We inspired Nazi Germany? | History of Forced Sterilization in the United States

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Show Notes

What’s the most insidious way to stop the continuation of the human race? Forced sterilization would be our guess. It may seem like a thing of the past but you’ll be terrified to know that practices of force sterilization and the eugenics movement lasted well into the 70’s for the United States. In our FIRST Guest episode EVER, our friend Indeep takes us on a journey through the history of forced sterilization, who it targeted, the resistance, and how long it lasted.

Sources:

https://www.panoramas.pitt.edu/health-and-society/dark-history-forced-sterilization-latina-women

Transcript

0:00:00.320,0:00:04.720
hello everybody and welcome to another

0:00:02.560,0:00:08.240
episode of how did we not know that

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i’m nat i’m jack and i’m in deep

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yay yay

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hey everyone welcome we are really

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excited we have our first guest ever

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today

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she was our very good friend in deep in

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deep and i actually met while we were

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studying abroad in senegal

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so she’s going to present today on a

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topic of her choosing

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take it away indeed okay so

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a fun thing is that neither jack nor nat

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know my topic

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so i’m really curious to see how they

0:00:35.040,0:00:39.200
react um so

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to open i have a question what is your

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guys’s worst nightmare

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if i had to give like blood repeatedly

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like over and over and over okay okay

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and that i’m really scared

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of like open spaces like the ocean i’m

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really scared of the ocean actually

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that’s interesting yeah so mine

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we’re gonna use it against us

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can you imagine um i feel like you’re

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not on topic at all

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go ahead mine would

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probably be having unanesthetized

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gynecological surgery

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without my consent

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okay so the title of my presentation

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is going to was going to be i was

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between reproductive politics

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or how women’s bodies were the original

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battlegrounds of how men

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especially american colonizers and slave

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owners gain and kept their power and

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influence

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wow that’s heavy girl

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you guys i don’t come here to play i

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come here to let you know

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you know to spill the pee and the tea is

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going to be spilled

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this is a rabbit hole and i’m sorry

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you’re not going gonna be the same once

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you come

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out and i hope that’s okay oh my gosh

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yes i feel like american history just

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like the more i study it the more i’m

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like yikes

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um and i also think it’s funny that like

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they’re just these little holes there’s

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these little things that are just like

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oh we never even thought about that

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and it’s actually like this huge problem

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that still affects people

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um but something i also want to

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highlight before i kind of get like into

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the um stick of

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the presentation is um how

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the resistance to these is sometimes

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documented and i really want to like

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highlight it as we go through

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because i don’t want to like erase the

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stories of the victims and dehumanize

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them

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um and so i want to kind of highlight

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that

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these are people who exercise their will

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when they could and they often did so

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like against really scary odds and

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really powerful institutions and forces

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so as we’re like going through this

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we’re gonna just

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highlight the resistance and highlight

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the fact that these were people you know

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it all starts with our guy

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james marion sims aka

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the father of modern gynecology and i

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feel like we all just feel weird about

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there

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being someone with the title the father

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of modern gynecology right

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that’s upsetting since practice medicine

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at a time when treating women was

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considered

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distasteful and rarely done and you know

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no one surprised

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and he invented the vaginal speculum

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which is a tool used for dilation and

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examination

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and are all thinking oh okay cool cool

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um and

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he also pioneered a surgical technique

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to repair

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vesico vaginal fistula which is a common

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19th century complication of childbirth

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in which okay get ready a tear happens

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between the uterus and the bladder and

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that causes

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constant pain and urine leakage and so

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this still happens today in developing

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countries and it’s really avoidable

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and it literally happens when a baby is

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stuck

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for too long and they like wear a hole

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next to your vagina and it can happen

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like next to your bladder or next to

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your

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literal anus and it causes like leaking

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and

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i don’t know about this gonna happen but

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when it happens it happens and it’s a

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really big problem like in developing

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countries because people who have this

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problem

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are often like um first of all the baby

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usually suffocates and dies

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um i know because they’re in there for

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days like that’s how long it takes right

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and um also like they’re often

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um what’s the word when you’re like

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excommunicated like thrown out of the

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tribe thrown out of the

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village and i know they can’t have a

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baby

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because it’s stuck because their baby

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died and because they smell

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bad because after this happens they like

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it’s just really gross

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you know and they like have because it’s

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leaking okay

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exactly and so i think they think of it

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as like a curse

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or sometimes it’s just like kind of

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distasteful to have around and they’re

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just kind of like

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banished the woman and this is like

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really first of all this is really

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easily repaired by surgery just some

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stitches you know

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and okay i don’t want to reduce that i

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don’t know how it’s prepared i’m

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assuming it’s just

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bitches but

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also um it’s really preventable like if

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you just have something kind of take the

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baby out

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you could do a c-section like there’s a

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lot of ways to like get the baby to come

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out now

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but you know if you just don’t have any

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resources sorry what year is this that

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he’s

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inventing this do you know so he’s

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inventing this he was born in 1813

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so i think he was inventing this in the

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1830s

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1840s maybe cool wait question

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sorry he’s american so the father of

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gynecology

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is american yeah okay and he was born in

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lancaster county south carolina

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in 1813 um and he entered the medical

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profession when doctors didn’t undergo

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the same rigorous coursework and

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training they do today

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after interning with a doctor and taking

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a three-month course

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and studying for a year at jefferson

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medical college

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he began his practice he later relocated

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to montgomery county

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alabama seeking a fresh start after the

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death

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of his first two patients

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no the third time’s a charm right just

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gotta move to alabama so they don’t have

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that third try

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no the father of the father of modern

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gynecology

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so it was in montgomery that sims built

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his reputation among rich white

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plantation owners by treating their

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human property

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article does not play um according to

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vanessa gamble

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university professor of medical

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humanities at gw george washington

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university

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since this practice was deeply rooted in

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the slave trade

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and while most healthcare took place in

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the plantation some stubborn cases were

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brought to physicians like sims

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who patched up enslaved workers so they

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could produce and reproduce for their

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masters again

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otherwise they were useless to their

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owners and this kind of brings up this

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concept of soundness

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um being a sound a meant that you could

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produce and reproduce so men could

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produce and women could reproduce for

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women having fistula made them less

0:07:10.800,0:07:13.039
sound because they couldn’t really

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reproduce as much

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it goes into the whole slavery and child

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bearing which i’m going to get into

0:07:18.240,0:07:21.919
but just to finish on our guy james

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marion sims

0:07:21.919,0:07:24.639
there’s a lot more on him if you’re

0:07:23.199,0:07:25.919
interested he started like the first

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women’s hospital

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killed a bunch of people saved some

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people you know

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and he had i think three statues of him

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that are starting to come down so

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there was one of his statues was

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literally in central park

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opposite the new york academy of

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medicine in new york city

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and this was removed on april 17 2018

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and its current plaque

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will be replaced by one that educates

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the public on the origins of the

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monument

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and the controversial non-consensual

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medical experiments he

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used on women of color mostly enslaved

0:07:58.720,0:08:01.919
black women

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the names and histories of three known

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women whose bodies were used in the name

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of medical and scientific advancement

0:08:05.440,0:08:09.120
by the doctor their names are lucy

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anarca and betsy will take their

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rightful

0:08:09.840,0:08:15.680
place on the new plaque and i will also

0:08:11.919,0:08:18.160
mention he did his experiments on slaves

0:08:15.680,0:08:19.520
without anesthesia because it wasn’t

0:08:18.160,0:08:24.639
invented at the time

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and also because i know and also because

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they didn’t think that black bodies felt

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pain the same way that white bodies did

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which is still a myth that happens to

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this day like to this day black people

