos last

0:19:52.960,0:19:57.440
week i think you would get

0:19:54.160,0:20:00.400
that they don’t have much uh technical

0:19:57.440,0:20:01.760
technological knowledge yeah i think uh

0:20:00.400,0:20:04.640
have either of you heard of the

0:20:01.760,0:20:06.080
electoral integrity project it’s the

0:20:04.640,0:20:08.080
most accurate measurement

0:20:06.080,0:20:09.200
for free and fair elections the most

0:20:08.080,0:20:11.919
commonly used one

0:20:09.200,0:20:12.960
in 2016 they came out with a report that

0:20:11.919,0:20:16.080
basically said

0:20:12.960,0:20:19.039
that north carolina isn’t a democracy

0:20:16.080,0:20:19.600
their electoral rating was so bad that

0:20:19.039,0:20:23.039
they fell

0:20:19.600,0:20:26.080
somewhere between iran and venezuela

0:20:23.039,0:20:28.480
one party is overwhelmingly receiving

0:20:26.080,0:20:30.080
seats in regards to how the people vote

0:20:28.480,0:20:32.159
the main issue was

0:20:30.080,0:20:34.320
voting district boundaries if you know

0:20:32.159,0:20:36.559
what gerrymandering is it’s

0:20:34.320,0:20:38.240
drawing district boundaries in a way

0:20:36.559,0:20:41.679
that helps your party

0:20:38.240,0:20:42.960
so republicans in power will decide to

0:20:41.679,0:20:44.799
redistrict the state

0:20:42.960,0:20:46.880
and draw out the voting boundaries

0:20:44.799,0:20:48.159
between districts if the state is maybe

0:20:46.880,0:20:51.280
like 55

0:20:48.159,0:20:53.280
republican and 45 democrat they may be

0:20:51.280,0:20:56.320
able to draw those boundaries to make

0:20:53.280,0:20:58.640
them have 12 republican seats versus

0:20:56.320,0:20:59.679
three democratic seats the electoral

0:20:58.640,0:21:02.320
integrity project

0:20:59.679,0:21:03.760
found that north carolina’s integrity of

0:21:02.320,0:21:07.520
voting district boundaries

0:21:03.760,0:21:09.200
was lower than any country on earth so

0:21:07.520,0:21:10.880
their boundaries like their voting

0:21:09.200,0:21:11.840
district boundaries are just so

0:21:10.880,0:21:13.840
like you could tell it’s been

0:21:11.840,0:21:15.520
manipulated so much and it’s like so

0:21:13.840,0:21:17.600
unnatural yeah

0:21:15.520,0:21:18.640
okay they gave them all these crazy

0:21:17.600,0:21:21.039
names like

0:21:18.640,0:21:23.039
frogs splattered on a windshield because

0:21:21.039,0:21:24.880
the districts look like they make no

0:21:23.039,0:21:27.039
logical sense on how they look

0:21:24.880,0:21:28.240
because they’re they’re drawn

0:21:27.039,0:21:30.480
specifically

0:21:28.240,0:21:32.480
to increase voting power for a certain

0:21:30.480,0:21:34.159
party so i know in our example we said

0:21:32.480,0:21:36.000
the republican party

0:21:34.159,0:21:37.280
is this hap does this happen on both

0:21:36.000,0:21:39.280
sides or is there

0:21:37.280,0:21:41.039
like a particular side that has done

0:21:39.280,0:21:43.919
this more often historically

0:21:41.039,0:21:45.039
yeah you know both parties have done it

0:21:43.919,0:21:47.360
mostly

0:21:45.039,0:21:48.720
republican both parties have done this

0:21:47.360,0:21:51.919
to their own advantage

0:21:48.720,0:21:52.640
in unfair ways but if you look at how

0:21:51.919,0:21:55.120
things stand

0:21:52.640,0:21:55.760
now like wisconsin north carolina

0:21:55.120,0:21:57.840
georgia

0:21:55.760,0:22:00.000
pennsylvania their districts are drawn

0:21:57.840,0:22:03.200
in ways that disproportionately

0:22:00.000,0:22:04.720
favor republicans oh wow okay

0:22:03.200,0:22:06.799
that’s interesting it’d be interesting

0:22:04.720,0:22:10.000
to see like the ratio between

0:22:06.799,0:22:12.159
states that are gerrymandering and what

0:22:10.000,0:22:13.120
political party represents that state

0:22:12.159,0:22:15.200
yeah yeah

0:22:13.120,0:22:16.720
yeah like wisconsin’s a pretty split

0:22:15.200,0:22:19.280
state you know

0:22:16.720,0:22:20.240
but their their state legislature is

0:22:19.280,0:22:22.400
overwhelmingly

0:22:20.240,0:22:23.679
republican this is something that gets

0:22:22.400,0:22:25.600
fought in the courts

0:22:23.679,0:22:27.360
and a lot of but honestly a lot of the

0:22:25.600,0:22:28.159
time the chords rule you need to redraw

0:22:27.360,0:22:30.400
your boundaries

0:22:28.159,0:22:33.120
and then they just reach on in another

0:22:30.400,0:22:33.120
gerrymandering

0:22:35.360,0:22:40.320
it’s a hard problem to solve definitely

0:22:38.400,0:22:42.480
also just i’m curious where did that

0:22:40.320,0:22:42.960
term come from gerrymandering is there a

0:22:42.480,0:22:46.080
guy

0:22:42.960,0:22:49.679
whose name was gerrymander

0:22:46.080,0:22:52.240
it’s from like the like early colonial

0:22:49.679,0:22:53.120
days so this has been an ongoing issue

0:22:52.240,0:22:57.200
yeah

0:22:53.120,0:22:59.760
okay wow yeah it was first used in 1812.

0:22:57.200,0:23:03.840
because uh the first time it was done it

0:22:59.760,0:23:05.679
resembled the shape of a salamander

0:23:03.840,0:23:09.760
it was the governor’s last name put

0:23:05.679,0:23:12.400
together with the word salamander

0:23:09.760,0:23:12.960
very creative natalie you asked earlier

0:23:12.400,0:23:15.120
about

0:23:12.960,0:23:16.480
why voter id laws are implemented the

0:23:15.120,0:23:19.440
justification for that

0:23:16.480,0:23:19.840
is to stop voter fraud but when you look

0:23:19.440,0:23:23.440
at

0:23:19.840,0:23:25.760
all the elections between 2000 and 2016

0:23:23.440,0:23:26.960
that’s five presidential elections how

0:23:25.760,0:23:29.039
many more small ones

0:23:26.960,0:23:30.880
that is one billion votes there were

0:23:29.039,0:23:33.120
only 44

0:23:30.880,0:23:34.080
incidents of voter fraud out of a

0:23:33.120,0:23:37.120
billion

0:23:34.080,0:23:40.320
whoa that’s a point

0:23:37.120,0:23:40.799
zero zero zero zero zero four percent

0:23:40.320,0:23:42.640
chance

0:23:40.799,0:23:44.080
you’re more likely to win an olympic

0:23:42.640,0:23:47.120
gold medal

0:23:44.080,0:23:48.480
yeah and all of those incidents of voter

0:23:47.120,0:23:50.159
fraud they did find

0:23:48.480,0:23:51.600
three of them would have been stopped by

0:23:50.159,0:23:53.600
a voter id i feel like

0:23:51.600,0:23:55.120
the voter fraud debate here all the time

0:23:53.600,0:23:56.640
but i actually didn’t know the numbers

0:23:55.120,0:23:58.320
behind it so i’m glad you

0:23:56.640,0:24:00.000
put them in the episode yeah the whole

0:23:58.320,0:24:01.600
point is putting that on the agenda

0:24:00.000,0:24:03.360
making people worried about it

0:24:01.600,0:24:05.440
nowadays you hear everyone talking about

0:24:03.360,0:24:08.640
like mail-in voting fraud

0:24:05.440,0:24:10.240
but actually voting by mail

0:24:08.640,0:24:12.159
those ballots are under much more

0:24:10.240,0:24:14.159
scrutiny than normal voting

0:24:12.159,0:24:16.159
the only real problem with them is that

0:24:14.159,0:24:18.799
way too many are rejected

0:24:16.159,0:24:21.200
because they a lot of they’ll check your

0:24:18.799,0:24:23.440
signature to see if it matches

0:24:21.200,0:24:25.200
the signature on your id those ballots

0:24:23.440,0:24:27.039
are actually under more scrutiny

0:24:25.200,0:24:28.240
and a decent number of them do get

0:24:27.039,0:24:32.400
rejected

0:24:28.240,0:24:34.320
wow also millions upon millions of

0:24:32.400,0:24:34.960
voters have been purged from the voter

0:24:34.320,0:24:36.799
rolls

0:24:34.960,0:24:39.120
to stop voter fraud that’s the thing

0:24:36.799,0:24:42.799
like these accusations of voter fraud

0:24:39.120,0:24:46.240
are speculation but the voter purging

0:24:42.799,0:24:48.640
is real well why

0:24:46.240,0:24:50.960
these state governments will remove

0:24:48.640,0:24:52.799
voters from the voter registration list

0:24:50.960,0:24:54.000
because they think maybe they moved out

0:24:52.799,0:24:56.480
of state or something

0:24:54.000,0:24:57.840
they see someone who’s registered in

0:24:56.480,0:25:00.320
multiple states

0:24:57.840,0:25:02.320
but there have been so many flaws with

0:25:00.320,0:25:04.240
that people have been like uh i voted in

0:25:02.320,0:25:05.679
the primary election three months ago

0:25:04.240,0:25:06.640
and you purged me from the voter roll

0:25:05.679,0:25:08.720
and a lot of people

0:25:06.640,0:25:10.480
show up to vote on election day and find

0:25:08.720,0:25:12.240
out that they’ve been purged from the

0:25:10.480,0:25:14.559
voter roll to stop voter fraud

0:25:12.240,0:25:17.039
oh my gosh and you can’t can you

0:25:14.559,0:25:18.400
register the day of to vote or no like

0:25:17.039,0:25:21.279
what if you got purged

0:25:18.400,0:25:21.679
and then you showed me you’d be out of

0:25:21.279,0:25:24.159
luck

0:25:21.679,0:25:25.760
that’s another thing like in montana you

0:25:24.159,0:25:28.640
can register the day of the election

0:25:25.760,0:25:30.000
it’s so easy out here but but like you

0:25:28.640,0:25:33.120
go to like georgia

0:25:30.000,0:25:34.000
there are so many barriers it’s it’s

0:25:33.120,0:25:36.000
ridiculous

0:25:34.000,0:25:37.760
it shouldn’t even be a partisan thing

0:25:36.000,0:25:40.880
there is reason to be

0:25:37.760,0:25:41.679
very careful with voting and to double

0:25:40.880,0:25:43.520
check

0:25:41.679,0:25:45.600
that you’re registered to know how

0:25:43.520,0:25:48.159
you’re voting especially this year

0:25:45.600,0:25:49.520
like if you’re voting in person try to

0:25:48.159,0:25:51.600
vote early if you can

0:25:49.520,0:25:52.960
a lot of states offer early voting take

0:25:51.600,0:25:54.640
safety precautions

0:25:52.960,0:25:56.400
if you’re voting by mail make sure your

0:25:54.640,0:25:58.720
signature matches your id

0:25:56.400,0:26:00.080
mail in your ballot far ahead of time

0:25:58.720,0:26:02.400
take that ballot

0:26:00.080,0:26:04.240
drop it off at a drop box if you can

0:26:02.400,0:26:06.640
request an absentee ballot

0:26:04.240,0:26:08.320
now for me like you know you hear a lot

0:26:06.640,0:26:10.960
of people talk about how they don’t like

0:26:08.320,0:26:13.039
politics how they’re disillusioned

0:26:10.960,0:26:14.320
but i don’t think that’s any excuse not

0:26:13.039,0:26:17.200
to vote and

0:26:14.320,0:26:19.279
for me that comes down to the stories of

0:26:17.200,0:26:20.159
all those who have fought so hard for

0:26:19.279,0:26:21.760
the right to vote

0:26:20.159,0:26:23.200
you look at how many people are trying

0:26:21.760,0:26:25.679
to vote and have

0:26:23.200,0:26:28.080
such difficulties in doing so i don’t

0:26:25.679,0:26:30.480
think you can look at that and say

0:26:28.080,0:26:32.159
well i don’t want to vote because i

0:26:30.480,0:26:32.640
don’t really like either candidate i

0:26:32.159,0:26:34.559
know

0:26:32.640,0:26:36.880
we want candidates that perfectly fit

0:26:34.559,0:26:38.559
everything we want all our policy wishes

0:26:36.880,0:26:40.720
but it rarely works like that

0:26:38.559,0:26:41.600
and there is a difference in the leaders

0:26:40.720,0:26:44.559
that we choose

0:26:41.600,0:26:46.240
even if we don’t like our options and

0:26:44.559,0:26:47.440
it’s the vulnerable communities that

0:26:46.240,0:26:49.520
most feel the effects

0:26:47.440,0:26:50.960
of that which i think everyone needs to

0:26:49.520,0:26:52.799
remember when they vote i don’t think

0:26:50.960,0:26:54.400
voting has to be a cure-all

0:26:52.799,0:26:56.720
your vote isn’t going to change

0:26:54.400,0:26:59.600
everything but it’s a first step

0:26:56.720,0:27:00.320
it’s an important one and for some of us

0:26:59.600,0:27:03.200
it’s easy

0:27:00.320,0:27:05.360
yeah beautifully said and i agree it’s

0:27:03.200,0:27:07.760
not just voting in the general election

0:27:05.360,0:27:09.360
local elections primaries every single

0:27:07.760,0:27:11.039
chance you get to cast a vote

0:27:09.360,0:27:12.640
it’s a privilege and responsibility for

0:27:11.039,0:27:15.360
american citizens to

0:27:12.640,0:27:15.919
cast a vote whenever you can local

0:27:15.360,0:27:18.399
elections

0:27:15.919,0:27:19.279
have like the lowest turnout out of all

0:27:18.399,0:27:20.880
of our

0:27:19.279,0:27:22.880
different types of elections but like

0:27:20.880,0:27:23.679
honestly they’re so important state

0:27:22.880,0:27:25.840
officials

0:27:23.679,0:27:27.039
county officials town officials they

0:27:25.840,0:27:28.640
have a lot more power

0:27:27.039,0:27:30.880
than people realize like attorney

0:27:28.640,0:27:31.200
generals i realized until recently like

0:27:30.880,0:27:34.640
oh

0:27:31.200,0:27:37.919
man like i didn’t realize how much

0:27:34.640,0:27:39.600
legislation they impact yeah the

0:27:37.919,0:27:42.320
attorney general’s the one

0:27:39.600,0:27:43.120
doing the moral term interpretee what is

0:27:42.320,0:27:46.159
it

0:27:43.120,0:27:48.159
turpitude perpetuity you gotta

0:27:46.159,0:27:49.360
pick the right one encourage everyone to

0:27:48.159,0:27:52.159
do their research i think

0:27:49.360,0:27:53.840
there are a lot of websites that i think

0:27:52.159,0:27:55.279
break down all the candidates for like

0:27:53.840,0:27:56.640
all these like various

0:27:55.279,0:27:58.480
positions i don’t know what i’m trying

0:27:56.640,0:28:00.720
to say let’s try to link that

0:27:58.480,0:28:02.000
in like the description on the youtube

0:28:00.720,0:28:04.320
channel and the podcast because

0:28:02.000,0:28:06.080
i’m gonna get off my high horse i will

0:28:04.320,0:28:07.679
be the first one to say i do not vote in

0:28:06.080,0:28:09.360
every single election i’m really like

0:28:07.679,0:28:12.000
giving good advice that i should be

0:28:09.360,0:28:13.679
taking i need to vote more often and i

0:28:12.000,0:28:15.440
do not educate myself as much as i

0:28:13.679,0:28:16.480
should to be a good voter and that’s

0:28:15.440,0:28:18.480
something that i’m

0:28:16.480,0:28:20.159
working on changing and making an effort

0:28:18.480,0:28:21.440
to get better at we’re all learning

0:28:20.159,0:28:23.520
we’re all learning how to be better

0:28:21.440,0:28:24.799
proactive citizens of our country for

0:28:23.520,0:28:27.679
sure i really agree

0:28:24.799,0:28:29.360
even in like the 2016 election like in

0:28:27.679,0:28:30.640
the general election i just voted for

0:28:29.360,0:28:33.600
like president

0:28:30.640,0:28:35.279
like all the other like local um

0:28:33.600,0:28:36.799
officials that were on the ballot i kind

0:28:35.279,0:28:38.080
of like i just abstained and i skipped

0:28:36.799,0:28:40.080
through because i was like oh i don’t

0:28:38.080,0:28:41.600
i didn’t even realize they were up for

0:28:40.080,0:28:42.559
election and like i don’t know who these

0:28:41.600,0:28:45.200
people are and like

0:28:42.559,0:28:46.640
all these positions are so important so

0:28:45.200,0:28:49.120
everyone should do their research

0:28:46.640,0:28:51.600
definitely especially all the new young

0:28:49.120,0:28:54.480
voters our demographic for this podcast

0:28:51.600,0:28:56.960
is quite young so some of you may be

0:28:54.480,0:29:00.000
voting for the first time so get excited

0:28:56.960,0:29:00.720
get educated and get ready to vote for

0:29:00.000,0:29:03.520
this fall

0:29:00.720,0:29:04.000
for sure that’s right so for my job i’ve

0:29:03.520,0:29:05.840
been

0:29:04.000,0:29:08.080
talking to a lot of voters across

0:29:05.840,0:29:10.399
america i talked to this one lady she

0:29:08.080,0:29:12.559
was 75 years old i asked her if she

0:29:10.399,0:29:15.760
would vote absentee she was like

0:29:12.559,0:29:18.880
nothing short of death will stop me from

0:29:15.760,0:29:20.799
voting she was like if i become sick i

0:29:18.880,0:29:23.919
will have my children keep me on

0:29:20.799,0:29:24.880
life support until november 3rd this

0:29:23.919,0:29:27.039
lady is

0:29:24.880,0:29:28.880
my hero i think our i think our

0:29:27.039,0:29:30.559
generation needs more of that

0:29:28.880,0:29:32.960
you talk to the older generation they’re

0:29:30.559,0:29:34.720
always like yes

0:29:32.960,0:29:36.880
nothing will stop me i was like an

0:29:34.720,0:29:39.120
election judge one year and i swear like

0:29:36.880,0:29:40.880
80 of the people that came to vote were

0:29:39.120,0:29:43.440
like over the age of 65

0:29:40.880,0:29:46.080
i was like wow well i mean think about

0:29:43.440,0:29:47.039
that demographic if you’re over 65 you

0:29:46.080,0:29:49.200
probably grew up

0:29:47.039,0:29:51.120
civil rights era so you know how much of

0:29:49.200,0:29:52.720
an honor it is to be able to like have

0:29:51.120,0:29:55.600
your voice represented

0:29:52.720,0:29:57.919
that’s true thank you so much david for

0:29:55.600,0:30:01.200
doing this episode and educating us

0:29:57.919,0:30:04.480
on how to vote everyone get excited

0:30:01.200,0:30:09.690
yeah thanks for having me on your show

0:30:04.480,0:30:19.259
come back i’m an honored guest

0:30:09.690,0:30:19.259
[Music]

We inspired Nazi Germany? | History of Forced Sterilization in the United States

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

What’s the most insidious way to stop the continuation of the human race? Forced sterilization would be our guess. It may seem like a thing of the past but you’ll be terrified to know that practices of force sterilization and the eugenics movement lasted well into the 70’s for the United States. In our FIRST Guest episode EVER, our friend Indeep takes us on a journey through the history of forced sterilization, who it targeted, the resistance, and how long it lasted.

Sources:

https://www.panoramas.pitt.edu/health-and-society/dark-history-forced-sterilization-latina-women