0:08:32.880,0:08:37.760
are um given less anesthesia

0:08:35.919,0:08:39.680
on average than like their white

0:08:37.760,0:08:40.000
counterparts because they believe that

0:08:39.680,0:08:42.959
black

0:08:40.000,0:08:45.839
people somehow feel less pain and that’s

0:08:42.959,0:08:48.720
james marion sims

0:08:45.839,0:08:49.279
jeez oh my god that’s so upsetting that

0:08:48.720,0:08:52.800
like

0:08:49.279,0:08:54.399
not only is he this awful person

0:08:52.800,0:08:55.839
he killed all these women and like none

0:08:54.399,0:08:58.160
of his surgeries were really consensual

0:08:55.839,0:08:59.760
but how did he get all these statues

0:08:58.160,0:09:02.399
like

0:08:59.760,0:09:03.279
i have no idea what i do know is that i

0:09:02.399,0:09:04.959
don’t know like he

0:09:03.279,0:09:06.399
started doing surgeries on white women

0:09:04.959,0:09:08.240
and he did make a lot of advancements

0:09:06.399,0:09:10.959
because before nobody would even

0:09:08.240,0:09:12.959
like delve into women’s reproductive

0:09:10.959,0:09:14.160
like they were like growth you know

0:09:12.959,0:09:16.000
and then he started doing surgeries on

0:09:14.160,0:09:17.839
white women with anesthesia

0:09:16.000,0:09:19.839
because you know handily it was invented

0:09:17.839,0:09:23.440
and also you know white women feel pain

0:09:19.839,0:09:25.680
apparently um who knew so

0:09:23.440,0:09:27.279
not me that white side of me doesn’t

0:09:25.680,0:09:29.839
feel pain so i don’t know what you’re

0:09:27.279,0:09:29.839
talking about

0:09:30.640,0:09:34.480
so i can just delve into slavery and

0:09:33.600,0:09:36.640
child bearing

0:09:34.480,0:09:38.640
because you know this is all this

0:09:36.640,0:09:40.880
research was just a hole that i just dug

0:09:38.640,0:09:42.640
deeper and deeper into it just doesn’t

0:09:40.880,0:09:43.839
end everything that i’m going to say is

0:09:42.640,0:09:46.640
accepted

0:09:43.839,0:09:48.640
from birthing a slave motherhood and

0:09:46.640,0:09:49.440
medicine in the antebellum south by

0:09:48.640,0:09:52.240
murray

0:09:49.440,0:09:53.279
marie jenkins schwartz so here’s like a

0:09:52.240,0:09:55.760
little bit of background

0:09:53.279,0:09:57.279
um as of 1808 congress ended the

0:09:55.760,0:09:58.720
nation’s participation in the

0:09:57.279,0:10:00.240
international slave trade

0:09:58.720,0:10:01.920
so that means that the only practical

0:10:00.240,0:10:03.120
way of increasing the number of slave

0:10:01.920,0:10:06.240
laborers was through

0:10:03.120,0:10:08.320
new births so if enslaved mothers did

0:10:06.240,0:10:10.079
not bear sufficient numbers of children

0:10:08.320,0:10:11.680
to take the place of aged and dying

0:10:10.079,0:10:12.800
workers the south couldn’t continue as a

0:10:11.680,0:10:15.040
slave society

0:10:12.800,0:10:16.560
and as we know slavery lasted a lot

0:10:15.040,0:10:20.079
longer than 1808

0:10:16.560,0:10:22.640
right so they really made it work

0:10:20.079,0:10:23.360
slave trade ends in 1808 yeah the slave

0:10:22.640,0:10:25.600
like trade

0:10:23.360,0:10:26.560
like the international slave trade ended

0:10:25.600,0:10:29.360
in 1808

0:10:26.560,0:10:30.560
like within we had like 60 yeah 60 years

0:10:29.360,0:10:33.680
and they’re just like

0:10:30.560,0:10:35.839
breeding more slaves now breeding is a

0:10:33.680,0:10:37.680
terrible i’m sorry i even use that word

0:10:35.839,0:10:39.519
like no but that’s a word that’s used

0:10:37.680,0:10:40.160
because it’s like you know it’s not

0:10:39.519,0:10:43.519
humane

0:10:40.160,0:10:45.279
like the way that this is right um

0:10:43.519,0:10:47.519
literally looking at it is like numbers

0:10:45.279,0:10:49.600
like they’re not looking them at

0:10:47.519,0:10:51.440
looking at it as like human beings yeah

0:10:49.600,0:10:54.640
they’re looking at them like livestock

0:10:51.440,0:10:55.120
it’s like literally literally first

0:10:54.640,0:10:57.600
thing

0:10:55.120,0:11:00.240
oh my god but rewards for motherhood

0:10:57.600,0:11:02.880
follow the birth of children for um like

0:11:00.240,0:11:04.480
female slaves to give birth right so

0:11:02.880,0:11:07.040
these included extra clothing

0:11:04.480,0:11:07.680
exemption from harsh punishment and even

0:11:07.040,0:11:10.880
rarely

0:11:07.680,0:11:12.800
rarely rarely freedom um some women were

0:11:10.880,0:11:15.040
able to avoid field or other arduous

0:11:12.800,0:11:16.720
labor as a result of bearing children

0:11:15.040,0:11:18.079
a breeder so these women were called

0:11:16.720,0:11:19.839
breeders

0:11:18.079,0:11:22.560
always fared better than the majority of

0:11:19.839,0:11:24.800
female slaves

0:11:22.560,0:11:25.680
and there were repercussions for

0:11:24.800,0:11:28.079
barrenness

0:11:25.680,0:11:29.040
so young woman who had not demonstrated

0:11:28.079,0:11:31.440
fertility

0:11:29.040,0:11:32.160
faced the possibility of separation from

0:11:31.440,0:11:35.680
family

0:11:32.160,0:11:37.040
as well as additional labor if a married

0:11:35.680,0:11:38.480
couple lived together for long without

0:11:37.040,0:11:41.440
having a baby

0:11:38.480,0:11:44.160
you they could owners would force

0:11:41.440,0:11:47.200
husband and wife to choose new partners

0:11:44.160,0:11:49.200
and um it’s also

0:11:47.200,0:11:51.120
like a former slave his name is henry

0:11:49.200,0:11:53.360
bobbitt maintained that many marriages

0:11:51.120,0:11:55.040
did not last longer than five years

0:11:53.360,0:11:56.639
because if no children were born within

0:11:55.040,0:11:58.800
five years husbands and wives were

0:11:56.639,0:12:01.519
expected to find other spouses

0:11:58.800,0:12:03.440
so from the standpoint of enslaved women

0:12:01.519,0:12:05.440
the slave owners fluoride into the

0:12:03.440,0:12:07.920
scientific management of their bodies

0:12:05.440,0:12:09.120
aka just like interest in their

0:12:07.920,0:12:11.519
reproductive systems

0:12:09.120,0:12:12.959
represented something beyond benevolence

0:12:11.519,0:12:16.079
i think not of a third

0:12:12.959,0:12:17.279
surprise um it was an effort to decrease

0:12:16.079,0:12:19.360
the importance of

0:12:17.279,0:12:21.279
women’s community and to substitute the

0:12:19.360,0:12:22.480
ways of white men for those of black

0:12:21.279,0:12:23.920
women and i found that like really

0:12:22.480,0:12:24.399
interesting just the way that was worded

0:12:23.920,0:12:26.079
it’s like

0:12:24.399,0:12:27.920
that’s literally what’s happening but

0:12:26.079,0:12:29.200
white men trying to control

0:12:27.920,0:12:31.040
trying to make like black women’s

0:12:29.200,0:12:32.560
reproductive systems work for them the

0:12:31.040,0:12:33.440
women struggle to assert their own

0:12:32.560,0:12:35.920
customs so

0:12:33.440,0:12:37.440
rather than acquiescing and slaveholders

0:12:35.920,0:12:38.480
demands that they bear as many children

0:12:37.440,0:12:40.320
as possible

0:12:38.480,0:12:42.240
enslaved women attempted to regulate

0:12:40.320,0:12:43.760
child bearing to accord with their own

0:12:42.240,0:12:45.360
notions of the proper timing and

0:12:43.760,0:12:47.200
frequency of motherhood

0:12:45.360,0:12:49.040
in resisting the dominion of white men

0:12:47.200,0:12:50.480
in this regard black women cast

0:12:49.040,0:12:51.680
themselves essential actors in the

0:12:50.480,0:12:53.760
unfolding drama

0:12:51.680,0:12:55.519
that constituted slave life and culture

0:12:53.760,0:12:57.279
in the antebellum south so essentially

0:12:55.519,0:12:59.040
like the fact that these women like

0:12:57.279,0:13:00.959
wouldn’t always have children whenever

0:12:59.040,0:13:03.279
it was demanded really really shaped the

0:13:00.959,0:13:05.200
narrative of like how slavery continued

0:13:03.279,0:13:06.639
because as we know like it is only

0:13:05.200,0:13:07.440
through these women that slavery could

0:13:06.639,0:13:09.680
continue

0:13:07.440,0:13:11.200
i’m like speechless just because like oh

0:13:09.680,0:13:12.800
my god like you’re literally like

0:13:11.200,0:13:15.519
manipulating

0:13:12.800,0:13:16.560
and like forcing yourself like on every

0:13:15.519,0:13:18.880
aspect of

0:13:16.560,0:13:20.720
like slaves like on their bodies and

0:13:18.880,0:13:24.079
like women especially like that’s so

0:13:20.720,0:13:25.440
violating and like dehumanizing and like

0:13:24.079,0:13:28.720
i just can’t even

0:13:25.440,0:13:32.399
i can’t even like imagine

0:13:28.720,0:13:32.959
how like painful and just how horrifying

0:13:32.399,0:13:35.519
and

0:13:32.959,0:13:37.440
disgusting that is like it’s really

0:13:35.519,0:13:40.000
upsetting to hear but i don’t know

0:13:37.440,0:13:41.839
like yeah and like just the pain of

0:13:40.000,0:13:42.800
child birth and child bearing and

0:13:41.839,0:13:44.800
everything you have to go through with

0:13:42.800,0:13:46.959
that and then the bond that like

0:13:44.800,0:13:48.160
a mothers feel with like their children

0:13:46.959,0:13:49.440
and then your child

0:13:48.160,0:13:51.279
is literally just being treated as

0:13:49.440,0:13:52.480
livestock i know i’m sure like

0:13:51.279,0:13:54.480
i’ve read things where they get

0:13:52.480,0:13:56.240
separated at birth and like the child

0:13:54.480,0:13:56.639
gets sold maybe to another slave owner

0:13:56.240,0:14:00.079
it’s

0:13:56.639,0:14:01.600
like horrific yeah it is crazy

0:14:00.079,0:14:03.120
it’s crazy to think about like whatever

0:14:01.600,0:14:05.600
children you have like you’re not going

0:14:03.120,0:14:07.839
to have any rights to them

0:14:05.600,0:14:09.440
yeah and literally like just being

0:14:07.839,0:14:12.079
thought of as like

0:14:09.440,0:14:13.920
an experiment and like something like a

0:14:12.079,0:14:15.920
test subject like oh that’s so

0:14:13.920,0:14:17.600
disgusting and that’s so scary like i’m

0:14:15.920,0:14:19.920
just like even like giving

0:14:17.600,0:14:22.320
birth to child like like any woman in

0:14:19.920,0:14:24.160
this time i know

0:14:22.320,0:14:26.240
absolutely horrifying like i can’t even

0:14:24.160,0:14:27.920
imagine i’m like so scared

0:14:26.240,0:14:30.240
like i would be so scared either way and

0:14:27.920,0:14:32.000
then in this setting especially like

0:14:30.240,0:14:33.920
oh my gosh i wonder how many like are

0:14:32.000,0:14:36.240
there any statistics and like how many

0:14:33.920,0:14:37.600
like fatalities like how many women died

0:14:36.240,0:14:39.839
because of this although i guess this

0:14:37.600,0:14:40.240
probably wasn’t documented it’s hard to

0:14:39.839,0:14:42.880
tell

0:14:40.240,0:14:44.959
because i don’t know how much they would

0:14:42.880,0:14:46.959
have like actually documented

0:14:44.959,0:14:48.480
you know other than like to suit their

0:14:46.959,0:14:50.800
own needs you know

0:14:48.480,0:14:51.600
yeah no history is like documented by

0:14:50.800,0:14:53.760
the winners

0:14:51.600,0:14:55.360
as they say and like especially they’re

0:14:53.760,0:14:56.560
not teaching slaves how to read and

0:14:55.360,0:14:58.000
write it’s hard to find any

0:14:56.560,0:14:59.680
documentation at all i’m actually

0:14:58.000,0:15:01.279
impressed that there’s at least

0:14:59.680,0:15:03.360
documentation

0:15:01.279,0:15:05.120
on this so we know about it i know it’s

0:15:03.360,0:15:07.600
crazy i think that a lot of it also

0:15:05.120,0:15:08.320
honestly came from like the descendants

0:15:07.600,0:15:10.720
of like

0:15:08.320,0:15:12.560
slaves because a lot of this was like

0:15:10.720,0:15:13.120
told through stories and i think it’s

0:15:12.560,0:15:14.880
just like

0:15:13.120,0:15:16.320
i don’t know even we’re gonna go like

0:15:14.880,0:15:18.160
through a few more subjects but even

0:15:16.320,0:15:20.160
just like the way that like

0:15:18.160,0:15:21.680
people are researching these things and

0:15:20.160,0:15:23.040
it’s so important to research it makes

0:15:21.680,0:15:24.800
me have such respect because i feel like

0:15:23.040,0:15:26.399
this is so traumatizing to research

0:15:24.800,0:15:27.680
about like write about every day you

0:15:26.399,0:15:29.680
know

0:15:27.680,0:15:31.920
and very painful for them to like relive

0:15:29.680,0:15:34.639
those experiences to share the story

0:15:31.920,0:15:35.519
to that for that to be documented yeah

0:15:34.639,0:15:37.680
that’s so true

0:15:35.519,0:15:38.959
on to the next phase and so we don’t

0:15:37.680,0:15:41.200
have another question for you

0:15:38.959,0:15:43.040
you two lovely young humans

0:15:41.200,0:15:44.880
[Laughter]

0:15:43.040,0:15:46.639
when you think of the 1970s what do you

0:15:44.880,0:15:49.759
think of i think of like the hip

0:15:46.639,0:15:50.480
hippies and like i think of the vietnam

0:15:49.759,0:15:53.279
war

0:15:50.480,0:15:54.560
and like there’s a lot of like unrest

0:15:53.279,0:15:57.120
and people are

0:15:54.560,0:15:59.120
upset i think of like the start of the

0:15:57.120,0:16:01.120
end of like social darwinism

0:15:59.120,0:16:02.399
and like the end of the eugenics

0:16:01.120,0:16:05.839
practices well

0:16:02.399,0:16:09.759
so we so we believe yeah jack is ready

0:16:05.839,0:16:11.279
she knows how this goes

0:16:09.759,0:16:12.880
it’s because i’m studying the gilded age

0:16:11.279,0:16:14.240
right now so i’m like learning about

0:16:12.880,0:16:15.120
everything that was put in place and

0:16:14.240,0:16:16.880
then it’s like

0:16:15.120,0:16:19.120
ending in the 70s so i just want to

0:16:16.880,0:16:21.360
request you guys on roe v wade happened

0:16:19.120,0:16:23.360
in 1973

0:16:21.360,0:16:25.440
and it was a landmark decision of the us

0:16:23.360,0:16:27.440
supreme court in which the court ruled

0:16:25.440,0:16:29.120
that the constitution of the united

0:16:27.440,0:16:29.920
states protects a pregnant woman’s

0:16:29.120,0:16:32.320
liberty to

0:16:29.920,0:16:35.199
choose to have an abortion without

0:16:32.320,0:16:37.839
excessive government restrictions

0:16:35.199,0:16:39.360
some hot tea and so we can get into some

0:16:37.839,0:16:40.240
like in the background there was this

0:16:39.360,0:16:43.360
woman

0:16:40.240,0:16:45.120
um and her pseudonym was jane roe and

0:16:43.360,0:16:46.800
she became pregnant with her third child

0:16:45.120,0:16:49.120
and she won an abortion

0:16:46.800,0:16:51.199
um but she lived in texas where abortion

0:16:49.120,0:16:54.959
was illegal and so

0:16:51.199,0:16:57.120
she filed the lawsuit um on her behalf

0:16:54.959,0:17:00.560
in the u.s federal court against henry

0:16:57.120,0:17:02.959
wade who was her local district attorney

0:17:00.560,0:17:04.640
and so basically they heard the case

0:17:02.959,0:17:05.520
they ruled in her favor and then texted

0:17:04.640,0:17:07.199
appeal to

0:17:05.520,0:17:08.640
the u.s supreme court which agreed to

0:17:07.199,0:17:12.160
hear the case and

0:17:08.640,0:17:13.120
they appeal or they ruled in her favor

0:17:12.160,0:17:15.760
which meant that

0:17:13.120,0:17:17.760
federally abortion is legal abortion in

0:17:15.760,0:17:20.160
the united states is legal

0:17:17.760,0:17:21.919
nationally but abortion laws are also

0:17:20.160,0:17:23.600
like under state jurisdiction

0:17:21.919,0:17:25.039
but technically like it has to be

0:17:23.600,0:17:27.679
illegal in all states but it’s

0:17:25.039,0:17:29.200
regulated by the states yeah so i kind

0:17:27.679,0:17:29.840
of wanted to highlight this because i

0:17:29.200,0:17:32.240
felt like

0:17:29.840,0:17:33.760
um this is like the struggle that we

0:17:32.240,0:17:34.480
hear about but this is a struggle of

0:17:33.760,0:17:36.160
white women

0:17:34.480,0:17:38.000
as i’m gonna kind of like go into more

0:17:36.160,0:17:41.120
like the struggle was different for

0:17:38.000,0:17:43.200
different populations of women of color

0:17:41.120,0:17:44.720
and it’s kind of crazy how different the

0:17:43.200,0:17:45.679
struggles like they were just not even

0:17:44.720,0:17:47.679
the same

0:17:45.679,0:17:49.840
like not even the same issue and we’re

0:17:47.679,0:17:51.520
going to start with indigenous women

0:17:49.840,0:17:53.919
i’m going to start with with a fun

0:17:51.520,0:17:56.799
statistic in the 1970s

0:17:53.919,0:17:57.039
doctors in the united states sterilized

0:17:56.799,0:18:00.080
an

0:17:57.039,0:18:02.240
estimated 25 to 42 percent

0:18:00.080,0:18:04.480
of native american women of childbearing

0:18:02.240,0:18:08.400
age some as young as 15.

0:18:04.480,0:18:10.320
that number is insane crazy

0:18:08.400,0:18:12.799
i don’t even how was did you find out

0:18:10.320,0:18:15.200
anything like on the process was it like

0:18:12.799,0:18:17.280
were they using like armed forces to

0:18:15.200,0:18:18.000
like pull women from their homes what

0:18:17.280,0:18:19.919
was it

0:18:18.000,0:18:21.679
so what they would do is like they would

0:18:19.919,0:18:24.240
women would go in

0:18:21.679,0:18:25.679
for you know maybe like a procedure

0:18:24.240,0:18:27.600
maybe like a checkup often

0:18:25.679,0:18:28.960
just like giving birth and then while

0:18:27.600,0:18:29.760
they were giving birth it would be a

0:18:28.960,0:18:33.600
quick

0:18:29.760,0:18:36.880
procedure that was yeah and also

0:18:33.600,0:18:37.600
without their consent consent even

0:18:36.880,0:18:38.960
knowing

0:18:37.600,0:18:40.880
sometimes it would happen like

0:18:38.960,0:18:42.400
technically with their consent but it

0:18:40.880,0:18:43.600
was like they didn’t know like they were

0:18:42.400,0:18:45.360
just told it was birth control they

0:18:43.600,0:18:46.720
didn’t know that it was permanent they

0:18:45.360,0:18:48.720
didn’t know what it really meant

0:18:46.720,0:18:51.440
you know although the practice is

0:18:48.720,0:18:54.240
primarily associated with nazi germany

0:18:51.440,0:18:55.360
north korea and other oppressive regimes

0:18:54.240,0:18:57.200
the us has had its

0:18:55.360,0:18:58.880
share of four sterilization laws that

0:18:57.200,0:18:59.360
fit with the eugenic culture of the

0:18:58.880,0:19:01.280
early

0:18:59.360,0:19:03.360
20th century and i wanted to find

0:19:01.280,0:19:05.039
eugenics real quick it’s a science that

0:19:03.360,0:19:07.440
tries to improve

0:19:05.039,0:19:09.039
the human race by controlling which

0:19:07.440,0:19:10.880
people become parents

0:19:09.039,0:19:12.480
which is a great law if i’ve ever heard

0:19:10.880,0:19:17.120
one

0:19:12.480,0:19:18.960
um you do not want a voice bit of you

0:19:17.120,0:19:20.320
saying

0:19:18.960,0:19:22.320
it’s gonna come back when you have a

0:19:20.320,0:19:22.880
campaign one day i need to be more

0:19:22.320,0:19:25.919
careful

0:19:22.880,0:19:29.200
but also i’m like literally sweating

0:19:25.919,0:19:30.960
so funny how crazy that is okay

0:19:29.200,0:19:34.000
so here’s the timeline of some of the

0:19:30.960,0:19:35.919
more notable events from 1849 and to the

0:19:34.000,0:19:39.919
last sterilization performed in

0:19:35.919,0:19:44.559
jared for 1981. 1981

0:19:39.919,0:19:47.760
so uh recent great reason

0:19:44.559,0:19:49.840
so in 1849 gordon

0:19:47.760,0:19:51.760
lindscum so he was a famed texas

0:19:49.840,0:19:53.520
biologist and physician

0:19:51.760,0:19:55.280
and he proposed a bill mandating the

0:19:53.520,0:19:57.120
eugenic sterilization of the mentally

0:19:55.280,0:19:58.880
handicapped and others whose genes he

0:19:57.120,0:20:01.039
deemed undesirable so although the

0:19:58.880,0:20:02.720
legislation was never sponsored or

0:20:01.039,0:20:04.559
brought up for a vote it was the first

0:20:02.720,0:20:06.240
serious attempt in u.s history to use

0:20:04.559,0:20:06.880
forced sterilization for eugenic

0:20:06.240,0:20:09.039
purposes

0:20:06.880,0:20:10.480
between now and 1907 there were a few

0:20:09.039,0:20:12.000
other attempts at passing a forced

0:20:10.480,0:20:13.840
sterilization law but none of them

0:20:12.000,0:20:16.799
passed um and then 1907

0:20:13.840,0:20:18.960
indiana um ohio’s neighbor for you you

0:20:16.799,0:20:20.000
who do not know ohio state university

0:20:18.960,0:20:22.640
where we all

0:20:20.000,0:20:23.679
go and went you know right next to

0:20:22.640,0:20:26.080
indiana

0:20:23.679,0:20:27.760
in 1907 indiana became the first state

0:20:26.080,0:20:29.919
in the country to successfully pass a

0:20:27.760,0:20:33.200
mandatory force sterilization law

0:20:29.919,0:20:35.039
impacting the feeble-minded a term used

0:20:33.200,0:20:35.919
at the time to refer to the mentally

0:20:35.039,0:20:37.679
handicapped

0:20:35.919,0:20:39.120
okay i really did not realize like

0:20:37.679,0:20:40.640
because i have like looked into

0:20:39.120,0:20:42.159
for sterilization a little bit but like

0:20:40.640,0:20:42.960
i didn’t realize it like there were laws

0:20:42.159,0:20:44.000
being passed about

0:20:42.960,0:20:47.039
i always thought it was just kind of

0:20:44.000,0:20:49.200
like shady like yeah like on the dl

0:20:47.039,0:20:50.240
yeah that’s literally that’s horrifying

0:20:49.200,0:20:53.200
that there was a

0:20:50.240,0:20:54.400
literal law so in 1909 california and

0:20:53.200,0:20:56.640
washington both

0:20:54.400,0:20:58.960
passed mandatory sterilization laws in

0:20:56.640,0:21:01.919
1927 the u.s supreme court

0:20:58.960,0:21:03.600
ruled in bucks rebel that laws mandating

0:21:01.919,0:21:05.280
the sterilization of the mentally

0:21:03.600,0:21:06.720
handicapped did not violate the

0:21:05.280,0:21:10.000
constitution

0:21:06.720,0:21:12.159
and just as oliver wendell holmes

0:21:10.000,0:21:13.360
made an explicitly eugenic argument in

0:21:12.159,0:21:15.440
writing for the majority

0:21:13.360,0:21:17.840
it is better for all the world if

0:21:15.440,0:21:19.600
instead of waiting to execute degenerate

0:21:17.840,0:21:21.360
offspring for crime

0:21:19.600,0:21:22.640
or to let them starve for their

0:21:21.360,0:21:24.799
imbecility

0:21:22.640,0:21:26.159
society can prevent those who are

0:21:24.799,0:21:30.080
manifestly unfit

0:21:26.159,0:21:32.240
from continuing their kind oh my god

0:21:30.080,0:21:33.520
straight out of sparta where they used

0:21:32.240,0:21:36.720
to leave like

0:21:33.520,0:21:37.760
handicapped out to die by themselves or

0:21:36.720,0:21:39.280
like the sick

0:21:37.760,0:21:41.679
literally that’s insane and we’ve talked

0:21:39.280,0:21:44.159
about justice oliver wendell holmes

0:21:41.679,0:21:45.200
in our is it free speech or espionage

0:21:44.159,0:21:47.200
episode and like

0:21:45.200,0:21:48.640
when i was doing research like none of

0:21:47.200,0:21:49.280
this came up like you they were just

0:21:48.640,0:21:51.760
like oh

0:21:49.280,0:21:53.120
he’s a really influential judge like

0:21:51.760,0:21:56.720
yeah probably because he

0:21:53.120,0:21:59.280
literally like said that oh my god like

0:21:56.720,0:22:00.000
you’re crazy okay so this this next fact

0:21:59.280,0:22:03.039
is fun

0:22:00.000,0:22:05.200
in 1936 nazi propaganda

0:22:03.039,0:22:06.159
defended germany’s force sterilization

0:22:05.200,0:22:08.400
program

0:22:06.159,0:22:10.320
by citing the us as an ally in the

0:22:08.400,0:22:12.240
eugenic movement

0:22:10.320,0:22:13.679
um world war ii and the atrocities

0:22:12.240,0:22:14.240
committed by the nazi government would

0:22:13.679,0:22:16.240
rapidly

0:22:14.240,0:22:18.159
rapidly change u.s attitudes towards

0:22:16.240,0:22:19.919
eugenics i guess that’s what it takes i

0:22:18.159,0:22:22.720
don’t know

0:22:19.919,0:22:24.159
okay t um actually nazi germany took a

0:22:22.720,0:22:26.799
lot of our practices

0:22:24.159,0:22:28.000
as an inspiration for their practices i

0:22:26.799,0:22:30.720
don’t know if you guys know like the

0:22:28.000,0:22:32.000
gasoline baths at the border between

0:22:30.720,0:22:34.159
mexico

0:22:32.000,0:22:35.120
yeah at the border between mexico they

0:22:34.159,0:22:37.440
would like bathe

0:22:35.120,0:22:39.120
um mexican immigrants who were waiting

0:22:37.440,0:22:40.880
to like get citizenship

0:22:39.120,0:22:42.400
they’d bathe them in gasoline to clean

0:22:40.880,0:22:44.240
them those cleaning chambers were

0:22:42.400,0:22:45.600
inspiration for the gas chambers in nazi

0:22:44.240,0:22:46.559
germany that’s a whole i’m probably

0:22:45.600,0:22:48.320
gonna have to cut this out because

0:22:46.559,0:22:50.080
that’s a whole another episode and can

0:22:48.320,0:22:51.360
of worms but yeah that stuff happened oh

0:22:50.080,0:22:54.559
my god

0:22:51.360,0:22:58.559
that’s crazy i had no idea

0:22:54.559,0:23:01.760
yeah continue please

0:22:58.559,0:23:03.919
um so the nixon administration um

0:23:01.760,0:23:06.799
dramatically increased medicaid-funded

0:23:03.919,0:23:09.840
sterilization of low-income americans

0:23:06.799,0:23:11.679
primarily those of color um while these

0:23:09.840,0:23:14.080
sterilizations were

0:23:11.679,0:23:16.080
voluntary as a matter of policy

0:23:14.080,0:23:17.919
anecdotal evidence later suggested that

0:23:16.080,0:23:18.640
they were often involuntary as a matter

0:23:17.919,0:23:20.720
of practice

0:23:18.640,0:23:22.000
patients were frequently misinformed or

0:23:20.720,0:23:23.280
left uninformed regarding

0:23:22.000,0:23:25.120
the nature of the proceedings that

0:23:23.280,0:23:27.200
they’d agreed to undergo none of us are

0:23:25.120,0:23:29.440
surprised so in 1979

0:23:27.200,0:23:31.360
a survey conducted by family planning

0:23:29.440,0:23:33.840
perspectives found that approximately

0:23:31.360,0:23:36.000
70 percent of american hospitals failed

0:23:33.840,0:23:38.000
to adequately follow the us department

0:23:36.000,0:23:39.760
of health and human services guidelines

0:23:38.000,0:23:40.880
regarding informed consent in cases of

0:23:39.760,0:23:42.320
sterilization

0:23:40.880,0:23:44.720
i think the only thing that’s surprising

0:23:42.320,0:23:45.840
to us is that there was guidelines on

0:23:44.720,0:23:47.520
sterilization

0:23:45.840,0:23:50.240
i think we’re like this just doesn’t

0:23:47.520,0:23:52.080
make sense and then in 1981 oregon

0:23:50.240,0:23:53.760
performed the last week of fourth

0:23:52.080,0:23:55.360
sterilization in u.s history

0:23:53.760,0:23:56.880
crazy that it was oregon and like

0:23:55.360,0:23:57.440
california and washington who like

0:23:56.880,0:24:00.080
really

0:23:57.440,0:24:03.279
stand out it’s also america we all got

0:24:00.080,0:24:07.279
we’re all in it together like

0:24:03.279,0:24:08.799
she’s right okay so that was a brief

0:24:07.279,0:24:10.720
history of the

0:24:08.799,0:24:12.400
a brief overview of the history of force

0:24:10.720,0:24:13.440
sterilization in the u.s and now let’s

0:24:12.400,0:24:15.840
go back to

0:24:13.440,0:24:17.919
indigenous americans in the 1970s

0:24:15.840,0:24:18.640
doctors in the united states sterilized

0:24:17.919,0:24:21.279
and estimated

0:24:18.640,0:24:23.600
25 to 42 percent native american women

0:24:21.279,0:24:25.120
of childbearing age some as young as 15.