Transcript

0:00:00.320,0:00:04.720
hello everybody and welcome to another

0:00:02.560,0:00:08.240
episode of how did we not know that

0:00:04.720,0:00:11.519
i’m nat i’m jack and i’m in deep

0:00:08.240,0:00:13.840
yay yay

0:00:11.519,0:00:15.519
hey everyone welcome we are really

0:00:13.840,0:00:16.160
excited we have our first guest ever

0:00:15.519,0:00:18.560
today

0:00:16.160,0:00:20.320
she was our very good friend in deep in

0:00:18.560,0:00:22.640
deep and i actually met while we were

0:00:20.320,0:00:24.640
studying abroad in senegal

0:00:22.640,0:00:27.199
so she’s going to present today on a

0:00:24.640,0:00:30.400
topic of her choosing

0:00:27.199,0:00:32.960
take it away indeed okay so

0:00:30.400,0:00:33.760
a fun thing is that neither jack nor nat

0:00:32.960,0:00:35.040
know my topic

0:00:33.760,0:00:37.040
so i’m really curious to see how they

0:00:35.040,0:00:39.200
react um so

0:00:37.040,0:00:42.719
to open i have a question what is your

0:00:39.200,0:00:46.160
guys’s worst nightmare

0:00:42.719,0:00:49.600
if i had to give like blood repeatedly

0:00:46.160,0:00:53.360
like over and over and over okay okay

0:00:49.600,0:00:56.399
and that i’m really scared

0:00:53.360,0:00:58.800
of like open spaces like the ocean i’m

0:00:56.399,0:01:02.480
really scared of the ocean actually

0:00:58.800,0:01:05.920
that’s interesting yeah so mine

0:01:02.480,0:01:08.640
we’re gonna use it against us

0:01:05.920,0:01:09.680
can you imagine um i feel like you’re

0:01:08.640,0:01:13.280
not on topic at all

0:01:09.680,0:01:17.360
go ahead mine would

0:01:13.280,0:01:18.799
probably be having unanesthetized

0:01:17.360,0:01:21.759
gynecological surgery

0:01:18.799,0:01:21.759
without my consent

0:01:21.920,0:01:27.280
okay so the title of my presentation

0:01:25.759,0:01:29.759
is going to was going to be i was

0:01:27.280,0:01:32.320
between reproductive politics

0:01:29.759,0:01:33.600
or how women’s bodies were the original

0:01:32.320,0:01:35.600
battlegrounds of how men

0:01:33.600,0:01:37.520
especially american colonizers and slave

0:01:35.600,0:01:39.360
owners gain and kept their power and

0:01:37.520,0:01:43.280
influence

0:01:39.360,0:01:45.119
wow that’s heavy girl

0:01:43.280,0:01:46.320
you guys i don’t come here to play i

0:01:45.119,0:01:48.399
come here to let you know

0:01:46.320,0:01:50.560
you know to spill the pee and the tea is

0:01:48.399,0:01:52.560
going to be spilled

0:01:50.560,0:01:53.680
this is a rabbit hole and i’m sorry

0:01:52.560,0:01:54.000
you’re not going gonna be the same once

0:01:53.680,0:01:57.280
you come

0:01:54.000,0:02:00.079
out and i hope that’s okay oh my gosh

0:01:57.280,0:02:02.079
yes i feel like american history just

0:02:00.079,0:02:04.880
like the more i study it the more i’m

0:02:02.079,0:02:04.880
like yikes

0:02:05.119,0:02:08.800
um and i also think it’s funny that like

0:02:07.280,0:02:10.239
they’re just these little holes there’s

0:02:08.800,0:02:11.760
these little things that are just like

0:02:10.239,0:02:14.160
oh we never even thought about that

0:02:11.760,0:02:16.000
and it’s actually like this huge problem

0:02:14.160,0:02:17.440
that still affects people

0:02:16.000,0:02:19.840
um but something i also want to

0:02:17.440,0:02:23.040
highlight before i kind of get like into

0:02:19.840,0:02:26.800
the um stick of

0:02:23.040,0:02:29.120
the presentation is um how

0:02:26.800,0:02:30.560
the resistance to these is sometimes

0:02:29.120,0:02:32.239
documented and i really want to like

0:02:30.560,0:02:34.400
highlight it as we go through

0:02:32.239,0:02:36.480
because i don’t want to like erase the

0:02:34.400,0:02:37.120
stories of the victims and dehumanize

0:02:36.480,0:02:40.080
them

0:02:37.120,0:02:40.640
um and so i want to kind of highlight

0:02:40.080,0:02:42.560
that

0:02:40.640,0:02:44.879
these are people who exercise their will

0:02:42.560,0:02:46.800
when they could and they often did so

0:02:44.879,0:02:49.040
like against really scary odds and

0:02:46.800,0:02:50.400
really powerful institutions and forces

0:02:49.040,0:02:51.200
so as we’re like going through this

0:02:50.400,0:02:52.800
we’re gonna just

0:02:51.200,0:02:55.200
highlight the resistance and highlight

0:02:52.800,0:02:58.800
the fact that these were people you know

0:02:55.200,0:03:02.239
it all starts with our guy

0:02:58.800,0:03:05.040
james marion sims aka

0:03:02.239,0:03:06.480
the father of modern gynecology and i

0:03:05.040,0:03:06.879
feel like we all just feel weird about

0:03:06.480,0:03:08.319
there

0:03:06.879,0:03:11.840
being someone with the title the father

0:03:08.319,0:03:11.840
of modern gynecology right

0:03:13.360,0:03:18.080
that’s upsetting since practice medicine

0:03:16.319,0:03:18.720
at a time when treating women was

0:03:18.080,0:03:22.319
considered

0:03:18.720,0:03:23.360
distasteful and rarely done and you know

0:03:22.319,0:03:26.239
no one surprised

0:03:23.360,0:03:28.080
and he invented the vaginal speculum

0:03:26.239,0:03:29.200
which is a tool used for dilation and

0:03:28.080,0:03:31.760
examination

0:03:29.200,0:03:32.560
and are all thinking oh okay cool cool

0:03:31.760,0:03:34.879
um and

0:03:32.560,0:03:36.159
he also pioneered a surgical technique

0:03:34.879,0:03:39.120
to repair

0:03:36.159,0:03:41.599
vesico vaginal fistula which is a common

0:03:39.120,0:03:45.200
19th century complication of childbirth

0:03:41.599,0:03:47.920
in which okay get ready a tear happens

0:03:45.200,0:03:48.720
between the uterus and the bladder and

0:03:47.920,0:03:51.840
that causes

0:03:48.720,0:03:53.519
constant pain and urine leakage and so

0:03:51.840,0:03:55.519
this still happens today in developing

0:03:53.519,0:03:58.319
countries and it’s really avoidable

0:03:55.519,0:03:59.120
and it literally happens when a baby is

0:03:58.319,0:04:02.480
stuck

0:03:59.120,0:04:04.159
for too long and they like wear a hole

0:04:02.480,0:04:06.799
next to your vagina and it can happen

0:04:04.159,0:04:07.120
like next to your bladder or next to

0:04:06.799,0:04:10.000
your

0:04:07.120,0:04:10.480
literal anus and it causes like leaking

0:04:10.000,0:04:12.000
and

0:04:10.480,0:04:13.439
i don’t know about this gonna happen but

0:04:12.000,0:04:15.120
when it happens it happens and it’s a

0:04:13.439,0:04:16.639
really big problem like in developing

0:04:15.120,0:04:17.040
countries because people who have this

0:04:16.639,0:04:19.680
problem

0:04:17.040,0:04:21.759
are often like um first of all the baby

0:04:19.680,0:04:23.759
usually suffocates and dies

0:04:21.759,0:04:25.680
um i know because they’re in there for

0:04:23.759,0:04:29.199
days like that’s how long it takes right

0:04:25.680,0:04:31.080
and um also like they’re often

0:04:29.199,0:04:33.280
um what’s the word when you’re like

0:04:31.080,0:04:34.880
excommunicated like thrown out of the

0:04:33.280,0:04:37.600
tribe thrown out of the

0:04:34.880,0:04:38.160
village and i know they can’t have a

0:04:37.600,0:04:40.320
baby

0:04:38.160,0:04:42.000
because it’s stuck because their baby

0:04:40.320,0:04:44.560
died and because they smell

0:04:42.000,0:04:45.840
bad because after this happens they like

0:04:44.560,0:04:47.759
it’s just really gross

0:04:45.840,0:04:49.199
you know and they like have because it’s

0:04:47.759,0:04:51.520
leaking okay

0:04:49.199,0:04:52.639
exactly and so i think they think of it

0:04:51.520,0:04:54.160
as like a curse

0:04:52.639,0:04:56.000
or sometimes it’s just like kind of

0:04:54.160,0:04:56.960
distasteful to have around and they’re

0:04:56.000,0:04:59.199
just kind of like

0:04:56.960,0:05:00.320
banished the woman and this is like

0:04:59.199,0:05:01.840
really first of all this is really

0:05:00.320,0:05:03.360
easily repaired by surgery just some

0:05:01.840,0:05:05.280
stitches you know

0:05:03.360,0:05:06.160
and okay i don’t want to reduce that i

0:05:05.280,0:05:08.840
don’t know how it’s prepared i’m

0:05:06.160,0:05:10.240
assuming it’s just

0:05:08.840,0:05:12.800
bitches but

0:05:10.240,0:05:14.240
also um it’s really preventable like if

0:05:12.800,0:05:14.880
you just have something kind of take the

0:05:14.240,0:05:16.240
baby out

0:05:14.880,0:05:18.400
you could do a c-section like there’s a

0:05:16.240,0:05:19.440
lot of ways to like get the baby to come

0:05:18.400,0:05:22.560
out now

0:05:19.440,0:05:25.520
but you know if you just don’t have any

0:05:22.560,0:05:26.080
resources sorry what year is this that

0:05:25.520,0:05:28.320
he’s

0:05:26.080,0:05:31.360
inventing this do you know so he’s

0:05:28.320,0:05:33.240
inventing this he was born in 1813

0:05:31.360,0:05:34.400
so i think he was inventing this in the

0:05:33.240,0:05:37.600
1830s

0:05:34.400,0:05:39.919
1840s maybe cool wait question

0:05:37.600,0:05:40.960
sorry he’s american so the father of

0:05:39.919,0:05:44.080
gynecology

0:05:40.960,0:05:46.320
is american yeah okay and he was born in

0:05:44.080,0:05:49.919
lancaster county south carolina

0:05:46.320,0:05:51.919
in 1813 um and he entered the medical

0:05:49.919,0:05:53.440
profession when doctors didn’t undergo

0:05:51.919,0:05:55.199
the same rigorous coursework and

0:05:53.440,0:05:57.360
training they do today

0:05:55.199,0:05:58.479
after interning with a doctor and taking

0:05:57.360,0:06:00.800
a three-month course

0:05:58.479,0:06:01.759
and studying for a year at jefferson

0:06:00.800,0:06:04.639
medical college

0:06:01.759,0:06:06.080
he began his practice he later relocated

0:06:04.639,0:06:09.199
to montgomery county

0:06:06.080,0:06:09.680
alabama seeking a fresh start after the

0:06:09.199,0:06:13.199
death

0:06:09.680,0:06:13.199
of his first two patients

0:06:13.360,0:06:18.639
no the third time’s a charm right just

0:06:16.240,0:06:20.319
gotta move to alabama so they don’t have

0:06:18.639,0:06:23.520
that third try

0:06:20.319,0:06:24.720
no the father of the father of modern

0:06:23.520,0:06:27.600
gynecology

0:06:24.720,0:06:29.199
so it was in montgomery that sims built

0:06:27.600,0:06:31.039
his reputation among rich white

0:06:29.199,0:06:34.000
plantation owners by treating their

0:06:31.039,0:06:36.800
human property

0:06:34.000,0:06:37.840
article does not play um according to

0:06:36.800,0:06:39.520
vanessa gamble

0:06:37.840,0:06:41.919
university professor of medical

0:06:39.520,0:06:42.880
humanities at gw george washington

0:06:41.919,0:06:44.560
university

0:06:42.880,0:06:45.919
since this practice was deeply rooted in

0:06:44.560,0:06:47.919
the slave trade

0:06:45.919,0:06:50.080
and while most healthcare took place in

0:06:47.919,0:06:52.080
the plantation some stubborn cases were

0:06:50.080,0:06:54.000
brought to physicians like sims

0:06:52.080,0:06:55.759
who patched up enslaved workers so they

0:06:54.000,0:06:56.960
could produce and reproduce for their

0:06:55.759,0:06:58.400
masters again

0:06:56.960,0:07:00.400
otherwise they were useless to their

0:06:58.400,0:07:02.400
owners and this kind of brings up this

0:07:00.400,0:07:05.120
concept of soundness

0:07:02.400,0:07:07.039
um being a sound a meant that you could

0:07:05.120,0:07:08.880
produce and reproduce so men could

0:07:07.039,0:07:10.800
produce and women could reproduce for

0:07:08.880,0:07:11.759
women having fistula made them less

0:07:10.800,0:07:13.039
sound because they couldn’t really

0:07:11.759,0:07:16.319
reproduce as much

0:07:13.039,0:07:18.240
it goes into the whole slavery and child

0:07:16.319,0:07:21.199
bearing which i’m going to get into

0:07:18.240,0:07:21.919
but just to finish on our guy james

0:07:21.199,0:07:23.199
marion sims

0:07:21.919,0:07:24.639
there’s a lot more on him if you’re

0:07:23.199,0:07:25.919
interested he started like the first

0:07:24.639,0:07:28.240
women’s hospital

0:07:25.919,0:07:29.440
killed a bunch of people saved some

0:07:28.240,0:07:33.039
people you know

0:07:29.440,0:07:36.400
and he had i think three statues of him

0:07:33.039,0:07:38.080
that are starting to come down so

0:07:36.400,0:07:40.880
there was one of his statues was

0:07:38.080,0:07:42.800
literally in central park

0:07:40.880,0:07:44.560
opposite the new york academy of

0:07:42.800,0:07:47.360
medicine in new york city

0:07:44.560,0:07:48.720
and this was removed on april 17 2018

0:07:47.360,0:07:50.639
and its current plaque

0:07:48.720,0:07:52.000
will be replaced by one that educates

0:07:50.639,0:07:52.639
the public on the origins of the

0:07:52.000,0:07:54.960
monument

0:07:52.639,0:07:56.240
and the controversial non-consensual

0:07:54.960,0:07:58.720
medical experiments he

0:07:56.240,0:07:59.919
used on women of color mostly enslaved

0:07:58.720,0:08:01.919
black women

0:07:59.919,0:08:03.520
the names and histories of three known

0:08:01.919,0:08:05.440
women whose bodies were used in the name

0:08:03.520,0:08:07.520
of medical and scientific advancement

0:08:05.440,0:08:09.120
by the doctor their names are lucy

0:08:07.520,0:08:09.840
anarca and betsy will take their

0:08:09.120,0:08:11.919
rightful

0:08:09.840,0:08:15.680
place on the new plaque and i will also

0:08:11.919,0:08:18.160
mention he did his experiments on slaves

0:08:15.680,0:08:19.520
without anesthesia because it wasn’t

0:08:18.160,0:08:24.639
invented at the time

0:08:19.520,0:08:27.360
and also because i know and also because

0:08:24.639,0:08:29.120
they didn’t think that black bodies felt

0:08:27.360,0:08:30.879
pain the same way that white bodies did

0:08:29.120,0:08:32.880
which is still a myth that happens to

0:08:30.879,0:08:35.919
this day like to this day black people

0:08:32.880,0:08:37.760
are um given less anesthesia

0:08:35.919,0:08:39.680
on average than like their white

0:08:37.760,0:08:40.000
counterparts because they believe that

0:08:39.680,0:08:42.959
black

0:08:40.000,0:08:45.839
people somehow feel less pain and that’s

0:08:42.959,0:08:48.720
james marion sims

0:08:45.839,0:08:49.279
jeez oh my god that’s so upsetting that

0:08:48.720,0:08:52.800
like

0:08:49.279,0:08:54.399
not only is he this awful person

0:08:52.800,0:08:55.839
he killed all these women and like none

0:08:54.399,0:08:58.160
of his surgeries were really consensual

0:08:55.839,0:08:59.760
but how did he get all these statues

0:08:58.160,0:09:02.399
like

0:08:59.760,0:09:03.279
i have no idea what i do know is that i

0:09:02.399,0:09:04.959
don’t know like he

0:09:03.279,0:09:06.399
started doing surgeries on white women

0:09:04.959,0:09:08.240
and he did make a lot of advancements

0:09:06.399,0:09:10.959
because before nobody would even

0:09:08.240,0:09:12.959
like delve into women’s reproductive

0:09:10.959,0:09:14.160
like they were like growth you know

0:09:12.959,0:09:16.000
and then he started doing surgeries on

0:09:14.160,0:09:17.839
white women with anesthesia

0:09:16.000,0:09:19.839
because you know handily it was invented

0:09:17.839,0:09:23.440
and also you know white women feel pain

0:09:19.839,0:09:25.680
apparently um who knew so

0:09:23.440,0:09:27.279
not me that white side of me doesn’t

0:09:25.680,0:09:29.839
feel pain so i don’t know what you’re

0:09:27.279,0:09:29.839
talking about

0:09:30.640,0:09:34.480
so i can just delve into slavery and

0:09:33.600,0:09:36.640
child bearing

0:09:34.480,0:09:38.640
because you know this is all this

0:09:36.640,0:09:40.880
research was just a hole that i just dug

0:09:38.640,0:09:42.640
deeper and deeper into it just doesn’t

0:09:40.880,0:09:43.839
end everything that i’m going to say is

0:09:42.640,0:09:46.640
accepted

0:09:43.839,0:09:48.640
from birthing a slave motherhood and

0:09:46.640,0:09:49.440
medicine in the antebellum south by

0:09:48.640,0:09:52.240
murray

0:09:49.440,0:09:53.279
marie jenkins schwartz so here’s like a

0:09:52.240,0:09:55.760
little bit of background

0:09:53.279,0:09:57.279
um as of 1808 congress ended the

0:09:55.760,0:09:58.720
nation’s participation in the

0:09:57.279,0:10:00.240
international slave trade

0:09:58.720,0:10:01.920
so that means that the only practical

0:10:00.240,0:10:03.120
way of increasing the number of slave

0:10:01.920,0:10:06.240
laborers was through

0:10:03.120,0:10:08.320
new births so if enslaved mothers did

0:10:06.240,0:10:10.079
not bear sufficient numbers of children

0:10:08.320,0:10:11.680
to take the place of aged and dying

0:10:10.079,0:10:12.800
workers the south couldn’t continue as a

0:10:11.680,0:10:15.040
slave society

0:10:12.800,0:10:16.560
and as we know slavery lasted a lot

0:10:15.040,0:10:20.079
longer than 1808

0:10:16.560,0:10:22.640
right so they really made it work

0:10:20.079,0:10:23.360
slave trade ends in 1808 yeah the slave

0:10:22.640,0:10:25.600
like trade

0:10:23.360,0:10:26.560
like the international slave trade ended

0:10:25.600,0:10:29.360
in 1808

0:10:26.560,0:10:30.560
like within we had like 60 yeah 60 years

0:10:29.360,0:10:33.680
and they’re just like

0:10:30.560,0:10:35.839
breeding more slaves now breeding is a

0:10:33.680,0:10:37.680
terrible i’m sorry i even use that word

0:10:35.839,0:10:39.519
like no but that’s a word that’s used

0:10:37.680,0:10:40.160
because it’s like you know it’s not

0:10:39.519,0:10:43.519
humane

0:10:40.160,0:10:45.279
like the way that this is right um

0:10:43.519,0:10:47.519
literally looking at it is like numbers

0:10:45.279,0:10:49.600
like they’re not looking them at

0:10:47.519,0:10:51.440
looking at it as like human beings yeah

0:10:49.600,0:10:54.640
they’re looking at them like livestock

0:10:51.440,0:10:55.120
it’s like literally literally first

0:10:54.640,0:10:57.600
thing

0:10:55.120,0:11:00.240
oh my god but rewards for motherhood

0:10:57.600,0:11:02.880
follow the birth of children for um like

0:11:00.240,0:11:04.480
female slaves to give birth right so

0:11:02.880,0:11:07.040
these included extra clothing

0:11:04.480,0:11:07.680
exemption from harsh punishment and even

0:11:07.040,0:11:10.880
rarely

0:11:07.680,0:11:12.800
rarely rarely freedom um some women were

0:11:10.880,0:11:15.040
able to avoid field or other arduous

0:11:12.800,0:11:16.720
labor as a result of bearing children

0:11:15.040,0:11:18.079
a breeder so these women were called

0:11:16.720,0:11:19.839
breeders

0:11:18.079,0:11:22.560
always fared better than the majority of

0:11:19.839,0:11:24.800
female slaves

0:11:22.560,0:11:25.680
and there were repercussions for

0:11:24.800,0:11:28.079
barrenness

0:11:25.680,0:11:29.040
so young woman who had not demonstrated

0:11:28.079,0:11:31.440
fertility

0:11:29.040,0:11:32.160
faced the possibility of separation from

0:11:31.440,0:11:35.680
family

0:11:32.160,0:11:37.040
as well as additional labor if a married

0:11:35.680,0:11:38.480
couple lived together for long without

0:11:37.040,0:11:41.440
having a baby

0:11:38.480,0:11:44.160
you they could owners would force

0:11:41.440,0:11:47.200
husband and wife to choose new partners

0:11:44.160,0:11:49.200
and um it’s also

0:11:47.200,0:11:51.120
like a former slave his name is henry

0:11:49.200,0:11:53.360
bobbitt maintained that many marriages

0:11:51.120,0:11:55.040
did not last longer than five years

0:11:53.360,0:11:56.639
because if no children were born within

0:11:55.040,0:11:58.800
five years husbands and wives were

0:11:56.639,0:12:01.519
expected to find other spouses

0:11:58.800,0:12:03.440
so from the standpoint of enslaved women

0:12:01.519,0:12:05.440
the slave owners fluoride into the

0:12:03.440,0:12:07.920
scientific management of their bodies

0:12:05.440,0:12:09.120
aka just like interest in their

0:12:07.920,0:12:11.519
reproductive systems

0:12:09.120,0:12:12.959
represented something beyond benevolence

0:12:11.519,0:12:16.079
i think not of a third

0:12:12.959,0:12:17.279
surprise um it was an effort to decrease

0:12:16.079,0:12:19.360
the importance of

0:12:17.279,0:12:21.279
women’s community and to substitute the

0:12:19.360,0:12:22.480
ways of white men for those of black

0:12:21.279,0:12:23.920
women and i found that like really

0:12:22.480,0:12:24.399
interesting just the way that was worded

0:12:23.920,0:12:26.079
it’s like

0:12:24.399,0:12:27.920
that’s literally what’s happening but

0:12:26.079,0:12:29.200
white men trying to control

0:12:27.920,0:12:31.040
trying to make like black women’s

0:12:29.200,0:12:32.560
reproductive systems work for them the

0:12:31.040,0:12:33.440
women struggle to assert their own

0:12:32.560,0:12:35.920
customs so

0:12:33.440,0:12:37.440
rather than acquiescing and slaveholders

0:12:35.920,0:12:38.480
demands that they bear as many children

0:12:37.440,0:12:40.320
as possible

0:12:38.480,0:12:42.240
enslaved women attempted to regulate

0:12:40.320,0:12:43.760
child bearing to accord with their own

0:12:42.240,0:12:45.360
notions of the proper timing and

0:12:43.760,0:12:47.200
frequency of motherhood

0:12:45.360,0:12:49.040
in resisting the dominion of white men

0:12:47.200,0:12:50.480
in this regard black women cast

0:12:49.040,0:12:51.680
themselves essential actors in the

0:12:50.480,0:12:53.760
unfolding drama

0:12:51.680,0:12:55.519
that constituted slave life and culture

0:12:53.760,0:12:57.279
in the antebellum south so essentially

0:12:55.519,0:12:59.040
like the fact that these women like

0:12:57.279,0:13:00.959
wouldn’t always have children whenever

0:12:59.040,0:13:03.279
it was demanded really really shaped the

0:13:00.959,0:13:05.200
narrative of like how slavery continued

0:13:03.279,0:13:06.639
because as we know like it is only

0:13:05.200,0:13:07.440
through these women that slavery could

0:13:06.639,0:13:09.680
continue

0:13:07.440,0:13:11.200
i’m like speechless just because like oh

0:13:09.680,0:13:12.800
my god like you’re literally like

0:13:11.200,0:13:15.519
manipulating

0:13:12.800,0:13:16.560
and like forcing yourself like on every

0:13:15.519,0:13:18.880
aspect of

0:13:16.560,0:13:20.720
like slaves like on their bodies and

0:13:18.880,0:13:24.079
like women especially like that’s so

0:13:20.720,0:13:25.440
violating and like dehumanizing and like

0:13:24.079,0:13:28.720
i just can’t even

0:13:25.440,0:13:32.399
i can’t even like imagine

0:13:28.720,0:13:32.959
how like painful and just how horrifying

0:13:32.399,0:13:35.519
and

0:13:32.959,0:13:37.440
disgusting that is like it’s really

0:13:35.519,0:13:40.000
upsetting to hear but i don’t know

0:13:37.440,0:13:41.839
like yeah and like just the pain of

0:13:40.000,0:13:42.800
child birth and child bearing and

0:13:41.839,0:13:44.800
everything you have to go through with

0:13:42.800,0:13:46.959
that and then the bond that like

0:13:44.800,0:13:48.160
a mothers feel with like their children

0:13:46.959,0:13:49.440
and then your child

0:13:48.160,0:13:51.279
is literally just being treated as

0:13:49.440,0:13:52.480
livestock i know i’m sure like

0:13:51.279,0:13:54.480
i’ve read things where they get

0:13:52.480,0:13:56.240
separated at birth and like the child

0:13:54.480,0:13:56.639
gets sold maybe to another slave owner

0:13:56.240,0:14:00.079
it’s

0:13:56.639,0:14:01.600
like horrific yeah it is crazy

0:14:00.079,0:14:03.120
it’s crazy to think about like whatever

0:14:01.600,0:14:05.600
children you have like you’re not going

0:14:03.120,0:14:07.839
to have any rights to them

0:14:05.600,0:14:09.440
yeah and literally like just being

0:14:07.839,0:14:12.079
thought of as like

0:14:09.440,0:14:13.920
an experiment and like something like a

0:14:12.079,0:14:15.920
test subject like oh that’s so

0:14:13.920,0:14:17.600
disgusting and that’s so scary like i’m

0:14:15.920,0:14:19.920
just like even like giving

0:14:17.600,0:14:22.320
birth to child like like any woman in

0:14:19.920,0:14:24.160
this time i know

0:14:22.320,0:14:26.240
absolutely horrifying like i can’t even

0:14:24.160,0:14:27.920
imagine i’m like so scared

0:14:26.240,0:14:30.240
like i would be so scared either way and

0:14:27.920,0:14:32.000
then in this setting especially like

0:14:30.240,0:14:33.920
oh my gosh i wonder how many like are

0:14:32.000,0:14:36.240
there any statistics and like how many

0:14:33.920,0:14:37.600
like fatalities like how many women died

0:14:36.240,0:14:39.839
because of this although i guess this

0:14:37.600,0:14:40.240
probably wasn’t documented it’s hard to

0:14:39.839,0:14:42.880
tell

0:14:40.240,0:14:44.959
because i don’t know how much they would

0:14:42.880,0:14:46.959
have like actually documented

0:14:44.959,0:14:48.480
you know other than like to suit their

0:14:46.959,0:14:50.800
own needs you know

0:14:48.480,0:14:51.600
yeah no history is like documented by

0:14:50.800,0:14:53.760
the winners

0:14:51.600,0:14:55.360
as they say and like especially they’re

0:14:53.760,0:14:56.560
not teaching slaves how to read and

0:14:55.360,0:14:58.000
write it’s hard to find any

0:14:56.560,0:14:59.680
documentation at all i’m actually

0:14:58.000,0:15:01.279
impressed that there’s at least

0:14:59.680,0:15:03.360
documentation

0:15:01.279,0:15:05.120
on this so we know about it i know it’s

0:15:03.360,0:15:07.600
crazy i think that a lot of it also

0:15:05.120,0:15:08.320
honestly came from like the descendants

0:15:07.600,0:15:10.720
of like

0:15:08.320,0:15:12.560
slaves because a lot of this was like

0:15:10.720,0:15:13.120
told through stories and i think it’s

0:15:12.560,0:15:14.880
just like

0:15:13.120,0:15:16.320
i don’t know even we’re gonna go like

0:15:14.880,0:15:18.160
through a few more subjects but even

0:15:16.320,0:15:20.160
just like the way that like

0:15:18.160,0:15:21.680
people are researching these things and

0:15:20.160,0:15:23.040
it’s so important to research it makes

0:15:21.680,0:15:24.800
me have such respect because i feel like

0:15:23.040,0:15:26.399
this is so traumatizing to research

0:15:24.800,0:15:27.680
about like write about every day you

0:15:26.399,0:15:29.680
know

0:15:27.680,0:15:31.920
and very painful for them to like relive

0:15:29.680,0:15:34.639
those experiences to share the story

0:15:31.920,0:15:35.519
to that for that to be documented yeah

0:15:34.639,0:15:37.680
that’s so true

0:15:35.519,0:15:38.959
on to the next phase and so we don’t

0:15:37.680,0:15:41.200
have another question for you

0:15:38.959,0:15:43.040
you two lovely young humans

0:15:41.200,0:15:44.880
[Laughter]

0:15:43.040,0:15:46.639
when you think of the 1970s what do you

0:15:44.880,0:15:49.759
think of i think of like the hip

0:15:46.639,0:15:50.480
hippies and like i think of the vietnam

0:15:49.759,0:15:53.279
war

0:15:50.480,0:15:54.560
and like there’s a lot of like unrest

0:15:53.279,0:15:57.120
and people are

0:15:54.560,0:15:59.120
upset i think of like the start of the

0:15:57.120,0:16:01.120
end of like social darwinism

0:15:59.120,0:16:02.399
and like the end of the eugenics

0:16:01.120,0:16:05.839
practices well

0:16:02.399,0:16:09.759
so we so we believe yeah jack is ready

0:16:05.839,0:16:11.279
she knows how this goes

0:16:09.759,0:16:12.880
it’s because i’m studying the gilded age

0:16:11.279,0:16:14.240
right now so i’m like learning about

0:16:12.880,0:16:15.120
everything that was put in place and

0:16:14.240,0:16:16.880
then it’s like

0:16:15.120,0:16:19.120
ending in the 70s so i just want to

0:16:16.880,0:16:21.360
request you guys on roe v wade happened

0:16:19.120,0:16:23.360
in 1973

0:16:21.360,0:16:25.440
and it was a landmark decision of the us

0:16:23.360,0:16:27.440
supreme court in which the court ruled

0:16:25.440,0:16:29.120
that the constitution of the united

0:16:27.440,0:16:29.920
states protects a pregnant woman’s

0:16:29.120,0:16:32.320
liberty to

0:16:29.920,0:16:35.199
choose to have an abortion without

0:16:32.320,0:16:37.839
excessive government restrictions

0:16:35.199,0:16:39.360
some hot tea and so we can get into some

0:16:37.839,0:16:40.240
like in the background there was this

0:16:39.360,0:16:43.360
woman

0:16:40.240,0:16:45.120
um and her pseudonym was jane roe and

0:16:43.360,0:16:46.800
she became pregnant with her third child

0:16:45.120,0:16:49.120
and she won an abortion

0:16:46.800,0:16:51.199
um but she lived in texas where abortion

0:16:49.120,0:16:54.959
was illegal and so

0:16:51.199,0:16:57.120
she filed the lawsuit um on her behalf

0:16:54.959,0:17:00.560
in the u.s federal court against henry

0:16:57.120,0:17:02.959
wade who was her local district attorney

0:17:00.560,0:17:04.640
and so basically they heard the case

0:17:02.959,0:17:05.520
they ruled in her favor and then texted

0:17:04.640,0:17:07.199
appeal to

0:17:05.520,0:17:08.640
the u.s supreme court which agreed to

0:17:07.199,0:17:12.160
hear the case and

0:17:08.640,0:17:13.120
they appeal or they ruled in her favor

0:17:12.160,0:17:15.760
which meant that

0:17:13.120,0:17:17.760
federally abortion is legal abortion in

0:17:15.760,0:17:20.160
the united states is legal

0:17:17.760,0:17:21.919
nationally but abortion laws are also

0:17:20.160,0:17:23.600
like under state jurisdiction

0:17:21.919,0:17:25.039
but technically like it has to be

0:17:23.600,0:17:27.679
illegal in all states but it’s

0:17:25.039,0:17:29.200
regulated by the states yeah so i kind

0:17:27.679,0:17:29.840
of wanted to highlight this because i

0:17:29.200,0:17:32.240
felt like

0:17:29.840,0:17:33.760
um this is like the struggle that we

0:17:32.240,0:17:34.480
hear about but this is a struggle of

0:17:33.760,0:17:36.160
white women

0:17:34.480,0:17:38.000
as i’m gonna kind of like go into more

0:17:36.160,0:17:41.120
like the struggle was different for

0:17:38.000,0:17:43.200
different populations of women of color

0:17:41.120,0:17:44.720
and it’s kind of crazy how different the

0:17:43.200,0:17:45.679
struggles like they were just not even

0:17:44.720,0:17:47.679
the same

0:17:45.679,0:17:49.840
like not even the same issue and we’re

0:17:47.679,0:17:51.520
going to start with indigenous women

0:17:49.840,0:17:53.919
i’m going to start with with a fun

0:17:51.520,0:17:56.799
statistic in the 1970s

0:17:53.919,0:17:57.039
doctors in the united states sterilized

0:17:56.799,0:18:00.080
an

0:17:57.039,0:18:02.240
estimated 25 to 42 percent

0:18:00.080,0:18:04.480
of native american women of childbearing

0:18:02.240,0:18:08.400
age some as young as 15.