0:24:23.600,0:24:26.799
so the sterilizations

0:24:25.120,0:24:28.559
subsidized by federal government and

0:24:26.799,0:24:29.919
often undertaken without the consent are

0:24:28.559,0:24:31.760
under great direct

0:24:29.919,0:24:33.200
marks the culmination of a long history

0:24:31.760,0:24:34.960
of efforts by

0:24:33.200,0:24:36.480
federal and local authorities to manage

0:24:34.960,0:24:37.360
the reproductive lives of native

0:24:36.480,0:24:38.960
families

0:24:37.360,0:24:40.880
and this is explained by brianna

0:24:38.960,0:24:42.400
theobald and she’s an assistant

0:24:40.880,0:24:44.080
professor of history at the university

0:24:42.400,0:24:45.919
of rochester

0:24:44.080,0:24:47.440
and her new book reproduction on the

0:24:45.919,0:24:49.360
reservation pregnancy

0:24:47.440,0:24:50.640
childbirth and colonialism in the long

0:24:49.360,0:24:52.640
20th century

0:24:50.640,0:24:54.400
she says the federal government and

0:24:52.640,0:24:56.240
local authorities have long tried to

0:24:54.400,0:24:58.240
control indigenous families and women’s

0:24:56.240,0:25:00.080
reproduction using tactics such as

0:24:58.240,0:25:01.600
coercive sterilization and the removal

0:25:00.080,0:25:03.840
of indigenous children

0:25:01.600,0:25:06.159
into the white foster care system there

0:25:03.840,0:25:07.360
was this mindset this really fun slogan

0:25:06.159,0:25:09.200
that i feel like

0:25:07.360,0:25:11.440
you guys might have heard um kill the

0:25:09.200,0:25:13.600
indian in him and save the man

0:25:11.440,0:25:15.360
and that’s the mindset um under which

0:25:13.600,0:25:17.200
the us government forced tens of

0:25:15.360,0:25:19.039
thousands of native american children to

0:25:17.200,0:25:20.720
attend assimilation boarding schools in

0:25:19.039,0:25:22.480
the late 19th century

0:25:20.720,0:25:23.520
and it’s like the boring schools we’ve

0:25:22.480,0:25:24.559
heard of and i think it’s interesting

0:25:23.520,0:25:26.400
why have we heard of the boarding

0:25:24.559,0:25:27.440
schools and not like forced civilization

0:25:26.400,0:25:29.360
like i don’t know

0:25:27.440,0:25:30.799
yeah or the adoption yeah and deep

0:25:29.360,0:25:32.480
you’re really hitting like all the good

0:25:30.799,0:25:34.400
topics i feel like every

0:25:32.480,0:25:36.559
little bit you say we could literally

0:25:34.400,0:25:38.559
make into a whole another episode and we

0:25:36.559,0:25:40.240
will because it deserves to be spoken

0:25:38.559,0:25:42.240
about more but yeah the the whole

0:25:40.240,0:25:42.720
adoption era with native americans is

0:25:42.240,0:25:44.960
like

0:25:42.720,0:25:46.880
horrific and then the boarding schools

0:25:44.960,0:25:48.559
lasted do you have like the date of how

0:25:46.880,0:25:49.120
long they lasted but they lasted a very

0:25:48.559,0:25:50.559
long time

0:25:49.120,0:25:53.039
i don’t even think that they were

0:25:50.559,0:25:54.159
completely shut down like by the 70s i

0:25:53.039,0:25:55.679
don’t even know if they’re still shut

0:25:54.159,0:25:57.919
down who knows

0:25:55.679,0:25:59.919
yeah well yeah and like these boarding

0:25:57.919,0:26:01.360
schools are like awful like well first

0:25:59.919,0:26:02.720
of all because like they’re separated

0:26:01.360,0:26:05.600
from their family so that

0:26:02.720,0:26:06.559
in itself is awful but then additionally

0:26:05.600,0:26:08.400
like they’re

0:26:06.559,0:26:09.919
forced to i guess convert to

0:26:08.400,0:26:11.679
christianity and like they’re not

0:26:09.919,0:26:13.440
allowed to speak their native language

0:26:11.679,0:26:15.440
they’re like forced to speak in english

0:26:13.440,0:26:16.159
only so you’re wiping out like people’s

0:26:15.440,0:26:18.400
culture

0:26:16.159,0:26:19.600
and yeah when they return like sometimes

0:26:18.400,0:26:20.960
they can’t even communicate to their

0:26:19.600,0:26:21.440
parents anymore because they don’t

0:26:20.960,0:26:22.799
remember

0:26:21.440,0:26:24.640
they were taken away so young so they

0:26:22.799,0:26:25.120
don’t even remember their like native

0:26:24.640,0:26:27.200
tongue

0:26:25.120,0:26:28.559
and they’re lazy third and a lot of them

0:26:27.200,0:26:29.520
like died in the boarding school just

0:26:28.559,0:26:31.440
because of

0:26:29.520,0:26:33.120
proper care also like i don’t know if

0:26:31.440,0:26:35.039
you’re gonna touch on this later

0:26:33.120,0:26:36.400
but like a lot of what’s happening like

0:26:35.039,0:26:38.559
these boarding schools and the four

0:26:36.400,0:26:41.360
sterilization of indigenous women

0:26:38.559,0:26:42.799
also happened at the same time period in

0:26:41.360,0:26:45.039
canada as well

0:26:42.799,0:26:47.039
i didn’t know that this was actually the

0:26:45.039,0:26:48.799
first time i’d ever heard the term

0:26:47.039,0:26:50.400
force sterilization before was when i

0:26:48.799,0:26:52.640
was in canada like

0:26:50.400,0:26:53.600
working there and the canadian

0:26:52.640,0:26:55.279
parliament were

0:26:53.600,0:26:57.120
drawing up a lot of reports and doing a

0:26:55.279,0:26:59.279
lot of research on the history

0:26:57.120,0:27:01.120
of foreign sterilization of indigenous

0:26:59.279,0:27:01.799
women and there’s a lot of efforts

0:27:01.120,0:27:04.240
towards

0:27:01.799,0:27:06.320
reconciliation about the boarding

0:27:04.240,0:27:09.440
schools and there’s four sterilization

0:27:06.320,0:27:10.320
and like bias of police towards like

0:27:09.440,0:27:13.120
against

0:27:10.320,0:27:14.640
indigenous people of canada and so like

0:27:13.120,0:27:17.039
i remember like when i heard the term

0:27:14.640,0:27:18.559
forces for sterilization for the first

0:27:17.039,0:27:20.720
time like this is like two years ago too

0:27:18.559,0:27:22.480
i was like i never even knew this was a

0:27:20.720,0:27:23.600
thing and then i was like doing all this

0:27:22.480,0:27:25.360
research on it and they’re like oh yeah

0:27:23.600,0:27:27.520
this happened in the u.s too of course

0:27:25.360,0:27:29.279
i’m like this happens up until 1981 so

0:27:27.520,0:27:30.240
it’s not even like oh it was just so

0:27:29.279,0:27:32.320
long ago

0:27:30.240,0:27:34.559
like we thought yeah i just wanted to

0:27:32.320,0:27:36.880
know too that like this is so widespread

0:27:34.559,0:27:38.399
um yeah so yeah and i think that’s

0:27:36.880,0:27:40.240
important to know because i feel like

0:27:38.399,0:27:41.520
a lot of us don’t like i don’t you know

0:27:40.240,0:27:43.360
have even like

0:27:41.520,0:27:44.799
a frame of reference you know like this

0:27:43.360,0:27:46.559
is so new

0:27:44.799,0:27:48.080
just like the concepts that we’re cut

0:27:46.559,0:27:48.960
that we’re covering oh jax was something

0:27:48.080,0:27:52.480
that i wanted to

0:27:48.960,0:27:53.520
touch on oh oh um she said okay so jack

0:27:52.480,0:27:55.600
mentioned how

0:27:53.520,0:27:57.840
this podcast like this episode is

0:27:55.600,0:27:59.520
touching on like a lot of other things

0:27:57.840,0:28:01.360
and i think that kind of speaks to how

0:27:59.520,0:28:02.480
like women were like and women’s like

0:28:01.360,0:28:04.799
reproductive

0:28:02.480,0:28:06.720
like freedoms and reproductive just like

0:28:04.799,0:28:08.880
the control of their reproduction

0:28:06.720,0:28:10.000
was like an underlying factor in a lot

0:28:08.880,0:28:11.600
of other things

0:28:10.000,0:28:13.279
but it was never really spoken about

0:28:11.600,0:28:14.720
right like this is like this underlying

0:28:13.279,0:28:16.000
current this underlying theme that

0:28:14.720,0:28:18.080
happened in like a lot

0:28:16.000,0:28:19.440
of different like periods of us history

0:28:18.080,0:28:20.880
and a lot of different oppressions

0:28:19.440,0:28:22.320
it’s just something that like has never

0:28:20.880,0:28:23.919
been spoken about so when you’re just

0:28:22.320,0:28:24.480
focusing on this you kind of see that it

0:28:23.919,0:28:26.080
threads

0:28:24.480,0:28:27.600
throughout like us history which i think

0:28:26.080,0:28:29.279
is like really interesting and also

0:28:27.600,0:28:30.559
crazy but unsurprising that it’s not

0:28:29.279,0:28:32.240
talked about because it combines

0:28:30.559,0:28:33.279
misogyny like no one likes talking about

0:28:32.240,0:28:35.600
women’s reproduction

0:28:33.279,0:28:37.520
like it’s just i mean no one i love it

0:28:35.600,0:28:38.960
but like

0:28:37.520,0:28:40.640
men have historically been a little

0:28:38.960,0:28:42.000
uncomfortable around it you know

0:28:40.640,0:28:44.080
and it speaks about like other

0:28:42.000,0:28:45.840
marginalized identities being

0:28:44.080,0:28:47.760
different race people of color and

0:28:45.840,0:28:49.279
slaves so i think it’s just like so

0:28:47.760,0:28:51.279
interesting how all of these kind of

0:28:49.279,0:28:53.039
become this really like this

0:28:51.279,0:28:55.600
underpinning oppressive

0:28:53.039,0:28:56.480
ruling like this oppressive policy you

0:28:55.600,0:28:58.480
know

0:28:56.480,0:29:00.720
yeah and i think just like to add on to

0:28:58.480,0:29:02.159
that it shows how history because

0:29:00.720,0:29:04.240
we all have said this before but like

0:29:02.159,0:29:06.399
history is a rabbit hole and

0:29:04.240,0:29:07.919
you cannot like history does affect

0:29:06.399,0:29:09.200
multiple things throughout time and

0:29:07.919,0:29:10.159
that’s why it’s important to study

0:29:09.200,0:29:11.919
history because

0:29:10.159,0:29:14.000
it’s not like these events happen in

0:29:11.919,0:29:15.440
like little pockets one event will like

0:29:14.000,0:29:16.640
lead to another event which leads to

0:29:15.440,0:29:18.480
another event and they

0:29:16.640,0:29:19.840
all throughout generations are going to

0:29:18.480,0:29:22.640
affect future

0:29:19.840,0:29:24.399
people and i kind of want to talk about

0:29:22.640,0:29:26.080
the resistance of native american women

0:29:24.399,0:29:28.000
because we want to always humanize

0:29:26.080,0:29:30.240
people and also just like not take away

0:29:28.000,0:29:34.080
their agency even in the retelling

0:29:30.240,0:29:36.080
so until mid-century mid-1900s there was

0:29:34.080,0:29:37.200
a tremendous resistance in some areas to

0:29:36.080,0:29:39.679
the acceptance of

0:29:37.200,0:29:40.640
government physicians the women might

0:29:39.679,0:29:42.080
tell the field nurse

0:29:40.640,0:29:43.600
yes i’ll come to the hospital and then

0:29:42.080,0:29:45.120
wouldn’t it’s actually quite funny to

0:29:43.600,0:29:46.559
read the documentary record

0:29:45.120,0:29:48.880
these field nurses would write in their

0:29:46.559,0:29:50.240
reports and that they were frustrated

0:29:48.880,0:29:51.919
that women who were basically pregnant

0:29:50.240,0:29:56.880
would just lie to their faces and say

0:29:51.919,0:29:56.880
no i’m not i found that so funny

0:29:57.279,0:30:01.279
in an effort to maintain reproductive

0:29:59.080,0:30:02.720
self-determination to keep reproduction

0:30:01.279,0:30:04.159
in these gendered and

0:30:02.720,0:30:06.799
generational networks where they

0:30:04.159,0:30:08.880
believed it belonged in the 1930s

0:30:06.799,0:30:11.039
susie yellowtail a crow woman took up

0:30:08.880,0:30:12.640
midwifery because of her dissatisfaction

0:30:11.039,0:30:13.840
with her own birthing experience at a

0:30:12.640,0:30:15.200
government hospital

0:30:13.840,0:30:16.880
and another example was the

0:30:15.200,0:30:18.159
establishment of the american indian

0:30:16.880,0:30:20.880
movement or aim

0:30:18.159,0:30:22.799
in 1968 in minneapolis this was an

0:30:20.880,0:30:24.480
inter-tribal group oh you guys have

0:30:22.799,0:30:25.840
you guys know about this yeah nat

0:30:24.480,0:30:27.760
covered aim in the

0:30:25.840,0:30:30.399
um there’s a native american civil

0:30:27.760,0:30:32.080
rights movement episode

0:30:30.399,0:30:34.000
please continue and you so you guys

0:30:32.080,0:30:35.360
already covered it and it’s just one of

0:30:34.000,0:30:36.000
several militant groups that became

0:30:35.360,0:30:37.360
associated

0:30:36.000,0:30:39.440
with what’s called the red power

0:30:37.360,0:30:41.120
movement and in the 1970s native

0:30:39.440,0:30:41.679
activism and resistance became very

0:30:41.120,0:30:43.360
visible

0:30:41.679,0:30:44.640
more widespread and ultimately

0:30:43.360,0:30:45.600
coordinated nationally and

0:30:44.640,0:30:46.960
internationally

0:30:45.600,0:30:48.640
and that’s when native women really

0:30:46.960,0:30:50.559
started to organize independently

0:30:48.640,0:30:52.320
they formed women of all red nations

0:30:50.559,0:30:54.000
warren the group that especially took on

0:30:52.320,0:30:55.600
these sterilization abuses

0:30:54.000,0:30:57.679
under pressure the us government

0:30:55.600,0:31:00.240
accountability office investigated the

0:30:57.679,0:31:02.000
issue in 1976. they released a report

0:31:00.240,0:31:03.360
which actually stopped short of saying

0:31:02.000,0:31:06.399
that government divisions

0:31:03.360,0:31:08.320
performed sterilizations coercively but

0:31:06.399,0:31:10.559
it did raise a number of concerns

0:31:08.320,0:31:12.080
regarding the consent process and in the

0:31:10.559,0:31:14.320
aftermath of this report

0:31:12.080,0:31:16.159
amidst native activism and also activism

0:31:14.320,0:31:18.080
by african-american and latino women

0:31:16.159,0:31:20.000
women who were like most poignantly

0:31:18.080,0:31:21.679
affected the department of health

0:31:20.000,0:31:23.360
education and welfare adopted new

0:31:21.679,0:31:24.559
regulations that offered some tangible

0:31:23.360,0:31:27.440
protections for women

0:31:24.559,0:31:27.919
which went into effect in 1979. that’s

0:31:27.440,0:31:30.000
the t

0:31:27.919,0:31:31.519
about their resistance oh so the last

0:31:30.000,0:31:36.240
topic for

0:31:31.519,0:31:39.679
today um is latino women

0:31:36.240,0:31:42.080
and between the 1930s and the 1970s

0:31:39.679,0:31:45.840
approximately wait for it one-third of

0:31:42.080,0:31:47.120
the female population of puerto rico was

0:31:45.840,0:31:48.960
making it the highest rate of

0:31:47.120,0:31:51.760
sterilization in the world

0:31:48.960,0:31:52.880
yeah like i can’t yeah now do you know

0:31:51.760,0:31:55.200
about this

0:31:52.880,0:31:56.559
yeah i just okay so i just read this

0:31:55.200,0:31:58.480
book called how to hide an

0:31:56.559,0:32:00.000
empire i plugged it in one of my mini

0:31:58.480,0:32:03.039
cells but like literally like they

0:32:00.000,0:32:04.159
go over the all the four sterilization

0:32:03.039,0:32:05.600
and like other

0:32:04.159,0:32:08.080
i guess like medical experiments

0:32:05.600,0:32:08.640
conducted on puerto ricans at the time

0:32:08.080,0:32:11.760
and like

0:32:08.640,0:32:14.960
but like just a third of the population

0:32:11.760,0:32:19.200
like that’s so hard to comprehend and

0:32:14.960,0:32:21.840
like yeah is it okay also

0:32:19.200,0:32:22.720
can only women be forcefully sterilized

0:32:21.840,0:32:24.240
we don’t have to keep this in the

0:32:22.720,0:32:27.120
episode i’m just like very

0:32:24.240,0:32:28.320
no that’s a great question yeah um men

0:32:27.120,0:32:30.640
can too

0:32:28.320,0:32:31.600
but for sterilization usually apply to

0:32:30.640,0:32:34.240
women

0:32:31.600,0:32:34.960
um and i think it’s kind of for obvious

0:32:34.240,0:32:37.600
reasons

0:32:34.960,0:32:39.120
um i feel like birth control usually is

0:32:37.600,0:32:42.240
like the women’s

0:32:39.120,0:32:44.240
burden you know um and also i feel like

0:32:42.240,0:32:45.519
if a woman is giving birth it’s easy

0:32:44.240,0:32:46.000
while you’re already in there it’s kind

0:32:45.519,0:32:48.640
of like

0:32:46.000,0:32:50.080
have another operation that’s true if i

0:32:48.640,0:32:52.000
had to guess i would guess that

0:32:50.080,0:32:53.279
men were also forcibly sterilized you

0:32:52.000,0:32:56.000
know especially like

0:32:53.279,0:32:58.000
ones who had disability like kind of we

0:32:56.000,0:32:58.720
said earlier feeble-mindedness was

0:32:58.000,0:33:01.200
considered

0:32:58.720,0:33:02.240
okay yeah i was curious so some argue

0:33:01.200,0:33:04.159
that the pressure to increase

0:33:02.240,0:33:06.000
sterilization procedures in puerto rico

0:33:04.159,0:33:08.080
was a targeted practice to decrease a

0:33:06.000,0:33:09.279
high level of poverty and unemployment

0:33:08.080,0:33:11.120
because the government blamed these

0:33:09.279,0:33:12.960
issues on overpopulation the

0:33:11.120,0:33:14.880
legalization of contraception in puerto

0:33:12.960,0:33:17.840
rico and the puerto rican government

0:33:14.880,0:33:20.080
passage of a law allowing sterilization

0:33:17.840,0:33:23.679
to be conducted at the discretion of a

0:33:20.080,0:33:25.840
eugenics board both occurred in 1937

0:33:23.679,0:33:25.840
i know

0:33:26.720,0:33:29.760
soon after the legal change a program

0:33:28.720,0:33:32.799
endorsed by

0:33:29.760,0:33:34.320
the u.s government um began sending

0:33:32.799,0:33:35.440
health department officials to rural

0:33:34.320,0:33:38.799
parts of the island

0:33:35.440,0:33:40.880
advocating for sterilization and by 1946

0:33:38.799,0:33:42.320
postpartum sterilizations happened

0:33:40.880,0:33:43.120
frequently in various puerto rican

0:33:42.320,0:33:45.360
hospitals

0:33:43.120,0:33:46.480
however a year later a study found that

0:33:45.360,0:33:48.559
a quarter of the women who had been

0:33:46.480,0:33:50.640
sterilized regretted the decisions

0:33:48.559,0:33:52.159
if a quarter reported that they regret

0:33:50.640,0:33:53.360
it like i just i’m thinking like how

0:33:52.159,0:33:56.320
many women are missing

0:33:53.360,0:33:57.440
in this um yeah how many were surveyed

0:33:56.320,0:34:00.640
even

0:33:57.440,0:34:03.919
might accurately reflect the

0:34:00.640,0:34:06.880
like the true feeling of women right

0:34:03.919,0:34:08.399
um but even i don’t know even if it was

0:34:06.880,0:34:08.960
just a quarter a quarter stole a lot of

0:34:08.399,0:34:10.960
people

0:34:08.960,0:34:12.240
a lot of people and catholics and

0:34:10.960,0:34:14.159
nationalists fought against

0:34:12.240,0:34:16.480
sterilizations in the 1950s

0:34:14.159,0:34:18.240
which eventually resulted in the law

0:34:16.480,0:34:19.520
being repealed in 1960

0:34:18.240,0:34:21.359
and also i thought this was really

0:34:19.520,0:34:22.639
interesting in puerto rico family

0:34:21.359,0:34:24.240
planning clinics could be found in

0:34:22.639,0:34:25.359
factories that provided free

0:34:24.240,0:34:28.800
sterilization

0:34:25.359,0:34:32.399
thanks to a usaid grant which is

0:34:28.800,0:34:35.919
wow what’s an aid grant what’s that

0:34:32.399,0:34:38.079
usaid like usaid yeah

0:34:35.919,0:34:39.440
it’s the for the listeners who don’t

0:34:38.079,0:34:41.280
know i guess because it’s not a very

0:34:39.440,0:34:44.480
well-known government agency

0:34:41.280,0:34:45.520
um it’s a federal agency that um is kind

0:34:44.480,0:34:48.079
of in charge of like

0:34:45.520,0:34:48.960
international aid i interned with them a

0:34:48.079,0:34:51.280
few months ago

0:34:48.960,0:34:52.320
and it’s just not a good look it’s not a

0:34:51.280,0:34:55.599
good look

0:34:52.320,0:34:59.440
they don’t do this anymore but you know

0:34:55.599,0:35:01.119
i was like ow through this program

0:34:59.440,0:35:02.960
puerto rican women became the guinea

0:35:01.119,0:35:04.320
pigs for u.s pharmaceutical companies

0:35:02.960,0:35:06.240
who were developing the modern birth

0:35:04.320,0:35:06.720
control pill once again mixed feelings

0:35:06.240,0:35:08.960
because it’s

0:35:06.720,0:35:10.560
not like birth control like modern birth

0:35:08.960,0:35:11.440
control and the pill like has helped a

0:35:10.560,0:35:13.280
lot of women

0:35:11.440,0:35:14.560
but like this history so dicey like at

0:35:13.280,0:35:16.400
the heart of it to remember

0:35:14.560,0:35:18.160
is that whether or not it’s good or bad

0:35:16.400,0:35:19.520
depends like the opinion of the woman

0:35:18.160,0:35:20.960
who’s like affected by it because it