0:18:04.480,0:18:10.320
that number is insane crazy

0:18:08.400,0:18:12.799
i don’t even how was did you find out

0:18:10.320,0:18:15.200
anything like on the process was it like

0:18:12.799,0:18:17.280
were they using like armed forces to

0:18:15.200,0:18:18.000
like pull women from their homes what

0:18:17.280,0:18:19.919
was it

0:18:18.000,0:18:21.679
so what they would do is like they would

0:18:19.919,0:18:24.240
women would go in

0:18:21.679,0:18:25.679
for you know maybe like a procedure

0:18:24.240,0:18:27.600
maybe like a checkup often

0:18:25.679,0:18:28.960
just like giving birth and then while

0:18:27.600,0:18:29.760
they were giving birth it would be a

0:18:28.960,0:18:33.600
quick

0:18:29.760,0:18:36.880
procedure that was yeah and also

0:18:33.600,0:18:37.600
without their consent consent even

0:18:36.880,0:18:38.960
knowing

0:18:37.600,0:18:40.880
sometimes it would happen like

0:18:38.960,0:18:42.400
technically with their consent but it

0:18:40.880,0:18:43.600
was like they didn’t know like they were

0:18:42.400,0:18:45.360
just told it was birth control they

0:18:43.600,0:18:46.720
didn’t know that it was permanent they

0:18:45.360,0:18:48.720
didn’t know what it really meant

0:18:46.720,0:18:51.440
you know although the practice is

0:18:48.720,0:18:54.240
primarily associated with nazi germany

0:18:51.440,0:18:55.360
north korea and other oppressive regimes

0:18:54.240,0:18:57.200
the us has had its

0:18:55.360,0:18:58.880
share of four sterilization laws that

0:18:57.200,0:18:59.360
fit with the eugenic culture of the

0:18:58.880,0:19:01.280
early

0:18:59.360,0:19:03.360
20th century and i wanted to find

0:19:01.280,0:19:05.039
eugenics real quick it’s a science that

0:19:03.360,0:19:07.440
tries to improve

0:19:05.039,0:19:09.039
the human race by controlling which

0:19:07.440,0:19:10.880
people become parents

0:19:09.039,0:19:12.480
which is a great law if i’ve ever heard

0:19:10.880,0:19:17.120
one

0:19:12.480,0:19:18.960
um you do not want a voice bit of you

0:19:17.120,0:19:20.320
saying

0:19:18.960,0:19:22.320
it’s gonna come back when you have a

0:19:20.320,0:19:22.880
campaign one day i need to be more

0:19:22.320,0:19:25.919
careful

0:19:22.880,0:19:29.200
but also i’m like literally sweating

0:19:25.919,0:19:30.960
so funny how crazy that is okay

0:19:29.200,0:19:34.000
so here’s the timeline of some of the

0:19:30.960,0:19:35.919
more notable events from 1849 and to the

0:19:34.000,0:19:39.919
last sterilization performed in

0:19:35.919,0:19:44.559
jared for 1981. 1981

0:19:39.919,0:19:47.760
so uh recent great reason

0:19:44.559,0:19:49.840
so in 1849 gordon

0:19:47.760,0:19:51.760
lindscum so he was a famed texas

0:19:49.840,0:19:53.520
biologist and physician

0:19:51.760,0:19:55.280
and he proposed a bill mandating the

0:19:53.520,0:19:57.120
eugenic sterilization of the mentally

0:19:55.280,0:19:58.880
handicapped and others whose genes he

0:19:57.120,0:20:01.039
deemed undesirable so although the

0:19:58.880,0:20:02.720
legislation was never sponsored or

0:20:01.039,0:20:04.559
brought up for a vote it was the first

0:20:02.720,0:20:06.240
serious attempt in u.s history to use

0:20:04.559,0:20:06.880
forced sterilization for eugenic

0:20:06.240,0:20:09.039
purposes

0:20:06.880,0:20:10.480
between now and 1907 there were a few

0:20:09.039,0:20:12.000
other attempts at passing a forced

0:20:10.480,0:20:13.840
sterilization law but none of them

0:20:12.000,0:20:16.799
passed um and then 1907

0:20:13.840,0:20:18.960
indiana um ohio’s neighbor for you you

0:20:16.799,0:20:20.000
who do not know ohio state university

0:20:18.960,0:20:22.640
where we all

0:20:20.000,0:20:23.679
go and went you know right next to

0:20:22.640,0:20:26.080
indiana

0:20:23.679,0:20:27.760
in 1907 indiana became the first state

0:20:26.080,0:20:29.919
in the country to successfully pass a

0:20:27.760,0:20:33.200
mandatory force sterilization law

0:20:29.919,0:20:35.039
impacting the feeble-minded a term used

0:20:33.200,0:20:35.919
at the time to refer to the mentally

0:20:35.039,0:20:37.679
handicapped

0:20:35.919,0:20:39.120
okay i really did not realize like

0:20:37.679,0:20:40.640
because i have like looked into

0:20:39.120,0:20:42.159
for sterilization a little bit but like

0:20:40.640,0:20:42.960
i didn’t realize it like there were laws

0:20:42.159,0:20:44.000
being passed about

0:20:42.960,0:20:47.039
i always thought it was just kind of

0:20:44.000,0:20:49.200
like shady like yeah like on the dl

0:20:47.039,0:20:50.240
yeah that’s literally that’s horrifying

0:20:49.200,0:20:53.200
that there was a

0:20:50.240,0:20:54.400
literal law so in 1909 california and

0:20:53.200,0:20:56.640
washington both

0:20:54.400,0:20:58.960
passed mandatory sterilization laws in

0:20:56.640,0:21:01.919
1927 the u.s supreme court

0:20:58.960,0:21:03.600
ruled in bucks rebel that laws mandating

0:21:01.919,0:21:05.280
the sterilization of the mentally

0:21:03.600,0:21:06.720
handicapped did not violate the

0:21:05.280,0:21:10.000
constitution

0:21:06.720,0:21:12.159
and just as oliver wendell holmes

0:21:10.000,0:21:13.360
made an explicitly eugenic argument in

0:21:12.159,0:21:15.440
writing for the majority

0:21:13.360,0:21:17.840
it is better for all the world if

0:21:15.440,0:21:19.600
instead of waiting to execute degenerate

0:21:17.840,0:21:21.360
offspring for crime

0:21:19.600,0:21:22.640
or to let them starve for their

0:21:21.360,0:21:24.799
imbecility

0:21:22.640,0:21:26.159
society can prevent those who are

0:21:24.799,0:21:30.080
manifestly unfit

0:21:26.159,0:21:32.240
from continuing their kind oh my god

0:21:30.080,0:21:33.520
straight out of sparta where they used

0:21:32.240,0:21:36.720
to leave like

0:21:33.520,0:21:37.760
handicapped out to die by themselves or

0:21:36.720,0:21:39.280
like the sick

0:21:37.760,0:21:41.679
literally that’s insane and we’ve talked

0:21:39.280,0:21:44.159
about justice oliver wendell holmes

0:21:41.679,0:21:45.200
in our is it free speech or espionage

0:21:44.159,0:21:47.200
episode and like

0:21:45.200,0:21:48.640
when i was doing research like none of

0:21:47.200,0:21:49.280
this came up like you they were just

0:21:48.640,0:21:51.760
like oh

0:21:49.280,0:21:53.120
he’s a really influential judge like

0:21:51.760,0:21:56.720
yeah probably because he

0:21:53.120,0:21:59.280
literally like said that oh my god like

0:21:56.720,0:22:00.000
you’re crazy okay so this this next fact

0:21:59.280,0:22:03.039
is fun

0:22:00.000,0:22:05.200
in 1936 nazi propaganda

0:22:03.039,0:22:06.159
defended germany’s force sterilization

0:22:05.200,0:22:08.400
program

0:22:06.159,0:22:10.320
by citing the us as an ally in the

0:22:08.400,0:22:12.240
eugenic movement

0:22:10.320,0:22:13.679
um world war ii and the atrocities

0:22:12.240,0:22:14.240
committed by the nazi government would

0:22:13.679,0:22:16.240
rapidly

0:22:14.240,0:22:18.159
rapidly change u.s attitudes towards

0:22:16.240,0:22:19.919
eugenics i guess that’s what it takes i

0:22:18.159,0:22:22.720
don’t know

0:22:19.919,0:22:24.159
okay t um actually nazi germany took a

0:22:22.720,0:22:26.799
lot of our practices

0:22:24.159,0:22:28.000
as an inspiration for their practices i

0:22:26.799,0:22:30.720
don’t know if you guys know like the

0:22:28.000,0:22:32.000
gasoline baths at the border between

0:22:30.720,0:22:34.159
mexico

0:22:32.000,0:22:35.120
yeah at the border between mexico they

0:22:34.159,0:22:37.440
would like bathe

0:22:35.120,0:22:39.120
um mexican immigrants who were waiting

0:22:37.440,0:22:40.880
to like get citizenship

0:22:39.120,0:22:42.400
they’d bathe them in gasoline to clean

0:22:40.880,0:22:44.240
them those cleaning chambers were

0:22:42.400,0:22:45.600
inspiration for the gas chambers in nazi

0:22:44.240,0:22:46.559
germany that’s a whole i’m probably

0:22:45.600,0:22:48.320
gonna have to cut this out because

0:22:46.559,0:22:50.080
that’s a whole another episode and can

0:22:48.320,0:22:51.360
of worms but yeah that stuff happened oh

0:22:50.080,0:22:54.559
my god

0:22:51.360,0:22:58.559
that’s crazy i had no idea

0:22:54.559,0:23:01.760
yeah continue please

0:22:58.559,0:23:03.919
um so the nixon administration um

0:23:01.760,0:23:06.799
dramatically increased medicaid-funded

0:23:03.919,0:23:09.840
sterilization of low-income americans

0:23:06.799,0:23:11.679
primarily those of color um while these

0:23:09.840,0:23:14.080
sterilizations were

0:23:11.679,0:23:16.080
voluntary as a matter of policy

0:23:14.080,0:23:17.919
anecdotal evidence later suggested that

0:23:16.080,0:23:18.640
they were often involuntary as a matter

0:23:17.919,0:23:20.720
of practice

0:23:18.640,0:23:22.000
patients were frequently misinformed or

0:23:20.720,0:23:23.280
left uninformed regarding

0:23:22.000,0:23:25.120
the nature of the proceedings that

0:23:23.280,0:23:27.200
they’d agreed to undergo none of us are

0:23:25.120,0:23:29.440
surprised so in 1979

0:23:27.200,0:23:31.360
a survey conducted by family planning

0:23:29.440,0:23:33.840
perspectives found that approximately

0:23:31.360,0:23:36.000
70 percent of american hospitals failed

0:23:33.840,0:23:38.000
to adequately follow the us department

0:23:36.000,0:23:39.760
of health and human services guidelines

0:23:38.000,0:23:40.880
regarding informed consent in cases of

0:23:39.760,0:23:42.320
sterilization

0:23:40.880,0:23:44.720
i think the only thing that’s surprising

0:23:42.320,0:23:45.840
to us is that there was guidelines on

0:23:44.720,0:23:47.520
sterilization

0:23:45.840,0:23:50.240
i think we’re like this just doesn’t

0:23:47.520,0:23:52.080
make sense and then in 1981 oregon

0:23:50.240,0:23:53.760
performed the last week of fourth

0:23:52.080,0:23:55.360
sterilization in u.s history

0:23:53.760,0:23:56.880
crazy that it was oregon and like

0:23:55.360,0:23:57.440
california and washington who like

0:23:56.880,0:24:00.080
really

0:23:57.440,0:24:03.279
stand out it’s also america we all got

0:24:00.080,0:24:07.279
we’re all in it together like

0:24:03.279,0:24:08.799
she’s right okay so that was a brief

0:24:07.279,0:24:10.720
history of the

0:24:08.799,0:24:12.400
a brief overview of the history of force

0:24:10.720,0:24:13.440
sterilization in the u.s and now let’s

0:24:12.400,0:24:15.840
go back to

0:24:13.440,0:24:17.919
indigenous americans in the 1970s

0:24:15.840,0:24:18.640
doctors in the united states sterilized

0:24:17.919,0:24:21.279
and estimated

0:24:18.640,0:24:23.600
25 to 42 percent native american women

0:24:21.279,0:24:25.120
of childbearing age some as young as 15.

0:24:23.600,0:24:26.799
so the sterilizations

0:24:25.120,0:24:28.559
subsidized by federal government and

0:24:26.799,0:24:29.919
often undertaken without the consent are

0:24:28.559,0:24:31.760
under great direct

0:24:29.919,0:24:33.200
marks the culmination of a long history

0:24:31.760,0:24:34.960
of efforts by

0:24:33.200,0:24:36.480
federal and local authorities to manage

0:24:34.960,0:24:37.360
the reproductive lives of native

0:24:36.480,0:24:38.960
families

0:24:37.360,0:24:40.880
and this is explained by brianna

0:24:38.960,0:24:42.400
theobald and she’s an assistant

0:24:40.880,0:24:44.080
professor of history at the university

0:24:42.400,0:24:45.919
of rochester

0:24:44.080,0:24:47.440
and her new book reproduction on the

0:24:45.919,0:24:49.360
reservation pregnancy

0:24:47.440,0:24:50.640
childbirth and colonialism in the long

0:24:49.360,0:24:52.640
20th century

0:24:50.640,0:24:54.400
she says the federal government and

0:24:52.640,0:24:56.240
local authorities have long tried to

0:24:54.400,0:24:58.240
control indigenous families and women’s

0:24:56.240,0:25:00.080
reproduction using tactics such as

0:24:58.240,0:25:01.600
coercive sterilization and the removal

0:25:00.080,0:25:03.840
of indigenous children

0:25:01.600,0:25:06.159
into the white foster care system there

0:25:03.840,0:25:07.360
was this mindset this really fun slogan

0:25:06.159,0:25:09.200
that i feel like

0:25:07.360,0:25:11.440
you guys might have heard um kill the

0:25:09.200,0:25:13.600
indian in him and save the man

0:25:11.440,0:25:15.360
and that’s the mindset um under which

0:25:13.600,0:25:17.200
the us government forced tens of

0:25:15.360,0:25:19.039
thousands of native american children to

0:25:17.200,0:25:20.720
attend assimilation boarding schools in

0:25:19.039,0:25:22.480
the late 19th century

0:25:20.720,0:25:23.520
and it’s like the boring schools we’ve

0:25:22.480,0:25:24.559
heard of and i think it’s interesting

0:25:23.520,0:25:26.400
why have we heard of the boarding

0:25:24.559,0:25:27.440
schools and not like forced civilization

0:25:26.400,0:25:29.360
like i don’t know

0:25:27.440,0:25:30.799
yeah or the adoption yeah and deep

0:25:29.360,0:25:32.480
you’re really hitting like all the good

0:25:30.799,0:25:34.400
topics i feel like every

0:25:32.480,0:25:36.559
little bit you say we could literally

0:25:34.400,0:25:38.559
make into a whole another episode and we

0:25:36.559,0:25:40.240
will because it deserves to be spoken

0:25:38.559,0:25:42.240
about more but yeah the the whole

0:25:40.240,0:25:42.720
adoption era with native americans is

0:25:42.240,0:25:44.960
like

0:25:42.720,0:25:46.880
horrific and then the boarding schools

0:25:44.960,0:25:48.559
lasted do you have like the date of how

0:25:46.880,0:25:49.120
long they lasted but they lasted a very

0:25:48.559,0:25:50.559
long time

0:25:49.120,0:25:53.039
i don’t even think that they were

0:25:50.559,0:25:54.159
completely shut down like by the 70s i

0:25:53.039,0:25:55.679
don’t even know if they’re still shut

0:25:54.159,0:25:57.919
down who knows

0:25:55.679,0:25:59.919
yeah well yeah and like these boarding

0:25:57.919,0:26:01.360
schools are like awful like well first

0:25:59.919,0:26:02.720
of all because like they’re separated

0:26:01.360,0:26:05.600
from their family so that

0:26:02.720,0:26:06.559
in itself is awful but then additionally

0:26:05.600,0:26:08.400
like they’re

0:26:06.559,0:26:09.919
forced to i guess convert to

0:26:08.400,0:26:11.679
christianity and like they’re not

0:26:09.919,0:26:13.440
allowed to speak their native language

0:26:11.679,0:26:15.440
they’re like forced to speak in english

0:26:13.440,0:26:16.159
only so you’re wiping out like people’s

0:26:15.440,0:26:18.400
culture

0:26:16.159,0:26:19.600
and yeah when they return like sometimes

0:26:18.400,0:26:20.960
they can’t even communicate to their

0:26:19.600,0:26:21.440
parents anymore because they don’t

0:26:20.960,0:26:22.799
remember

0:26:21.440,0:26:24.640
they were taken away so young so they

0:26:22.799,0:26:25.120
don’t even remember their like native

0:26:24.640,0:26:27.200
tongue

0:26:25.120,0:26:28.559
and they’re lazy third and a lot of them

0:26:27.200,0:26:29.520
like died in the boarding school just

0:26:28.559,0:26:31.440
because of

0:26:29.520,0:26:33.120
proper care also like i don’t know if

0:26:31.440,0:26:35.039
you’re gonna touch on this later

0:26:33.120,0:26:36.400
but like a lot of what’s happening like

0:26:35.039,0:26:38.559
these boarding schools and the four

0:26:36.400,0:26:41.360
sterilization of indigenous women

0:26:38.559,0:26:42.799
also happened at the same time period in

0:26:41.360,0:26:45.039
canada as well

0:26:42.799,0:26:47.039
i didn’t know that this was actually the

0:26:45.039,0:26:48.799
first time i’d ever heard the term

0:26:47.039,0:26:50.400
force sterilization before was when i

0:26:48.799,0:26:52.640
was in canada like

0:26:50.400,0:26:53.600
working there and the canadian

0:26:52.640,0:26:55.279
parliament were

0:26:53.600,0:26:57.120
drawing up a lot of reports and doing a

0:26:55.279,0:26:59.279
lot of research on the history

0:26:57.120,0:27:01.120
of foreign sterilization of indigenous

0:26:59.279,0:27:01.799
women and there’s a lot of efforts

0:27:01.120,0:27:04.240
towards

0:27:01.799,0:27:06.320
reconciliation about the boarding

0:27:04.240,0:27:09.440
schools and there’s four sterilization

0:27:06.320,0:27:10.320
and like bias of police towards like

0:27:09.440,0:27:13.120
against

0:27:10.320,0:27:14.640
indigenous people of canada and so like

0:27:13.120,0:27:17.039
i remember like when i heard the term

0:27:14.640,0:27:18.559
forces for sterilization for the first

0:27:17.039,0:27:20.720
time like this is like two years ago too

0:27:18.559,0:27:22.480
i was like i never even knew this was a

0:27:20.720,0:27:23.600
thing and then i was like doing all this

0:27:22.480,0:27:25.360
research on it and they’re like oh yeah

0:27:23.600,0:27:27.520
this happened in the u.s too of course

0:27:25.360,0:27:29.279
i’m like this happens up until 1981 so

0:27:27.520,0:27:30.240
it’s not even like oh it was just so

0:27:29.279,0:27:32.320
long ago

0:27:30.240,0:27:34.559
like we thought yeah i just wanted to

0:27:32.320,0:27:36.880
know too that like this is so widespread

0:27:34.559,0:27:38.399
um yeah so yeah and i think that’s

0:27:36.880,0:27:40.240
important to know because i feel like

0:27:38.399,0:27:41.520
a lot of us don’t like i don’t you know

0:27:40.240,0:27:43.360
have even like

0:27:41.520,0:27:44.799
a frame of reference you know like this

0:27:43.360,0:27:46.559
is so new

0:27:44.799,0:27:48.080
just like the concepts that we’re cut

0:27:46.559,0:27:48.960
that we’re covering oh jax was something

0:27:48.080,0:27:52.480
that i wanted to

0:27:48.960,0:27:53.520
touch on oh oh um she said okay so jack

0:27:52.480,0:27:55.600
mentioned how

0:27:53.520,0:27:57.840
this podcast like this episode is

0:27:55.600,0:27:59.520
touching on like a lot of other things

0:27:57.840,0:28:01.360
and i think that kind of speaks to how

0:27:59.520,0:28:02.480
like women were like and women’s like

0:28:01.360,0:28:04.799
reproductive

0:28:02.480,0:28:06.720
like freedoms and reproductive just like

0:28:04.799,0:28:08.880
the control of their reproduction

0:28:06.720,0:28:10.000
was like an underlying factor in a lot

0:28:08.880,0:28:11.600
of other things

0:28:10.000,0:28:13.279
but it was never really spoken about

0:28:11.600,0:28:14.720
right like this is like this underlying

0:28:13.279,0:28:16.000
current this underlying theme that

0:28:14.720,0:28:18.080
happened in like a lot

0:28:16.000,0:28:19.440
of different like periods of us history

0:28:18.080,0:28:20.880
and a lot of different oppressions

0:28:19.440,0:28:22.320
it’s just something that like has never

0:28:20.880,0:28:23.919
been spoken about so when you’re just

0:28:22.320,0:28:24.480
focusing on this you kind of see that it

0:28:23.919,0:28:26.080
threads

0:28:24.480,0:28:27.600
throughout like us history which i think

0:28:26.080,0:28:29.279
is like really interesting and also

0:28:27.600,0:28:30.559
crazy but unsurprising that it’s not

0:28:29.279,0:28:32.240
talked about because it combines

0:28:30.559,0:28:33.279
misogyny like no one likes talking about

0:28:32.240,0:28:35.600
women’s reproduction

0:28:33.279,0:28:37.520
like it’s just i mean no one i love it

0:28:35.600,0:28:38.960
but like

0:28:37.520,0:28:40.640
men have historically been a little

0:28:38.960,0:28:42.000
uncomfortable around it you know

0:28:40.640,0:28:44.080
and it speaks about like other

0:28:42.000,0:28:45.840
marginalized identities being

0:28:44.080,0:28:47.760
different race people of color and

0:28:45.840,0:28:49.279
slaves so i think it’s just like so

0:28:47.760,0:28:51.279
interesting how all of these kind of

0:28:49.279,0:28:53.039
become this really like this

0:28:51.279,0:28:55.600
underpinning oppressive

0:28:53.039,0:28:56.480
ruling like this oppressive policy you

0:28:55.600,0:28:58.480
know

0:28:56.480,0:29:00.720
yeah and i think just like to add on to

0:28:58.480,0:29:02.159
that it shows how history because

0:29:00.720,0:29:04.240
we all have said this before but like

0:29:02.159,0:29:06.399
history is a rabbit hole and

0:29:04.240,0:29:07.919
you cannot like history does affect

0:29:06.399,0:29:09.200
multiple things throughout time and

0:29:07.919,0:29:10.159
that’s why it’s important to study

0:29:09.200,0:29:11.919
history because

0:29:10.159,0:29:14.000
it’s not like these events happen in

0:29:11.919,0:29:15.440
like little pockets one event will like

0:29:14.000,0:29:16.640
lead to another event which leads to

0:29:15.440,0:29:18.480
another event and they

0:29:16.640,0:29:19.840
all throughout generations are going to

0:29:18.480,0:29:22.640
affect future

0:29:19.840,0:29:24.399
people and i kind of want to talk about

0:29:22.640,0:29:26.080
the resistance of native american women

0:29:24.399,0:29:28.000
because we want to always humanize

0:29:26.080,0:29:30.240
people and also just like not take away

0:29:28.000,0:29:34.080
their agency even in the retelling

0:29:30.240,0:29:36.080
so until mid-century mid-1900s there was

0:29:34.080,0:29:37.200
a tremendous resistance in some areas to

0:29:36.080,0:29:39.679
the acceptance of

0:29:37.200,0:29:40.640
government physicians the women might

0:29:39.679,0:29:42.080
tell the field nurse

0:29:40.640,0:29:43.600
yes i’ll come to the hospital and then

0:29:42.080,0:29:45.120
wouldn’t it’s actually quite funny to

0:29:43.600,0:29:46.559
read the documentary record

0:29:45.120,0:29:48.880
these field nurses would write in their

0:29:46.559,0:29:50.240
reports and that they were frustrated

0:29:48.880,0:29:51.919
that women who were basically pregnant

0:29:50.240,0:29:56.880
would just lie to their faces and say

0:29:51.919,0:29:56.880
no i’m not i found that so funny

0:29:57.279,0:30:01.279
in an effort to maintain reproductive

0:29:59.080,0:30:02.720
self-determination to keep reproduction

0:30:01.279,0:30:04.159
in these gendered and

0:30:02.720,0:30:06.799
generational networks where they

0:30:04.159,0:30:08.880
believed it belonged in the 1930s

0:30:06.799,0:30:11.039
susie yellowtail a crow woman took up

0:30:08.880,0:30:12.640
midwifery because of her dissatisfaction

0:30:11.039,0:30:13.840
with her own birthing experience at a

0:30:12.640,0:30:15.200
government hospital

0:30:13.840,0:30:16.880
and another example was the

0:30:15.200,0:30:18.159
establishment of the american indian

0:30:16.880,0:30:20.880
movement or aim

0:30:18.159,0:30:22.799
in 1968 in minneapolis this was an

0:30:20.880,0:30:24.480
inter-tribal group oh you guys have

0:30:22.799,0:30:25.840
you guys know about this yeah nat

0:30:24.480,0:30:27.760
covered aim in the

0:30:25.840,0:30:30.399
um there’s a native american civil

0:30:27.760,0:30:32.080
rights movement episode

0:30:30.399,0:30:34.000
please continue and you so you guys

0:30:32.080,0:30:35.360
already covered it and it’s just one of

0:30:34.000,0:30:36.000
several militant groups that became

0:30:35.360,0:30:37.360
associated

0:30:36.000,0:30:39.440
with what’s called the red power

0:30:37.360,0:30:41.120
movement and in the 1970s native

0:30:39.440,0:30:41.679
activism and resistance became very

0:30:41.120,0:30:43.360
visible

0:30:41.679,0:30:44.640
more widespread and ultimately

0:30:43.360,0:30:45.600
coordinated nationally and

0:30:44.640,0:30:46.960
internationally

0:30:45.600,0:30:48.640
and that’s when native women really

0:30:46.960,0:30:50.559
started to organize independently

0:30:48.640,0:30:52.320
they formed women of all red nations

0:30:50.559,0:30:54.000
warren the group that especially took on

0:30:52.320,0:30:55.600
these sterilization abuses

0:30:54.000,0:30:57.679
under pressure the us government

0:30:55.600,0:31:00.240
accountability office investigated the

0:30:57.679,0:31:02.000
issue in 1976. they released a report

0:31:00.240,0:31:03.360
which actually stopped short of saying

0:31:02.000,0:31:06.399
that government divisions

0:31:03.360,0:31:08.320
performed sterilizations coercively but

0:31:06.399,0:31:10.559
it did raise a number of concerns

0:31:08.320,0:31:12.080
regarding the consent process and in the

0:31:10.559,0:31:14.320
aftermath of this report

0:31:12.080,0:31:16.159
amidst native activism and also activism

0:31:14.320,0:31:18.080
by african-american and latino women

0:31:16.159,0:31:20.000
women who were like most poignantly

0:31:18.080,0:31:21.679
affected the department of health

0:31:20.000,0:31:23.360
education and welfare adopted new

0:31:21.679,0:31:24.559
regulations that offered some tangible

0:31:23.360,0:31:27.440
protections for women

0:31:24.559,0:31:27.919
which went into effect in 1979. that’s

0:31:27.440,0:31:30.000
the t

0:31:27.919,0:31:31.519
about their resistance oh so the last

0:31:30.000,0:31:36.240
topic for

0:31:31.519,0:31:39.679
today um is latino women

0:31:36.240,0:31:42.080
and between the 1930s and the 1970s

0:31:39.679,0:31:45.840
approximately wait for it one-third of

0:31:42.080,0:31:47.120
the female population of puerto rico was

0:31:45.840,0:31:48.960
making it the highest rate of

0:31:47.120,0:31:51.760
sterilization in the world

0:31:48.960,0:31:52.880
yeah like i can’t yeah now do you know

0:31:51.760,0:31:55.200
about this

0:31:52.880,0:31:56.559
yeah i just okay so i just read this

0:31:55.200,0:31:58.480
book called how to hide an

0:31:56.559,0:32:00.000
empire i plugged it in one of my mini

0:31:58.480,0:32:03.039
cells but like literally like they

0:32:00.000,0:32:04.159
go over the all the four sterilization

0:32:03.039,0:32:05.600
and like other

0:32:04.159,0:32:08.080
i guess like medical experiments

0:32:05.600,0:32:08.640
conducted on puerto ricans at the time

0:32:08.080,0:32:11.760
and like

0:32:08.640,0:32:14.960
but like just a third of the population

0:32:11.760,0:32:19.200
like that’s so hard to comprehend and

0:32:14.960,0:32:21.840
like yeah is it okay also

0:32:19.200,0:32:22.720
can only women be forcefully sterilized

0:32:21.840,0:32:24.240
we don’t have to keep this in the

0:32:22.720,0:32:27.120
episode i’m just like very

0:32:24.240,0:32:28.320
no that’s a great question yeah um men

0:32:27.120,0:32:30.640
can too

0:32:28.320,0:32:31.600
but for sterilization usually apply to

0:32:30.640,0:32:34.240
women

0:32:31.600,0:32:34.960
um and i think it’s kind of for obvious

0:32:34.240,0:32:37.600
reasons

0:32:34.960,0:32:39.120
um i feel like birth control usually is

0:32:37.600,0:32:42.240
like the women’s

0:32:39.120,0:32:44.240
burden you know um and also i feel like

0:32:42.240,0:32:45.519
if a woman is giving birth it’s easy

0:32:44.240,0:32:46.000
while you’re already in there it’s kind

0:32:45.519,0:32:48.640
of like

0:32:46.000,0:32:50.080
have another operation that’s true if i

0:32:48.640,0:32:52.000
had to guess i would guess that

0:32:50.080,0:32:53.279
men were also forcibly sterilized you

0:32:52.000,0:32:56.000
know especially like

0:32:53.279,0:32:58.000
ones who had disability like kind of we

0:32:56.000,0:32:58.720
said earlier feeble-mindedness was

0:32:58.000,0:33:01.200
considered

0:32:58.720,0:33:02.240
okay yeah i was curious so some argue

0:33:01.200,0:33:04.159
that the pressure to increase

0:33:02.240,0:33:06.000
sterilization procedures in puerto rico

0:33:04.159,0:33:08.080
was a targeted practice to decrease a

0:33:06.000,0:33:09.279
high level of poverty and unemployment

0:33:08.080,0:33:11.120
because the government blamed these

0:33:09.279,0:33:12.960
issues on overpopulation the

0:33:11.120,0:33:14.880
legalization of contraception in puerto

0:33:12.960,0:33:17.840
rico and the puerto rican government

0:33:14.880,0:33:20.080
passage of a law allowing sterilization

0:33:17.840,0:33:23.679
to be conducted at the discretion of a

0:33:20.080,0:33:25.840
eugenics board both occurred in 1937

0:33:23.679,0:33:25.840
i know

0:33:26.720,0:33:29.760
soon after the legal change a program

0:33:28.720,0:33:32.799
endorsed by

0:33:29.760,0:33:34.320
the u.s government um began sending

0:33:32.799,0:33:35.440
health department officials to rural

0:33:34.320,0:33:38.799
parts of the island

0:33:35.440,0:33:40.880
advocating for sterilization and by 1946

0:33:38.799,0:33:42.320
postpartum sterilizations happened

0:33:40.880,0:33:43.120
frequently in various puerto rican

0:33:42.320,0:33:45.360
hospitals

0:33:43.120,0:33:46.480
however a year later a study found that

0:33:45.360,0:33:48.559
a quarter of the women who had been

0:33:46.480,0:33:50.640
sterilized regretted the decisions

0:33:48.559,0:33:52.159
if a quarter reported that they regret

0:33:50.640,0:33:53.360
it like i just i’m thinking like how

0:33:52.159,0:33:56.320
many women are missing

0:33:53.360,0:33:57.440
in this um yeah how many were surveyed

0:33:56.320,0:34:00.640
even

0:33:57.440,0:34:03.919
might accurately reflect the

0:34:00.640,0:34:06.880
like the true feeling of women right

0:34:03.919,0:34:08.399
um but even i don’t know even if it was

0:34:06.880,0:34:08.960
just a quarter a quarter stole a lot of

0:34:08.399,0:34:10.960
people

0:34:08.960,0:34:12.240
a lot of people and catholics and

0:34:10.960,0:34:14.159
nationalists fought against

0:34:12.240,0:34:16.480
sterilizations in the 1950s

0:34:14.159,0:34:18.240
which eventually resulted in the law

0:34:16.480,0:34:19.520
being repealed in 1960

0:34:18.240,0:34:21.359
and also i thought this was really

0:34:19.520,0:34:22.639
interesting in puerto rico family

0:34:21.359,0:34:24.240
planning clinics could be found in

0:34:22.639,0:34:25.359
factories that provided free

0:34:24.240,0:34:28.800
sterilization

0:34:25.359,0:34:32.399
thanks to a usaid grant which is

0:34:28.800,0:34:35.919
wow what’s an aid grant what’s that

0:34:32.399,0:34:38.079
usaid like usaid yeah

0:34:35.919,0:34:39.440
it’s the for the listeners who don’t

0:34:38.079,0:34:41.280
know i guess because it’s not a very

0:34:39.440,0:34:44.480
well-known government agency

0:34:41.280,0:34:45.520
um it’s a federal agency that um is kind

0:34:44.480,0:34:48.079
of in charge of like

0:34:45.520,0:34:48.960
international aid i interned with them a

0:34:48.079,0:34:51.280
few months ago

0:34:48.960,0:34:52.320
and it’s just not a good look it’s not a

0:34:51.280,0:34:55.599
good look

0:34:52.320,0:34:59.440
they don’t do this anymore but you know

0:34:55.599,0:35:01.119
i was like ow through this program

0:34:59.440,0:35:02.960
puerto rican women became the guinea

0:35:01.119,0:35:04.320
pigs for u.s pharmaceutical companies

0:35:02.960,0:35:06.240
who were developing the modern birth

0:35:04.320,0:35:06.720
control pill once again mixed feelings

0:35:06.240,0:35:08.960
because it’s

0:35:06.720,0:35:10.560
not like birth control like modern birth

0:35:08.960,0:35:11.440
control and the pill like has helped a

0:35:10.560,0:35:13.280
lot of women

0:35:11.440,0:35:14.560
but like this history so dicey like at

0:35:13.280,0:35:16.400
the heart of it to remember

0:35:14.560,0:35:18.160
is that whether or not it’s good or bad

0:35:16.400,0:35:19.520
depends like the opinion of the woman

0:35:18.160,0:35:20.960
who’s like affected by it because it

0:35:19.520,0:35:23.040
gets so confusing because it’s like

0:35:20.960,0:35:24.480
birth control isn’t good or bad you know

0:35:23.040,0:35:26.480
and like sterilization

0:35:24.480,0:35:28.320
or whatever the procedure is called now

0:35:26.480,0:35:30.079
it’s not like good or bad

0:35:28.320,0:35:31.680
depending on like whether you want it or

0:35:30.079,0:35:33.280
you don’t and that’s it you know

0:35:31.680,0:35:35.200
that’s true right so i think it’s an

0:35:33.280,0:35:38.640
important distinction maybe to treat

0:35:35.200,0:35:41.280
women as humans i don’t know maybe

0:35:38.640,0:35:42.079
i thought i don’t know in deep that’s

0:35:41.280,0:35:45.920
pretty

0:35:42.079,0:35:48.960
rad and it’s controversial it is radical

0:35:45.920,0:35:51.200
so for sterilization was also common in

0:35:48.960,0:35:52.400
california so there was this one case

0:35:51.200,0:35:55.280
magical versus

0:35:52.400,0:35:56.960
quilligan in 1975 there was a federal

0:35:55.280,0:35:57.520
class action lawsuit in which these

0:35:56.960,0:35:59.119
women

0:35:57.520,0:36:01.520
fought back after being sterilized

0:35:59.119,0:36:02.079
without informed consent or under duress

0:36:01.520,0:36:04.400
and so

0:36:02.079,0:36:06.400
these women kind of refer to latino

0:36:04.400,0:36:07.040
women latinx women there was dolores

0:36:06.400,0:36:08.800
madrigal

0:36:07.040,0:36:10.320
who was one of the 10 plaintiffs in the

0:36:08.800,0:36:12.160
case and she was told that her

0:36:10.320,0:36:14.640
sterilization could easily be reversed

0:36:12.160,0:36:16.480
which i can’t hovita rivera and georgina

0:36:14.640,0:36:16.960
hernandez said that they were pressured

0:36:16.480,0:36:19.040
into

0:36:16.960,0:36:20.880
agreeing to the procedure after being

0:36:19.040,0:36:22.480
intensely criticized by doctors and

0:36:20.880,0:36:23.040
nurses for being poor and having

0:36:22.480,0:36:24.560
children

0:36:23.040,0:36:26.560
these are haunting stories but

0:36:24.560,0:36:28.240
especially the one of ladina hernandez

0:36:26.560,0:36:29.359
who she didn’t even find out that she’d

0:36:28.240,0:36:31.680
been sterilized

0:36:29.359,0:36:33.119
until years after her son was born at

0:36:31.680,0:36:34.800
the heart of the case was a question of

0:36:33.119,0:36:36.800
whether women were coerced into being

0:36:34.800,0:36:38.640
sterilized and if so if latinos were

0:36:36.800,0:36:40.000
targeted and at the end of the trial

0:36:38.640,0:36:42.160
1978 the judge

0:36:40.000,0:36:43.359
ruled that get ready for it neither of

0:36:42.160,0:36:45.760
the charges were true

0:36:43.359,0:36:48.079
citing misunderstandings due to the fact

0:36:45.760,0:36:48.800
that the women primarily spoke spanish

0:36:48.079,0:36:50.720
the judge

0:36:48.800,0:36:52.079
blamed their distress from the procedure

0:36:50.720,0:36:53.839
on cultural background

0:36:52.079,0:36:55.440
that made these women believe that their

0:36:53.839,0:36:56.160
worth was in their ability to have

0:36:55.440,0:36:58.640
children

0:36:56.160,0:36:59.440
so basically he was like nah they

0:36:58.640,0:37:01.520
weren’t coerced

0:36:59.440,0:37:03.119
now latinos weren’t targeted because i

0:37:01.520,0:37:04.800
don’t know they spoke spanish and they

0:37:03.119,0:37:06.079
also felt that their worth was in their

0:37:04.800,0:37:08.160
ability to have children

0:37:06.079,0:37:09.240
that’s so messed up what year is that

0:37:08.160,0:37:12.240
again

0:37:09.240,0:37:16.480

  1. oh my god

0:37:12.240,0:37:18.320
oh my god another cause of this decision

0:37:16.480,0:37:19.760
was that voluntary informed consent was

0:37:18.320,0:37:22.960
not a legal requirement

0:37:19.760,0:37:24.880
which is crazy until 1974 after the case

0:37:22.960,0:37:26.000
was decided although the latino women

0:37:24.880,0:37:28.720
did not win the case

0:37:26.000,0:37:30.960
magical changed state laws and helped to

0:37:28.720,0:37:31.839
solidify the careers of various latino

0:37:30.960,0:37:34.880
politicians

0:37:31.839,0:37:36.960
so you know not nothing okay so

0:37:34.880,0:37:39.359
and that’s kind of all the history that

0:37:36.960,0:37:41.760
i have i just kind of wanted to

0:37:39.359,0:37:43.920
chat a little bit about the effects of

0:37:41.760,0:37:46.480
these like how they still last today

0:37:43.920,0:37:47.920
and how i don’t know i feel like for me

0:37:46.480,0:37:48.240
there’s like a lot of things that kind

0:37:47.920,0:37:50.240
of

0:37:48.240,0:37:51.680
affect us personally that you know maybe

0:37:50.240,0:37:53.839
we should be thinking about

0:37:51.680,0:37:55.200
that we haven’t really liked that aren’t

0:37:53.839,0:37:57.040
really conversations that are

0:37:55.200,0:37:58.320
had and so these questions are like what

0:37:57.040,0:38:00.640
it means to be a woman

0:37:58.320,0:38:01.440
and how being a woman is inherently

0:38:00.640,0:38:03.760
political

0:38:01.440,0:38:05.760
and that’s true because you know women

0:38:03.760,0:38:08.560
are like marginalized

0:38:05.760,0:38:09.599
um there’s the pay gap there’s a lot of

0:38:08.560,0:38:12.720
policies that

0:38:09.599,0:38:13.359
kind of like um kind of hurt women’s

0:38:12.720,0:38:16.480
ability

0:38:13.359,0:38:17.520
to be equal members of society and also

0:38:16.480,0:38:19.520
a woman of color

0:38:17.520,0:38:21.200
and what it means to be able to control

0:38:19.520,0:38:22.640
one’s own reproductive future because i

0:38:21.200,0:38:24.240
feel like we talked about before like

0:38:22.640,0:38:25.440
it’s even scared like even just having

0:38:24.240,0:38:27.440
children

0:38:25.440,0:38:29.280
is terrifying you know and even just

0:38:27.440,0:38:31.280
like the responsibility of that

0:38:29.280,0:38:32.640
is terrifying but the fact that like

0:38:31.280,0:38:33.599
we’re able to control that on an

0:38:32.640,0:38:35.440
individual level

0:38:33.599,0:38:36.960
and how powerful and privileged even

0:38:35.440,0:38:39.040
those concerns are is like

0:38:36.960,0:38:41.040
really crazy to think about you know

0:38:39.040,0:38:41.760
yeah so i don’t know let’s talk about

0:38:41.040,0:38:42.800
those things

0:38:41.760,0:38:44.880
i feel like do you guys have any

0:38:42.800,0:38:46.400
thoughts on those

0:38:44.880,0:38:48.160
that’s a really good that’s a really

0:38:46.400,0:38:51.040
good question

0:38:48.160,0:38:52.320
i guess yeah i mean like you can’t

0:38:51.040,0:38:54.079
ignore

0:38:52.320,0:38:56.000
the ways in which women especially that

0:38:54.079,0:38:57.359
layer of color the ways in which people

0:38:56.000,0:38:59.119
of different color have been treated

0:38:57.359,0:39:01.599
historically and the way

0:38:59.119,0:39:02.880
that your gender will affect like what

0:39:01.599,0:39:04.880
jobs you can take

0:39:02.880,0:39:06.560
what and that this is like societal

0:39:04.880,0:39:07.119
pressure but also there are actual laws

0:39:06.560,0:39:08.640
in place

0:39:07.119,0:39:09.839
that like keep you from having the vote

0:39:08.640,0:39:10.800
they keep you from having government

0:39:09.839,0:39:12.400
representation

0:39:10.800,0:39:14.079
they keep you from getting to study

0:39:12.400,0:39:15.839
certain subjects in school yeah there’s

0:39:14.079,0:39:17.760
just like so many layers and i

0:39:15.839,0:39:19.040
when you’re talking about um all the

0:39:17.760,0:39:21.200
ways in which there’s been like

0:39:19.040,0:39:23.839
sterilization of different colored women

0:39:21.200,0:39:25.200
i also want to add to i know like asian

0:39:23.839,0:39:26.000
women are not super part of this

0:39:25.200,0:39:28.160
narrative

0:39:26.000,0:39:29.920
and reason that could be is because with

0:39:28.160,0:39:31.200
the chinese exclusion act like asian

0:39:29.920,0:39:31.680
women were not allowed to enter the

0:39:31.200,0:39:34.880
country

0:39:31.680,0:39:36.400
during this time up until the 1950s so

0:39:34.880,0:39:38.079
you know there’s so many other layers

0:39:36.400,0:39:39.359
and asian women are not excused from

0:39:38.079,0:39:41.040
this there are lots of things that were

0:39:39.359,0:39:42.640
happening over in east asia and

0:39:41.040,0:39:44.560
southeast asia too and

0:39:42.640,0:39:46.160
this is something that affects everyone

0:39:44.560,0:39:47.920
globally and

0:39:46.160,0:39:49.440
melinda gates and like michelle obama

0:39:47.920,0:39:51.040
all do a lot of work with like girl

0:39:49.440,0:39:53.520
empowerment around the world

0:39:51.040,0:39:54.720
and it’s proven time and time again yes

0:39:53.520,0:39:56.640
with statistics that

0:39:54.720,0:39:58.240
whoever suffers the most like in our

0:39:56.640,0:39:59.200
global sphere is going to be like a

0:39:58.240,0:40:01.359
colored woman

0:39:59.200,0:40:03.040
yeah i guess like to add on to like

0:40:01.359,0:40:05.920
intersectionality of like

0:40:03.040,0:40:06.880
gender and race like this does not

0:40:05.920,0:40:09.839
surprise me

0:40:06.880,0:40:10.400
that i have not heard of a lot of this

0:40:09.839,0:40:12.400
before

0:40:10.400,0:40:13.520
because like i feel like the feminist

0:40:12.400,0:40:16.960
movement in general

0:40:13.520,0:40:20.000
and like women’s history in the us is so

0:40:16.960,0:40:22.480
whitewashed and like we only learn about

0:40:20.000,0:40:23.920
white women in the us i just can’t get

0:40:22.480,0:40:24.640
over the fact that this is happening

0:40:23.920,0:40:26.640
until

0:40:24.640,0:40:27.760
the 80s no one’s talking about it

0:40:26.640,0:40:29.200
especially like

0:40:27.760,0:40:30.880
coming from canada where like they’re

0:40:29.200,0:40:32.800
doing so much research and so much

0:40:30.880,0:40:34.800
reconciliation efforts and like just

0:40:32.800,0:40:37.200
trying to bring awareness to the issue

0:40:34.800,0:40:39.280
and like educating the people on this

0:40:37.200,0:40:41.359
topic the efforts are a lot

0:40:39.280,0:40:43.119
weaker here compared to what i’ve seen

0:40:41.359,0:40:44.480
in canada at least that i’m aware of

0:40:43.119,0:40:46.640
going off your point nat

0:40:44.480,0:40:47.599
in deep i want to ask did you discover

0:40:46.640,0:40:50.560
any like

0:40:47.599,0:40:51.119
reparations that have been made to make

0:40:50.560,0:40:52.960
right

0:40:51.119,0:40:55.280
these wrongs that have happened yeah i

0:40:52.960,0:40:58.400
think that there has been an effort

0:40:55.280,0:41:00.319
towards reparations i’m not sure exactly

0:40:58.400,0:41:01.520
which population i do remember there was

0:41:00.319,0:41:03.359
a mentioning about how

0:41:01.520,0:41:04.880
some families who were affected by four

0:41:03.359,0:41:06.480
sterilization i think it might have been

0:41:04.880,0:41:09.040
indigenous families where

0:41:06.480,0:41:10.000
they tried to give them reparations but

0:41:09.040,0:41:11.520
at the same time i

0:41:10.000,0:41:14.079
think that there was also talk about

0:41:11.520,0:41:15.520
like how it isn’t entirely successful

0:41:14.079,0:41:17.359
implies like you can’t make up for that

0:41:15.520,0:41:19.359
you know there is a consensus

0:41:17.359,0:41:20.480
like the reparations are not ideal but i

0:41:19.359,0:41:23.520
think that reparations

0:41:20.480,0:41:24.720
were like attempted by the united states

0:41:23.520,0:41:26.079
i don’t know how can you repent like i

0:41:24.720,0:41:27.760
just feel like it’s impossible because

0:41:26.079,0:41:29.200
right history builds on itself so how

0:41:27.760,0:41:31.920
can you repair

0:41:29.200,0:41:33.599
like breaking down a whole civilization

0:41:31.920,0:41:34.880
just this current state of the united

0:41:33.599,0:41:36.160
states would be entirely different like

0:41:34.880,0:41:38.480
there’s nothing you can do

0:41:36.160,0:41:39.200
to fix that bring that back or like make

0:41:38.480,0:41:41.599
it okay

0:41:39.200,0:41:43.520
you know right there’s value too though

0:41:41.599,0:41:45.119
and that attempt should still be made i

0:41:43.520,0:41:46.319
think like a lot of people will use that

0:41:45.119,0:41:48.319
argument and they’ll

0:41:46.319,0:41:49.760
be like we know each generation should

0:41:48.319,0:41:51.040
start fresh and

0:41:49.760,0:41:53.440
there’s nothing we can do it’s in the

0:41:51.040,0:41:55.200
past no each generation is not starting

0:41:53.440,0:41:57.280
fresh though because of the past so

0:41:55.200,0:41:59.839
there should be a continuous effort to

0:41:57.280,0:42:01.920
make those reparations and okay i just

0:41:59.839,0:42:04.400
like a little because i was watching a

0:42:01.920,0:42:06.160
finance video as you guys know i love

0:42:04.400,0:42:07.359
and we’re talking about the economics of

0:42:06.160,0:42:08.240
what it’s like to graduate in a

0:42:07.359,0:42:10.480
recession

0:42:08.240,0:42:12.160
and so think about the 2008 financial

0:42:10.480,0:42:12.960
crisis all those people graduating the

0:42:12.160,0:42:15.040
recession

0:42:12.960,0:42:16.800
and now it’s projected these are

0:42:15.040,0:42:17.280
statistics not my opinion they have

0:42:16.800,0:42:19.520
lower

0:42:17.280,0:42:21.040
earnings they have less probability to

0:42:19.520,0:42:22.960
start a family less probability

0:42:21.040,0:42:24.720
to buy a house because they were like

0:42:22.960,0:42:26.640
slammed with these loans and

0:42:24.720,0:42:28.240
lower pay wages because you’re

0:42:26.640,0:42:29.920
graduating in a bad job market

0:42:28.240,0:42:31.760
less opportunities they’re not in the

0:42:29.920,0:42:34.000
same places as their parents were

0:42:31.760,0:42:35.839
for building wealth for their families

0:42:34.000,0:42:37.599
and that’s nothing that they did

0:42:35.839,0:42:39.119
i think we all can agree economically

0:42:37.599,0:42:40.560
you got dealt a bad hand

0:42:39.119,0:42:42.560
and it’s not anything that you did you

0:42:40.560,0:42:44.640
went to school you did the right things

0:42:42.560,0:42:46.640
and if you can think about that and then

0:42:44.640,0:42:48.160
you can shift your mind to understand

0:42:46.640,0:42:49.680
that that’s exactly what happens

0:42:48.160,0:42:51.920
to people of color it’s nothing that

0:42:49.680,0:42:53.280
they’re doing wrong or anyone in any

0:42:51.920,0:42:54.160
oppressive i want to like i’m from

0:42:53.280,0:42:56.319
appalachia

0:42:54.160,0:42:57.920
appalachian is white working class there

0:42:56.319,0:42:58.560
have been problems with that group as

0:42:57.920,0:43:00.160
well they’re

0:42:58.560,0:43:02.480
white immigrants as well who have dealt

0:43:00.160,0:43:03.119
with things but the point is that like

0:43:02.480,0:43:05.040
sometimes

0:43:03.119,0:43:06.800
things are not within your control that

0:43:05.040,0:43:08.560
have happened to you and now you’re

0:43:06.800,0:43:10.160
dealing with all the repercussions of

0:43:08.560,0:43:12.000
that throughout generations

0:43:10.160,0:43:13.599
and that’s nothing that you did wrong

0:43:12.000,0:43:15.520
and that that’s up to us

0:43:13.599,0:43:16.960
who are in positions of power and

0:43:15.520,0:43:18.640
privilege to help

0:43:16.960,0:43:20.319
in any way that we can if that makes

0:43:18.640,0:43:23.440
sense that’s how i see it

0:43:20.319,0:43:25.119
as some hot tea i 100 agree i do realize

0:43:23.440,0:43:26.480
that that argument is an argument and

0:43:25.119,0:43:28.000
not making reparations

0:43:26.480,0:43:29.680
i think it was just being a little bit

0:43:28.000,0:43:31.520
like how could you ever you know i

0:43:29.680,0:43:33.119
understand

0:43:31.520,0:43:34.720
you know but that is a good point and i

0:43:33.119,0:43:36.480
think that i should be like a little

0:43:34.720,0:43:38.640
more mindful of the way that i

0:43:36.480,0:43:40.160
kind of say like oh but you can’t even

0:43:38.640,0:43:42.000
do it you know because that is a good

0:43:40.160,0:43:44.720
point it’s not possible to

0:43:42.000,0:43:46.000
completely make up for what’s been done

0:43:44.720,0:43:46.400
but if there’s no effort then like

0:43:46.000,0:43:47.680
you’re

0:43:46.400,0:43:49.280
you’re just still doing it well it’s

0:43:47.680,0:43:50.400
like population control is something

0:43:49.280,0:43:52.319
that’s so permanent

0:43:50.400,0:43:54.000
yeah like you said like how like how can

0:43:52.319,0:43:56.480
you make up for it but at the very least

0:43:54.000,0:43:57.839
we could at least educate ourselves and

0:43:56.480,0:44:00.480
like promote awareness

0:43:57.839,0:44:02.319
how are we supposed to come up with not

0:44:00.480,0:44:04.720
a solution necessarily but like how are

0:44:02.319,0:44:06.720
we supposed to respond to this and like

0:44:04.720,0:44:08.319
help promote change if like no one knows

0:44:06.720,0:44:10.160
about it you know yeah

0:44:08.319,0:44:11.599
so really touching this but i also

0:44:10.160,0:44:13.599
wanted to think about how some of these

0:44:11.599,0:44:15.040
practices and problems may be ongoing

0:44:13.599,0:44:16.720
and the repercussions of them are

0:44:15.040,0:44:18.240
definitely ongoing in the us

0:44:16.720,0:44:19.359
this is obvious that these policies were

0:44:18.240,0:44:20.800
not written by the people who were

0:44:19.359,0:44:22.000
affected the fact that i’m still

0:44:20.800,0:44:23.920
surprised when i see women

0:44:22.000,0:44:25.359
of color in congress tells us that like

0:44:23.920,0:44:26.720
we’re not at the point where

0:44:25.359,0:44:28.720
the communities that are affected by

0:44:26.720,0:44:30.400
policy are an equal representation of

0:44:28.720,0:44:33.280
the ones making the policy

0:44:30.400,0:44:35.359
i guess those are my remarks and uh how

0:44:33.280,0:44:37.440
are you

0:44:35.359,0:44:39.440
to guys on to that but i recently read

0:44:37.440,0:44:40.000
an article by the new york times talking

0:44:39.440,0:44:43.040
about

0:44:40.000,0:44:45.040
healthcare bias towards black women in

0:44:43.040,0:44:47.440
like the healthcare sector and how

0:44:45.040,0:44:49.040
more women of color died during

0:44:47.440,0:44:50.160
childbirth because

0:44:49.040,0:44:52.240
kind of like you mentioned earlier

0:44:50.160,0:44:54.560
perception of pain there’s a bias

0:44:52.240,0:44:56.400
that people of color women of color

0:44:54.560,0:44:58.000
don’t feel as much pain so if women

0:44:56.400,0:44:59.440
say they’re in pain or there’s something

0:44:58.000,0:45:01.200
wrong they’re not going to be

0:44:59.440,0:45:02.960
believed as much so like that’s another

0:45:01.200,0:45:05.119
thing that’s like oh there’s still

0:45:02.960,0:45:06.960
a lot of issues ongoing today thank you

0:45:05.119,0:45:09.359
so much indeed like that was

0:45:06.960,0:45:10.319
incredible and like so comprehensive and

0:45:09.359,0:45:12.160
like i literally

0:45:10.319,0:45:13.680
i learned so much and there’s so many

0:45:12.160,0:45:15.359
topics that you brought up that

0:45:13.680,0:45:17.359
i want to look into maybe we could do in

0:45:15.359,0:45:19.280
future episodes like everyone

0:45:17.359,0:45:21.280
encourage you to do like individual

0:45:19.280,0:45:23.599
research too like we mentioned

0:45:21.280,0:45:25.280
there’s still ongoing violations of

0:45:23.599,0:45:28.960
women of color’s bodies so

0:45:25.280,0:45:30.240
don’t forget don’t forget and also it

0:45:28.960,0:45:33.280
was my pleasure

0:45:30.240,0:45:35.040
thank you indeed thanks guys it was my i

0:45:33.280,0:45:37.920
can talk about women’s reproductive

0:45:35.040,0:45:39.520
health and intersectionality and old i

0:45:37.920,0:45:41.440
can literally talk about it all day

0:45:39.520,0:45:43.200
like we found my passion yeah we’re

0:45:41.440,0:45:44.319
bringing you back for another episode

0:45:43.200,0:45:46.650
you know it

0:45:44.319,0:45:57.469
you know i would love it

0:45:46.650,0:45:57.469
[Music]

Why Are We So Obsessed With Latin America?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

Regarded as one of the most influential ideologies in US foreign policy, the Monroe Doctrine established the foundation for Americaā€™s role in the Western Hemisphere and as a major actor on the international stage. In this episode, Nat dissects the impact of the Monroe Doctrine and its complex legacy in Latin America.

Sources:

Transcript

0:00:00.160,0:00:03.919
hi everybody and welcome back to another

0:00:02.159,0:00:07.680
episode of how did we not know that

0:00:03.919,0:00:09.360
my name is jack i’m matt and today

0:00:07.680,0:00:11.280
matt is going to be talking about the

0:00:09.360,0:00:13.840
monroe doctrine

0:00:11.280,0:00:16.560
yeah yeah yeah yeah the monroe doctrine

0:00:13.840,0:00:18.640
i’m super excited because okay so

0:00:16.560,0:00:20.480
the two of us are studying for the

0:00:18.640,0:00:22.160
foreign service officer test

0:00:20.480,0:00:24.400
but like we really we really don’t talk

0:00:22.160,0:00:27.760
about it as often but

0:00:24.400,0:00:29.920
um you can’t talk about the history of

0:00:27.760,0:00:31.039
u.s foreign policy without talking about

0:00:29.920,0:00:33.600
the monroe doctrine

0:00:31.039,0:00:34.640
because it’s arguably like the most

0:00:33.600,0:00:38.399
influential piece

0:00:34.640,0:00:41.120
of u.s foreign policy in our history

0:00:38.399,0:00:42.320
so i’m super excited to talk about it um

0:00:41.120,0:00:46.000
we’re going to start off

0:00:42.320,0:00:49.200
by flashing back to the early 1820s

0:00:46.000,0:00:51.120
and at this time several latin american

0:00:49.200,0:00:51.520
countries had won their independence

0:00:51.120,0:00:54.640
from

0:00:51.520,0:00:56.239
either spain or portugal so in 1812 the

0:00:54.640,0:00:59.359
u.s had recognized

0:00:56.239,0:01:02.800
the new nations of chile argentina

0:00:59.359,0:01:05.760
mexico and peru but both

0:01:02.800,0:01:06.080
the us and britain were worried that

0:01:05.760,0:01:08.000
like

0:01:06.080,0:01:10.080
other european nations were going to

0:01:08.000,0:01:11.600
come in and colonize these countries

0:01:10.080,0:01:14.159
later in the future

0:01:11.600,0:01:15.040
and they were especially worried about

0:01:14.159,0:01:18.720
russia

0:01:15.040,0:01:21.200
because in 1821 russian czar

0:01:18.720,0:01:22.000
alexander the first had claimed

0:01:21.200,0:01:24.560
sovereignty

0:01:22.000,0:01:26.000
over territory in the pacific northwest

0:01:24.560,0:01:29.040
so that ranged from

0:01:26.000,0:01:30.000
like alaska to the oregon territory and

0:01:29.040,0:01:32.479
he banned four

0:01:30.000,0:01:33.600
ships from approaching the coast and

0:01:32.479,0:01:36.560
america was like

0:01:33.600,0:01:38.479
um what the heck they were like really

0:01:36.560,0:01:40.000
worried that all these european

0:01:38.479,0:01:41.520
nations were going to come and grab all

0:01:40.000,0:01:45.200
this territory that

0:01:41.520,0:01:48.000
the us was trying to grab right and so

0:01:45.200,0:01:48.720
president james monroe he’s president at

0:01:48.000,0:01:52.000
the time

0:01:48.720,0:01:55.280
and he is scared of foreign intervention

0:01:52.000,0:01:56.320
in the americas and he wanted to create

0:01:55.280,0:01:59.360
a joint

0:01:56.320,0:02:01.920
u.s british resolution that would

0:01:59.360,0:02:04.560
ban further colonization in latin

0:02:01.920,0:02:08.000
america by other european powers

0:02:04.560,0:02:10.879
but secretary of state john quincy

0:02:08.000,0:02:11.840
adams he he goes to president monroe and

0:02:10.879,0:02:15.360
he’s like hey

0:02:11.840,0:02:17.760
let’s ditch britain because it would

0:02:15.360,0:02:20.080
actually limit future opportunities for

0:02:17.760,0:02:22.400
the us to expand its territory

0:02:20.080,0:02:24.160
if we collaborated with britain and then

0:02:22.400,0:02:25.200
also like britain might decide to

0:02:24.160,0:02:27.440
colonize these

0:02:25.200,0:02:28.239
territories or these countries in the

0:02:27.440,0:02:30.400
region

0:02:28.239,0:02:32.000
and so john quincy adams he was like

0:02:30.400,0:02:36.000
really focused on trade

0:02:32.000,0:02:38.400
in latin america south america and

0:02:36.000,0:02:39.760
he thought that like european trade was

0:02:38.400,0:02:43.440
the greatest obstacle

0:02:39.760,0:02:45.200
in the us’s uh economic expansion

0:02:43.440,0:02:47.040
and so he didn’t want anything to do

0:02:45.200,0:02:49.440
with britain and so he

0:02:47.040,0:02:50.319
convinces president monroe to draft a

0:02:49.440,0:02:52.640
statement

0:02:50.319,0:02:55.120
of unilateral u.s policy that would

0:02:52.640,0:02:55.440
establish the u.s as the protector of

0:02:55.120,0:02:58.480
the

0:02:55.440,0:03:02.560
entire western hemisphere

0:02:58.480,0:03:04.800
so on december 2nd 1823

0:03:02.560,0:03:05.920
president monroe gives his annual speech

0:03:04.800,0:03:08.959
to congress

0:03:05.920,0:03:10.720
and in it he explains the idea of what

0:03:08.959,0:03:11.440
would later be known as the monroe

0:03:10.720,0:03:13.280
doctrine

0:03:11.440,0:03:15.440
even though it was actually like mostly

0:03:13.280,0:03:18.319
written by john quincy adams

0:03:15.440,0:03:19.680
and it’s only a few paragraphs in his

0:03:18.319,0:03:21.360
entire speech but

0:03:19.680,0:03:23.840
it’s so significant like it has a

0:03:21.360,0:03:26.720
lasting effect that we still see today

0:03:23.840,0:03:28.239
and so in a nutshell the monroe doctrine

0:03:26.720,0:03:30.959
states that the us

0:03:28.239,0:03:33.680
is the protector of the entire western

0:03:30.959,0:03:36.959
hemisphere and nobody else can touch it

0:03:33.680,0:03:37.760
and there are three main concepts in his

0:03:36.959,0:03:40.480
speech

0:03:37.760,0:03:42.159
so the first is that the old world and

0:03:40.480,0:03:45.120
the new world were different

0:03:42.159,0:03:47.360
and should be two distinct spheres of

0:03:45.120,0:03:50.959
influence so remember like when

0:03:47.360,0:03:52.400
like the uh when the pilgrims went to

0:03:50.959,0:03:53.200
america and they’re like oh this is the

0:03:52.400,0:03:54.879
new world

0:03:53.200,0:03:56.480
old world is like all the european

0:03:54.879,0:03:57.360
countries so they’re like okay we’re

0:03:56.480,0:04:01.280
different

0:03:57.360,0:04:04.560
let’s not bother each other the second

0:04:01.280,0:04:06.879
concept is that european powers couldn’t

0:04:04.560,0:04:09.560
colonize latin america

0:04:06.879,0:04:10.720
and the third is the concept of

0:04:09.560,0:04:13.519
non-interference

0:04:10.720,0:04:14.239
and so any attempt by a european power

0:04:13.519,0:04:16.239
to

0:04:14.239,0:04:18.560
exert its influence in the western

0:04:16.239,0:04:19.040
hemisphere would be seen as a threat to

0:04:18.560,0:04:22.079
u.s

0:04:19.040,0:04:23.840
security and so in turn the u.s

0:04:22.079,0:04:25.120
wouldn’t interfere in the political

0:04:23.840,0:04:27.919
affairs of europe

0:04:25.120,0:04:29.360
or with existing european colonies in

0:04:27.919,0:04:32.720
the western hemisphere

0:04:29.360,0:04:35.280
so does that make sense yeah so when we

0:04:32.720,0:04:35.840
it when you like the monroe doctrine is

0:04:35.280,0:04:37.759
it just

0:04:35.840,0:04:39.520
we’re signing it or do we have to get

0:04:37.759,0:04:41.280
europe to sign it too

0:04:39.520,0:04:43.199
we’re like literally no one’s even

0:04:41.280,0:04:46.000
signing it that’s the thing

0:04:43.199,0:04:47.120
saying it he’s literally just he gives a

0:04:46.000,0:04:50.960
speech and he’s like hey

0:04:47.120,0:04:52.320
this is this is a thing now like the us

0:04:50.960,0:04:54.400
we’re the protector of the western

0:04:52.320,0:04:55.280
hemisphere and if europe tries to come

0:04:54.400,0:04:56.960
in like

0:04:55.280,0:04:58.320
that’s going to be a threat to us and so

0:04:56.960,0:05:01.039
we’re going to fight you

0:04:58.320,0:05:02.560
okay so no one acknowledged it just like

0:05:01.039,0:05:04.560
president said it

0:05:02.560,0:05:05.680
yeah that’s it yeah he’s like he just

0:05:04.560,0:05:09.039
declared it

0:05:05.680,0:05:10.800
like which yeah so

0:05:09.039,0:05:12.639
obviously like this is pretty insane

0:05:10.800,0:05:15.520
because at the time the u.s

0:05:12.639,0:05:17.919
is like a really young country and it’s

0:05:15.520,0:05:20.960
a very minor player on the world stage

0:05:17.919,0:05:23.680
and also it has like no

0:05:20.960,0:05:24.880
military or naval power to back this up

0:05:23.680,0:05:27.360
like he’s just

0:05:24.880,0:05:29.039
he’s just saying it but yeah because

0:05:27.360,0:05:31.520
this is 1812

0:05:29.039,0:05:33.360
right is that what you said okay um oh

0:05:31.520,0:05:38.160
sorry no 1823

0:05:33.360,0:05:40.080
okay so yeah so this is after the war of

0:05:38.160,0:05:43.360
1812 so i think we were kind of

0:05:40.080,0:05:45.199
feeling cocky at the time oh yeah

0:05:43.360,0:05:47.600
for no good reason because if you

0:05:45.199,0:05:48.479
watched war of 1812 you know how that

0:05:47.600,0:05:51.199
went down

0:05:48.479,0:05:52.160
yeah it wasn’t anything to be like super

0:05:51.199,0:05:54.800
proud

0:05:52.160,0:05:56.560
yeah but yeah and so we were like

0:05:54.800,0:05:58.560
feeling really good about ourselves

0:05:56.560,0:05:59.919
um but yeah the rest of the world pretty

0:05:58.560,0:06:02.080
much ignores

0:05:59.919,0:06:03.360
president monroe and they’re like okay

0:06:02.080,0:06:06.160
cool whatever

0:06:03.360,0:06:07.199
um no one takes it seriously and

0:06:06.160,0:06:08.560
question two

0:06:07.199,0:06:10.720
i mean how would everyone else

0:06:08.560,0:06:12.560
acknowledge it because he gives a speech

0:06:10.720,0:06:13.919
but then did they distribute it

0:06:12.560,0:06:16.400
to everyone else did they send

0:06:13.919,0:06:16.880
messengers or is it just you said this

0:06:16.400,0:06:19.520
to

0:06:16.880,0:06:20.560
some people and like no one else knows

0:06:19.520,0:06:22.560
about it

0:06:20.560,0:06:23.600
i don’t know like maybe like newspapers

0:06:22.560,0:06:26.160
reported on it

0:06:23.600,0:06:28.800
and then like word got sent to other

0:06:26.160,0:06:32.479
countries but yeah i really don’t know

0:06:28.800,0:06:35.440
you can’t just like live stream it yeah

0:06:32.479,0:06:37.280
look like um yeah i don’t know how they

0:06:35.440,0:06:39.039
even can you imagine it’s like a game of

0:06:37.280,0:06:40.080
telephone right if you’re trying to like

0:06:39.039,0:06:41.520
spread the news

0:06:40.080,0:06:43.280
and then by the time it gets to like

0:06:41.520,0:06:46.560
chile they’re like who

0:06:43.280,0:06:47.120
who’s protecting us like wait those guys

0:06:46.560,0:06:49.520
really

0:06:47.120,0:06:50.400
okay is that a nation aren’t they

0:06:49.520,0:06:53.039
british

0:06:50.400,0:06:54.880
like didn’t canada just burn down their

0:06:53.039,0:06:58.560
white house or something

0:06:54.880,0:06:58.560
like i thought they were done though

0:06:58.800,0:07:02.080
um yeah i’m sure yeah i’m sure like

0:07:01.280,0:07:05.280
other countries

0:07:02.080,0:07:08.880
in latin america are just like what

0:07:05.280,0:07:12.319
okay um yeah but okay so then like

0:07:08.880,0:07:13.039
in 1833 british forces occupy the

0:07:12.319,0:07:15.280
falkland

0:07:13.039,0:07:16.240
islands off the coast of argentina i

0:07:15.280,0:07:18.720
know about this

0:07:16.240,0:07:19.680
yeah i really want to visit the falkland

0:07:18.720,0:07:21.919
islands

0:07:19.680,0:07:23.840
yeah yeah yeah falkland islands very

0:07:21.919,0:07:25.599
interesting history but yeah so

0:07:23.840,0:07:27.680
british forces occupy the islands and

0:07:25.599,0:07:30.800
it’s off the coast of argentina

0:07:27.680,0:07:33.919
so it’s technically the us’s

0:07:30.800,0:07:36.479
sphere of influence but the us decides

0:07:33.919,0:07:37.039
not to invoke the doctrine probably

0:07:36.479,0:07:38.319
because

0:07:37.039,0:07:40.080
they don’t actually have like the

0:07:38.319,0:07:42.639
military power to stop them

0:07:40.080,0:07:44.720
so britain comes and they take over the

0:07:42.639,0:07:47.520
islands and the u.s does nothing and so

0:07:44.720,0:07:47.520
people are like okay

0:07:48.319,0:07:55.280
great job however as time passes

0:07:52.639,0:07:56.639
and the us’s military and economic

0:07:55.280,0:07:59.120
strength grows

0:07:56.639,0:07:59.759
it actually starts to follow through

0:07:59.120,0:08:02.639
with

0:07:59.759,0:08:03.039
the monroe doctrine so the first example

0:08:02.639,0:08:06.080
of this

0:08:03.039,0:08:10.000
is in 1867 so this is

0:08:06.080,0:08:12.319
right after the civil war ended in 1865

0:08:10.000,0:08:14.960
and the u.s has a lot more military

0:08:12.319,0:08:18.319
power because of the civil war right

0:08:14.960,0:08:18.639
and so at the time mexico is being ruled

0:08:18.319,0:08:21.520
by

0:08:18.639,0:08:23.360
emperor maximilian who had been put into

0:08:21.520,0:08:25.759
power by the french government because

0:08:23.360,0:08:26.560
mexico owed france a lot of debt so

0:08:25.759,0:08:28.400
they’re like okay

0:08:26.560,0:08:30.319
we’re gonna put this guy in charge of

0:08:28.400,0:08:33.279
you um

0:08:30.319,0:08:34.640
and the us they don’t like that france

0:08:33.279,0:08:37.360
has so much influence

0:08:34.640,0:08:38.959
in their neighboring country’s politics

0:08:37.360,0:08:41.599
and so they decide to provide

0:08:38.959,0:08:42.880
military and diplomatic support to

0:08:41.599,0:08:44.880
benito flores

0:08:42.880,0:08:47.519
who is the president of the mexican

0:08:44.880,0:08:50.000
republic and

0:08:47.519,0:08:50.880
emperor maximilian is executed on the

0:08:50.000,0:08:54.240
orders of

0:08:50.880,0:08:54.800
benito forest so that’s like a big deal

0:08:54.240,0:08:58.080
though

0:08:54.800,0:09:01.200
yeah we we supported that and

0:08:58.080,0:09:02.240
helped make that happen and so that kind

0:09:01.200,0:09:04.240
of like

0:09:02.240,0:09:05.920
not only does that like solidify our

0:09:04.240,0:09:06.720
commitment to the monroe doctrine but it

0:09:05.920,0:09:08.880
shows that

0:09:06.720,0:09:10.320
hey we actually have the power to follow

0:09:08.880,0:09:13.440
through with this

0:09:10.320,0:09:17.040
uh definition i’m always confused on

0:09:13.440,0:09:19.360
the us’s relation with france like i

0:09:17.040,0:09:20.640
i need a timeline of do we like them do

0:09:19.360,0:09:22.240
we not like them because

0:09:20.640,0:09:24.720
we’re allies at one point for the

0:09:22.240,0:09:26.080
american revolution and now we’re not

0:09:24.720,0:09:28.800
now we’re trying to make sure that they

0:09:26.080,0:09:32.160
don’t expand territory it’s

0:09:28.800,0:09:32.480
yeah i also am like very confused about

0:09:32.160,0:09:35.920
that

0:09:32.480,0:09:37.279
also i just watched uh hamilton on

0:09:35.920,0:09:40.240
disney plaza and so like

0:09:37.279,0:09:42.000
yeah there’s like uh lafayette and like

0:09:40.240,0:09:44.320
he’s a good guy but then i don’t know

0:09:42.000,0:09:46.480
now we don’t like france and so

0:09:44.320,0:09:49.839
yeah i feel like we always liked france

0:09:46.480,0:09:52.480
though we love our french viewers

0:09:49.839,0:09:54.560
like i feel like because even when they

0:09:52.480,0:09:56.640
had the revolution we still were

0:09:54.560,0:09:58.800
like thomas jefferson is like lobbying

0:09:56.640,0:10:00.720
for us to still like send funds and like

0:09:58.800,0:10:04.160
help france out in their revolution

0:10:00.720,0:10:05.920
and then we decide not to yeah you know

0:10:04.160,0:10:07.519
what i think like the root of the

0:10:05.920,0:10:08.959
problem isn’t like whether or not we

0:10:07.519,0:10:11.600
like france right now it’s just like we

0:10:08.959,0:10:14.800
don’t want them to have influence

0:10:11.600,0:10:16.480
in the region um sorry i have like

0:10:14.800,0:10:18.160
something in my eye

0:10:16.480,0:10:19.839
yeah i just think we we don’t want them

0:10:18.160,0:10:22.160
to have influence

0:10:19.839,0:10:24.480
like on mexico’s politics just because

0:10:22.160,0:10:27.279
we want the whole hemisphere to

0:10:24.480,0:10:27.680
to ourselves we’re not at all we’re like

0:10:27.279,0:10:29.760
yeah

0:10:27.680,0:10:31.360
it’s not about them it’s like it’s not

0:10:29.760,0:10:34.560
you it’s me

0:10:31.360,0:10:37.760
to me not that we don’t like you we want

0:10:34.560,0:10:40.880
all of this to ourselves without yeah

0:10:37.760,0:10:42.160
without any uh pushback so so yeah i

0:10:40.880,0:10:45.680
think that’s what it is

0:10:42.160,0:10:48.800
but i don’t know france yeah shout

0:10:45.680,0:10:53.360
french viewers but yeah so

0:10:48.800,0:10:56.320
after this um the us is propelled by

0:10:53.360,0:10:57.760
manifest destiny and it continues to

0:10:56.320,0:11:00.560
expand its influence

0:10:57.760,0:11:01.360
all around the world so we see america

0:11:00.560,0:11:04.079
is acquiring

0:11:01.360,0:11:05.519
a bunch of overseas territory from the

0:11:04.079,0:11:08.560
spanish-american war

0:11:05.519,0:11:09.279
which we’ll cover soon hopefully and

0:11:08.560,0:11:12.560
then

0:11:09.279,0:11:15.440
also in the pacific islands um

0:11:12.560,0:11:16.959
and this helps solidify the us’s role as

0:11:15.440,0:11:19.839
a world power

0:11:16.959,0:11:20.399
and it also gives like the necessary

0:11:19.839,0:11:22.480
strength

0:11:20.399,0:11:24.160
again to back up this doctrine so we’re

0:11:22.480,0:11:25.519
just like acquiring land and we’re like

0:11:24.160,0:11:29.680
yes we are

0:11:25.519,0:11:32.640
like we are a major world player and

0:11:29.680,0:11:34.079
like what the big changing point um is

0:11:32.640,0:11:36.880
in 1904

0:11:34.079,0:11:38.880
when european creditors were threatening

0:11:36.880,0:11:40.079
to send in armed forces to latin

0:11:38.880,0:11:44.160
american countries

0:11:40.079,0:11:47.200
who hadn’t paid back their debt yet and

0:11:44.160,0:11:47.519
so president theodore roosevelt he steps

0:11:47.200,0:11:50.399
in

0:11:47.519,0:11:52.800
and he sends u.s marines to nicaragua

0:11:50.399,0:11:54.959
haiti and the dominican republic

0:11:52.800,0:11:57.600
in order to ward off these european

0:11:54.959,0:12:00.160
creditors and he says

0:11:57.600,0:12:02.000
quote in the western hemisphere the

0:12:00.160,0:12:03.279
adherence of the united states to the

0:12:02.000,0:12:05.680
monroe doctrine

0:12:03.279,0:12:06.720
may force the united states however

0:12:05.680,0:12:09.360
reluctantly

0:12:06.720,0:12:10.079
in a flag in flagrant cases of such

0:12:09.360,0:12:12.800
wrongdoing

0:12:10.079,0:12:13.839
or impotence to the exercise of an

0:12:12.800,0:12:17.360
international

0:12:13.839,0:12:19.040
police power unquote and so

0:12:17.360,0:12:20.959
yeah yeah go ahead as you say that’s

0:12:19.040,0:12:22.399
really interesting because

0:12:20.959,0:12:24.240
i’ve been like doing some research on

0:12:22.399,0:12:26.800
the haiti revolution and so

0:12:24.240,0:12:27.600
with haiti’s revolution and them owing

0:12:26.800,0:12:29.519
debts to

0:12:27.600,0:12:31.120
france which were ridiculous we’ll talk

0:12:29.519,0:12:32.959
about it in another episode

0:12:31.120,0:12:34.320
but it’s interesting that the monroe

0:12:32.959,0:12:37.680
doctrine had

0:12:34.320,0:12:38.320
them maybe defend like haiti and these

0:12:37.680,0:12:41.360
like

0:12:38.320,0:12:42.800
other central american countries when a

0:12:41.360,0:12:44.320
lot of these countries are refusing to

0:12:42.800,0:12:46.399
do trade with haiti because of that

0:12:44.320,0:12:48.959
revolution

0:12:46.399,0:12:50.800
thoughts on that that’s interesting yeah

0:12:48.959,0:12:52.399
okay honestly i don’t know too much

0:12:50.800,0:12:54.160
about the haiti

0:12:52.399,0:12:56.160
haitian revolution so i’m really excited

0:12:54.160,0:12:56.800
to learn more about that in a future

0:12:56.160,0:13:00.560
episode

0:12:56.800,0:13:02.320
but yeah and also like just like overall

0:13:00.560,0:13:03.360
with this whole like oh you can’t

0:13:02.320,0:13:06.560
colonize

0:13:03.360,0:13:08.480
latin america like i not to be like

0:13:06.560,0:13:11.440
super cynical but i don’t think it’s

0:13:08.480,0:13:13.040
like out of like reasons of like oh we

0:13:11.440,0:13:14.560
have a pure heart like we don’t want you

0:13:13.040,0:13:15.839
to be colonized i think it’s just we

0:13:14.560,0:13:18.560
don’t want

0:13:15.839,0:13:20.000
european powers influenced in our

0:13:18.560,0:13:23.040
quote-unquote backyard

0:13:20.000,0:13:24.720
so to do with um

0:13:23.040,0:13:26.720
our relation with haiti too it’s like

0:13:24.720,0:13:28.880
yeah we’re not gonna let these

0:13:26.720,0:13:31.440
debtors come in but not because we’re

0:13:28.880,0:13:34.000
like yeah not because we like you guys

0:13:31.440,0:13:34.959
but it’s because we don’t want them

0:13:34.000,0:13:37.279
having power

0:13:34.959,0:13:38.000
near us so i think yeah that’s where

0:13:37.279,0:13:42.959
this

0:13:38.000,0:13:45.199
gets tricky and yeah but like regardless

0:13:42.959,0:13:46.720
like this like theodore roosevelt

0:13:45.199,0:13:49.199
literally says we’re the international

0:13:46.720,0:13:49.920
police power of the western hemisphere

0:13:49.199,0:13:53.680
which is

0:13:49.920,0:13:57.199
a huge deal and like his whole

0:13:53.680,0:13:59.680
viewpoint his whole um foreign policy

0:13:57.199,0:14:01.519
theory i guess would later be known as

0:13:59.680,0:14:04.880
the big stick policy

0:14:01.519,0:14:07.279
because he has this davis slogan towards

0:14:04.880,0:14:08.000
foreign policy speak softly and carry a

0:14:07.279,0:14:11.440
big stick

0:14:08.000,0:14:15.120
you will go far so this basically means

0:14:11.440,0:14:17.839
that like hey let’s focus on negotiation

0:14:15.120,0:14:20.000
and cooperation but also like don’t

0:14:17.839,0:14:21.760
forget we have all this military power

0:14:20.000,0:14:23.839
and we’re really not afraid to use it

0:14:21.760,0:14:25.120
against you if we need to

0:14:23.839,0:14:26.880
so that’s kind of what the big stick

0:14:25.120,0:14:29.120
policy is and

0:14:26.880,0:14:31.600
actually like in a speech he tells the

0:14:29.120,0:14:33.600
audience remember the monroe doctrine

0:14:31.600,0:14:34.959
will be respected as long as we have a

0:14:33.600,0:14:37.839
first class navy

0:14:34.959,0:14:39.839
so he is really like adamant like

0:14:37.839,0:14:40.639
president roosevelt is really adamant

0:14:39.839,0:14:43.600
about

0:14:40.639,0:14:44.320
expanding u.s influence all around the

0:14:43.600,0:14:47.440
world

0:14:44.320,0:14:49.279
um and yeah expanding the interpretation

0:14:47.440,0:14:52.320
of the monroe doctrine

0:14:49.279,0:14:52.880
uh and so this might seem like common

0:14:52.320,0:14:55.920
sense

0:14:52.880,0:14:56.639
today because it’s kind of like it’s

0:14:55.920,0:14:58.639
really shaped

0:14:56.639,0:14:59.680
what our foreign policy strategy looks

0:14:58.639,0:15:02.720
like today so we

0:14:59.680,0:15:05.600
kind of see similar thoughts um

0:15:02.720,0:15:07.120
and theories today but like this is

0:15:05.600,0:15:07.760
really crazy at the time because if you

0:15:07.120,0:15:10.160
think about

0:15:07.760,0:15:10.880
other empires at the time like the

0:15:10.160,0:15:13.519
spanish

0:15:10.880,0:15:15.120
empire french british empire like their

0:15:13.519,0:15:16.959
whole theory has kind of just been to

0:15:15.120,0:15:18.800
like send a bunch of

0:15:16.959,0:15:20.560
ships and like military power and just

0:15:18.800,0:15:21.839
like go to war with like all these

0:15:20.560,0:15:23.760
territories

0:15:21.839,0:15:25.519
but then roosevelt comes in and he’s

0:15:23.760,0:15:28.480
like okay yeah we could

0:15:25.519,0:15:30.399
send in military power but it’s more

0:15:28.480,0:15:31.920
about like scaring people

0:15:30.399,0:15:33.680
and like threatening you through

0:15:31.920,0:15:35.440
negotiation so it’s

0:15:33.680,0:15:36.720
i don’t know i just thought it’s really

0:15:35.440,0:15:37.279
interesting because it’s a pretty big

0:15:36.720,0:15:41.360
change

0:15:37.279,0:15:43.440
um and yeah so obviously roosevelt

0:15:41.360,0:15:44.399
expands the interpretation of the monroe

0:15:43.440,0:15:48.000
doctrine

0:15:44.399,0:15:51.120
and it basically justifies military

0:15:48.000,0:15:55.120
interventions in latin america and the

0:15:51.120,0:15:58.079
caribbean um so it’s a really big deal

0:15:55.120,0:15:58.639
but then president so then we flash

0:15:58.079,0:16:01.839
forward

0:15:58.639,0:16:04.639
to the cold war 21st century

0:16:01.839,0:16:05.279
oh sorry this is not the clover okay

0:16:04.639,0:16:07.839
okay

0:16:05.279,0:16:09.680
so then if we flash forward to president

0:16:07.839,0:16:12.399
franklin d roosevelt

0:16:09.680,0:16:13.040
he replaces the big stick policy with

0:16:12.399,0:16:16.240
the good

0:16:13.040,0:16:18.160
neighbor policy and this focuses on

0:16:16.240,0:16:20.639
cooperation and trade

0:16:18.160,0:16:23.040
rather than military force in order to

0:16:20.639,0:16:25.440
improve relations in latin american

0:16:23.040,0:16:27.199
with latin american countries and so for

0:16:25.440,0:16:29.600