0:35:19.520,0:35:23.040
gets so confusing because it’s like

0:35:20.960,0:35:24.480
birth control isn’t good or bad you know

0:35:23.040,0:35:26.480
and like sterilization

0:35:24.480,0:35:28.320
or whatever the procedure is called now

0:35:26.480,0:35:30.079
it’s not like good or bad

0:35:28.320,0:35:31.680
depending on like whether you want it or

0:35:30.079,0:35:33.280
you don’t and that’s it you know

0:35:31.680,0:35:35.200
that’s true right so i think it’s an

0:35:33.280,0:35:38.640
important distinction maybe to treat

0:35:35.200,0:35:41.280
women as humans i don’t know maybe

0:35:38.640,0:35:42.079
i thought i don’t know in deep that’s

0:35:41.280,0:35:45.920
pretty

0:35:42.079,0:35:48.960
rad and it’s controversial it is radical

0:35:45.920,0:35:51.200
so for sterilization was also common in

0:35:48.960,0:35:52.400
california so there was this one case

0:35:51.200,0:35:55.280
magical versus

0:35:52.400,0:35:56.960
quilligan in 1975 there was a federal

0:35:55.280,0:35:57.520
class action lawsuit in which these

0:35:56.960,0:35:59.119
women

0:35:57.520,0:36:01.520
fought back after being sterilized

0:35:59.119,0:36:02.079
without informed consent or under duress

0:36:01.520,0:36:04.400
and so

0:36:02.079,0:36:06.400
these women kind of refer to latino

0:36:04.400,0:36:07.040
women latinx women there was dolores

0:36:06.400,0:36:08.800
madrigal

0:36:07.040,0:36:10.320
who was one of the 10 plaintiffs in the

0:36:08.800,0:36:12.160
case and she was told that her

0:36:10.320,0:36:14.640
sterilization could easily be reversed

0:36:12.160,0:36:16.480
which i can’t hovita rivera and georgina

0:36:14.640,0:36:16.960
hernandez said that they were pressured

0:36:16.480,0:36:19.040
into

0:36:16.960,0:36:20.880
agreeing to the procedure after being

0:36:19.040,0:36:22.480
intensely criticized by doctors and

0:36:20.880,0:36:23.040
nurses for being poor and having

0:36:22.480,0:36:24.560
children

0:36:23.040,0:36:26.560
these are haunting stories but

0:36:24.560,0:36:28.240
especially the one of ladina hernandez

0:36:26.560,0:36:29.359
who she didn’t even find out that she’d

0:36:28.240,0:36:31.680
been sterilized

0:36:29.359,0:36:33.119
until years after her son was born at

0:36:31.680,0:36:34.800
the heart of the case was a question of

0:36:33.119,0:36:36.800
whether women were coerced into being

0:36:34.800,0:36:38.640
sterilized and if so if latinos were

0:36:36.800,0:36:40.000
targeted and at the end of the trial

0:36:38.640,0:36:42.160
1978 the judge

0:36:40.000,0:36:43.359
ruled that get ready for it neither of

0:36:42.160,0:36:45.760
the charges were true

0:36:43.359,0:36:48.079
citing misunderstandings due to the fact

0:36:45.760,0:36:48.800
that the women primarily spoke spanish

0:36:48.079,0:36:50.720
the judge

0:36:48.800,0:36:52.079
blamed their distress from the procedure

0:36:50.720,0:36:53.839
on cultural background

0:36:52.079,0:36:55.440
that made these women believe that their

0:36:53.839,0:36:56.160
worth was in their ability to have

0:36:55.440,0:36:58.640
children

0:36:56.160,0:36:59.440
so basically he was like nah they

0:36:58.640,0:37:01.520
weren’t coerced

0:36:59.440,0:37:03.119
now latinos weren’t targeted because i

0:37:01.520,0:37:04.800
don’t know they spoke spanish and they

0:37:03.119,0:37:06.079
also felt that their worth was in their

0:37:04.800,0:37:08.160
ability to have children

0:37:06.079,0:37:09.240
that’s so messed up what year is that

0:37:08.160,0:37:12.240
again

0:37:09.240,0:37:16.480

  1. oh my god

0:37:12.240,0:37:18.320
oh my god another cause of this decision

0:37:16.480,0:37:19.760
was that voluntary informed consent was

0:37:18.320,0:37:22.960
not a legal requirement

0:37:19.760,0:37:24.880
which is crazy until 1974 after the case

0:37:22.960,0:37:26.000
was decided although the latino women

0:37:24.880,0:37:28.720
did not win the case

0:37:26.000,0:37:30.960
magical changed state laws and helped to

0:37:28.720,0:37:31.839
solidify the careers of various latino

0:37:30.960,0:37:34.880
politicians

0:37:31.839,0:37:36.960
so you know not nothing okay so

0:37:34.880,0:37:39.359
and that’s kind of all the history that

0:37:36.960,0:37:41.760
i have i just kind of wanted to

0:37:39.359,0:37:43.920
chat a little bit about the effects of

0:37:41.760,0:37:46.480
these like how they still last today

0:37:43.920,0:37:47.920
and how i don’t know i feel like for me

0:37:46.480,0:37:48.240
there’s like a lot of things that kind

0:37:47.920,0:37:50.240
of

0:37:48.240,0:37:51.680
affect us personally that you know maybe

0:37:50.240,0:37:53.839
we should be thinking about

0:37:51.680,0:37:55.200
that we haven’t really liked that aren’t

0:37:53.839,0:37:57.040
really conversations that are

0:37:55.200,0:37:58.320
had and so these questions are like what

0:37:57.040,0:38:00.640
it means to be a woman

0:37:58.320,0:38:01.440
and how being a woman is inherently

0:38:00.640,0:38:03.760
political

0:38:01.440,0:38:05.760
and that’s true because you know women

0:38:03.760,0:38:08.560
are like marginalized

0:38:05.760,0:38:09.599
um there’s the pay gap there’s a lot of

0:38:08.560,0:38:12.720
policies that

0:38:09.599,0:38:13.359
kind of like um kind of hurt women’s

0:38:12.720,0:38:16.480
ability

0:38:13.359,0:38:17.520
to be equal members of society and also

0:38:16.480,0:38:19.520
a woman of color

0:38:17.520,0:38:21.200
and what it means to be able to control

0:38:19.520,0:38:22.640
one’s own reproductive future because i

0:38:21.200,0:38:24.240
feel like we talked about before like

0:38:22.640,0:38:25.440
it’s even scared like even just having

0:38:24.240,0:38:27.440
children

0:38:25.440,0:38:29.280
is terrifying you know and even just

0:38:27.440,0:38:31.280
like the responsibility of that

0:38:29.280,0:38:32.640
is terrifying but the fact that like

0:38:31.280,0:38:33.599
we’re able to control that on an

0:38:32.640,0:38:35.440
individual level

0:38:33.599,0:38:36.960
and how powerful and privileged even

0:38:35.440,0:38:39.040
those concerns are is like

0:38:36.960,0:38:41.040
really crazy to think about you know

0:38:39.040,0:38:41.760
yeah so i don’t know let’s talk about

0:38:41.040,0:38:42.800
those things

0:38:41.760,0:38:44.880
i feel like do you guys have any

0:38:42.800,0:38:46.400
thoughts on those

0:38:44.880,0:38:48.160
that’s a really good that’s a really

0:38:46.400,0:38:51.040
good question

0:38:48.160,0:38:52.320
i guess yeah i mean like you can’t

0:38:51.040,0:38:54.079
ignore

0:38:52.320,0:38:56.000
the ways in which women especially that

0:38:54.079,0:38:57.359
layer of color the ways in which people

0:38:56.000,0:38:59.119
of different color have been treated

0:38:57.359,0:39:01.599
historically and the way

0:38:59.119,0:39:02.880
that your gender will affect like what

0:39:01.599,0:39:04.880
jobs you can take

0:39:02.880,0:39:06.560
what and that this is like societal

0:39:04.880,0:39:07.119
pressure but also there are actual laws

0:39:06.560,0:39:08.640
in place

0:39:07.119,0:39:09.839
that like keep you from having the vote

0:39:08.640,0:39:10.800
they keep you from having government

0:39:09.839,0:39:12.400
representation

0:39:10.800,0:39:14.079
they keep you from getting to study

0:39:12.400,0:39:15.839
certain subjects in school yeah there’s

0:39:14.079,0:39:17.760
just like so many layers and i

0:39:15.839,0:39:19.040
when you’re talking about um all the

0:39:17.760,0:39:21.200
ways in which there’s been like

0:39:19.040,0:39:23.839
sterilization of different colored women

0:39:21.200,0:39:25.200
i also want to add to i know like asian

0:39:23.839,0:39:26.000
women are not super part of this

0:39:25.200,0:39:28.160
narrative

0:39:26.000,0:39:29.920
and reason that could be is because with

0:39:28.160,0:39:31.200
the chinese exclusion act like asian

0:39:29.920,0:39:31.680
women were not allowed to enter the

0:39:31.200,0:39:34.880
country

0:39:31.680,0:39:36.400
during this time up until the 1950s so

0:39:34.880,0:39:38.079
you know there’s so many other layers

0:39:36.400,0:39:39.359
and asian women are not excused from

0:39:38.079,0:39:41.040
this there are lots of things that were

0:39:39.359,0:39:42.640
happening over in east asia and

0:39:41.040,0:39:44.560
southeast asia too and

0:39:42.640,0:39:46.160
this is something that affects everyone

0:39:44.560,0:39:47.920
globally and

0:39:46.160,0:39:49.440
melinda gates and like michelle obama

0:39:47.920,0:39:51.040
all do a lot of work with like girl

0:39:49.440,0:39:53.520
empowerment around the world

0:39:51.040,0:39:54.720
and it’s proven time and time again yes

0:39:53.520,0:39:56.640
with statistics that

0:39:54.720,0:39:58.240
whoever suffers the most like in our

0:39:56.640,0:39:59.200
global sphere is going to be like a

0:39:58.240,0:40:01.359
colored woman

0:39:59.200,0:40:03.040
yeah i guess like to add on to like

0:40:01.359,0:40:05.920
intersectionality of like

0:40:03.040,0:40:06.880
gender and race like this does not

0:40:05.920,0:40:09.839
surprise me

0:40:06.880,0:40:10.400
that i have not heard of a lot of this

0:40:09.839,0:40:12.400
before

0:40:10.400,0:40:13.520
because like i feel like the feminist

0:40:12.400,0:40:16.960
movement in general

0:40:13.520,0:40:20.000
and like women’s history in the us is so

0:40:16.960,0:40:22.480
whitewashed and like we only learn about

0:40:20.000,0:40:23.920
white women in the us i just can’t get

0:40:22.480,0:40:24.640
over the fact that this is happening

0:40:23.920,0:40:26.640
until

0:40:24.640,0:40:27.760
the 80s no one’s talking about it

0:40:26.640,0:40:29.200
especially like

0:40:27.760,0:40:30.880
coming from canada where like they’re

0:40:29.200,0:40:32.800
doing so much research and so much

0:40:30.880,0:40:34.800
reconciliation efforts and like just

0:40:32.800,0:40:37.200
trying to bring awareness to the issue

0:40:34.800,0:40:39.280
and like educating the people on this

0:40:37.200,0:40:41.359
topic the efforts are a lot

0:40:39.280,0:40:43.119
weaker here compared to what i’ve seen

0:40:41.359,0:40:44.480
in canada at least that i’m aware of

0:40:43.119,0:40:46.640
going off your point nat

0:40:44.480,0:40:47.599
in deep i want to ask did you discover

0:40:46.640,0:40:50.560
any like

0:40:47.599,0:40:51.119
reparations that have been made to make

0:40:50.560,0:40:52.960
right

0:40:51.119,0:40:55.280
these wrongs that have happened yeah i

0:40:52.960,0:40:58.400
think that there has been an effort

0:40:55.280,0:41:00.319
towards reparations i’m not sure exactly

0:40:58.400,0:41:01.520
which population i do remember there was

0:41:00.319,0:41:03.359
a mentioning about how

0:41:01.520,0:41:04.880
some families who were affected by four

0:41:03.359,0:41:06.480
sterilization i think it might have been

0:41:04.880,0:41:09.040
indigenous families where

0:41:06.480,0:41:10.000
they tried to give them reparations but

0:41:09.040,0:41:11.520
at the same time i

0:41:10.000,0:41:14.079
think that there was also talk about

0:41:11.520,0:41:15.520
like how it isn’t entirely successful

0:41:14.079,0:41:17.359
implies like you can’t make up for that

0:41:15.520,0:41:19.359
you know there is a consensus

0:41:17.359,0:41:20.480
like the reparations are not ideal but i

0:41:19.359,0:41:23.520
think that reparations

0:41:20.480,0:41:24.720
were like attempted by the united states

0:41:23.520,0:41:26.079
i don’t know how can you repent like i

0:41:24.720,0:41:27.760
just feel like it’s impossible because

0:41:26.079,0:41:29.200
right history builds on itself so how

0:41:27.760,0:41:31.920
can you repair

0:41:29.200,0:41:33.599
like breaking down a whole civilization

0:41:31.920,0:41:34.880
just this current state of the united

0:41:33.599,0:41:36.160
states would be entirely different like

0:41:34.880,0:41:38.480
there’s nothing you can do

0:41:36.160,0:41:39.200
to fix that bring that back or like make

0:41:38.480,0:41:41.599
it okay

0:41:39.200,0:41:43.520
you know right there’s value too though

0:41:41.599,0:41:45.119
and that attempt should still be made i

0:41:43.520,0:41:46.319
think like a lot of people will use that

0:41:45.119,0:41:48.319
argument and they’ll

0:41:46.319,0:41:49.760
be like we know each generation should

0:41:48.319,0:41:51.040
start fresh and

0:41:49.760,0:41:53.440
there’s nothing we can do it’s in the

0:41:51.040,0:41:55.200
past no each generation is not starting

0:41:53.440,0:41:57.280
fresh though because of the past so

0:41:55.200,0:41:59.839
there should be a continuous effort to

0:41:57.280,0:42:01.920
make those reparations and okay i just

0:41:59.839,0:42:04.400
like a little because i was watching a

0:42:01.920,0:42:06.160
finance video as you guys know i love

0:42:04.400,0:42:07.359
and we’re talking about the economics of

0:42:06.160,0:42:08.240
what it’s like to graduate in a

0:42:07.359,0:42:10.480
recession

0:42:08.240,0:42:12.160
and so think about the 2008 financial

0:42:10.480,0:42:12.960
crisis all those people graduating the

0:42:12.160,0:42:15.040
recession

0:42:12.960,0:42:16.800
and now it’s projected these are

0:42:15.040,0:42:17.280
statistics not my opinion they have

0:42:16.800,0:42:19.520
lower

0:42:17.280,0:42:21.040
earnings they have less probability to

0:42:19.520,0:42:22.960
start a family less probability

0:42:21.040,0:42:24.720
to buy a house because they were like

0:42:22.960,0:42:26.640
slammed with these loans and

0:42:24.720,0:42:28.240
lower pay wages because you’re

0:42:26.640,0:42:29.920
graduating in a bad job market

0:42:28.240,0:42:31.760
less opportunities they’re not in the

0:42:29.920,0:42:34.000
same places as their parents were

0:42:31.760,0:42:35.839
for building wealth for their families

0:42:34.000,0:42:37.599
and that’s nothing that they did

0:42:35.839,0:42:39.119
i think we all can agree economically

0:42:37.599,0:42:40.560
you got dealt a bad hand

0:42:39.119,0:42:42.560
and it’s not anything that you did you

0:42:40.560,0:42:44.640
went to school you did the right things

0:42:42.560,0:42:46.640
and if you can think about that and then

0:42:44.640,0:42:48.160
you can shift your mind to understand

0:42:46.640,0:42:49.680
that that’s exactly what happens

0:42:48.160,0:42:51.920
to people of color it’s nothing that

0:42:49.680,0:42:53.280
they’re doing wrong or anyone in any

0:42:51.920,0:42:54.160
oppressive i want to like i’m from

0:42:53.280,0:42:56.319
appalachia

0:42:54.160,0:42:57.920
appalachian is white working class there

0:42:56.319,0:42:58.560
have been problems with that group as

0:42:57.920,0:43:00.160
well they’re

0:42:58.560,0:43:02.480
white immigrants as well who have dealt

0:43:00.160,0:43:03.119
with things but the point is that like

0:43:02.480,0:43:05.040
sometimes

0:43:03.119,0:43:06.800
things are not within your control that

0:43:05.040,0:43:08.560
have happened to you and now you’re

0:43:06.800,0:43:10.160
dealing with all the repercussions of

0:43:08.560,0:43:12.000
that throughout generations

0:43:10.160,0:43:13.599
and that’s nothing that you did wrong

0:43:12.000,0:43:15.520
and that that’s up to us

0:43:13.599,0:43:16.960
who are in positions of power and

0:43:15.520,0:43:18.640
privilege to help

0:43:16.960,0:43:20.319
in any way that we can if that makes

0:43:18.640,0:43:23.440
sense that’s how i see it

0:43:20.319,0:43:25.119
as some hot tea i 100 agree i do realize

0:43:23.440,0:43:26.480
that that argument is an argument and

0:43:25.119,0:43:28.000
not making reparations

0:43:26.480,0:43:29.680
i think it was just being a little bit

0:43:28.000,0:43:31.520
like how could you ever you know i

0:43:29.680,0:43:33.119
understand

0:43:31.520,0:43:34.720
you know but that is a good point and i

0:43:33.119,0:43:36.480
think that i should be like a little

0:43:34.720,0:43:38.640
more mindful of the way that i

0:43:36.480,0:43:40.160
kind of say like oh but you can’t even

0:43:38.640,0:43:42.000
do it you know because that is a good

0:43:40.160,0:43:44.720
point it’s not possible to

0:43:42.000,0:43:46.000
completely make up for what’s been done

0:43:44.720,0:43:46.400
but if there’s no effort then like

0:43:46.000,0:43:47.680
you’re

0:43:46.400,0:43:49.280
you’re just still doing it well it’s

0:43:47.680,0:43:50.400
like population control is something

0:43:49.280,0:43:52.319
that’s so permanent

0:43:50.400,0:43:54.000
yeah like you said like how like how can

0:43:52.319,0:43:56.480
you make up for it but at the very least

0:43:54.000,0:43:57.839
we could at least educate ourselves and

0:43:56.480,0:44:00.480
like promote awareness

0:43:57.839,0:44:02.319
how are we supposed to come up with not

0:44:00.480,0:44:04.720
a solution necessarily but like how are

0:44:02.319,0:44:06.720
we supposed to respond to this and like

0:44:04.720,0:44:08.319
help promote change if like no one knows

0:44:06.720,0:44:10.160
about it you know yeah

0:44:08.319,0:44:11.599
so really touching this but i also

0:44:10.160,0:44:13.599
wanted to think about how some of these

0:44:11.599,0:44:15.040
practices and problems may be ongoing

0:44:13.599,0:44:16.720
and the repercussions of them are

0:44:15.040,0:44:18.240
definitely ongoing in the us

0:44:16.720,0:44:19.359
this is obvious that these policies were

0:44:18.240,0:44:20.800
not written by the people who were

0:44:19.359,0:44:22.000
affected the fact that i’m still

0:44:20.800,0:44:23.920
surprised when i see women

0:44:22.000,0:44:25.359
of color in congress tells us that like

0:44:23.920,0:44:26.720
we’re not at the point where

0:44:25.359,0:44:28.720
the communities that are affected by

0:44:26.720,0:44:30.400
policy are an equal representation of

0:44:28.720,0:44:33.280
the ones making the policy

0:44:30.400,0:44:35.359
i guess those are my remarks and uh how

0:44:33.280,0:44:37.440
are you

0:44:35.359,0:44:39.440
to guys on to that but i recently read

0:44:37.440,0:44:40.000
an article by the new york times talking

0:44:39.440,0:44:43.040
about

0:44:40.000,0:44:45.040
healthcare bias towards black women in

0:44:43.040,0:44:47.440
like the healthcare sector and how

0:44:45.040,0:44:49.040
more women of color died during

0:44:47.440,0:44:50.160
childbirth because

0:44:49.040,0:44:52.240
kind of like you mentioned earlier

0:44:50.160,0:44:54.560
perception of pain there’s a bias

0:44:52.240,0:44:56.400
that people of color women of color

0:44:54.560,0:44:58.000
don’t feel as much pain so if women

0:44:56.400,0:44:59.440
say they’re in pain or there’s something

0:44:58.000,0:45:01.200
wrong they’re not going to be

0:44:59.440,0:45:02.960
believed as much so like that’s another

0:45:01.200,0:45:05.119
thing that’s like oh there’s still

0:45:02.960,0:45:06.960
a lot of issues ongoing today thank you

0:45:05.119,0:45:09.359
so much indeed like that was

0:45:06.960,0:45:10.319
incredible and like so comprehensive and

0:45:09.359,0:45:12.160
like i literally

0:45:10.319,0:45:13.680
i learned so much and there’s so many

0:45:12.160,0:45:15.359
topics that you brought up that

0:45:13.680,0:45:17.359
i want to look into maybe we could do in

0:45:15.359,0:45:19.280
future episodes like everyone

0:45:17.359,0:45:21.280
encourage you to do like individual

0:45:19.280,0:45:23.599
research too like we mentioned

0:45:21.280,0:45:25.280
there’s still ongoing violations of

0:45:23.599,0:45:28.960
women of color’s bodies so

0:45:25.280,0:45:30.240
don’t forget don’t forget and also it

0:45:28.960,0:45:33.280
was my pleasure

0:45:30.240,0:45:35.040
thank you indeed thanks guys it was my i

0:45:33.280,0:45:37.920
can talk about women’s reproductive

0:45:35.040,0:45:39.520
health and intersectionality and old i

0:45:37.920,0:45:41.440
can literally talk about it all day

0:45:39.520,0:45:43.200
like we found my passion yeah we’re

0:45:41.440,0:45:44.319
bringing you back for another episode

0:45:43.200,0:45:46.650
you know it

0:45:44.319,0:45:57.469
you know i would love it

0:45:46.650,0:45:57.469
[Music]

Why Are We So Obsessed With Latin America?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

Regarded as one of the most influential ideologies in US foreign policy, the Monroe Doctrine established the foundation for Americaā€™s role in the Western Hemisphere and as a major actor on the international stage. In this episode, Nat dissects the impact of the Monroe Doctrine and its complex legacy in Latin America.

Sources:

Transcript

0:00:00.160,0:00:03.919
hi everybody and welcome back to another

0:00:02.159,0:00:07.680
episode of how did we not know that

0:00:03.919,0:00:09.360
my name is jack i’m matt and today

0:00:07.680,0:00:11.280
matt is going to be talking about the

0:00:09.360,0:00:13.840
monroe doctrine

0:00:11.280,0:00:16.560
yeah yeah yeah yeah the monroe doctrine

0:00:13.840,0:00:18.640
i’m super excited because okay so

0:00:16.560,0:00:20.480
the two of us are studying for the

0:00:18.640,0:00:22.160
foreign service officer test

0:00:20.480,0:00:24.400
but like we really we really don’t talk

0:00:22.160,0:00:27.760
about it as often but

0:00:24.400,0:00:29.920
um you can’t talk about the history of

0:00:27.760,0:00:31.039
u.s foreign policy without talking about

0:00:29.920,0:00:33.600
the monroe doctrine

0:00:31.039,0:00:34.640
because it’s arguably like the most

0:00:33.600,0:00:38.399
influential piece

0:00:34.640,0:00:41.120
of u.s foreign policy in our history

0:00:38.399,0:00:42.320
so i’m super excited to talk about it um

0:00:41.120,0:00:46.000
we’re going to start off

0:00:42.320,0:00:49.200
by flashing back to the early 1820s

0:00:46.000,0:00:51.120
and at this time several latin american

0:00:49.200,0:00:51.520
countries had won their independence

0:00:51.120,0:00:54.640
from

0:00:51.520,0:00:56.239
either spain or portugal so in 1812 the

0:00:54.640,0:00:59.359
u.s had recognized

0:00:56.239,0:01:02.800
the new nations of chile argentina

0:00:59.359,0:01:05.760
mexico and peru but both

0:01:02.800,0:01:06.080
the us and britain were worried that

0:01:05.760,0:01:08.000
like

0:01:06.080,0:01:10.080
other european nations were going to

0:01:08.000,0:01:11.600
come in and colonize these countries

0:01:10.080,0:01:14.159
later in the future

0:01:11.600,0:01:15.040
and they were especially worried about

0:01:14.159,0:01:18.720
russia

0:01:15.040,0:01:21.200
because in 1821 russian czar

0:01:18.720,0:01:22.000
alexander the first had claimed

0:01:21.200,0:01:24.560
sovereignty

0:01:22.000,0:01:26.000
over territory in the pacific northwest

0:01:24.560,0:01:29.040
so that ranged from

0:01:26.000,0:01:30.000
like alaska to the oregon territory and

0:01:29.040,0:01:32.479
he banned four

0:01:30.000,0:01:33.600
ships from approaching the coast and

0:01:32.479,0:01:36.560
america was like

0:01:33.600,0:01:38.479
um what the heck they were like really

0:01:36.560,0:01:40.000
worried that all these european

0:01:38.479,0:01:41.520
nations were going to come and grab all

0:01:40.000,0:01:45.200
this territory that

0:01:41.520,0:01:48.000
the us was trying to grab right and so

0:01:45.200,0:01:48.720
president james monroe he’s president at

0:01:48.000,0:01:52.000
the time

0:01:48.720,0:01:55.280
and he is scared of foreign intervention

0:01:52.000,0:01:56.320
in the americas and he wanted to create

0:01:55.280,0:01:59.360
a joint

0:01:56.320,0:02:01.920
u.s british resolution that would

0:01:59.360,0:02:04.560
ban further colonization in latin

0:02:01.920,0:02:08.000
america by other european powers

0:02:04.560,0:02:10.879
but secretary of state john quincy

0:02:08.000,0:02:11.840
adams he he goes to president monroe and

0:02:10.879,0:02:15.360
he’s like hey

0:02:11.840,0:02:17.760
let’s ditch britain because it would

0:02:15.360,0:02:20.080
actually limit future opportunities for

0:02:17.760,0:02:22.400
the us to expand its territory

0:02:20.080,0:02:24.160
if we collaborated with britain and then

0:02:22.400,0:02:25.200
also like britain might decide to

0:02:24.160,0:02:27.440
colonize these

0:02:25.200,0:02:28.239
territories or these countries in the

0:02:27.440,0:02:30.400
region

0:02:28.239,0:02:32.000
and so john quincy adams he was like

0:02:30.400,0:02:36.000
really focused on trade

0:02:32.000,0:02:38.400
in latin america south america and

0:02:36.000,0:02:39.760
he thought that like european trade was

0:02:38.400,0:02:43.440
the greatest obstacle

0:02:39.760,0:02:45.200
in the us’s uh economic expansion

0:02:43.440,0:02:47.040
and so he didn’t want anything to do

0:02:45.200,0:02:49.440
with britain and so he

0:02:47.040,0:02:50.319
convinces president monroe to draft a

0:02:49.440,0:02:52.640
statement

0:02:50.319,0:02:55.120
of unilateral u.s policy that would

0:02:52.640,0:02:55.440
establish the u.s as the protector of

0:02:55.120,0:02:58.480
the

0:02:55.440,0:03:02.560
entire western hemisphere

0:02:58.480,0:03:04.800
so on december 2nd 1823

0:03:02.560,0:03:05.920
president monroe gives his annual speech

0:03:04.800,0:03:08.959
to congress

0:03:05.920,0:03:10.720
and in it he explains the idea of what

0:03:08.959,0:03:11.440
would later be known as the monroe

0:03:10.720,0:03:13.280
doctrine

0:03:11.440,0:03:15.440
even though it was actually like mostly

0:03:13.280,0:03:18.319
written by john quincy adams

0:03:15.440,0:03:19.680
and it’s only a few paragraphs in his

0:03:18.319,0:03:21.360
entire speech but

0:03:19.680,0:03:23.840
it’s so significant like it has a

0:03:21.360,0:03:26.720
lasting effect that we still see today

0:03:23.840,0:03:28.239
and so in a nutshell the monroe doctrine

0:03:26.720,0:03:30.959
states that the us

0:03:28.239,0:03:33.680
is the protector of the entire western

0:03:30.959,0:03:36.959
hemisphere and nobody else can touch it

0:03:33.680,0:03:37.760
and there are three main concepts in his

0:03:36.959,0:03:40.480
speech

0:03:37.760,0:03:42.159
so the first is that the old world and

0:03:40.480,0:03:45.120
the new world were different

0:03:42.159,0:03:47.360
and should be two distinct spheres of

0:03:45.120,0:03:50.959
influence so remember like when

0:03:47.360,0:03:52.400
like the uh when the pilgrims went to

0:03:50.959,0:03:53.200
america and they’re like oh this is the

0:03:52.400,0:03:54.879
new world

0:03:53.200,0:03:56.480
old world is like all the european

0:03:54.879,0:03:57.360
countries so they’re like okay we’re

0:03:56.480,0:04:01.280
different

0:03:57.360,0:04:04.560
let’s not bother each other the second

0:04:01.280,0:04:06.879
concept is that european powers couldn’t

0:04:04.560,0:04:09.560
colonize latin america

0:04:06.879,0:04:10.720
and the third is the concept of

0:04:09.560,0:04:13.519
non-interference

0:04:10.720,0:04:14.239
and so any attempt by a european power

0:04:13.519,0:04:16.239
to

0:04:14.239,0:04:18.560
exert its influence in the western

0:04:16.239,0:04:19.040
hemisphere would be seen as a threat to

0:04:18.560,0:04:22.079
u.s

0:04:19.040,0:04:23.840
security and so in turn the u.s

0:04:22.079,0:04:25.120
wouldn’t interfere in the political

0:04:23.840,0:04:27.919
affairs of europe

0:04:25.120,0:04:29.360
or with existing european colonies in

0:04:27.919,0:04:32.720
the western hemisphere

0:04:29.360,0:04:35.280
so does that make sense yeah so when we

0:04:32.720,0:04:35.840
it when you like the monroe doctrine is

0:04:35.280,0:04:37.759
it just

0:04:35.840,0:04:39.520
we’re signing it or do we have to get

0:04:37.759,0:04:41.280
europe to sign it too

0:04:39.520,0:04:43.199
we’re like literally no one’s even

0:04:41.280,0:04:46.000
signing it that’s the thing

0:04:43.199,0:04:47.120
saying it he’s literally just he gives a

0:04:46.000,0:04:50.960
speech and he’s like hey

0:04:47.120,0:04:52.320
this is this is a thing now like the us

0:04:50.960,0:04:54.400
we’re the protector of the western

0:04:52.320,0:04:55.280
hemisphere and if europe tries to come

0:04:54.400,0:04:56.960
in like

0:04:55.280,0:04:58.320
that’s going to be a threat to us and so

0:04:56.960,0:05:01.039
we’re going to fight you

0:04:58.320,0:05:02.560
okay so no one acknowledged it just like

0:05:01.039,0:05:04.560
president said it

0:05:02.560,0:05:05.680
yeah that’s it yeah he’s like he just

0:05:04.560,0:05:09.039
declared it

0:05:05.680,0:05:10.800
like which yeah so

0:05:09.039,0:05:12.639
obviously like this is pretty insane

0:05:10.800,0:05:15.520
because at the time the u.s

0:05:12.639,0:05:17.919
is like a really young country and it’s

0:05:15.520,0:05:20.960
a very minor player on the world stage

0:05:17.919,0:05:23.680
and also it has like no

0:05:20.960,0:05:24.880
military or naval power to back this up

0:05:23.680,0:05:27.360
like he’s just

0:05:24.880,0:05:29.039
he’s just saying it but yeah because

0:05:27.360,0:05:31.520
this is 1812

0:05:29.039,0:05:33.360
right is that what you said okay um oh

0:05:31.520,0:05:38.160
sorry no 1823

0:05:33.360,0:05:40.080
okay so yeah so this is after the war of

0:05:38.160,0:05:43.360
1812 so i think we were kind of

0:05:40.080,0:05:45.199
feeling cocky at the time oh yeah

0:05:43.360,0:05:47.600
for no good reason because if you

0:05:45.199,0:05:48.479
watched war of 1812 you know how that

0:05:47.600,0:05:51.199
went down

0:05:48.479,0:05:52.160
yeah it wasn’t anything to be like super

0:05:51.199,0:05:54.800
proud

0:05:52.160,0:05:56.560
yeah but yeah and so we were like

0:05:54.800,0:05:58.560
feeling really good about ourselves

0:05:56.560,0:05:59.919
um but yeah the rest of the world pretty

0:05:58.560,0:06:02.080
much ignores

0:05:59.919,0:06:03.360
president monroe and they’re like okay

0:06:02.080,0:06:06.160
cool whatever

0:06:03.360,0:06:07.199
um no one takes it seriously and

0:06:06.160,0:06:08.560
question two

0:06:07.199,0:06:10.720
i mean how would everyone else

0:06:08.560,0:06:12.560
acknowledge it because he gives a speech

0:06:10.720,0:06:13.919
but then did they distribute it

0:06:12.560,0:06:16.400
to everyone else did they send

0:06:13.919,0:06:16.880
messengers or is it just you said this

0:06:16.400,0:06:19.520
to

0:06:16.880,0:06:20.560
some people and like no one else knows

0:06:19.520,0:06:22.560
about it

0:06:20.560,0:06:23.600
i don’t know like maybe like newspapers

0:06:22.560,0:06:26.160
reported on it

0:06:23.600,0:06:28.800
and then like word got sent to other

0:06:26.160,0:06:32.479
countries but yeah i really don’t know

0:06:28.800,0:06:35.440
you can’t just like live stream it yeah

0:06:32.479,0:06:37.280
look like um yeah i don’t know how they

0:06:35.440,0:06:39.039
even can you imagine it’s like a game of

0:06:37.280,0:06:40.080
telephone right if you’re trying to like

0:06:39.039,0:06:41.520
spread the news

0:06:40.080,0:06:43.280
and then by the time it gets to like

0:06:41.520,0:06:46.560
chile they’re like who

0:06:43.280,0:06:47.120
who’s protecting us like wait those guys

0:06:46.560,0:06:49.520
really

0:06:47.120,0:06:50.400
okay is that a nation aren’t they

0:06:49.520,0:06:53.039
british

0:06:50.400,0:06:54.880
like didn’t canada just burn down their

0:06:53.039,0:06:58.560
white house or something

0:06:54.880,0:06:58.560
like i thought they were done though

0:06:58.800,0:07:02.080
um yeah i’m sure yeah i’m sure like

0:07:01.280,0:07:05.280
other countries

0:07:02.080,0:07:08.880
in latin america are just like what

0:07:05.280,0:07:12.319
okay um yeah but okay so then like

0:07:08.880,0:07:13.039
in 1833 british forces occupy the

0:07:12.319,0:07:15.280
falkland

0:07:13.039,0:07:16.240
islands off the coast of argentina i

0:07:15.280,0:07:18.720
know about this

0:07:16.240,0:07:19.680
yeah i really want to visit the falkland

0:07:18.720,0:07:21.919
islands

0:07:19.680,0:07:23.840
yeah yeah yeah falkland islands very

0:07:21.919,0:07:25.599
interesting history but yeah so

0:07:23.840,0:07:27.680
british forces occupy the islands and

0:07:25.599,0:07:30.800
it’s off the coast of argentina

0:07:27.680,0:07:33.919
so it’s technically the us’s

0:07:30.800,0:07:36.479
sphere of influence but the us decides

0:07:33.919,0:07:37.039
not to invoke the doctrine probably

0:07:36.479,0:07:38.319
because

0:07:37.039,0:07:40.080
they don’t actually have like the

0:07:38.319,0:07:42.639
military power to stop them

0:07:40.080,0:07:44.720
so britain comes and they take over the

0:07:42.639,0:07:47.520
islands and the u.s does nothing and so

0:07:44.720,0:07:47.520
people are like okay

0:07:48.319,0:07:55.280
great job however as time passes

0:07:52.639,0:07:56.639
and the us’s military and economic

0:07:55.280,0:07:59.120
strength grows

0:07:56.639,0:07:59.759
it actually starts to follow through

0:07:59.120,0:08:02.639
with

0:07:59.759,0:08:03.039
the monroe doctrine so the first example

0:08:02.639,0:08:06.080
of this

0:08:03.039,0:08:10.000
is in 1867 so this is

0:08:06.080,0:08:12.319
right after the civil war ended in 1865

0:08:10.000,0:08:14.960
and the u.s has a lot more military

0:08:12.319,0:08:18.319
power because of the civil war right

0:08:14.960,0:08:18.639
and so at the time mexico is being ruled

0:08:18.319,0:08:21.520
by

0:08:18.639,0:08:23.360
emperor maximilian who had been put into

0:08:21.520,0:08:25.759
power by the french government because

0:08:23.360,0:08:26.560
mexico owed france a lot of debt so

0:08:25.759,0:08:28.400
they’re like okay

0:08:26.560,0:08:30.319
we’re gonna put this guy in charge of

0:08:28.400,0:08:33.279
you um

0:08:30.319,0:08:34.640
and the us they don’t like that france

0:08:33.279,0:08:37.360
has so much influence

0:08:34.640,0:08:38.959
in their neighboring country’s politics

0:08:37.360,0:08:41.599
and so they decide to provide

0:08:38.959,0:08:42.880
military and diplomatic support to

0:08:41.599,0:08:44.880
benito flores

0:08:42.880,0:08:47.519
who is the president of the mexican

0:08:44.880,0:08:50.000
republic and

0:08:47.519,0:08:50.880
emperor maximilian is executed on the

0:08:50.000,0:08:54.240
orders of

0:08:50.880,0:08:54.800
benito forest so that’s like a big deal

0:08:54.240,0:08:58.080
though

0:08:54.800,0:09:01.200
yeah we we supported that and

0:08:58.080,0:09:02.240
helped make that happen and so that kind

0:09:01.200,0:09:04.240
of like

0:09:02.240,0:09:05.920
not only does that like solidify our

0:09:04.240,0:09:06.720
commitment to the monroe doctrine but it

0:09:05.920,0:09:08.880
shows that

0:09:06.720,0:09:10.320
hey we actually have the power to follow

0:09:08.880,0:09:13.440
through with this

0:09:10.320,0:09:17.040
uh definition i’m always confused on

0:09:13.440,0:09:19.360
the us’s relation with france like i

0:09:17.040,0:09:20.640
i need a timeline of do we like them do

0:09:19.360,0:09:22.240
we not like them because

0:09:20.640,0:09:24.720
we’re allies at one point for the

0:09:22.240,0:09:26.080
american revolution and now we’re not

0:09:24.720,0:09:28.800
now we’re trying to make sure that they

0:09:26.080,0:09:32.160
don’t expand territory it’s

0:09:28.800,0:09:32.480
yeah i also am like very confused about

0:09:32.160,0:09:35.920
that

0:09:32.480,0:09:37.279
also i just watched uh hamilton on

0:09:35.920,0:09:40.240
disney plaza and so like

0:09:37.279,0:09:42.000
yeah there’s like uh lafayette and like

0:09:40.240,0:09:44.320
he’s a good guy but then i don’t know

0:09:42.000,0:09:46.480
now we don’t like france and so

0:09:44.320,0:09:49.839
yeah i feel like we always liked france

0:09:46.480,0:09:52.480
though we love our french viewers

0:09:49.839,0:09:54.560
like i feel like because even when they

0:09:52.480,0:09:56.640
had the revolution we still were

0:09:54.560,0:09:58.800
like thomas jefferson is like lobbying

0:09:56.640,0:10:00.720
for us to still like send funds and like

0:09:58.800,0:10:04.160
help france out in their revolution

0:10:00.720,0:10:05.920
and then we decide not to yeah you know

0:10:04.160,0:10:07.519
what i think like the root of the

0:10:05.920,0:10:08.959
problem isn’t like whether or not we

0:10:07.519,0:10:11.600
like france right now it’s just like we

0:10:08.959,0:10:14.800
don’t want them to have influence

0:10:11.600,0:10:16.480
in the region um sorry i have like

0:10:14.800,0:10:18.160
something in my eye

0:10:16.480,0:10:19.839
yeah i just think we we don’t want them

0:10:18.160,0:10:22.160
to have influence

0:10:19.839,0:10:24.480
like on mexico’s politics just because

0:10:22.160,0:10:27.279
we want the whole hemisphere to

0:10:24.480,0:10:27.680
to ourselves we’re not at all we’re like

0:10:27.279,0:10:29.760
yeah

0:10:27.680,0:10:31.360
it’s not about them it’s like it’s not

0:10:29.760,0:10:34.560
you it’s me

0:10:31.360,0:10:37.760
to me not that we don’t like you we want

0:10:34.560,0:10:40.880
all of this to ourselves without yeah

0:10:37.760,0:10:42.160
without any uh pushback so so yeah i

0:10:40.880,0:10:45.680
think that’s what it is

0:10:42.160,0:10:48.800
but i don’t know france yeah shout

0:10:45.680,0:10:53.360
french viewers but yeah so

0:10:48.800,0:10:56.320
after this um the us is propelled by

0:10:53.360,0:10:57.760
manifest destiny and it continues to

0:10:56.320,0:11:00.560
expand its influence

0:10:57.760,0:11:01.360
all around the world so we see america

0:11:00.560,0:11:04.079
is acquiring

0:11:01.360,0:11:05.519
a bunch of overseas territory from the

0:11:04.079,0:11:08.560
spanish-american war

0:11:05.519,0:11:09.279
which we’ll cover soon hopefully and

0:11:08.560,0:11:12.560
then

0:11:09.279,0:11:15.440
also in the pacific islands um

0:11:12.560,0:11:16.959
and this helps solidify the us’s role as

0:11:15.440,0:11:19.839
a world power

0:11:16.959,0:11:20.399
and it also gives like the necessary

0:11:19.839,0:11:22.480
strength

0:11:20.399,0:11:24.160
again to back up this doctrine so we’re

0:11:22.480,0:11:25.519
just like acquiring land and we’re like

0:11:24.160,0:11:29.680
yes we are

0:11:25.519,0:11:32.640
like we are a major world player and

0:11:29.680,0:11:34.079
like what the big changing point um is

0:11:32.640,0:11:36.880
in 1904

0:11:34.079,0:11:38.880
when european creditors were threatening

0:11:36.880,0:11:40.079
to send in armed forces to latin

0:11:38.880,0:11:44.160
american countries

0:11:40.079,0:11:47.200
who hadn’t paid back their debt yet and

0:11:44.160,0:11:47.519
so president theodore roosevelt he steps

0:11:47.200,0:11:50.399
in

0:11:47.519,0:11:52.800
and he sends u.s marines to nicaragua

0:11:50.399,0:11:54.959
haiti and the dominican republic

0:11:52.800,0:11:57.600
in order to ward off these european

0:11:54.959,0:12:00.160
creditors and he says

0:11:57.600,0:12:02.000
quote in the western hemisphere the

0:12:00.160,0:12:03.279
adherence of the united states to the

0:12:02.000,0:12:05.680
monroe doctrine

0:12:03.279,0:12:06.720
may force the united states however

0:12:05.680,0:12:09.360
reluctantly

0:12:06.720,0:12:10.079
in a flag in flagrant cases of such

0:12:09.360,0:12:12.800
wrongdoing

0:12:10.079,0:12:13.839
or impotence to the exercise of an

0:12:12.800,0:12:17.360
international

0:12:13.839,0:12:19.040
police power unquote and so

0:12:17.360,0:12:20.959
yeah yeah go ahead as you say that’s

0:12:19.040,0:12:22.399
really interesting because

0:12:20.959,0:12:24.240
i’ve been like doing some research on

0:12:22.399,0:12:26.800
the haiti revolution and so

0:12:24.240,0:12:27.600
with haiti’s revolution and them owing

0:12:26.800,0:12:29.519
debts to

0:12:27.600,0:12:31.120
france which were ridiculous we’ll talk

0:12:29.519,0:12:32.959
about it in another episode

0:12:31.120,0:12:34.320
but it’s interesting that the monroe

0:12:32.959,0:12:37.680