example the organization

0:16:27.199,0:16:30.720
for american states is created in order

0:16:29.600,0:16:32.480
to strengthen

0:16:30.720,0:16:35.120
cooperation in the western hemisphere

0:16:32.480,0:16:38.320
and it still exists today which is cool

0:16:35.120,0:16:40.320
uh but this does not stop future leaders

0:16:38.320,0:16:41.680
from using the monroe doctrine in order

0:16:40.320,0:16:44.079
to justify

0:16:41.680,0:16:45.920
military invention interventions in the

0:16:44.079,0:16:48.560
western hemisphere

0:16:45.920,0:16:50.639
so president john f kennedy actually

0:16:48.560,0:16:54.079
invoked the monroe doctrine

0:16:50.639,0:16:56.560
during the cuban missile crisis in 1962

0:16:54.079,0:16:58.560
when he ordered an air and naval

0:16:56.560,0:17:01.199
quarantine of cuba

0:16:58.560,0:17:02.399
after the soviet union started building

0:17:01.199,0:17:04.959
missile launching

0:17:02.399,0:17:06.319
sites there and so that’s a big deal

0:17:04.959,0:17:08.160
because again like

0:17:06.319,0:17:09.360
if you think about it like the us really

0:17:08.160,0:17:12.959
doesn’t have

0:17:09.360,0:17:15.679
the right to like go send

0:17:12.959,0:17:16.319
um i guess forces there and like police

0:17:15.679,0:17:18.640
things but

0:17:16.319,0:17:20.319
because of this monroe doctrine like it

0:17:18.640,0:17:23.919
really establishes

0:17:20.319,0:17:26.720
our foreign policy strategy and our role

0:17:23.919,0:17:27.360
our perceived role in the region and

0:17:26.720,0:17:30.640
because

0:17:27.360,0:17:32.880
we send these troops to cuba

0:17:30.640,0:17:34.799
um and have this quarantine there which

0:17:32.880,0:17:35.679
basically means like we like blockade it

0:17:34.799,0:17:39.039
and we’re like hey

0:17:35.679,0:17:41.200
no one can come in or out um so after

0:17:39.039,0:17:43.039
several days of this the soviet union

0:17:41.200,0:17:45.919
begins to dismantle

0:17:43.039,0:17:47.280
its sights and withdraw its missiles so

0:17:45.919,0:17:49.679
it’s effective it works

0:17:47.280,0:17:51.200
um which also like cuban missile crisis

0:17:49.679,0:17:52.400
like we should cover that in a future

0:17:51.200,0:17:56.320
episode oh definitely

0:17:52.400,0:17:59.600
um so after this after

0:17:56.320,0:18:03.200
uh jfk and the cuban missile crisis you

0:17:59.600,0:18:05.919
rarely hear presidents explicitly use

0:18:03.200,0:18:08.320
the word monroe doctrine to justify

0:18:05.919,0:18:10.400
their foreign policy decision making

0:18:08.320,0:18:12.320
but like even if they’re not saying it

0:18:10.400,0:18:15.840
out loud the monroe doctrines

0:18:12.320,0:18:18.080
history and its legacy nonetheless

0:18:15.840,0:18:20.080
influenced their opinions and their

0:18:18.080,0:18:20.559
perspective of america’s role in the

0:18:20.080,0:18:22.640
region

0:18:20.559,0:18:24.720
um so do you know like what the most

0:18:22.640,0:18:28.000
recent use of the monroe doctrine

0:18:24.720,0:18:31.200
has been maybe like an example yeah

0:18:28.000,0:18:34.400
so i think well that’s the thing is like

0:18:31.200,0:18:36.960
um presidents don’t really

0:18:34.400,0:18:39.679
say like they don’t really use the

0:18:36.960,0:18:42.640
monroe doctrine explicitly to justify

0:18:39.679,0:18:44.000
like what their decision-making um and

0:18:42.640,0:18:45.760
they don’t really say like oh i’m gonna

0:18:44.000,0:18:47.200
use the monroe doctrine because again

0:18:45.760,0:18:49.440
it’s just a declaration

0:18:47.200,0:18:50.240
like it’s not really a treaty so i think

0:18:49.440,0:18:52.160
jfk

0:18:50.240,0:18:54.400
was like the last one to say like hey

0:18:52.160,0:18:54.960
like talk about them in rhode island and

0:18:54.400,0:18:58.640
be like

0:18:54.960,0:19:01.760
this gives us the right and the power

0:18:58.640,0:19:05.440
to intervene in cuba’s affairs

0:19:01.760,0:19:07.919
um but like as

0:19:05.440,0:19:10.240
yeah but that doesn’t mean that like the

0:19:07.919,0:19:12.640
u.s has a very long history of

0:19:10.240,0:19:13.679
intervening in the regional affairs of

0:19:12.640,0:19:16.000
latin america

0:19:13.679,0:19:17.280
so yeah so the history of u.s influence

0:19:16.000,0:19:19.280
in latin america

0:19:17.280,0:19:20.720
is very controversial and pretty

0:19:19.280,0:19:23.200
polarizing but

0:19:20.720,0:19:25.360
i believe that all americans should be

0:19:23.200,0:19:26.000
aware of all of our country’s history

0:19:25.360,0:19:28.240
not just

0:19:26.000,0:19:29.600
the fun stuff so i’m going to attempt to

0:19:28.240,0:19:32.880
give a very very

0:19:29.600,0:19:35.520
brief and unbiased overview of the

0:19:32.880,0:19:37.280
modern history of u.s influence in the

0:19:35.520,0:19:39.360
region

0:19:37.280,0:19:40.799
and yeah i’m just gonna be presenting

0:19:39.360,0:19:43.600
facts so

0:19:40.799,0:19:45.280
so let’s start with president reagan um

0:19:43.600,0:19:48.480
so president ronald reagan

0:19:45.280,0:19:50.960
sent military aid to el salvador

0:19:48.480,0:19:52.080
during his administration so in the

0:19:50.960,0:19:55.039
1980s

0:19:52.080,0:19:56.160
a civil war broke out in the country and

0:19:55.039,0:19:58.480
the u.s government

0:19:56.160,0:19:59.280
sent billions of dollars worth of

0:19:58.480,0:20:02.480
economic

0:19:59.280,0:20:05.280
and military aid in order to support

0:20:02.480,0:20:06.640
the salvadoran government so they could

0:20:05.280,0:20:08.799
defeat the

0:20:06.640,0:20:10.240
leftist forces that were trying to

0:20:08.799,0:20:12.480
overthrow the government

0:20:10.240,0:20:14.159
so they wanted the government to remain

0:20:12.480,0:20:15.440
in power they didn’t want them to be

0:20:14.159,0:20:19.360
overthrown

0:20:15.440,0:20:23.600
and 75 000 people died in this conflict

0:20:19.360,0:20:27.280
so yeah it’s a really significant event

0:20:23.600,0:20:28.159
and yeah when you say leftists what does

0:20:27.280,0:20:31.760
that

0:20:28.159,0:20:34.159
mean yeah like politically left

0:20:31.760,0:20:35.840
so people label them as like either

0:20:34.159,0:20:39.280
socialist or communist

0:20:35.840,0:20:42.320
okay yeah um

0:20:39.280,0:20:44.880
and so probably one of the most

0:20:42.320,0:20:46.159
well-known events in president reagan’s

0:20:44.880,0:20:50.000
foreign policy career

0:20:46.159,0:20:52.480
was the us’s involvement in nicaragua

0:20:50.000,0:20:53.520
in what would later be known as the iran

0:20:52.480,0:20:56.960
contra affair

0:20:53.520,0:21:00.240
so have you heard of this before okay

0:20:56.960,0:21:02.240
so actually the iran contra affair is

0:21:00.240,0:21:04.559
especially controversial

0:21:02.240,0:21:05.840
um and of course just a reminder jack

0:21:04.559,0:21:08.640
and i are trying to create an

0:21:05.840,0:21:10.480
apolitical and unbiased environment so

0:21:08.640,0:21:12.320
when we discuss these historical events

0:21:10.480,0:21:15.440
so i’m just going to give a very brief

0:21:12.320,0:21:19.120
overview of facts only so

0:21:15.440,0:21:19.919
in nicaragua there are anti-communist

0:21:19.120,0:21:22.640
contras

0:21:19.919,0:21:23.520
that are battling the communist

0:21:22.640,0:21:25.520
government

0:21:23.520,0:21:28.000
um it’s the communist sandinista

0:21:25.520,0:21:29.039
government so it’s communist versus

0:21:28.000,0:21:30.960
anti-communist

0:21:29.039,0:21:32.080
like a theme we see a lot through

0:21:30.960,0:21:34.640
history

0:21:32.080,0:21:37.039
um and so president reagan supported the

0:21:34.640,0:21:40.400
contras the anti-communist contras

0:21:37.039,0:21:42.840
and he argued that they were the quote

0:21:40.400,0:21:44.240
moral equivalent of the founding fathers

0:21:42.840,0:21:47.200
unquote

0:21:44.240,0:21:48.400
um and at the time the contras received

0:21:47.200,0:21:51.760
much of their funding

0:21:48.400,0:21:55.679
from drug trafficking so

0:21:51.760,0:21:58.880
yeah and across so across the world

0:21:55.679,0:22:00.080
in lebanon seven americans were being

0:21:58.880,0:22:02.640
held hostage

0:22:00.080,0:22:04.480
by iranian-backed terrorists from the

0:22:02.640,0:22:06.720
group hezbollah

0:22:04.480,0:22:08.559
and so sorry like there’s so many

0:22:06.720,0:22:10.720
countries involved in this thing so i

0:22:08.559,0:22:12.080
it’s very confusing and that’s why i

0:22:10.720,0:22:16.240
think a lot of americans

0:22:12.080,0:22:18.640
like maybe don’t understand it fully so

0:22:16.240,0:22:19.840
so yeah they’re in lebanon but they’re

0:22:18.640,0:22:23.600
held by

0:22:19.840,0:22:25.919
iranian terrorists um and so iran

0:22:23.600,0:22:26.720
actually wanted to buy weapons from the

0:22:25.919,0:22:28.880
us

0:22:26.720,0:22:31.200
because at this time they’re at war with

0:22:28.880,0:22:34.559
iraq so they need weapons for their war

0:22:31.200,0:22:37.440
but the us has a trade embargo with

0:22:34.559,0:22:39.280
against iran which means they can’t do

0:22:37.440,0:22:42.799
trade with them

0:22:39.280,0:22:45.600
and so some national security leaders to

0:22:42.799,0:22:46.320
president reagan suggested that an arms

0:22:45.600,0:22:49.039
deal with

0:22:46.320,0:22:51.280
iran would lead to the release of the

0:22:49.039,0:22:53.919
american hostages in lebanon

0:22:51.280,0:22:55.120
and would also improve relations with

0:22:53.919,0:22:58.080
lebanon

0:22:55.120,0:23:00.080
and furthermore the funds that the u.s

0:22:58.080,0:23:02.960
would receive from this arms deal

0:23:00.080,0:23:04.559
could be used to support the contras in

0:23:02.960,0:23:07.679
nicaragua

0:23:04.559,0:23:08.000
but congress had just passed legislation

0:23:07.679,0:23:10.559
that

0:23:08.000,0:23:12.000
limited the power of the cia and the

0:23:10.559,0:23:15.120
department of defense

0:23:12.000,0:23:15.840
in international conflicts so the cia

0:23:15.120,0:23:19.120
would have to

0:23:15.840,0:23:22.000
funnel this money to nicaragua secretly

0:23:19.120,0:23:22.480
and so there are debates over who knew

0:23:22.000,0:23:24.559
what

0:23:22.480,0:23:26.320
was happening especially whether or not

0:23:24.559,0:23:30.400
president reagan knew about

0:23:26.320,0:23:32.000
the secret funds being sent to nicaragua

0:23:30.400,0:23:33.520
and so i that’s where i’m just going to

0:23:32.000,0:23:36.240
leave it at that you can

0:23:33.520,0:23:37.120
do further research that’s that’s really

0:23:36.240,0:23:39.919
hard to follow

0:23:37.120,0:23:41.679
i think i need like a whiteboard drawing

0:23:39.919,0:23:44.640
it’s really like i wish i could

0:23:41.679,0:23:46.000
have it yeah i we need so when we get

0:23:44.640,0:23:48.640
enough income we will

0:23:46.000,0:23:50.720
put it into getting animators to draw

0:23:48.640,0:23:53.360
that out

0:23:50.720,0:23:54.880
oh that’d be so great exciting that’s

0:23:53.360,0:23:57.840
the next step that’s

0:23:54.880,0:23:59.840
my goal that’s my dream for us um yeah

0:23:57.840,0:24:03.120
no that’s like

0:23:59.840,0:24:05.200
confusing to me basically like to

0:24:03.120,0:24:07.039
i guess to summarize in one sentence

0:24:05.200,0:24:09.600
like

0:24:07.039,0:24:11.679
the money that was received from this

0:24:09.600,0:24:12.240
trade deal with iran who was kind of

0:24:11.679,0:24:15.279
like an

0:24:12.240,0:24:18.960
enemy at the time uh

0:24:15.279,0:24:22.240
was used to support rebel

0:24:18.960,0:24:23.679
forces in nicaragua but that had to be

0:24:22.240,0:24:27.279
done in secretly because

0:24:23.679,0:24:29.520
it was not technically legal so

0:24:27.279,0:24:32.000
so that we supported we didn’t support

0:24:29.520,0:24:34.720
rebel groups in iran but we supported

0:24:32.000,0:24:37.600
rebel groups in nicaragua and why did we

0:24:34.720,0:24:41.039
support the rebel groups in nicaragua

0:24:37.600,0:24:43.120
because they were anti-communist and

0:24:41.039,0:24:45.039
was communist there it goes there it

0:24:43.120,0:24:48.000
goes um

0:24:45.039,0:24:49.520
yeah so lebanon hold up why we why are

0:24:48.000,0:24:51.279
we even in lebanon why do we have

0:24:49.520,0:24:52.240
american soldiers that were captive in

0:24:51.279,0:24:55.120
lebanon

0:24:52.240,0:24:56.799
they were they were uh i think if four

0:24:55.120,0:24:58.400
of them were diplomats and then three of

0:24:56.799,0:25:00.159
them were like contractors

0:24:58.400,0:25:01.679
so they were out there like working

0:25:00.159,0:25:04.159
building stuff

0:25:01.679,0:25:05.520
oh and then they just got taken captive

0:25:04.159,0:25:08.080
or hostage yeah

0:25:05.520,0:25:09.039
so they’re in lebanon chilling but then

0:25:08.080,0:25:11.200
this iranian

0:25:09.039,0:25:12.480
back like this iranian terrorist group

0:25:11.200,0:25:14.080
hezbollah they come

0:25:12.480,0:25:15.919
they’re like in lebanon and they’re like

0:25:14.080,0:25:18.320
oh you’re americans like

0:25:15.919,0:25:19.279
we’re taking you hostage in order to

0:25:18.320,0:25:22.559
like

0:25:19.279,0:25:26.320
yeah leverage for leverage and

0:25:22.559,0:25:27.039
yeah okay yeah well interesting super

0:25:26.320,0:25:28.960
complex

0:25:27.039,0:25:31.200
yeah i don’t even the middle east

0:25:28.960,0:25:33.600
conflict i ran in iraq

0:25:31.200,0:25:34.400
they’re in conflict i don’t know what

0:25:33.600,0:25:37.520
that’s about

0:25:34.400,0:25:40.000
yeah yeah we we could do a whole season

0:25:37.520,0:25:43.279
just about the middle east like honestly

0:25:40.000,0:25:47.440
like yeah we should complex history

0:25:43.279,0:25:50.240
um yeah but that’s

0:25:47.440,0:25:51.679
that is a brief summary of the iran

0:25:50.240,0:25:56.400
country affair

0:25:51.679,0:25:58.159
um but so like regardless uh like

0:25:56.400,0:25:59.279
despite all this controversy like the

0:25:58.159,0:26:01.760
fact is that

0:25:59.279,0:26:03.760
the u.s saw themselves as a police power

0:26:01.760,0:26:04.480
and as a regional watchdog in latin

0:26:03.760,0:26:08.400
america

0:26:04.480,0:26:12.279
they like saw themselves as

0:26:08.400,0:26:16.000
like having the power to interfere in

0:26:12.279,0:26:16.320
nicaragua’s affairs right and like even

0:26:16.000,0:26:17.840
if

0:26:16.320,0:26:20.400
no one ever said anything about the

0:26:17.840,0:26:21.360
monroe doctrine like the legacy in the

0:26:20.400,0:26:23.600
history

0:26:21.360,0:26:25.600
of our foreign policy in latin america

0:26:23.600,0:26:26.240
is like rooted in the monroe doctrine so

0:26:25.600,0:26:29.039
that’s why

0:26:26.240,0:26:30.640
like it’s significant um and then

0:26:29.039,0:26:33.760
finally like the last

0:26:30.640,0:26:37.120
event i want to talk about is

0:26:33.760,0:26:40.480
on december 20th 1989 when

0:26:37.120,0:26:43.200
president george h.w bush decided to

0:26:40.480,0:26:45.039
invade panama in order to oust the

0:26:43.200,0:26:48.559
country’s military dictator

0:26:45.039,0:26:52.080
his name was manuel noriega

0:26:48.559,0:26:54.720
and he had been indicted in the u.s on

0:26:52.080,0:26:55.279
drug trafficking charges so we literally

0:26:54.720,0:26:58.080
were like

0:26:55.279,0:26:58.880
hey we want to arrest you even though

0:26:58.080,0:27:01.919
he’s like

0:26:58.880,0:27:04.960
um he’s like a country’s leader or like

0:27:01.919,0:27:06.000
you’re in charge of sending drugs um in

0:27:04.960,0:27:08.400
and out of

0:27:06.000,0:27:09.520
panama and so we’re gonna arrest you so

0:27:08.400,0:27:12.960
literally like

0:27:09.520,0:27:14.880
uh we the u.s sent 9000 troops

0:27:12.960,0:27:16.720
to meet up with the 12 000 troops that

0:27:14.880,0:27:20.080
were already stationed in panama

0:27:16.720,0:27:23.120
and they kind of like blockaded

0:27:20.080,0:27:26.159
uh noriega and

0:27:23.120,0:27:27.039
he yeah eventually he surrendered and he

0:27:26.159,0:27:29.520
was arrested

0:27:27.039,0:27:30.320
and then he was like sent back to the us

0:27:29.520,0:27:33.279
and he

0:27:30.320,0:27:34.799
was sentenced to 40 years in u.s federal

0:27:33.279,0:27:37.440
prison

0:27:34.799,0:27:38.880
with and yeah and again like the fact

0:27:37.440,0:27:41.679
that

0:27:38.880,0:27:43.760
um yeah the whole role is international

0:27:41.679,0:27:46.960
police power regional watchdog

0:27:43.760,0:27:48.320
rooted in the mineral doctrine wow the

0:27:46.960,0:27:51.039
monroe doctrine has

0:27:48.320,0:27:51.600
a very complicated legacy and it’s easy

0:27:51.039,0:27:54.240
to see

0:27:51.600,0:27:56.640
how much its interpretation has changed

0:27:54.240,0:27:58.720
since it was created in the 1800s

0:27:56.640,0:28:00.159
at first it was supposed to prevent

0:27:58.720,0:28:02.320
european powers from

0:28:00.159,0:28:03.600
interfering in the western hemisphere

0:28:02.320,0:28:05.679
but over time

0:28:03.600,0:28:07.360
it would be used to support u.s

0:28:05.679,0:28:09.840
intervention in the affairs

0:28:07.360,0:28:10.880
of latin american countries so

0:28:09.840,0:28:12.399
regardless of

0:28:10.880,0:28:13.919
like whether or not you support the

0:28:12.399,0:28:16.320
modern road doctrine or

0:28:13.919,0:28:18.480
its interpretation most people agree

0:28:16.320,0:28:20.320
that it’s one of the most influential

0:28:18.480,0:28:23.039
policies in u.s history

0:28:20.320,0:28:24.240
and it’s had a huge effect in shaping

0:28:23.039,0:28:26.720
our foreign policy

0:28:24.240,0:28:27.520
strategy and like what the world looks

0:28:26.720,0:28:30.480
like today

0:28:27.520,0:28:32.320
and it’s just so crazy to see how a few

0:28:30.480,0:28:34.799
paragraphs in this speech

0:28:32.320,0:28:36.799
given in the 1800s has significantly

0:28:34.799,0:28:40.480
changed america’s role

0:28:36.799,0:28:43.520
on the world stage and in the region

0:28:40.480,0:28:45.039
so yeah that’s basically the monroe

0:28:43.520,0:28:46.960
doctrine

0:28:45.039,0:28:48.799
it’s wild and it’s so important

0:28:46.960,0:28:51.120
especially for people who

0:28:48.799,0:28:53.200
are looking uh to take the foreign

0:28:51.120,0:28:54.799
service officer test or are interested

0:28:53.200,0:28:55.360
in the history of u.s foreign policy

0:28:54.799,0:28:58.320
like

0:28:55.360,0:28:58.720
this is so significant so yeah great

0:28:58.320,0:29:00.480
yeah

0:28:58.720,0:29:01.840
thank you nat for breaking that down for

0:29:00.480,0:29:13.250
us really enjoyed it

0:29:01.840,0:29:25.840
me it was fun to talk about

0:29:13.250,0:29:27.919
[Music]

Who is Jim Crow? | The Harlem Renaissance

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

In order to respect the emergence of new black artists who redefined what it meant to be black in America, we need to examine what the narrative was of African Americans before the Harlem Renaissance. In this episode Jac talks about the heavy propaganda that was used to create false narratives of African Americans and how that lead to the rise of white supremacy groups and bias in American society. After gaining an understanding of what the narrative was like before the Harlem Renaissance, Jac dives into the background of great artists from this time. We celebrate the remarkable achievements in art and activism, and explore a variety of themes present in this era.

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/roaring-twenties/harlem-renaissance

https://www.history.com/topics/roaring-twenties/harlem-renaissance

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/articles/69395/the-negro-artist-and-the-racial-mountain

https://www.americanheritage.com/blackface-sad-history-minstrel-shows

https://www.history.com/news/was-jim-crow-a-real-person

https://www.history.com/news/kkk-birth-of-a-nation-film

https://www.wlu.edu/alumni/lifelong-learning/campus-programs/the-literature-music-and-art-of-the-harlem-renaissance/

https://www.dclibrary.org/node/1043

https://www.biography.com/activist/web-du-bois
Link to Harlem Renaissance Documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SvqVnSaRePY

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:03.840
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.000,0:00:04.400
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:03.840,0:00:07.839
that

0:00:04.400,0:00:10.400
i’m nat i’m jack and today

0:00:07.839,0:00:11.679
jack is going to be talking about the

0:00:10.400,0:00:14.480
harlem renaissance

0:00:11.679,0:00:16.640
all right hey okay so before we get

0:00:14.480,0:00:19.439
started i do have a few things to say

0:00:16.640,0:00:21.279
so first to our new listeners please

0:00:19.439,0:00:25.279
don’t forget to follow us on twitter

0:00:21.279,0:00:27.160
and instagram at had it oh hgw nkt not

0:00:25.279,0:00:28.720
how do we not know that the tag is

0:00:27.160,0:00:31.840
hdwnkt

0:00:28.720,0:00:32.880
and facebook which is at how did we not

0:00:31.840,0:00:34.800
know that

0:00:32.880,0:00:36.800
uh also if you’re watching us on youtube

0:00:34.800,0:00:39.360
please like this video

0:00:36.800,0:00:40.320
and subscribe to us it will really help

0:00:39.360,0:00:43.360
us out

0:00:40.320,0:00:44.239
um and lastly do check out our patreon

0:00:43.360,0:00:45.840
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0:00:44.239,0:00:47.600
if you would like to become a history

0:00:45.840,0:00:50.320
hero where you can get a shout out and

0:00:47.600,0:00:52.640
exclusive access to episode polls

0:00:50.320,0:00:54.559
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0:00:52.640,0:00:56.320
apple podcast please rate and leave a

0:00:54.559,0:00:57.039
review if you can we love hearing from

0:00:56.320,0:00:59.600
you

0:00:57.039,0:01:00.079
okay so as an asset i am going to talk

0:00:59.600,0:01:03.120
about

0:01:00.079,0:01:08.159
the harlem renaissance which happened

0:01:03.120,0:01:10.320
around 1918 1920 to the 1930s

0:01:08.159,0:01:12.320
so to talk about the harlem renaissance

0:01:10.320,0:01:14.400
we actually have to go back and talk

0:01:12.320,0:01:17.200
about the great migration

0:01:14.400,0:01:19.280
because the great migration was this

0:01:17.200,0:01:20.720
huge movement in the united states of

0:01:19.280,0:01:23.040
african americans

0:01:20.720,0:01:25.360
from the south to the north and that was

0:01:23.040,0:01:27.759
from 1910 to 1920

0:01:25.360,0:01:28.640
there are a few different reasons for

0:01:27.759,0:01:32.240
that

0:01:28.640,0:01:35.840
and the first of which was world war one

0:01:32.240,0:01:37.680
actually occurs uh from 1914 to 1918

0:01:35.840,0:01:40.079
and then the us actually got involved in

0:01:37.680,0:01:42.720
the war around 1917

0:01:40.079,0:01:45.439
but when the war was happening

0:01:42.720,0:01:47.680
immigration was falling during this time

0:01:45.439,0:01:49.680
so there are less workers around in the

0:01:47.680,0:01:51.439
north and so companies in the north were

0:01:49.680,0:01:54.399
trying to recruit black workers in the

0:01:51.439,0:01:56.560
south to fill the open roles also in

0:01:54.399,0:01:59.439
1915 and 1916 there were natural

0:01:56.560,0:02:01.920
disasters in the south that put many

0:01:59.439,0:02:02.880
black workers and sharecroppers out of

0:02:01.920,0:02:06.079
work

0:02:02.880,0:02:07.439
but the most important um reason

0:02:06.079,0:02:10.000
a lot of african-americans were leaving

0:02:07.439,0:02:11.840
the south was because the south

0:02:10.000,0:02:13.280
for our viewers outside of the united

0:02:11.840,0:02:15.280
states who weren’t familiar was the

0:02:13.280,0:02:18.480
location of the confederacy

0:02:15.280,0:02:19.680
and the confederacy was the side of

0:02:18.480,0:02:21.440
america

0:02:19.680,0:02:23.040
well i guess they committed treason but

0:02:21.440,0:02:25.360
they were fighting to keep

0:02:23.040,0:02:27.360
slavery legal in the united states so

0:02:25.360,0:02:28.400
they seceded which means they separated

0:02:27.360,0:02:30.800
from the union

0:02:28.400,0:02:31.519
and the union is the united states today

0:02:30.800,0:02:35.519
and they

0:02:31.519,0:02:37.599
attacked and then yeah it’s

0:02:35.519,0:02:39.360
the confederacy is still widely debated

0:02:37.599,0:02:40.800
as to what they were fighting for today

0:02:39.360,0:02:43.120
but uh

0:02:40.800,0:02:44.720
slavery is a part of it whether you want

0:02:43.120,0:02:48.239
to acknowledge that or not so

0:02:44.720,0:02:51.200
yeah yeah so because

0:02:48.239,0:02:51.599
the they were fighting for slavery there

0:02:51.200,0:02:54.239
were

0:02:51.599,0:02:55.120
extremely vicious racists white

0:02:54.239,0:02:57.519
supremacists

0:02:55.120,0:02:58.800
and constant lynchings very concentrated

0:02:57.519,0:03:02.080
in the south

0:02:58.800,0:03:04.480
and the images from this time are

0:03:02.080,0:03:05.840
literally horrific this isn’t even like

0:03:04.480,0:03:08.400
in slavery this is like

0:03:05.840,0:03:10.080
slavery is over um as we talked about in

0:03:08.400,0:03:11.920
our juneteenth episode you know it ended

0:03:10.080,0:03:14.879
in 1865.