doctrine had

0:12:34.320,0:12:38.320
them maybe defend like haiti and these

0:12:37.680,0:12:41.360
like

0:12:38.320,0:12:42.800
other central american countries when a

0:12:41.360,0:12:44.320
lot of these countries are refusing to

0:12:42.800,0:12:46.399
do trade with haiti because of that

0:12:44.320,0:12:48.959
revolution

0:12:46.399,0:12:50.800
thoughts on that that’s interesting yeah

0:12:48.959,0:12:52.399
okay honestly i don’t know too much

0:12:50.800,0:12:54.160
about the haiti

0:12:52.399,0:12:56.160
haitian revolution so i’m really excited

0:12:54.160,0:12:56.800
to learn more about that in a future

0:12:56.160,0:13:00.560
episode

0:12:56.800,0:13:02.320
but yeah and also like just like overall

0:13:00.560,0:13:03.360
with this whole like oh you can’t

0:13:02.320,0:13:06.560
colonize

0:13:03.360,0:13:08.480
latin america like i not to be like

0:13:06.560,0:13:11.440
super cynical but i don’t think it’s

0:13:08.480,0:13:13.040
like out of like reasons of like oh we

0:13:11.440,0:13:14.560
have a pure heart like we don’t want you

0:13:13.040,0:13:15.839
to be colonized i think it’s just we

0:13:14.560,0:13:18.560
don’t want

0:13:15.839,0:13:20.000
european powers influenced in our

0:13:18.560,0:13:23.040
quote-unquote backyard

0:13:20.000,0:13:24.720
so to do with um

0:13:23.040,0:13:26.720
our relation with haiti too it’s like

0:13:24.720,0:13:28.880
yeah we’re not gonna let these

0:13:26.720,0:13:31.440
debtors come in but not because we’re

0:13:28.880,0:13:34.000
like yeah not because we like you guys

0:13:31.440,0:13:34.959
but it’s because we don’t want them

0:13:34.000,0:13:37.279
having power

0:13:34.959,0:13:38.000
near us so i think yeah that’s where

0:13:37.279,0:13:42.959
this

0:13:38.000,0:13:45.199
gets tricky and yeah but like regardless

0:13:42.959,0:13:46.720
like this like theodore roosevelt

0:13:45.199,0:13:49.199
literally says we’re the international

0:13:46.720,0:13:49.920
police power of the western hemisphere

0:13:49.199,0:13:53.680
which is

0:13:49.920,0:13:57.199
a huge deal and like his whole

0:13:53.680,0:13:59.680
viewpoint his whole um foreign policy

0:13:57.199,0:14:01.519
theory i guess would later be known as

0:13:59.680,0:14:04.880
the big stick policy

0:14:01.519,0:14:07.279
because he has this davis slogan towards

0:14:04.880,0:14:08.000
foreign policy speak softly and carry a

0:14:07.279,0:14:11.440
big stick

0:14:08.000,0:14:15.120
you will go far so this basically means

0:14:11.440,0:14:17.839
that like hey let’s focus on negotiation

0:14:15.120,0:14:20.000
and cooperation but also like don’t

0:14:17.839,0:14:21.760
forget we have all this military power

0:14:20.000,0:14:23.839
and we’re really not afraid to use it

0:14:21.760,0:14:25.120
against you if we need to

0:14:23.839,0:14:26.880
so that’s kind of what the big stick

0:14:25.120,0:14:29.120
policy is and

0:14:26.880,0:14:31.600
actually like in a speech he tells the

0:14:29.120,0:14:33.600
audience remember the monroe doctrine

0:14:31.600,0:14:34.959
will be respected as long as we have a

0:14:33.600,0:14:37.839
first class navy

0:14:34.959,0:14:39.839
so he is really like adamant like

0:14:37.839,0:14:40.639
president roosevelt is really adamant

0:14:39.839,0:14:43.600
about

0:14:40.639,0:14:44.320
expanding u.s influence all around the

0:14:43.600,0:14:47.440
world

0:14:44.320,0:14:49.279
um and yeah expanding the interpretation

0:14:47.440,0:14:52.320
of the monroe doctrine

0:14:49.279,0:14:52.880
uh and so this might seem like common

0:14:52.320,0:14:55.920
sense

0:14:52.880,0:14:56.639
today because it’s kind of like it’s

0:14:55.920,0:14:58.639
really shaped

0:14:56.639,0:14:59.680
what our foreign policy strategy looks

0:14:58.639,0:15:02.720
like today so we

0:14:59.680,0:15:05.600
kind of see similar thoughts um

0:15:02.720,0:15:07.120
and theories today but like this is

0:15:05.600,0:15:07.760
really crazy at the time because if you

0:15:07.120,0:15:10.160
think about

0:15:07.760,0:15:10.880
other empires at the time like the

0:15:10.160,0:15:13.519
spanish

0:15:10.880,0:15:15.120
empire french british empire like their

0:15:13.519,0:15:16.959
whole theory has kind of just been to

0:15:15.120,0:15:18.800
like send a bunch of

0:15:16.959,0:15:20.560
ships and like military power and just

0:15:18.800,0:15:21.839
like go to war with like all these

0:15:20.560,0:15:23.760
territories

0:15:21.839,0:15:25.519
but then roosevelt comes in and he’s

0:15:23.760,0:15:28.480
like okay yeah we could

0:15:25.519,0:15:30.399
send in military power but it’s more

0:15:28.480,0:15:31.920
about like scaring people

0:15:30.399,0:15:33.680
and like threatening you through

0:15:31.920,0:15:35.440
negotiation so it’s

0:15:33.680,0:15:36.720
i don’t know i just thought it’s really

0:15:35.440,0:15:37.279
interesting because it’s a pretty big

0:15:36.720,0:15:41.360
change

0:15:37.279,0:15:43.440
um and yeah so obviously roosevelt

0:15:41.360,0:15:44.399
expands the interpretation of the monroe

0:15:43.440,0:15:48.000
doctrine

0:15:44.399,0:15:51.120
and it basically justifies military

0:15:48.000,0:15:55.120
interventions in latin america and the

0:15:51.120,0:15:58.079
caribbean um so it’s a really big deal

0:15:55.120,0:15:58.639
but then president so then we flash

0:15:58.079,0:16:01.839
forward

0:15:58.639,0:16:04.639
to the cold war 21st century

0:16:01.839,0:16:05.279
oh sorry this is not the clover okay

0:16:04.639,0:16:07.839
okay

0:16:05.279,0:16:09.680
so then if we flash forward to president

0:16:07.839,0:16:12.399
franklin d roosevelt

0:16:09.680,0:16:13.040
he replaces the big stick policy with

0:16:12.399,0:16:16.240
the good

0:16:13.040,0:16:18.160
neighbor policy and this focuses on

0:16:16.240,0:16:20.639
cooperation and trade

0:16:18.160,0:16:23.040
rather than military force in order to

0:16:20.639,0:16:25.440
improve relations in latin american

0:16:23.040,0:16:27.199
with latin american countries and so for

0:16:25.440,0:16:29.600
example the organization

0:16:27.199,0:16:30.720
for american states is created in order

0:16:29.600,0:16:32.480
to strengthen

0:16:30.720,0:16:35.120
cooperation in the western hemisphere

0:16:32.480,0:16:38.320
and it still exists today which is cool

0:16:35.120,0:16:40.320
uh but this does not stop future leaders

0:16:38.320,0:16:41.680
from using the monroe doctrine in order

0:16:40.320,0:16:44.079
to justify

0:16:41.680,0:16:45.920
military invention interventions in the

0:16:44.079,0:16:48.560
western hemisphere

0:16:45.920,0:16:50.639
so president john f kennedy actually

0:16:48.560,0:16:54.079
invoked the monroe doctrine

0:16:50.639,0:16:56.560
during the cuban missile crisis in 1962

0:16:54.079,0:16:58.560
when he ordered an air and naval

0:16:56.560,0:17:01.199
quarantine of cuba

0:16:58.560,0:17:02.399
after the soviet union started building

0:17:01.199,0:17:04.959
missile launching

0:17:02.399,0:17:06.319
sites there and so that’s a big deal

0:17:04.959,0:17:08.160
because again like

0:17:06.319,0:17:09.360
if you think about it like the us really

0:17:08.160,0:17:12.959
doesn’t have

0:17:09.360,0:17:15.679
the right to like go send

0:17:12.959,0:17:16.319
um i guess forces there and like police

0:17:15.679,0:17:18.640
things but

0:17:16.319,0:17:20.319
because of this monroe doctrine like it

0:17:18.640,0:17:23.919
really establishes

0:17:20.319,0:17:26.720
our foreign policy strategy and our role

0:17:23.919,0:17:27.360
our perceived role in the region and

0:17:26.720,0:17:30.640
because

0:17:27.360,0:17:32.880
we send these troops to cuba

0:17:30.640,0:17:34.799
um and have this quarantine there which

0:17:32.880,0:17:35.679
basically means like we like blockade it

0:17:34.799,0:17:39.039
and we’re like hey

0:17:35.679,0:17:41.200
no one can come in or out um so after

0:17:39.039,0:17:43.039
several days of this the soviet union

0:17:41.200,0:17:45.919
begins to dismantle

0:17:43.039,0:17:47.280
its sights and withdraw its missiles so

0:17:45.919,0:17:49.679
it’s effective it works

0:17:47.280,0:17:51.200
um which also like cuban missile crisis

0:17:49.679,0:17:52.400
like we should cover that in a future

0:17:51.200,0:17:56.320
episode oh definitely

0:17:52.400,0:17:59.600
um so after this after

0:17:56.320,0:18:03.200
uh jfk and the cuban missile crisis you

0:17:59.600,0:18:05.919
rarely hear presidents explicitly use

0:18:03.200,0:18:08.320
the word monroe doctrine to justify

0:18:05.919,0:18:10.400
their foreign policy decision making

0:18:08.320,0:18:12.320
but like even if they’re not saying it

0:18:10.400,0:18:15.840
out loud the monroe doctrines

0:18:12.320,0:18:18.080
history and its legacy nonetheless

0:18:15.840,0:18:20.080
influenced their opinions and their

0:18:18.080,0:18:20.559
perspective of america’s role in the

0:18:20.080,0:18:22.640
region

0:18:20.559,0:18:24.720
um so do you know like what the most

0:18:22.640,0:18:28.000
recent use of the monroe doctrine

0:18:24.720,0:18:31.200
has been maybe like an example yeah

0:18:28.000,0:18:34.400
so i think well that’s the thing is like

0:18:31.200,0:18:36.960
um presidents don’t really

0:18:34.400,0:18:39.679
say like they don’t really use the

0:18:36.960,0:18:42.640
monroe doctrine explicitly to justify

0:18:39.679,0:18:44.000
like what their decision-making um and

0:18:42.640,0:18:45.760
they don’t really say like oh i’m gonna

0:18:44.000,0:18:47.200
use the monroe doctrine because again

0:18:45.760,0:18:49.440
it’s just a declaration

0:18:47.200,0:18:50.240
like it’s not really a treaty so i think

0:18:49.440,0:18:52.160
jfk

0:18:50.240,0:18:54.400
was like the last one to say like hey

0:18:52.160,0:18:54.960
like talk about them in rhode island and

0:18:54.400,0:18:58.640
be like

0:18:54.960,0:19:01.760
this gives us the right and the power

0:18:58.640,0:19:05.440
to intervene in cuba’s affairs

0:19:01.760,0:19:07.919
um but like as

0:19:05.440,0:19:10.240
yeah but that doesn’t mean that like the

0:19:07.919,0:19:12.640
u.s has a very long history of

0:19:10.240,0:19:13.679
intervening in the regional affairs of

0:19:12.640,0:19:16.000
latin america

0:19:13.679,0:19:17.280
so yeah so the history of u.s influence

0:19:16.000,0:19:19.280
in latin america

0:19:17.280,0:19:20.720
is very controversial and pretty

0:19:19.280,0:19:23.200
polarizing but

0:19:20.720,0:19:25.360
i believe that all americans should be

0:19:23.200,0:19:26.000
aware of all of our country’s history

0:19:25.360,0:19:28.240
not just

0:19:26.000,0:19:29.600
the fun stuff so i’m going to attempt to

0:19:28.240,0:19:32.880
give a very very

0:19:29.600,0:19:35.520
brief and unbiased overview of the

0:19:32.880,0:19:37.280
modern history of u.s influence in the

0:19:35.520,0:19:39.360
region

0:19:37.280,0:19:40.799
and yeah i’m just gonna be presenting

0:19:39.360,0:19:43.600
facts so

0:19:40.799,0:19:45.280
so let’s start with president reagan um

0:19:43.600,0:19:48.480
so president ronald reagan

0:19:45.280,0:19:50.960
sent military aid to el salvador

0:19:48.480,0:19:52.080
during his administration so in the

0:19:50.960,0:19:55.039
1980s

0:19:52.080,0:19:56.160
a civil war broke out in the country and

0:19:55.039,0:19:58.480
the u.s government

0:19:56.160,0:19:59.280
sent billions of dollars worth of

0:19:58.480,0:20:02.480
economic

0:19:59.280,0:20:05.280
and military aid in order to support

0:20:02.480,0:20:06.640
the salvadoran government so they could

0:20:05.280,0:20:08.799
defeat the

0:20:06.640,0:20:10.240
leftist forces that were trying to

0:20:08.799,0:20:12.480
overthrow the government

0:20:10.240,0:20:14.159
so they wanted the government to remain

0:20:12.480,0:20:15.440
in power they didn’t want them to be

0:20:14.159,0:20:19.360
overthrown

0:20:15.440,0:20:23.600
and 75 000 people died in this conflict

0:20:19.360,0:20:27.280
so yeah it’s a really significant event

0:20:23.600,0:20:28.159
and yeah when you say leftists what does

0:20:27.280,0:20:31.760
that

0:20:28.159,0:20:34.159
mean yeah like politically left

0:20:31.760,0:20:35.840
so people label them as like either

0:20:34.159,0:20:39.280
socialist or communist

0:20:35.840,0:20:42.320
okay yeah um

0:20:39.280,0:20:44.880
and so probably one of the most

0:20:42.320,0:20:46.159
well-known events in president reagan’s

0:20:44.880,0:20:50.000
foreign policy career

0:20:46.159,0:20:52.480
was the us’s involvement in nicaragua

0:20:50.000,0:20:53.520
in what would later be known as the iran

0:20:52.480,0:20:56.960
contra affair

0:20:53.520,0:21:00.240
so have you heard of this before okay

0:20:56.960,0:21:02.240
so actually the iran contra affair is

0:21:00.240,0:21:04.559
especially controversial

0:21:02.240,0:21:05.840
um and of course just a reminder jack

0:21:04.559,0:21:08.640
and i are trying to create an

0:21:05.840,0:21:10.480
apolitical and unbiased environment so

0:21:08.640,0:21:12.320
when we discuss these historical events

0:21:10.480,0:21:15.440
so i’m just going to give a very brief

0:21:12.320,0:21:19.120
overview of facts only so

0:21:15.440,0:21:19.919
in nicaragua there are anti-communist

0:21:19.120,0:21:22.640
contras

0:21:19.919,0:21:23.520
that are battling the communist

0:21:22.640,0:21:25.520
government

0:21:23.520,0:21:28.000
um it’s the communist sandinista

0:21:25.520,0:21:29.039
government so it’s communist versus

0:21:28.000,0:21:30.960
anti-communist

0:21:29.039,0:21:32.080
like a theme we see a lot through

0:21:30.960,0:21:34.640
history

0:21:32.080,0:21:37.039
um and so president reagan supported the

0:21:34.640,0:21:40.400
contras the anti-communist contras

0:21:37.039,0:21:42.840
and he argued that they were the quote

0:21:40.400,0:21:44.240
moral equivalent of the founding fathers

0:21:42.840,0:21:47.200
unquote

0:21:44.240,0:21:48.400
um and at the time the contras received

0:21:47.200,0:21:51.760
much of their funding

0:21:48.400,0:21:55.679
from drug trafficking so

0:21:51.760,0:21:58.880
yeah and across so across the world

0:21:55.679,0:22:00.080
in lebanon seven americans were being

0:21:58.880,0:22:02.640
held hostage

0:22:00.080,0:22:04.480
by iranian-backed terrorists from the

0:22:02.640,0:22:06.720
group hezbollah

0:22:04.480,0:22:08.559
and so sorry like there’s so many

0:22:06.720,0:22:10.720
countries involved in this thing so i

0:22:08.559,0:22:12.080
it’s very confusing and that’s why i

0:22:10.720,0:22:16.240
think a lot of americans

0:22:12.080,0:22:18.640
like maybe don’t understand it fully so

0:22:16.240,0:22:19.840
so yeah they’re in lebanon but they’re

0:22:18.640,0:22:23.600
held by

0:22:19.840,0:22:25.919
iranian terrorists um and so iran

0:22:23.600,0:22:26.720
actually wanted to buy weapons from the

0:22:25.919,0:22:28.880
us

0:22:26.720,0:22:31.200
because at this time they’re at war with

0:22:28.880,0:22:34.559
iraq so they need weapons for their war

0:22:31.200,0:22:37.440
but the us has a trade embargo with

0:22:34.559,0:22:39.280
against iran which means they can’t do

0:22:37.440,0:22:42.799
trade with them

0:22:39.280,0:22:45.600
and so some national security leaders to

0:22:42.799,0:22:46.320
president reagan suggested that an arms

0:22:45.600,0:22:49.039
deal with

0:22:46.320,0:22:51.280
iran would lead to the release of the

0:22:49.039,0:22:53.919
american hostages in lebanon

0:22:51.280,0:22:55.120
and would also improve relations with

0:22:53.919,0:22:58.080
lebanon

0:22:55.120,0:23:00.080
and furthermore the funds that the u.s

0:22:58.080,0:23:02.960
would receive from this arms deal

0:23:00.080,0:23:04.559
could be used to support the contras in

0:23:02.960,0:23:07.679
nicaragua

0:23:04.559,0:23:08.000
but congress had just passed legislation

0:23:07.679,0:23:10.559
that

0:23:08.000,0:23:12.000
limited the power of the cia and the

0:23:10.559,0:23:15.120
department of defense

0:23:12.000,0:23:15.840
in international conflicts so the cia

0:23:15.120,0:23:19.120
would have to

0:23:15.840,0:23:22.000
funnel this money to nicaragua secretly

0:23:19.120,0:23:22.480
and so there are debates over who knew

0:23:22.000,0:23:24.559
what

0:23:22.480,0:23:26.320
was happening especially whether or not

0:23:24.559,0:23:30.400
president reagan knew about

0:23:26.320,0:23:32.000
the secret funds being sent to nicaragua

0:23:30.400,0:23:33.520
and so i that’s where i’m just going to

0:23:32.000,0:23:36.240
leave it at that you can

0:23:33.520,0:23:37.120
do further research that’s that’s really

0:23:36.240,0:23:39.919
hard to follow

0:23:37.120,0:23:41.679
i think i need like a whiteboard drawing

0:23:39.919,0:23:44.640
it’s really like i wish i could

0:23:41.679,0:23:46.000
have it yeah i we need so when we get

0:23:44.640,0:23:48.640
enough income we will

0:23:46.000,0:23:50.720
put it into getting animators to draw

0:23:48.640,0:23:53.360
that out

0:23:50.720,0:23:54.880
oh that’d be so great exciting that’s

0:23:53.360,0:23:57.840
the next step that’s

0:23:54.880,0:23:59.840
my goal that’s my dream for us um yeah

0:23:57.840,0:24:03.120
no that’s like

0:23:59.840,0:24:05.200
confusing to me basically like to

0:24:03.120,0:24:07.039
i guess to summarize in one sentence

0:24:05.200,0:24:09.600
like

0:24:07.039,0:24:11.679
the money that was received from this

0:24:09.600,0:24:12.240
trade deal with iran who was kind of

0:24:11.679,0:24:15.279
like an

0:24:12.240,0:24:18.960
enemy at the time uh

0:24:15.279,0:24:22.240
was used to support rebel

0:24:18.960,0:24:23.679
forces in nicaragua but that had to be

0:24:22.240,0:24:27.279
done in secretly because

0:24:23.679,0:24:29.520
it was not technically legal so

0:24:27.279,0:24:32.000
so that we supported we didn’t support

0:24:29.520,0:24:34.720
rebel groups in iran but we supported

0:24:32.000,0:24:37.600
rebel groups in nicaragua and why did we

0:24:34.720,0:24:41.039
support the rebel groups in nicaragua

0:24:37.600,0:24:43.120
because they were anti-communist and

0:24:41.039,0:24:45.039
was communist there it goes there it

0:24:43.120,0:24:48.000
goes um

0:24:45.039,0:24:49.520
yeah so lebanon hold up why we why are

0:24:48.000,0:24:51.279
we even in lebanon why do we have

0:24:49.520,0:24:52.240
american soldiers that were captive in

0:24:51.279,0:24:55.120
lebanon

0:24:52.240,0:24:56.799
they were they were uh i think if four

0:24:55.120,0:24:58.400
of them were diplomats and then three of

0:24:56.799,0:25:00.159
them were like contractors

0:24:58.400,0:25:01.679
so they were out there like working

0:25:00.159,0:25:04.159
building stuff

0:25:01.679,0:25:05.520
oh and then they just got taken captive

0:25:04.159,0:25:08.080
or hostage yeah

0:25:05.520,0:25:09.039
so they’re in lebanon chilling but then

0:25:08.080,0:25:11.200
this iranian

0:25:09.039,0:25:12.480
back like this iranian terrorist group

0:25:11.200,0:25:14.080
hezbollah they come

0:25:12.480,0:25:15.919
they’re like in lebanon and they’re like

0:25:14.080,0:25:18.320
oh you’re americans like

0:25:15.919,0:25:19.279
we’re taking you hostage in order to

0:25:18.320,0:25:22.559
like

0:25:19.279,0:25:26.320
yeah leverage for leverage and