0:03:11.920,0:03:16.319
um but slavery is over and they’re still

0:03:14.879,0:03:19.360
like ridiculously

0:03:16.319,0:03:20.080
vicious racist in the south and the

0:03:19.360,0:03:22.959
images

0:03:20.080,0:03:24.799
are literally like stuff that keeps you

0:03:22.959,0:03:25.760
up at night it’s just like huge groups

0:03:24.799,0:03:28.720
of 50 plus

0:03:25.760,0:03:30.159
standing over mangled black bodies after

0:03:28.720,0:03:32.480
lynchings or massacres

0:03:30.159,0:03:33.599
it’s like small children like smiling

0:03:32.480,0:03:36.640
and it’s like

0:03:33.599,0:03:37.680
yeah yeah it’s like these family events

0:03:36.640,0:03:39.760
and picnics

0:03:37.680,0:03:42.239
anyways horrible conditions i cannot

0:03:39.760,0:03:44.159
even begin to imagine the amount of fear

0:03:42.239,0:03:45.440
that these people were having to go

0:03:44.159,0:03:47.120
through

0:03:45.440,0:03:48.400
and like also sorry i don’t know if

0:03:47.120,0:03:50.000
you’re going to mention this but like a

0:03:48.400,0:03:51.760
lot of people

0:03:50.000,0:03:53.280
kind of blame the south and i was like

0:03:51.760,0:03:54.239
oh well all the lynchings occurred in

0:03:53.280,0:03:56.959
the south like no

0:03:54.239,0:03:57.519
like they occurred in the north as well

0:03:56.959,0:03:59.599
like

0:03:57.519,0:04:00.959
up until it wasn’t that long ago it’s

0:03:59.599,0:04:03.599
like to like the 60s

0:04:00.959,0:04:05.120
70s like i could be wrong but it could

0:04:03.599,0:04:07.760
be even more recent than that

0:04:05.120,0:04:09.840
but no you’re right where so we can’t

0:04:07.760,0:04:11.519
just like blame it on one certain area

0:04:09.840,0:04:13.040
and be like oh the rest of us are okay

0:04:11.519,0:04:14.799
like it happened ever and you’re right

0:04:13.040,0:04:16.160
like it would it’s a fam it would be a

0:04:14.799,0:04:17.919
family event

0:04:16.160,0:04:19.120
and people would take like postcards i

0:04:17.919,0:04:20.400
also don’t know if you’re gonna go into

0:04:19.120,0:04:22.320
that but like

0:04:20.400,0:04:23.680
yeah people would take pictures and send

0:04:22.320,0:04:26.000
it to

0:04:23.680,0:04:27.440
families members and friends and it’s

0:04:26.000,0:04:29.440
just like

0:04:27.440,0:04:30.960
it’s disgusting i can’t even also in

0:04:29.440,0:04:32.800
addition to that black people were

0:04:30.960,0:04:34.960
unable to make a living for themselves

0:04:32.800,0:04:35.440
in the south there was the emergence of

0:04:34.960,0:04:37.840
black

0:04:35.440,0:04:39.680
codes which were restrictive laws

0:04:37.840,0:04:41.840
designed to limit the freedom of african

0:04:39.680,0:04:42.320
americans and ensure their availability

0:04:41.840,0:04:45.440
as

0:04:42.320,0:04:47.440
cheap labor after the end of slavery so

0:04:45.440,0:04:49.440
it was a legal way to continue their

0:04:47.440,0:04:50.400
abuse these labor contracts were very

0:04:49.440,0:04:53.360
predatory

0:04:50.400,0:04:55.280
they were low paid they didn’t really

0:04:53.360,0:04:57.280
have a lot of rights in negotiation

0:04:55.280,0:04:58.800
also black codes limited their right to

0:04:57.280,0:05:01.120
vote and denied them the right to

0:04:58.800,0:05:02.960
testify against whites they were also

0:05:01.120,0:05:04.880
not allowed to serve on juries

0:05:02.960,0:05:06.720
which is a huge deal to not have

0:05:04.880,0:05:08.960
government

0:05:06.720,0:05:10.560
representation not even being able to

0:05:08.960,0:05:11.600
have your own rights as an american

0:05:10.560,0:05:13.759
citizen

0:05:11.600,0:05:14.960
go off the whole jury duty thing like of

0:05:13.759,0:05:16.479
course like that’s your right as an

0:05:14.960,0:05:18.400
american citizen too but if you’re

0:05:16.479,0:05:20.160
thinking about like if you’re

0:05:18.400,0:05:21.680
uh a black american and you’re being

0:05:20.160,0:05:24.960
tried at court and it’s

0:05:21.680,0:05:26.639
only light jury like i wonder like how

0:05:24.960,0:05:28.000
can that not be biased you know

0:05:26.639,0:05:30.080
and how can that not affect your

0:05:28.000,0:05:32.720
sentencing so

0:05:30.080,0:05:34.479
like beyond that okay like it’s your

0:05:32.720,0:05:37.919
right like it’s gonna affect

0:05:34.479,0:05:39.840
the um i guess rulings of the court and

0:05:37.919,0:05:40.320
yeah right and how is that diversity of

0:05:39.840,0:05:42.960
thought

0:05:40.320,0:05:44.080
it’s like the same groups of people from

0:05:42.960,0:05:46.080
similar background

0:05:44.080,0:05:47.759
anyways and yes nat you did good i have

0:05:46.080,0:05:50.080
it in here spoiler alert

0:05:47.759,0:05:51.520
racism was hardly any better in the

0:05:50.080,0:05:54.639
north i

0:05:51.520,0:05:56.479
cannot imagine like that completely

0:05:54.639,0:05:58.160
did a great job yeah lynchings were not

0:05:56.479,0:05:58.720
any better in the north discrimination

0:05:58.160,0:06:01.840
was not

0:05:58.720,0:06:03.919
better in the north so by 1920 about 300

0:06:01.840,0:06:05.120
000 african americans from the south

0:06:03.919,0:06:07.680
moved north

0:06:05.120,0:06:09.440
one of the most popular destinations to

0:06:07.680,0:06:12.000
move to was a place called

0:06:09.440,0:06:12.000
harlem

0:06:12.880,0:06:16.800
so harlem was a neighborhood in new york

0:06:14.880,0:06:18.160
city it was originally built for upper

0:06:16.800,0:06:20.720
class white people

0:06:18.160,0:06:22.479
but due to rapid over development the

0:06:20.720,0:06:23.120
landlords were really desperate to get

0:06:22.479,0:06:25.280
tenants

0:06:23.120,0:06:27.440
in the area then we start to see middle

0:06:25.280,0:06:29.919
class black families migrate into

0:06:27.440,0:06:31.360
it which causes white people to flee

0:06:29.919,0:06:33.120
they did try to

0:06:31.360,0:06:34.560
prevent more black people from moving

0:06:33.120,0:06:37.600
and ball ultimately failed

0:06:34.560,0:06:38.720
it is regarded as a black cultural mecca

0:06:37.600,0:06:40.880
and is credited

0:06:38.720,0:06:42.160
rightly so as the birthplace of the

0:06:40.880,0:06:45.199
harlem renaissance

0:06:42.160,0:06:47.600
so to refresh your memory renaissance is

0:06:45.199,0:06:49.759
a french word that means rebirth

0:06:47.600,0:06:52.080
so the harlem renaissance was really the

0:06:49.759,0:06:52.720
rebirth or redefinement of the black

0:06:52.080,0:06:56.160
narrative

0:06:52.720,0:06:57.599
in the united states and in order to do

0:06:56.160,0:06:59.599
this episode justice

0:06:57.599,0:07:01.680
to talk about the redefinition of the

0:06:59.599,0:07:04.000
black narrative we need to talk about

0:07:01.680,0:07:05.199
what the black narrative was before in

0:07:04.000,0:07:09.039
the united states

0:07:05.199,0:07:10.240
you have to learn specifically how white

0:07:09.039,0:07:12.240
americans were portraying

0:07:10.240,0:07:14.560
and perceiving black people to the

0:07:12.240,0:07:15.599
public and i say white and i’m going to

0:07:14.560,0:07:17.360
continue to

0:07:15.599,0:07:18.960
use this term because the narrative of

0:07:17.360,0:07:20.880
black people from the start of their

0:07:18.960,0:07:22.000
enslavement in the united states and up

0:07:20.880,0:07:24.240
until this time

0:07:22.000,0:07:26.479
was defined propagated and distributed

0:07:24.240,0:07:28.080
to the public by white americans

0:07:26.479,0:07:30.080
this i can’t believe i have to say this

0:07:28.080,0:07:33.199
disclaimer but when we

0:07:30.080,0:07:34.960
when i say white americans i’m in no way

0:07:33.199,0:07:37.440
trying to make any listeners who are

0:07:34.960,0:07:39.199
white feel attacked for being white

0:07:37.440,0:07:40.479
we are not responsible for what our

0:07:39.199,0:07:42.800
ancestors have done

0:07:40.479,0:07:44.800
nat and i are both halfway yeah but you

0:07:42.800,0:07:46.720
have to acknowledge

0:07:44.800,0:07:48.879
the sides of the situation and what was

0:07:46.720,0:07:52.160
actually happening you cannot ignore

0:07:48.879,0:07:55.520
color in this historical event

0:07:52.160,0:07:57.520
sorry so that’s a great way to

0:07:55.520,0:07:58.879
phrase it yeah so this is really

0:07:57.520,0:08:00.720
important to acknowledge a note because

0:07:58.879,0:08:03.039
it’s going to illustrate too

0:08:00.720,0:08:04.560
as you’re going to see later how so many

0:08:03.039,0:08:06.800
white supremacy groups

0:08:04.560,0:08:08.160
were able to thrive exist and grow

0:08:06.800,0:08:10.319
during this time frame

0:08:08.160,0:08:12.400
because they were using these portrayals

0:08:10.319,0:08:13.840
to basically brainwash the majority of

0:08:12.400,0:08:15.280
other white americans

0:08:13.840,0:08:17.039
and justify to themselves the

0:08:15.280,0:08:18.400
dehumanization and mistreatment of

0:08:17.039,0:08:21.120
african americans

0:08:18.400,0:08:23.680
nat and i could literally do a whole

0:08:21.120,0:08:26.240
like series talking about the plethora

0:08:23.680,0:08:28.560
of racist propaganda

0:08:26.240,0:08:30.560
throughout our founding that is

0:08:28.560,0:08:32.080
conveniently rushed over in school

0:08:30.560,0:08:32.640
because there’s a lot if you start to

0:08:32.080,0:08:34.479
dig

0:08:32.640,0:08:36.159
but instead we’re going to focus on two

0:08:34.479,0:08:38.880
of the largest ones for right now and

0:08:36.159,0:08:41.200
the first of which is jim crow

0:08:38.880,0:08:43.120
and i’m going to ask nat what do you

0:08:41.200,0:08:44.959
know about jim crow

0:08:43.120,0:08:46.480
jim crow like when i think of jim crow

0:08:44.959,0:08:49.519
law i think about

0:08:46.480,0:08:53.200
uh laws that enforce segregation

0:08:49.519,0:08:54.320
um and just like overall discrimination

0:08:53.200,0:08:57.920
and like

0:08:54.320,0:08:59.360
just like uh i guess like it’s

0:08:57.920,0:09:02.800
separating

0:08:59.360,0:09:03.600
black americans and then white americans

0:09:02.800,0:09:06.640
like

0:09:03.600,0:09:07.120
in our laws and in our legislative

0:09:06.640,0:09:10.720
system

0:09:07.120,0:09:11.519
that’s it okay yeah so jim crow laws and

0:09:10.720,0:09:14.160
jim crow

0:09:11.519,0:09:15.519
are related but jim crow is actually a

0:09:14.160,0:09:18.080
character

0:09:15.519,0:09:19.120
so he’s a fictional character that was

0:09:18.080,0:09:22.240
created by

0:09:19.120,0:09:24.720
yeah do you want to add yeah well yeah

0:09:22.240,0:09:26.399
well yeah so he’s like not a jim crow

0:09:24.720,0:09:28.680
like the person jim crow is not

0:09:26.399,0:09:29.839
a real person but it’s like this

0:09:28.680,0:09:33.120
stereotypical

0:09:29.839,0:09:34.480
like really racist like cartoon that

0:09:33.120,0:09:37.519
white people

0:09:34.480,0:09:40.640
like drew and like created to depict

0:09:37.519,0:09:42.000
african americans and then am i

0:09:40.640,0:09:43.760
right yeah yeah no you’re right you’re

0:09:42.000,0:09:44.560
right it’s we’ll go into the history

0:09:43.760,0:09:46.640
some more

0:09:44.560,0:09:48.160
so jim crow fictional character and it

0:09:46.640,0:09:52.000
was created by a white

0:09:48.160,0:09:53.519
actor for minstrel shows in 1828 so this

0:09:52.000,0:09:56.640
is like slavery is still

0:09:53.519,0:09:58.560
legal during this time and minstrel show

0:09:56.640,0:10:00.320
was a form of entertainment that was run

0:09:58.560,0:10:02.000
by white people where they depicted

0:10:00.320,0:10:04.320
people of african descent

0:10:02.000,0:10:06.160
while wearing what is known as blackface

0:10:04.320,0:10:08.720
so for people who aren’t familiar

0:10:06.160,0:10:10.079
blackface is the practice of covering

0:10:08.720,0:10:12.399
your face and skin

0:10:10.079,0:10:14.000
in black substances to make yourself

0:10:12.399,0:10:15.760
appear black

0:10:14.000,0:10:17.680
so these shows and practices of

0:10:15.760,0:10:19.680
blackface would portray black people in

0:10:17.680,0:10:22.240
a degrading light as dimwitted

0:10:19.680,0:10:24.480
evil and then they would proceed to

0:10:22.240,0:10:26.399
profit off of the dehumanization and

0:10:24.480,0:10:29.600
degradation of these people

0:10:26.399,0:10:32.000
so jim crow was a character of a clumsy

0:10:29.600,0:10:34.160
dim-witted black slave and he served as

0:10:32.000,0:10:35.200
inspiration for the development of black

0:10:34.160,0:10:38.399
codes and

0:10:35.200,0:10:40.160
jim crow lies that were named after him

0:10:38.399,0:10:41.760
which were anti-black laws that were

0:10:40.160,0:10:43.519
used to perpetuate racism

0:10:41.760,0:10:45.279
discriminate against and encourage the

0:10:43.519,0:10:47.279
socio-economic oppression of black

0:10:45.279,0:10:48.640
people

0:10:47.279,0:10:50.320
and then the next thing we’re going to

0:10:48.640,0:10:53.519
talk about

0:10:50.320,0:10:56.640
to continue this joyful discussion

0:10:53.519,0:10:59.040
is the birth of a nation film so nat can

0:10:56.640,0:11:02.640
you tell me what you know about it

0:10:59.040,0:11:06.399
oh my goodness okay so birth of a nation

0:11:02.640,0:11:08.480
it was um i guess like propaganda for

0:11:06.399,0:11:12.480
the ku klux klan

0:11:08.480,0:11:15.360
correct and it basically

0:11:12.480,0:11:16.399
uh it was just like really awful and it

0:11:15.360,0:11:20.640
justified

0:11:16.399,0:11:23.279
white supremacy um and basically said

0:11:20.640,0:11:24.160
that non-white people were like the

0:11:23.279,0:11:27.040
reason

0:11:24.160,0:11:28.160
for all the us’s problem is like oh okay

0:11:27.040,0:11:30.800
and also

0:11:28.160,0:11:31.519
like we should just have a white only

0:11:30.800,0:11:33.120
country

0:11:31.519,0:11:34.800
and that’s what we should strive to be

0:11:33.120,0:11:36.720
you did a good job it was

0:11:34.800,0:11:39.680
the birth of a nation was supposed to

0:11:36.720,0:11:42.560
tell the story of the american civil war

0:11:39.680,0:11:43.440
but the reality is it glorified the

0:11:42.560,0:11:47.200
formation

0:11:43.440,0:11:49.200
and existence of the klu klux klan and

0:11:47.200,0:11:50.560
led to its refounding in georgia in

0:11:49.200,0:11:52.399
1915.

0:11:50.560,0:11:54.800
so i don’t know if people knew this but

0:11:52.399,0:11:57.120
the klu klux klan is a white supremacy

0:11:54.800,0:11:58.880
group it has been that way

0:11:57.120,0:12:00.639
since its founding and it was actually

0:11:58.880,0:12:02.320
stamped down by the federal government

0:12:00.639,0:12:04.000
around 1877

0:12:02.320,0:12:05.360
so they already tried to stamp it down

0:12:04.000,0:12:07.360
because of this film

0:12:05.360,0:12:08.959
it led to the reformation of it in

0:12:07.360,0:12:11.120
georgia in 1915

0:12:08.959,0:12:12.240
and that led it to spread throughout the

0:12:11.120,0:12:15.279
south

0:12:12.240,0:12:17.760
wow i had no idea that it

0:12:15.279,0:12:18.560
that the kkk it like died out it died

0:12:17.760,0:12:22.800
down and

0:12:18.560,0:12:25.440
re-emerged right crazy why do you know

0:12:22.800,0:12:26.480
why the federal government was why they

0:12:25.440,0:12:28.399
stamped it down

0:12:26.480,0:12:29.519
yeah because it’s a white supremacy

0:12:28.399,0:12:31.920
group and it’s

0:12:29.519,0:12:33.600
yeah but if yeah i guess that makes

0:12:31.920,0:12:35.279
sense but i don’t know i

0:12:33.600,0:12:36.720
feel like the government hasn’t done a

0:12:35.279,0:12:39.040
lot like

0:12:36.720,0:12:40.399
i’m thinking like late 1800s like they

0:12:39.040,0:12:42.800
weren’t doing a lot

0:12:40.399,0:12:44.240
but this book was saying that you’re

0:12:42.800,0:12:46.800
like you as a country

0:12:44.240,0:12:48.720
is really dependent on the leadership at

0:12:46.800,0:12:52.399
the time right so that’s why

0:12:48.720,0:12:54.240
abraham lincoln is widely praised for

0:12:52.399,0:12:55.360
being one of the greatest presidents of

0:12:54.240,0:12:58.560
all time

0:12:55.360,0:13:00.399
um because at the time you know it’s not

0:12:58.560,0:13:03.440
like everyone was like racism is wrong

0:13:00.399,0:13:04.959
no abraham lincoln was like racism is

0:13:03.440,0:13:07.519
wrong and we’re gonna do whatever it

0:13:04.959,0:13:08.560
takes to like eradicate it from the

0:13:07.519,0:13:10.639
united states

0:13:08.560,0:13:12.399
and because of that leadership this is

0:13:10.639,0:13:16.560
why we went into a war

0:13:12.399,0:13:18.000
if he had not felt this way so strongly

0:13:16.560,0:13:19.920
then like that war would not have

0:13:18.000,0:13:20.720
happened but imagine the streets that we

0:13:19.920,0:13:23.839
have today

0:13:20.720,0:13:25.600
and that that debate times that by like

0:13:23.839,0:13:27.120
10 000. that was like what abraham

0:13:25.600,0:13:28.639
lincoln’s having to go through and the

0:13:27.120,0:13:29.920
reason why we became the country we are

0:13:28.639,0:13:33.040
today is because of

0:13:29.920,0:13:34.240
the leadership that was in that position

0:13:33.040,0:13:36.079
i don’t know where i was going with that

0:13:34.240,0:13:37.600
obviously like

0:13:36.079,0:13:39.279
you’re fine you’re fine we just have to

0:13:37.600,0:13:40.639
bring up abraham lincoln in every

0:13:39.279,0:13:42.480
episode somehow because

0:13:40.639,0:13:46.480
i just love abraham you could fight me

0:13:42.480,0:13:49.519
on that i love abraham lincoln

0:13:46.480,0:13:51.760
the klu klux klan also known as the kkk

0:13:49.519,0:13:52.720
is a terrorist white supremacy group

0:13:51.760,0:13:55.199
formed by

0:13:52.720,0:13:57.199
white protestant nativists and

0:13:55.199,0:13:59.440
confederate veterans

0:13:57.199,0:14:01.040
in 1865 this is when it was formed it

0:13:59.440,0:14:04.079
was anti-black

0:14:01.040,0:14:06.320
it was anti-catholic it was anti-semitic

0:14:04.079,0:14:08.000
it was anti-immigration it was basically

0:14:06.320,0:14:12.079
anti-anyone who was not

0:14:08.000,0:14:12.720
exactly like them so they are most well

0:14:12.079,0:14:15.360
known for

0:14:12.720,0:14:16.000
killing lynching massacring black people

0:14:15.360,0:14:17.680
bombing their

0:14:16.000,0:14:19.760
schools and destroying their homes and

0:14:17.680,0:14:23.920
businesses and this film

0:14:19.760,0:14:26.880
glorified the kkk as saviors for quote

0:14:23.920,0:14:28.720
the helpless white minority unquote that

0:14:26.880,0:14:32.480
was literally in the film

0:14:28.720,0:14:35.839
oh my god are you serious i’m not even i

0:14:32.480,0:14:37.360
was like minority oh i don’t even know

0:14:35.839,0:14:40.959
where it is

0:14:37.360,0:14:43.680
i was like how do i i can’t anyways

0:14:40.959,0:14:45.680
yeah they portrayed black people again

0:14:43.680,0:14:46.160
they were not using black people in the

0:14:45.680,0:14:48.240
film

0:14:46.160,0:14:50.240
mind you they were using white actors in

0:14:48.240,0:14:51.120
blackface and they portrayed them as

0:14:50.240,0:14:54.000
predatory

0:14:51.120,0:14:55.839
scary evil savages that wanted to rape

0:14:54.000,0:14:58.320
and take advantage of white women

0:14:55.839,0:15:00.079
it also really because i did watch this

0:14:58.320,0:15:00.959
film i don’t know how i got through it i

0:15:00.079,0:15:04.000
watched it

0:15:00.959,0:15:06.000
yeah yeah yeah i watched it oh yeah

0:15:04.000,0:15:07.360
i do my research and i was like it

0:15:06.000,0:15:09.440
really portrays the

0:15:07.360,0:15:11.279
slaves as being very happy which is a

0:15:09.440,0:15:13.120
very

0:15:11.279,0:15:14.720
i’m gonna go on a tangent but it’s a

0:15:13.120,0:15:16.639
very common thing

0:15:14.720,0:15:17.920
that people especially in the south

0:15:16.639,0:15:19.760
history textbooks

0:15:17.920,0:15:20.959
uh united daughters of the confederacy

0:15:19.760,0:15:23.519
rewrote southern

0:15:20.959,0:15:25.360
history textbooks and in the state of

0:15:23.519,0:15:26.480
georgia that textbook was used up till

0:15:25.360,0:15:29.199
1970

0:15:26.480,0:15:31.360
and what those textbooks did was play on

0:15:29.199,0:15:31.759
the narrative of a happy slave and that

0:15:31.360,0:15:33.759
is an

0:15:31.759,0:15:35.759
incorrect false narrative that people

0:15:33.759,0:15:37.199
use over and over time and time again to

0:15:35.759,0:15:40.000
justify slavery and

0:15:37.199,0:15:43.759
to lower the severity and horrific

0:15:40.000,0:15:43.759
mistreatment of african-american people

0:15:44.480,0:15:49.839
yeah it’s just it’s important to think

0:15:47.839,0:15:50.880
about who’s writing the narrative it’s

0:15:49.839,0:15:52.720
important to think about who’s writing

0:15:50.880,0:15:54.320
our textbooks like oh my god

0:15:52.720,0:15:55.839
people want to talk about history books

0:15:54.320,0:15:58.320
being biased yes they are

0:15:55.839,0:16:00.160
they are and like that’s why you do

0:15:58.320,0:16:01.120
multiple research and you fact check

0:16:00.160,0:16:03.199
your sources

0:16:01.120,0:16:04.959
and yes our history textbooks in the

0:16:03.199,0:16:06.639
north were biased too

0:16:04.959,0:16:08.240
believe me i don’t think i understood

0:16:06.639,0:16:10.399
like the severity

0:16:08.240,0:16:11.519
of what slavery meant i don’t think i

0:16:10.399,0:16:13.199
understood what

0:16:11.519,0:16:15.199
the civil war meant i don’t think i

0:16:13.199,0:16:17.440
understood what internment camps mean

0:16:15.199,0:16:18.959
really empathize with that fear like

0:16:17.440,0:16:20.959
that fear of not being able to go to

0:16:18.959,0:16:23.040
sleep at night because you don’t know if

0:16:20.959,0:16:24.800
the klu klux klan is gonna come lynch

0:16:23.040,0:16:27.600
your dad lynch you

0:16:24.800,0:16:29.680
like it’s well i mean it’s hard to

0:16:27.600,0:16:30.560
empathize with something that’s just one

0:16:29.680,0:16:33.759
paragraph

0:16:30.560,0:16:37.040
in a giant textbook so

0:16:33.759,0:16:39.199
yeah yeah like it’s it’s it’s not a

0:16:37.040,0:16:41.839
coincidence that like oh you didn’t

0:16:39.199,0:16:45.120
realize the severity of it because

0:16:41.839,0:16:48.800
yeah it gets like two sentences so yeah

0:16:45.120,0:16:50.480
like oh by the way yes

0:16:48.800,0:16:52.639
they’ll they’ll like add a line that

0:16:50.480,0:16:54.320
says like some slave owners were really

0:16:52.639,0:16:57.120
kind to their slaves

0:16:54.320,0:16:59.680
that doesn’t that okay kindness does not

0:16:57.120,0:17:02.720
excuse the fact that it is immoral

0:16:59.680,0:17:05.679
to kidnap people from their homes

0:17:02.720,0:17:06.799
to enslave them to force them into labor

0:17:05.679,0:17:08.640
to rape them

0:17:06.799,0:17:11.520
to murder them to whip that like to

0:17:08.640,0:17:15.760
torture to abuse that is not

0:17:11.520,0:17:18.240
yeah like i don’t i don’t know uh yeah

0:17:15.760,0:17:20.000
so the film was huge propaganda with the

0:17:18.240,0:17:21.839
sole purpose to brainwash

0:17:20.000,0:17:23.360
white americans and create a narrative

0:17:21.839,0:17:25.839
against black people that would further

0:17:23.360,0:17:27.839
justify hate crimes against them

0:17:25.839,0:17:29.280
maybe this was like a cinematic

0:17:27.839,0:17:31.200
accomplishment at the time

0:17:29.280,0:17:32.640
because people widely accepted this as

0:17:31.200,0:17:35.679
historical fact

0:17:32.640,0:17:38.240
there is a scene in there that

0:17:35.679,0:17:39.200
reenacted the assassination of abraham

0:17:38.240,0:17:40.960
lincoln

0:17:39.200,0:17:42.559
which they did my boy dirty i don’t know

0:17:40.960,0:17:46.080
who played abraham lincoln but

0:17:42.559,0:17:47.919
he looked like he was like dying before

0:17:46.080,0:17:50.799
they assassinated him i’m probably gonna

0:17:47.919,0:17:50.799
take this out of the video

0:17:51.679,0:17:54.960
okay but before he was assassinated yeah

0:17:54.320,0:17:57.520
they really

0:17:54.960,0:17:58.000
i was like who played this man anyways

0:17:57.520,0:18:01.360
also

0:17:58.000,0:18:04.880
fun fact not super fun

0:18:01.360,0:18:06.400
but it’s a fact so in the 1920s fresh

0:18:04.880,0:18:07.120
off of the release of the birth of a

0:18:06.400,0:18:10.000
nation

0:18:07.120,0:18:11.840
kkk membership exceeded 4 million

0:18:10.000,0:18:15.360
nationwide

0:18:11.840,0:18:18.400
4 million yeah oh my god

0:18:15.360,0:18:22.480
that’s so much it’s a lot

0:18:18.400,0:18:24.559
it’s a lot a lot of people yeah

0:18:22.480,0:18:25.919
also a lot of fake scientific studies

0:18:24.559,0:18:26.320
were written and published during this

0:18:25.919,0:18:28.720
time

0:18:26.320,0:18:29.520
to all the general public that would

0:18:28.720,0:18:32.559
state

0:18:29.520,0:18:35.760
basically that africans were by nature

0:18:32.559,0:18:37.440
inferior to whites and that they were

0:18:35.760,0:18:39.280
more similar to great apes

0:18:37.440,0:18:40.559
the this is quote unquote intellectual

0:18:39.280,0:18:42.480
white this is the term they used to

0:18:40.559,0:18:44.160
describe themselves and

0:18:42.480,0:18:45.840
classified people of different ethnic

0:18:44.160,0:18:48.320
origin with certain traits

0:18:45.840,0:18:51.039
and it also ranked them by like their

0:18:48.320,0:18:52.960
closeness to intellectual white

0:18:51.039,0:18:54.960
which literally blows my mind because i

0:18:52.960,0:18:57.039
don’t know if this is news to anyone but

0:18:54.960,0:18:59.840
we as humans make borders

0:18:57.039,0:18:59.840
like this is

0:19:00.160,0:19:03.200
this is the first full-length episode

0:19:02.160,0:19:06.559
that

0:19:03.200,0:19:07.520
um at least i’ve posted in two weeks and

0:19:06.559,0:19:09.200
that’s not because i

0:19:07.520,0:19:10.640
was falling behind on research is

0:19:09.200,0:19:12.960
because this research was

0:19:10.640,0:19:15.360
literally so horrific and depressing

0:19:12.960,0:19:18.480
that i was losing a lot of sleep

0:19:15.360,0:19:21.120
and the reason why i’m so upset

0:19:18.480,0:19:22.880
in addition to just the like horrific

0:19:21.120,0:19:24.880
treatment of humans that we have

0:19:22.880,0:19:26.559
done and excused throughout the time is

0:19:24.880,0:19:28.000
also because there’s so much in american

0:19:26.559,0:19:29.520
history that they just don’t tell you

0:19:28.000,0:19:31.200
about in schools

0:19:29.520,0:19:32.720
and they also try to cover it up and

0:19:31.200,0:19:34.880
make lighter than it

0:19:32.720,0:19:36.640
is and that is probably what hurts the

0:19:34.880,0:19:37.039
most and that’s like the premise of nat

0:19:36.640,0:19:39.840
and i

0:19:37.039,0:19:41.520
show is all about popping your own

0:19:39.840,0:19:42.160
bubbles of ignorance and letting

0:19:41.520,0:19:44.320
yourself

0:19:42.160,0:19:46.000
understand what happened and reflect on

0:19:44.320,0:19:49.919
that and make those judgments

0:19:46.000,0:19:51.600
like jack and i are not trying to call

0:19:49.919,0:19:54.080
call out teachers like my mom’s a

0:19:51.600,0:19:56.480
teacher i under like we understand

0:19:54.080,0:19:58.160
how difficult uh teaching is i think

0:19:56.480,0:20:00.720
like the root of the problem

0:19:58.160,0:20:01.760
is the curriculum that teachers are

0:20:00.720,0:20:04.880
being told to teach

0:20:01.760,0:20:07.520
in classrooms and like our textbooks and

0:20:04.880,0:20:08.159
what states are outlining that students

0:20:07.520,0:20:10.400
have to learn

0:20:08.159,0:20:12.159
every year and like yeah you said like

0:20:10.400,0:20:12.480
oh maybe it’s because we’re children but

0:20:12.159,0:20:14.640
like

0:20:12.480,0:20:15.840
i don’t know i’m in high school and i

0:20:14.640,0:20:17.600
feel like

0:20:15.840,0:20:19.840
there’s no excuse like it needs to be

0:20:17.600,0:20:21.840
updated um

0:20:19.840,0:20:23.760
every american should be educated on

0:20:21.840,0:20:25.200
this like i like i don’t know why we

0:20:23.760,0:20:27.919
shouldn’t like

0:20:25.200,0:20:29.120
it’s historical facts like these things

0:20:27.919,0:20:32.640
actually happen

0:20:29.120,0:20:35.919
um and everyone should be aware of them

0:20:32.640,0:20:38.080
yeah we encourage listeners to

0:20:35.919,0:20:39.760
really take the time to dig into the

0:20:38.080,0:20:40.400
research of anything you’re interested

0:20:39.760,0:20:42.480
in

0:20:40.400,0:20:43.600
and especially if you want to dig into

0:20:42.480,0:20:45.360
american history

0:20:43.600,0:20:47.440
i recommend doing it when you’re having

0:20:45.360,0:20:49.840
a good mental health day

0:20:47.440,0:20:50.720
and you’re with a friend even if it’s

0:20:49.840,0:20:52.480
hard it

0:20:50.720,0:20:54.880
deserves your attention it deserves your

0:20:52.480,0:20:56.640
research time uh the images are

0:20:54.880,0:20:58.480
gonna let you know right now the images

0:20:56.640,0:21:01.360
are literally horrific

0:20:58.480,0:21:02.320
yeah just a fair warning it’s it’s gonna

0:21:01.360,0:21:05.760
be hard but

0:21:02.320,0:21:07.520
and like also like shout out to my other

0:21:05.760,0:21:09.679
white americans listening

0:21:07.520,0:21:11.200
like if you guys are like oh i feel so

0:21:09.679,0:21:13.280
uncomfortable when i

0:21:11.200,0:21:14.240
like learn about this i feel so guilty

0:21:13.280,0:21:16.559
i’m like okay

0:21:14.240,0:21:17.280
it doesn’t matter like you have to learn

0:21:16.559,0:21:19.039
about it

0:21:17.280,0:21:20.720
and sit in that discomfort like i’m

0:21:19.039,0:21:22.960
sorry but yeah

0:21:20.720,0:21:24.480
from one of my favorite science podcast

0:21:22.960,0:21:26.400
said something when they were covering a

0:21:24.480,0:21:28.080
happy topic like depression and whether

0:21:26.400,0:21:29.039
or not antidepressants worked and she

0:21:28.080,0:21:31.760
said

0:21:29.039,0:21:33.440
someone was like skewing research on a

0:21:31.760,0:21:35.440
scientific study to

0:21:33.440,0:21:36.480
i guess make the results seem less

0:21:35.440,0:21:38.480
morbid

0:21:36.480,0:21:39.840
and she was like science doesn’t exist

0:21:38.480,0:21:42.000
to make you feel better

0:21:39.840,0:21:43.360
and i i think that can be applied to

0:21:42.000,0:21:44.880
anything science doesn’t exist to make

0:21:43.360,0:21:46.400
you feel better and history doesn’t

0:21:44.880,0:21:48.480
exist to make you feel

0:21:46.400,0:21:49.440
good either you have to look at

0:21:48.480,0:21:51.200
realities

0:21:49.440,0:21:52.480
and then you have to and it always

0:21:51.200,0:21:54.480
question it you know like

0:21:52.480,0:21:55.919
nat and i cross check everything that we

0:21:54.480,0:21:58.559
put out in this episode

0:21:55.919,0:22:00.320
i like and we make mistakes and you can

0:21:58.559,0:22:01.039
find new information and you can change

0:22:00.320,0:22:04.240
your mind

0:22:01.039,0:22:06.720
that’s what learning is all about so

0:22:04.240,0:22:07.520
but you have to you have to like take

0:22:06.720,0:22:11.039
the time

0:22:07.520,0:22:12.159
to learn if we all educate ourselves on

0:22:11.039,0:22:15.440
these ugly truths

0:22:12.159,0:22:18.720
and then we all commit to

0:22:15.440,0:22:20.799
uh improving ourselves as individuals

0:22:18.720,0:22:22.640
and improving ourselves as a nation and

0:22:20.799,0:22:24.559
like making sure

0:22:22.640,0:22:26.080
this awful stuff doesn’t happen again

0:22:24.559,0:22:27.280
and seeing how

0:22:26.080,0:22:29.360
these awful things that happen in the

0:22:27.280,0:22:30.000
past like are affecting everything going

0:22:29.360,0:22:31.760
on today

0:22:30.000,0:22:34.960
and like really evaluating and getting

0:22:31.760,0:22:36.960
into the like ugly parts of american

0:22:34.960,0:22:38.240
society like it’s like how does like

0:22:36.960,0:22:41.919
hundreds of years

0:22:38.240,0:22:43.679
of this rhetoric and legislation being

0:22:41.919,0:22:47.039
passed and like representation

0:22:43.679,0:22:49.840
in media and news like

0:22:47.039,0:22:50.559
for hundreds and hundreds of years is

0:22:49.840,0:22:53.919
affecting

0:22:50.559,0:22:56.559
every american’s bias like like you’re

0:22:53.919,0:22:57.679
oh my god you pass it on you pass your

0:22:56.559,0:22:59.039
biases on

0:22:57.679,0:23:00.720
to your children and then your

0:22:59.039,0:23:03.840
children’s children did

0:23:00.720,0:23:06.000
right also i just want to thank that

0:23:03.840,0:23:06.960
and a lot of my good friends they know

0:23:06.000,0:23:09.039
who they are

0:23:06.960,0:23:11.120
uh you guys have been really lovely

0:23:09.039,0:23:13.200
helping me process all of this and get

0:23:11.120,0:23:16.880
through it so i appreciate you guys

0:23:13.200,0:23:20.559
a lot shout out all right

0:23:16.880,0:23:23.600
so after that heavy

0:23:20.559,0:23:25.520
happy happy heavy last episode

0:23:23.600,0:23:27.440
we are now going to talk about the

0:23:25.520,0:23:29.919
brighter part of the harlem renaissance

0:23:27.440,0:23:31.679
which is how the black narrative changed

0:23:29.919,0:23:33.360
so during the harlem renaissance blacks

0:23:31.679,0:23:34.880
had a newfound freedom to express

0:23:33.360,0:23:36.000
themselves in a way that they didn’t

0:23:34.880,0:23:37.679
have in the south

0:23:36.000,0:23:39.520
and it was a redefinition of black

0:23:37.679,0:23:41.840
expression social leaders of the

0:23:39.520,0:23:44.000
movement believed that art could open up

0:23:41.840,0:23:45.440
the doors to economic opportunity and

0:23:44.000,0:23:47.279
social acceptance

0:23:45.440,0:23:49.120
many of these people had not been able

0:23:47.279,0:23:51.440
to pursue their art and creativity

0:23:49.120,0:23:53.039
to become novelists and writers and

0:23:51.440,0:23:53.840
playwrights so the first person we’re

0:23:53.039,0:23:55.120
going to talk about

0:23:53.840,0:23:56.880
you cannot talk about the harlem

0:23:55.120,0:23:59.679
renaissance without mentioning this guy

0:23:56.880,0:24:00.400
his name is w.e.b dubois have you heard

0:23:59.679,0:24:04.159
of him

0:24:00.400,0:24:06.720
yeah what do you know um

0:24:04.159,0:24:07.760
he’s a poet right and he is also an

0:24:06.720,0:24:11.600
activist

0:24:07.760,0:24:14.720
yeah he’s an actor he wrote

0:24:11.600,0:24:17.679
he’s an author yeah

0:24:14.720,0:24:19.600
so w.e.b dubois he had a goal to

0:24:17.679,0:24:21.520
redefine the perception of the black

0:24:19.600,0:24:22.240
person so he was a scholar and an

0:24:21.520,0:24:24.559
activist

0:24:22.240,0:24:27.080
and was the first african-american to

0:24:24.559,0:24:28.960
earn a phd from harvard university in

0:24:27.080,0:24:31.520
1895.

0:24:28.960,0:24:32.960
i did not know that he literally like

0:24:31.520,0:24:35.039
had to he was not allowed to stay on

0:24:32.960,0:24:36.000
campus past 6 p.m and had to like sit in

0:24:35.039,0:24:39.279
a corner

0:24:36.000,0:24:43.000
but he got that degree

0:24:39.279,0:24:44.960
oh my god yeah so he also co-founded the

0:24:43.000,0:24:46.159
naacp

0:24:44.960,0:24:47.760
people who don’t know what that is that

0:24:46.159,0:24:50.480
is the national association for the

0:24:47.760,0:24:53.679
advancements of colored people

0:24:50.480,0:24:54.480
and fun fact he was mixed black and

0:24:53.679,0:24:56.480
white

0:24:54.480,0:24:58.559
so that’s he was actually able to freely

0:24:56.480,0:25:00.880
attend school with white people

0:24:58.559,0:25:02.640
where he grew up in massachusetts which

0:25:00.880,0:25:06.720
okay represent mixed people

0:25:02.640,0:25:10.400
hey um

0:25:06.720,0:25:12.640
yeah so actually he didn’t experience uh

0:25:10.400,0:25:15.600
jim crow laws until he went to tennessee

0:25:12.640,0:25:17.679
in 1885 for his undergrad degree

0:25:15.600,0:25:19.440
and when he was experiencing that for

0:25:17.679,0:25:21.760
the first time it really sparked his

0:25:19.440,0:25:23.360
analysis of american racism

0:25:21.760,0:25:25.760
and i was like how could how have i

0:25:23.360,0:25:27.440
never heard of w.e.b du bois before and

0:25:25.760,0:25:29.760
i really want to read more of his work

0:25:27.440,0:25:31.440
because i’m so curious and i always

0:25:29.760,0:25:32.159
wonder about how mixed people get

0:25:31.440,0:25:34.159
treated then

0:25:32.159,0:25:35.840
because how do you how do you choose

0:25:34.159,0:25:36.400
which side because people look different

0:25:35.840,0:25:38.960
right

0:25:36.400,0:25:40.799
and so how do the rights get organized

0:25:38.960,0:25:42.320
and i know how the rights got organized

0:25:40.799,0:25:46.240
in apartheid

0:25:42.320,0:25:47.919
which is the segregation of races in

0:25:46.240,0:25:49.840
south africa which we will cover in

0:25:47.919,0:25:51.520
season two

0:25:49.840,0:25:53.360
one of his works that he published was

0:25:51.520,0:25:55.200
called the souls of black folk

0:25:53.360,0:25:57.520
which was a book that elaborated on the

0:25:55.200,0:25:59.440
diversity of black experiences

0:25:57.520,0:26:01.919
and a lot of his work analyzed the

0:25:59.440,0:26:03.919
effects of systemic racism in creating

0:26:01.919,0:26:06.159
poverty-stricken areas in the black

0:26:03.919,0:26:08.159
community he protested lynching

0:26:06.159,0:26:10.640
and race riots and wanted to uplift the

0:26:08.159,0:26:13.039
voices of the african-american community

0:26:10.640,0:26:15.039
he was a huge writer who published many

0:26:13.039,0:26:15.520
works and gave documentation on what it

0:26:15.039,0:26:19.360
was

0:26:15.520,0:26:22.799
like to be black in america at this time

0:26:19.360,0:26:24.799
so fun fact this is my theory on why

0:26:22.799,0:26:26.640
they didn’t teach you about w.e.b

0:26:24.799,0:26:27.919
du bois in school at least they didn’t

0:26:26.640,0:26:29.600
teach me

0:26:27.919,0:26:32.240
it’s probably because when he was 93

0:26:29.600,0:26:34.159
years old this was in 1961 he joined the

0:26:32.240,0:26:35.039
communist party of the united states of

0:26:34.159,0:26:36.640
america

0:26:35.039,0:26:38.480
which i did not realize we had a

0:26:36.640,0:26:40.080
communist party but

0:26:38.480,0:26:42.080
if you were listening to our last

0:26:40.080,0:26:44.240
episode on the red scare we all know how

0:26:42.080,0:26:46.880
americans feel about that

0:26:44.240,0:26:48.320
so that’s probably could be a reason why

0:26:46.880,0:26:50.080
they left it out

0:26:48.320,0:26:51.679
wow interesting okay so then maybe

0:26:50.080,0:26:53.200
that’s it like

0:26:51.679,0:26:55.360
go back to the episode we were talking

0:26:53.200,0:26:56.240
about how the naacp was labeled as

0:26:55.360,0:26:57.760
communist

0:26:56.240,0:26:59.360
yeah i was thinking about that because i

0:26:57.760,0:26:59.679
was like i’m not surprised that they did

0:26:59.360,0:27:02.559
that

0:26:59.679,0:27:03.919
but also with the way segregation was

0:27:02.559,0:27:04.799
being enforced of course they’re going

0:27:03.919,0:27:06.720
to label

0:27:04.799,0:27:08.559
fighting for like equal rights is

0:27:06.720,0:27:10.640
communism the next person we’re going to

0:27:08.559,0:27:12.880
talk about is langston hughes

0:27:10.640,0:27:13.840
have you heard of him oh yeah he’s

0:27:12.880,0:27:16.720
another

0:27:13.840,0:27:18.000
author he’s another american poet

0:27:16.720,0:27:20.320
activist playwright

0:27:18.000,0:27:21.039
he wrote a piece called quote the negro

0:27:20.320,0:27:22.880
artist

0:27:21.039,0:27:24.640
and the racial mountain unquote which

0:27:22.880,0:27:25.440
was a manifesto that called for

0:27:24.640,0:27:28.799
confident

0:27:25.440,0:27:32.159
and unique black literature so

0:27:28.799,0:27:34.399
a direct quote from his book is quote

0:27:32.159,0:27:35.440
we younger negro artists who create now

0:27:34.399,0:27:37.360
intend to express

0:27:35.440,0:27:39.039
our individual dark-skinned selves

0:27:37.360,0:27:41.279
without fear or shame

0:27:39.039,0:27:43.039
if white people are pleased we are glad

0:27:41.279,0:27:45.200
if they are not it doesn’t matter

0:27:43.039,0:27:47.840
we know we are beautiful and ugly too

0:27:45.200,0:27:48.960
the tom tom cries and the tom tom laughs

0:27:47.840,0:27:51.039
if colored people

0:27:48.960,0:27:52.880
are pleased we are glad if they are not

0:27:51.039,0:27:54.080
that displeasure doesn’t matter either

0:27:52.880,0:27:56.159
unquote

0:27:54.080,0:27:57.520
so advocated for you to present your

0:27:56.159,0:27:58.960
experience as it is

0:27:57.520,0:28:02.000
the next person we’re going to talk

0:27:58.960,0:28:05.360
about is lewis armstrong

0:28:02.000,0:28:07.760
oh wow clearly you’ve heard of him so

0:28:05.360,0:28:08.960
he was a famous trumpet player composer

0:28:07.760,0:28:10.559
vocalist and actor

0:28:08.960,0:28:12.559
who was one of the most influential

0:28:10.559,0:28:14.240
figures in jazz music

0:28:12.559,0:28:16.159
so anyone who doesn’t know what jazz

0:28:14.240,0:28:18.080
music is it is a genre

0:28:16.159,0:28:19.760
that originated in african american

0:28:18.080,0:28:22.720
communities in new orleans

0:28:19.760,0:28:23.520
with roots in blues and ragtime ragtime

0:28:22.720,0:28:26.240
is like my

0:28:23.520,0:28:28.080
favorite piano genre ever i love scott

0:28:26.240,0:28:30.159
joplin who was a ragtime

0:28:28.080,0:28:31.600
composer my hands are too small though

0:28:30.159,0:28:35.440
so i never was able to play

0:28:31.600,0:28:37.039
like a ton of rock time so cute though

0:28:35.440,0:28:38.799
i like kept asking my piano teacher i

0:28:37.039,0:28:40.080
was like when can i start maple leaf rag

0:28:38.799,0:28:41.200
she’s like i just don’t think you can

0:28:40.080,0:28:42.880
hit the octave

0:28:41.200,0:28:44.640
and i couldn’t i could like barely reach

0:28:42.880,0:28:48.720
the office

0:28:44.640,0:28:50.480
yeah you’d like to press on nails

0:28:48.720,0:28:52.960
yeah and i actually i wanted to put some

0:28:50.480,0:28:54.640
examples in the podcast of jazz and

0:28:52.960,0:28:55.520
ragtime music for people who aren’t

0:28:54.640,0:28:58.559
familiar

0:28:55.520,0:29:00.000
but i’m not trying to get a suit so i’m

0:28:58.559,0:29:02.480
gonna actually link

0:29:00.000,0:29:03.600
the some videos to examples in our

0:29:02.480,0:29:06.720
youtube description

0:29:03.600,0:29:07.120
so check it out okay yeah subscribe to

0:29:06.720,0:29:09.520
us

0:29:07.120,0:29:11.279
so lewis armstrong performed in harlem a

0:29:09.520,0:29:13.120
lot and then his career really

0:29:11.279,0:29:15.120
blossomed during this era we’re next

0:29:13.120,0:29:16.720
going to talk about aaron douglas

0:29:15.120,0:29:18.559
so he’s known as the father of black

0:29:16.720,0:29:20.640
american art and he adapted

0:29:18.559,0:29:23.360
african techniques to realize paintings

0:29:20.640,0:29:26.320
and murals as well as book illustration

0:29:23.360,0:29:27.600
he was a very very talented artist for

0:29:26.320,0:29:30.000
african artists

0:29:27.600,0:29:31.600
when you paint something which is like

0:29:30.000,0:29:33.440
really opposite to european artists like

0:29:31.600,0:29:34.799
european artists are really realistic at

0:29:33.440,0:29:35.919
least during the italian renaissance

0:29:34.799,0:29:37.600
what we think of

0:29:35.919,0:29:39.039
is like you want to paint it like

0:29:37.600,0:29:41.200
exactly as it is

0:29:39.039,0:29:43.200
and like still life look like just real

0:29:41.200,0:29:45.120
and for african artists

0:29:43.200,0:29:46.880
which i want to state too african

0:29:45.120,0:29:48.559
artists like aaron douglas

0:29:46.880,0:29:49.919
has all the techniques as well he can

0:29:48.559,0:29:51.679
create just as like

0:29:49.919,0:29:53.760
realistic paintings as you want but

0:29:51.679,0:29:54.159
african techniques are really putting

0:29:53.760,0:29:55.760
life

0:29:54.159,0:29:57.120
into something so when you paint a tree

0:29:55.760,0:29:58.320
you don’t just paint the tree as it is

0:29:57.120,0:30:00.720
you like breathe life

0:29:58.320,0:30:02.240
into it and you give it that creativity

0:30:00.720,0:30:04.960
but okay next on the list

0:30:02.240,0:30:07.279
oscar jones oscar jones was the first

0:30:04.960,0:30:09.440
black filmmaker and he made a lot of

0:30:07.279,0:30:09.919
lovely black films featuring actual

0:30:09.440,0:30:13.039
black

0:30:09.919,0:30:15.120
actors hello playing black people in a

0:30:13.039,0:30:16.240
range of characters and personalities

0:30:15.120,0:30:18.960
that are assertive

0:30:16.240,0:30:21.039
articulate sophisticated and it allowed

0:30:18.960,0:30:23.840
black audiences to see themselves

0:30:21.039,0:30:25.760
displayed in a positive light in films

0:30:23.840,0:30:28.640
and they handled very hard subjects like

0:30:25.760,0:30:29.919
miscegenation and the brutality of rape

0:30:28.640,0:30:32.399
and then if anyone forgets what

0:30:29.919,0:30:35.120
miscegenation means it was

0:30:32.399,0:30:36.799
the like separation the belief that like

0:30:35.120,0:30:38.320
racist should not mix

0:30:36.799,0:30:41.520
at all so that was like the

0:30:38.320,0:30:43.440
miscegenation laws in virginia in 1924

0:30:41.520,0:30:45.360
from loving versus virginia case that we

0:30:43.440,0:30:47.440
covered in our episode called

0:30:45.360,0:30:50.960
we were illegal or are we illegal what

0:30:47.440,0:30:53.279
was it something about us being illegal

0:30:50.960,0:30:54.799
yeah yeah we talked about miscegenation

0:30:53.279,0:30:57.200
law so you should check that out

0:30:54.799,0:30:57.840
uh next josephine baker have you heard

0:30:57.200,0:31:00.960
of her

0:30:57.840,0:31:02.880
she’s a singer yeah

0:31:00.960,0:31:04.000
yeah she’s a performer but she also

0:31:02.880,0:31:06.399
fought for racial equality

0:31:04.000,0:31:08.640
by demanding in her contract that they

0:31:06.399,0:31:11.120
contain non-discrimination clauses

0:31:08.640,0:31:11.840
and that her audiences became integrated

0:31:11.120,0:31:13.919
these are

0:31:11.840,0:31:15.519
just a few people from the movement i

0:31:13.919,0:31:17.600
wanted to talk about and there are

0:31:15.519,0:31:19.200
literally so many more the list goes on

0:31:17.600,0:31:20.640
and on of all the black artists that

0:31:19.200,0:31:22.320
emerge in the harlem renaissance

0:31:20.640,0:31:24.480
but if you want us to cover a specific

0:31:22.320,0:31:26.640
person please email us we also saw a

0:31:24.480,0:31:28.880
rice and vibrant nightlife

0:31:26.640,0:31:30.080
it’s really popular to go to harlem for

0:31:28.880,0:31:32.640
the nightlife

0:31:30.080,0:31:34.720
and entrepreneurs in harlem realized

0:31:32.640,0:31:35.279
that some white people wanted to

0:31:34.720,0:31:36.880
experience

0:31:35.279,0:31:39.760
black culture without having to

0:31:36.880,0:31:42.480
socialize with african americans

0:31:39.760,0:31:43.519
so they created clubs to give the black

0:31:42.480,0:31:45.840
experience

0:31:43.519,0:31:48.000
and some of these were the cotton clubs

0:31:45.840,0:31:50.320
smalls paradise and connie’s inn that

0:31:48.000,0:31:51.440
had jazz and dance performers as well as

0:31:50.320,0:31:52.480
illegal alcohol

0:31:51.440,0:31:54.399
because this is the time of the

0:31:52.480,0:31:56.159
prohibition these clubs are actually

0:31:54.399,0:31:57.919
they were very controversial at the time

0:31:56.159,0:32:00.080
some people ridiculed the existence of

0:31:57.919,0:32:02.720
the clubs because they potentially

0:32:00.080,0:32:03.360
exotified black people but other people

0:32:02.720,0:32:04.720
also

0:32:03.360,0:32:06.559
felt that it was a sign that black

0:32:04.720,0:32:08.960
culture was becoming more accepted i

0:32:06.559,0:32:10.159
see yeah so there are differing opinions

0:32:08.960,0:32:12.559
on these clubs

0:32:10.159,0:32:14.240
so similar to the italian renaissance

0:32:12.559,0:32:14.960
something that many people might not

0:32:14.240,0:32:17.279
know

0:32:14.960,0:32:18.640
is that artists are actually supported

0:32:17.279,0:32:20.720
by patrons

0:32:18.640,0:32:22.080
the way that artists especially like in

0:32:20.720,0:32:25.120
the italian renaissance

0:32:22.080,0:32:26.799
it was like wealthy europeans would

0:32:25.120,0:32:28.640
pay for your art and invest in you and

0:32:26.799,0:32:31.120
that’s how you can make a living

0:32:28.640,0:32:32.559
and the same thing is needed for the

0:32:31.120,0:32:34.960
harlem renaissance

0:32:32.559,0:32:37.279
so a majority of wealth especially at

0:32:34.960,0:32:38.640
this time is concentrated in the pockets

0:32:37.279,0:32:40.320
of white americans

0:32:38.640,0:32:42.000
and so thus there needed to be white

0:32:40.320,0:32:44.240
patrons that supported these black

0:32:42.000,0:32:45.519
artists there is something that emerged

0:32:44.240,0:32:47.679
called the harmon awards

0:32:45.519,0:32:50.000
so the harmon awards were established by

0:32:47.679,0:32:52.399
william elmer harmon who was a wealthy

0:32:50.000,0:32:54.080
white real estate tycoon from ohio

0:32:52.399,0:32:56.559
he understood the benefit of having

0:32:54.080,0:32:58.320
black people participate in the economy

0:32:56.559,0:33:00.080
so harman believed that encouraging

0:32:58.320,0:33:02.000
blacks to be self-sufficient

0:33:00.080,0:33:03.200
would help the country in general become

0:33:02.000,0:33:05.600
more successful

0:33:03.200,0:33:07.519
by getting them into the economic system

0:33:05.600,0:33:10.480
and i think this is literally

0:33:07.519,0:33:11.519
so interesting because i’m like in the

0:33:10.480,0:33:13.200
middle of taking

0:33:11.519,0:33:15.120
a negotiation course from yale

0:33:13.200,0:33:16.240
university just like online and coursera

0:33:15.120,0:33:17.679
it’s the one i sent you

0:33:16.240,0:33:19.600
the reason why we negotiate is because

0:33:17.679,0:33:21.760
when we work together the pie

0:33:19.600,0:33:23.519
gets bigger there aren’t less slices

0:33:21.760,0:33:25.120
that was new to me i didn’t realize like

0:33:23.519,0:33:25.919
for some reason we feel like when we’re

0:33:25.120,0:33:27.519
negotiating

0:33:25.919,0:33:29.760
it’s like who’s gonna get more of the

0:33:27.519,0:33:32.799
pie like no when we work together

0:33:29.760,0:33:34.880
we can get more slices

0:33:32.799,0:33:36.559
um the pie gets bigger i like that i

0:33:34.880,0:33:39.279
remember that i did the first

0:33:36.559,0:33:40.720
like week of that course i remember the

0:33:39.279,0:33:42.320
whole pie metaphor

0:33:40.720,0:33:44.399
and so i just think that it’s so cool

0:33:42.320,0:33:47.360
that he understood this

0:33:44.399,0:33:50.240
concept in a time where many people have

0:33:47.360,0:33:52.399
a scarcity mindset and didn’t realize

0:33:50.240,0:33:54.080
that if you mobilize people to become

0:33:52.399,0:33:56.159
economically self-sufficient

0:33:54.080,0:33:57.360
you can as a whole increase a country’s

0:33:56.159,0:34:00.399
production and

0:33:57.360,0:34:01.760
everyone benefits we talked about the

0:34:00.399,0:34:03.840
dot-com bubble bursting

0:34:01.760,0:34:06.000
when a company has an ipo that means

0:34:03.840,0:34:08.960
that average investors can buy into it

0:34:06.000,0:34:10.720
when you buy into an i like a share of a

0:34:08.960,0:34:12.399
company you’re giving them money

0:34:10.720,0:34:15.040
to take and continue building their

0:34:12.399,0:34:17.040
company so when you have more people who

0:34:15.040,0:34:18.560
have the money to participate that means

0:34:17.040,0:34:19.679
more money’s flowing into the economy

0:34:18.560,0:34:21.839
that means a greater

0:34:19.679,0:34:23.760
gdp that means greater production that

0:34:21.839,0:34:24.480
means more chances for entrepreneurs to

0:34:23.760,0:34:26.320
continue

0:34:24.480,0:34:27.520
building out infrastructures and

0:34:26.320,0:34:29.040
providing more jobs you

0:34:27.520,0:34:31.119
you want everyone to be able to

0:34:29.040,0:34:31.440
participate in the economy since this is

0:34:31.119,0:34:34.240
not

0:34:31.440,0:34:35.520
an economics episode we’re not gonna get

0:34:34.240,0:34:37.440
that far into it but i

0:34:35.520,0:34:38.960
am going to link that course in the

0:34:37.440,0:34:41.040
youtube description

0:34:38.960,0:34:42.159
just like a fair warning it’s a little

0:34:41.040,0:34:43.599
heavy on math

0:34:42.159,0:34:45.440
but the principles are really

0:34:43.599,0:34:47.839
interesting and you can still get

0:34:45.440,0:34:50.879
like a larger understanding so this guy

0:34:47.839,0:34:52.800
found the harmon foundation in 1922

0:34:50.879,0:34:55.280
and with that formed something called

0:34:52.800,0:34:57.680
the harmon awards these awards were

0:34:55.280,0:34:58.800
awarded to black people for constructive

0:34:57.680,0:35:01.119
achievement

0:34:58.800,0:35:02.000
and they were awarded in sectors from

0:35:01.119,0:35:04.960
business

0:35:02.000,0:35:05.760
and industry science and invention music

0:35:04.960,0:35:08.160
education

0:35:05.760,0:35:10.079
religious service race relations and

0:35:08.160,0:35:12.560
fine arts so the awards range from

0:35:10.079,0:35:15.440
bronze to gold with monetary benefits

0:35:12.560,0:35:16.960
ranging from 100 usd to a thousand usd

0:35:15.440,0:35:19.920
during that time

0:35:16.960,0:35:20.480
which today would have been 1 500 usd to

0:35:19.920,0:35:23.599
14

0:35:20.480,0:35:25.599
000 usd for art shows too their uh black

0:35:23.599,0:35:26.560
artists were also able to profit off of

0:35:25.599,0:35:30.400
the sales of art

0:35:26.560,0:35:32.000
wow yeah okay so the harlem renaissance

0:35:30.400,0:35:33.440
was a time where black people could

0:35:32.000,0:35:36.000
shatter stereotypes

0:35:33.440,0:35:36.880
increase visibility and uplift african

0:35:36.000,0:35:39.599
voices

0:35:36.880,0:35:41.680
so much of the art was celebratory but

0:35:39.599,0:35:43.920
there were also lots of pieces that

0:35:41.680,0:35:45.040
illustrated the alienation racism

0:35:43.920,0:35:47.359
discrimination

0:35:45.040,0:35:48.640
and the discomfort of performing the

0:35:47.359,0:35:50.400
black identity

0:35:48.640,0:35:52.560
in a white world there’s a concept of

0:35:50.400,0:35:54.480
double consciousness being black

0:35:52.560,0:35:56.160
and american at the same time

0:35:54.480,0:35:58.079
playwriting contests at the time

0:35:56.160,0:35:59.280
encourage writers to write about things

0:35:58.079,0:36:01.599
as they know them

0:35:59.280,0:36:03.280
saying quote you do not have to confine

0:36:01.599,0:36:05.359
your writings to the portrayals of

0:36:03.280,0:36:05.920
beggars scandals and prostitutes you can

0:36:05.359,0:36:08.320
write about

0:36:05.920,0:36:10.560
ordinary decent colored people if you

0:36:08.320,0:36:11.440
want on the other hand do not fear the

0:36:10.560,0:36:13.440
truth

0:36:11.440,0:36:15.680
plumb the depths if you want to paint

0:36:13.440,0:36:18.240
crime and destitution and evil

0:36:15.680,0:36:19.760
paint it be true be sincere be thorough

0:36:18.240,0:36:23.359
and do a beautiful job

0:36:19.760,0:36:25.839
unquote yeah people are diverse right

0:36:23.359,0:36:29.040
like people have diverse experiences and

0:36:25.839,0:36:31.040
so you don’t always have to write about

0:36:29.040,0:36:32.320
like things that people expect you to

0:36:31.040,0:36:33.200
write whatever you want to write just be

0:36:32.320,0:36:35.839
true to who you are

0:36:33.200,0:36:37.599
because you are like yourself like it’s

0:36:35.839,0:36:40.320
only recently where like we could have

0:36:37.599,0:36:41.200
uh someone from like some a non-white

0:36:40.320,0:36:43.280
actor

0:36:41.200,0:36:44.560
like being the lead in a movie that has

0:36:43.280,0:36:46.480
nothing to do with

0:36:44.560,0:36:48.640
like their background and it’s like oh

0:36:46.480,0:36:50.640
just portraying them just like a normal

0:36:48.640,0:36:52.480
human being like just a normal i’m like

0:36:50.640,0:36:53.280
just thinking like disney channel stuff

0:36:52.480,0:36:55.520
or like yeah

0:36:53.280,0:36:57.200
oh my gosh i saw a disney channel show i

0:36:55.520,0:36:58.800
don’t even know what it was it was like

0:36:57.200,0:37:00.640
my sister’s watching in high school and

0:36:58.800,0:37:03.119
they had an asian character

0:37:00.640,0:37:05.119
who was literally like stereotypical

0:37:03.119,0:37:06.800
super stressed out about grades super

0:37:05.119,0:37:08.720
like academic and i was like

0:37:06.800,0:37:10.560
can’t you just make her like a fellow

0:37:08.720,0:37:11.760
camper like why does it have to be her

0:37:10.560,0:37:15.040
narrative

0:37:11.760,0:37:16.160
um yeah writing about it all the way

0:37:15.040,0:37:18.400
back during the

0:37:16.160,0:37:20.240
renaissance like yeah one play that

0:37:18.400,0:37:21.839
stood out to me in particular during

0:37:20.240,0:37:23.440
this time that i was reading about my

0:37:21.839,0:37:25.680
research is called

0:37:23.440,0:37:27.359
quote rachel unquote and that was

0:37:25.680,0:37:29.839
written by african american playwright

0:37:27.359,0:37:31.760
and poet angelina weld grimkay

0:37:29.839,0:37:32.880
and so the premise of that play is

0:37:31.760,0:37:34.640
basically rachel

0:37:32.880,0:37:36.320
the main character is an educated

0:37:34.640,0:37:38.000
sensitive young black woman

0:37:36.320,0:37:40.560
who comes to the understanding of the

0:37:38.000,0:37:42.240
harsh realities of american racism

0:37:40.560,0:37:44.079
she comes to learn that her brother and

0:37:42.240,0:37:46.000
father were lynched she then becomes

0:37:44.079,0:37:48.400
depressed and vows never to have

0:37:46.000,0:37:50.720
children and rejects the love of the man

0:37:48.400,0:37:51.760
she loves think that that’s such a

0:37:50.720,0:37:54.560
realistic

0:37:51.760,0:37:55.680
probably experience of women at the time

0:37:54.560,0:37:57.440
and i think women

0:37:55.680,0:37:59.119
especially will go through this as well

0:37:57.440,0:38:00.800
like is it ethical to bring

0:37:59.119,0:38:02.400
more people into this world if you know

0:38:00.800,0:38:04.079
that they’re gonna suffer

0:38:02.400,0:38:05.599
in that way and especially during this

0:38:04.079,0:38:07.680
time i can’t imagine

0:38:05.599,0:38:10.400
like wrestling with that when the stock

0:38:07.680,0:38:12.240
market crashed in 1929

0:38:10.400,0:38:13.839
this also led to the decline of the

0:38:12.240,0:38:16.160
harlem renaissance

0:38:13.839,0:38:17.920
as you know from the great depression

0:38:16.160,0:38:20.160
episode we know so much we’re just

0:38:17.920,0:38:22.160
learning together

0:38:20.160,0:38:25.280
this is the crash that led to the united

0:38:22.160,0:38:26.960
states historical great depression

0:38:25.280,0:38:29.040
during this time many people lost their

0:38:26.960,0:38:31.440
money including wealthy white patrons

0:38:29.040,0:38:34.000
so they’re not investing into black art

0:38:31.440,0:38:36.560
and not going to clubs in harlem as much

0:38:34.000,0:38:38.720
so regardless the harlem renaissance

0:38:36.560,0:38:40.640
created a new image of sophisticated and

0:38:38.720,0:38:41.920
intellectual african americans and gave

0:38:40.640,0:38:43.920
a voice to a community

0:38:41.920,0:38:44.960
that had been voiceless for hundreds of

0:38:43.920,0:38:47.920
years

0:38:44.960,0:38:49.520
yeah and it gave these artists pride in

0:38:47.920,0:38:51.440
and control over how the black

0:38:49.520,0:38:52.160
experience was represented in american

0:38:51.440,0:38:53.839
culture

0:38:52.160,0:38:55.359
and it also set the stage for the civil

0:38:53.839,0:38:56.880
rights movement so

0:38:55.359,0:38:58.720
most importantly although the

0:38:56.880,0:39:00.320
renaissance came to an end the artwork

0:38:58.720,0:39:01.680
of those artists still lives on to

0:39:00.320,0:39:04.960
inspire and empower us

0:39:01.680,0:39:07.200
throughout generations yes it lives on

0:39:04.960,0:39:09.920
forever

0:39:07.200,0:39:11.920
yeah but yeah so that’s the harlem

0:39:09.920,0:39:14.080
renaissance thank you for

0:39:11.920,0:39:28.510
sticking with us throughout

0:39:14.080,0:39:28.510
[Music]

Are You A Communist?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
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