0:25:22.559,0:25:27.039
yeah okay yeah well interesting super

0:25:26.320,0:25:28.960
complex

0:25:27.039,0:25:31.200
yeah i don’t even the middle east

0:25:28.960,0:25:33.600
conflict i ran in iraq

0:25:31.200,0:25:34.400
they’re in conflict i don’t know what

0:25:33.600,0:25:37.520
that’s about

0:25:34.400,0:25:40.000
yeah yeah we we could do a whole season

0:25:37.520,0:25:43.279
just about the middle east like honestly

0:25:40.000,0:25:47.440
like yeah we should complex history

0:25:43.279,0:25:50.240
um yeah but that’s

0:25:47.440,0:25:51.679
that is a brief summary of the iran

0:25:50.240,0:25:56.400
country affair

0:25:51.679,0:25:58.159
um but so like regardless uh like

0:25:56.400,0:25:59.279
despite all this controversy like the

0:25:58.159,0:26:01.760
fact is that

0:25:59.279,0:26:03.760
the u.s saw themselves as a police power

0:26:01.760,0:26:04.480
and as a regional watchdog in latin

0:26:03.760,0:26:08.400
america

0:26:04.480,0:26:12.279
they like saw themselves as

0:26:08.400,0:26:16.000
like having the power to interfere in

0:26:12.279,0:26:16.320
nicaragua’s affairs right and like even

0:26:16.000,0:26:17.840
if

0:26:16.320,0:26:20.400
no one ever said anything about the

0:26:17.840,0:26:21.360
monroe doctrine like the legacy in the

0:26:20.400,0:26:23.600
history

0:26:21.360,0:26:25.600
of our foreign policy in latin america

0:26:23.600,0:26:26.240
is like rooted in the monroe doctrine so

0:26:25.600,0:26:29.039
that’s why

0:26:26.240,0:26:30.640
like it’s significant um and then

0:26:29.039,0:26:33.760
finally like the last

0:26:30.640,0:26:37.120
event i want to talk about is

0:26:33.760,0:26:40.480
on december 20th 1989 when

0:26:37.120,0:26:43.200
president george h.w bush decided to

0:26:40.480,0:26:45.039
invade panama in order to oust the

0:26:43.200,0:26:48.559
country’s military dictator

0:26:45.039,0:26:52.080
his name was manuel noriega

0:26:48.559,0:26:54.720
and he had been indicted in the u.s on

0:26:52.080,0:26:55.279
drug trafficking charges so we literally

0:26:54.720,0:26:58.080
were like

0:26:55.279,0:26:58.880
hey we want to arrest you even though

0:26:58.080,0:27:01.919
he’s like

0:26:58.880,0:27:04.960
um he’s like a country’s leader or like

0:27:01.919,0:27:06.000
you’re in charge of sending drugs um in

0:27:04.960,0:27:08.400
and out of

0:27:06.000,0:27:09.520
panama and so we’re gonna arrest you so

0:27:08.400,0:27:12.960
literally like

0:27:09.520,0:27:14.880
uh we the u.s sent 9000 troops

0:27:12.960,0:27:16.720
to meet up with the 12 000 troops that

0:27:14.880,0:27:20.080
were already stationed in panama

0:27:16.720,0:27:23.120
and they kind of like blockaded

0:27:20.080,0:27:26.159
uh noriega and

0:27:23.120,0:27:27.039
he yeah eventually he surrendered and he

0:27:26.159,0:27:29.520
was arrested

0:27:27.039,0:27:30.320
and then he was like sent back to the us

0:27:29.520,0:27:33.279
and he

0:27:30.320,0:27:34.799
was sentenced to 40 years in u.s federal

0:27:33.279,0:27:37.440
prison

0:27:34.799,0:27:38.880
with and yeah and again like the fact

0:27:37.440,0:27:41.679
that

0:27:38.880,0:27:43.760
um yeah the whole role is international

0:27:41.679,0:27:46.960
police power regional watchdog

0:27:43.760,0:27:48.320
rooted in the mineral doctrine wow the

0:27:46.960,0:27:51.039
monroe doctrine has

0:27:48.320,0:27:51.600
a very complicated legacy and it’s easy

0:27:51.039,0:27:54.240
to see

0:27:51.600,0:27:56.640
how much its interpretation has changed

0:27:54.240,0:27:58.720
since it was created in the 1800s

0:27:56.640,0:28:00.159
at first it was supposed to prevent

0:27:58.720,0:28:02.320
european powers from

0:28:00.159,0:28:03.600
interfering in the western hemisphere

0:28:02.320,0:28:05.679
but over time

0:28:03.600,0:28:07.360
it would be used to support u.s

0:28:05.679,0:28:09.840
intervention in the affairs

0:28:07.360,0:28:10.880
of latin american countries so

0:28:09.840,0:28:12.399
regardless of

0:28:10.880,0:28:13.919
like whether or not you support the

0:28:12.399,0:28:16.320
modern road doctrine or

0:28:13.919,0:28:18.480
its interpretation most people agree

0:28:16.320,0:28:20.320
that it’s one of the most influential

0:28:18.480,0:28:23.039
policies in u.s history

0:28:20.320,0:28:24.240
and it’s had a huge effect in shaping

0:28:23.039,0:28:26.720
our foreign policy

0:28:24.240,0:28:27.520
strategy and like what the world looks

0:28:26.720,0:28:30.480
like today

0:28:27.520,0:28:32.320
and it’s just so crazy to see how a few

0:28:30.480,0:28:34.799
paragraphs in this speech

0:28:32.320,0:28:36.799
given in the 1800s has significantly

0:28:34.799,0:28:40.480
changed america’s role

0:28:36.799,0:28:43.520
on the world stage and in the region

0:28:40.480,0:28:45.039
so yeah that’s basically the monroe

0:28:43.520,0:28:46.960
doctrine

0:28:45.039,0:28:48.799
it’s wild and it’s so important

0:28:46.960,0:28:51.120
especially for people who

0:28:48.799,0:28:53.200
are looking uh to take the foreign

0:28:51.120,0:28:54.799
service officer test or are interested

0:28:53.200,0:28:55.360
in the history of u.s foreign policy

0:28:54.799,0:28:58.320
like

0:28:55.360,0:28:58.720
this is so significant so yeah great

0:28:58.320,0:29:00.480
yeah

0:28:58.720,0:29:01.840
thank you nat for breaking that down for

0:29:00.480,0:29:13.250
us really enjoyed it

0:29:01.840,0:29:25.840
me it was fun to talk about

0:29:13.250,0:29:27.919
[Music]

Who is Jim Crow? | The Harlem Renaissance

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

In order to respect the emergence of new black artists who redefined what it meant to be black in America, we need to examine what the narrative was of African Americans before the Harlem Renaissance. In this episode Jac talks about the heavy propaganda that was used to create false narratives of African Americans and how that lead to the rise of white supremacy groups and bias in American society. After gaining an understanding of what the narrative was like before the Harlem Renaissance, Jac dives into the background of great artists from this time. We celebrate the remarkable achievements in art and activism, and explore a variety of themes present in this era.

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/roaring-twenties/harlem-renaissance

https://www.history.com/topics/roaring-twenties/harlem-renaissance

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/articles/69395/the-negro-artist-and-the-racial-mountain

https://www.americanheritage.com/blackface-sad-history-minstrel-shows

https://www.history.com/news/was-jim-crow-a-real-person

https://www.history.com/news/kkk-birth-of-a-nation-film

https://www.wlu.edu/alumni/lifelong-learning/campus-programs/the-literature-music-and-art-of-the-harlem-renaissance/

https://www.dclibrary.org/node/1043

https://www.biography.com/activist/web-du-bois
Link to Harlem Renaissance Documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SvqVnSaRePY

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:03.840
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.000,0:00:04.400
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:03.840,0:00:07.839
that

0:00:04.400,0:00:10.400
i’m nat i’m jack and today

0:00:07.839,0:00:11.679
jack is going to be talking about the

0:00:10.400,0:00:14.480
harlem renaissance

0:00:11.679,0:00:16.640
all right hey okay so before we get

0:00:14.480,0:00:19.439
started i do have a few things to say

0:00:16.640,0:00:21.279
so first to our new listeners please

0:00:19.439,0:00:25.279
don’t forget to follow us on twitter

0:00:21.279,0:00:27.160
and instagram at had it oh hgw nkt not

0:00:25.279,0:00:28.720
how do we not know that the tag is

0:00:27.160,0:00:31.840
hdwnkt

0:00:28.720,0:00:32.880
and facebook which is at how did we not

0:00:31.840,0:00:34.800
know that

0:00:32.880,0:00:36.800
uh also if you’re watching us on youtube

0:00:34.800,0:00:39.360
please like this video

0:00:36.800,0:00:40.320
and subscribe to us it will really help

0:00:39.360,0:00:43.360
us out

0:00:40.320,0:00:44.239
um and lastly do check out our patreon

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0:00:44.239,0:00:47.600
if you would like to become a history

0:00:45.840,0:00:50.320
hero where you can get a shout out and

0:00:47.600,0:00:52.640
exclusive access to episode polls

0:00:50.320,0:00:54.559
um also if you’re listening to us on

0:00:52.640,0:00:56.320
apple podcast please rate and leave a

0:00:54.559,0:00:57.039
review if you can we love hearing from

0:00:56.320,0:00:59.600
you

0:00:57.039,0:01:00.079
okay so as an asset i am going to talk

0:00:59.600,0:01:03.120
about

0:01:00.079,0:01:08.159
the harlem renaissance which happened

0:01:03.120,0:01:10.320
around 1918 1920 to the 1930s

0:01:08.159,0:01:12.320
so to talk about the harlem renaissance

0:01:10.320,0:01:14.400
we actually have to go back and talk

0:01:12.320,0:01:17.200
about the great migration

0:01:14.400,0:01:19.280
because the great migration was this

0:01:17.200,0:01:20.720
huge movement in the united states of

0:01:19.280,0:01:23.040
african americans

0:01:20.720,0:01:25.360
from the south to the north and that was

0:01:23.040,0:01:27.759
from 1910 to 1920

0:01:25.360,0:01:28.640
there are a few different reasons for

0:01:27.759,0:01:32.240
that

0:01:28.640,0:01:35.840
and the first of which was world war one

0:01:32.240,0:01:37.680
actually occurs uh from 1914 to 1918

0:01:35.840,0:01:40.079
and then the us actually got involved in

0:01:37.680,0:01:42.720
the war around 1917

0:01:40.079,0:01:45.439
but when the war was happening

0:01:42.720,0:01:47.680
immigration was falling during this time

0:01:45.439,0:01:49.680
so there are less workers around in the

0:01:47.680,0:01:51.439
north and so companies in the north were

0:01:49.680,0:01:54.399
trying to recruit black workers in the

0:01:51.439,0:01:56.560
south to fill the open roles also in

0:01:54.399,0:01:59.439
1915 and 1916 there were natural

0:01:56.560,0:02:01.920
disasters in the south that put many

0:01:59.439,0:02:02.880
black workers and sharecroppers out of

0:02:01.920,0:02:06.079
work

0:02:02.880,0:02:07.439
but the most important um reason

0:02:06.079,0:02:10.000
a lot of african-americans were leaving

0:02:07.439,0:02:11.840
the south was because the south

0:02:10.000,0:02:13.280
for our viewers outside of the united

0:02:11.840,0:02:15.280
states who weren’t familiar was the

0:02:13.280,0:02:18.480
location of the confederacy

0:02:15.280,0:02:19.680
and the confederacy was the side of

0:02:18.480,0:02:21.440
america

0:02:19.680,0:02:23.040
well i guess they committed treason but

0:02:21.440,0:02:25.360
they were fighting to keep

0:02:23.040,0:02:27.360
slavery legal in the united states so

0:02:25.360,0:02:28.400
they seceded which means they separated

0:02:27.360,0:02:30.800
from the union

0:02:28.400,0:02:31.519
and the union is the united states today

0:02:30.800,0:02:35.519
and they

0:02:31.519,0:02:37.599
attacked and then yeah it’s

0:02:35.519,0:02:39.360
the confederacy is still widely debated

0:02:37.599,0:02:40.800
as to what they were fighting for today

0:02:39.360,0:02:43.120
but uh

0:02:40.800,0:02:44.720
slavery is a part of it whether you want

0:02:43.120,0:02:48.239
to acknowledge that or not so

0:02:44.720,0:02:51.200
yeah yeah so because

0:02:48.239,0:02:51.599
the they were fighting for slavery there

0:02:51.200,0:02:54.239
were

0:02:51.599,0:02:55.120
extremely vicious racists white

0:02:54.239,0:02:57.519
supremacists

0:02:55.120,0:02:58.800
and constant lynchings very concentrated

0:02:57.519,0:03:02.080
in the south

0:02:58.800,0:03:04.480
and the images from this time are

0:03:02.080,0:03:05.840
literally horrific this isn’t even like

0:03:04.480,0:03:08.400
in slavery this is like

0:03:05.840,0:03:10.080
slavery is over um as we talked about in

0:03:08.400,0:03:11.920
our juneteenth episode you know it ended

0:03:10.080,0:03:14.879
in 1865.

0:03:11.920,0:03:16.319
um but slavery is over and they’re still

0:03:14.879,0:03:19.360
like ridiculously

0:03:16.319,0:03:20.080
vicious racist in the south and the

0:03:19.360,0:03:22.959
images

0:03:20.080,0:03:24.799
are literally like stuff that keeps you

0:03:22.959,0:03:25.760
up at night it’s just like huge groups

0:03:24.799,0:03:28.720
of 50 plus

0:03:25.760,0:03:30.159
standing over mangled black bodies after

0:03:28.720,0:03:32.480
lynchings or massacres

0:03:30.159,0:03:33.599
it’s like small children like smiling

0:03:32.480,0:03:36.640
and it’s like

0:03:33.599,0:03:37.680
yeah yeah it’s like these family events

0:03:36.640,0:03:39.760
and picnics

0:03:37.680,0:03:42.239
anyways horrible conditions i cannot

0:03:39.760,0:03:44.159
even begin to imagine the amount of fear

0:03:42.239,0:03:45.440
that these people were having to go

0:03:44.159,0:03:47.120
through

0:03:45.440,0:03:48.400
and like also sorry i don’t know if

0:03:47.120,0:03:50.000
you’re going to mention this but like a

0:03:48.400,0:03:51.760
lot of people

0:03:50.000,0:03:53.280
kind of blame the south and i was like

0:03:51.760,0:03:54.239
oh well all the lynchings occurred in

0:03:53.280,0:03:56.959
the south like no

0:03:54.239,0:03:57.519
like they occurred in the north as well

0:03:56.959,0:03:59.599
like

0:03:57.519,0:04:00.959
up until it wasn’t that long ago it’s

0:03:59.599,0:04:03.599
like to like the 60s

0:04:00.959,0:04:05.120
70s like i could be wrong but it could

0:04:03.599,0:04:07.760
be even more recent than that

0:04:05.120,0:04:09.840
but no you’re right where so we can’t

0:04:07.760,0:04:11.519
just like blame it on one certain area

0:04:09.840,0:04:13.040
and be like oh the rest of us are okay

0:04:11.519,0:04:14.799
like it happened ever and you’re right

0:04:13.040,0:04:16.160
like it would it’s a fam it would be a

0:04:14.799,0:04:17.919
family event

0:04:16.160,0:04:19.120
and people would take like postcards i

0:04:17.919,0:04:20.400
also don’t know if you’re gonna go into

0:04:19.120,0:04:22.320
that but like

0:04:20.400,0:04:23.680
yeah people would take pictures and send

0:04:22.320,0:04:26.000
it to

0:04:23.680,0:04:27.440
families members and friends and it’s

0:04:26.000,0:04:29.440
just like

0:04:27.440,0:04:30.960
it’s disgusting i can’t even also in

0:04:29.440,0:04:32.800
addition to that black people were

0:04:30.960,0:04:34.960
unable to make a living for themselves

0:04:32.800,0:04:35.440
in the south there was the emergence of

0:04:34.960,0:04:37.840
black

0:04:35.440,0:04:39.680
codes which were restrictive laws

0:04:37.840,0:04:41.840
designed to limit the freedom of african

0:04:39.680,0:04:42.320
americans and ensure their availability

0:04:41.840,0:04:45.440
as

0:04:42.320,0:04:47.440
cheap labor after the end of slavery so

0:04:45.440,0:04:49.440
it was a legal way to continue their

0:04:47.440,0:04:50.400
abuse these labor contracts were very

0:04:49.440,0:04:53.360
predatory

0:04:50.400,0:04:55.280
they were low paid they didn’t really

0:04:53.360,0:04:57.280
have a lot of rights in negotiation

0:04:55.280,0:04:58.800
also black codes limited their right to

0:04:57.280,0:05:01.120
vote and denied them the right to

0:04:58.800,0:05:02.960
testify against whites they were also

0:05:01.120,0:05:04.880
not allowed to serve on juries

0:05:02.960,0:05:06.720
which is a huge deal to not have

0:05:04.880,0:05:08.960
government

0:05:06.720,0:05:10.560
representation not even being able to

0:05:08.960,0:05:11.600
have your own rights as an american

0:05:10.560,0:05:13.759
citizen

0:05:11.600,0:05:14.960
go off the whole jury duty thing like of

0:05:13.759,0:05:16.479
course like that’s your right as an

0:05:14.960,0:05:18.400
american citizen too but if you’re

0:05:16.479,0:05:20.160
thinking about like if you’re

0:05:18.400,0:05:21.680
uh a black american and you’re being

0:05:20.160,0:05:24.960
tried at court and it’s

0:05:21.680,0:05:26.639
only light jury like i wonder like how

0:05:24.960,0:05:28.000
can that not be biased you know

0:05:26.639,0:05:30.080
and how can that not affect your

0:05:28.000,0:05:32.720
sentencing so

0:05:30.080,0:05:34.479
like beyond that okay like it’s your

0:05:32.720,0:05:37.919
right like it’s gonna affect

0:05:34.479,0:05:39.840
the um i guess rulings of the court and

0:05:37.919,0:05:40.320
yeah right and how is that diversity of

0:05:39.840,0:05:42.960
thought

0:05:40.320,0:05:44.080
it’s like the same groups of people from

0:05:42.960,0:05:46.080
similar background

0:05:44.080,0:05:47.759
anyways and yes nat you did good i have

0:05:46.080,0:05:50.080
it in here spoiler alert

0:05:47.759,0:05:51.520
racism was hardly any better in the

0:05:50.080,0:05:54.639
north i

0:05:51.520,0:05:56.479
cannot imagine like that completely

0:05:54.639,0:05:58.160
did a great job yeah lynchings were not

0:05:56.479,0:05:58.720
any better in the north discrimination

0:05:58.160,0:06:01.840
was not

0:05:58.720,0:06:03.919
better in the north so by 1920 about 300

0:06:01.840,0:06:05.120
000 african americans from the south

0:06:03.919,0:06:07.680
moved north

0:06:05.120,0:06:09.440
one of the most popular destinations to

0:06:07.680,0:06:12.000
move to was a place called

0:06:09.440,0:06:12.000
harlem

0:06:12.880,0:06:16.800
so harlem was a neighborhood in new york

0:06:14.880,0:06:18.160
city it was originally built for upper

0:06:16.800,0:06:20.720
class white people

0:06:18.160,0:06:22.479
but due to rapid over development the

0:06:20.720,0:06:23.120
landlords were really desperate to get

0:06:22.479,0:06:25.280
tenants

0:06:23.120,0:06:27.440
in the area then we start to see middle

0:06:25.280,0:06:29.919
class black families migrate into

0:06:27.440,0:06:31.360
it which causes white people to flee

0:06:29.919,0:06:33.120
they did try to

0:06:31.360,0:06:34.560
prevent more black people from moving

0:06:33.120,0:06:37.600
and ball ultimately failed

0:06:34.560,0:06:38.720
it is regarded as a black cultural mecca

0:06:37.600,0:06:40.880
and is credited

0:06:38.720,0:06:42.160
rightly so as the birthplace of the

0:06:40.880,0:06:45.199
harlem renaissance

0:06:42.160,0:06:47.600
so to refresh your memory renaissance is

0:06:45.199,0:06:49.759
a french word that means rebirth

0:06:47.600,0:06:52.080
so the harlem renaissance was really the

0:06:49.759,0:06:52.720
rebirth or redefinement of the black

0:06:52.080,0:06:56.160
narrative

0:06:52.720,0:06:57.599
in the united states and in order to do

0:06:56.160,0:06:59.599
this episode justice

0:06:57.599,0:07:01.680
to talk about the redefinition of the

0:06:59.599,0:07:04.000
black narrative we need to talk about

0:07:01.680,0:07:05.199
what the black narrative was before in

0:07:04.000,0:07:09.039
the united states

0:07:05.199,0:07:10.240
you have to learn specifically how white

0:07:09.039,0:07:12.240
americans were portraying

0:07:10.240,0:07:14.560
and perceiving black people to the

0:07:12.240,0:07:15.599
public and i say white and i’m going to

0:07:14.560,0:07:17.360
continue to

0:07:15.599,0:07:18.960
use this term because the narrative of

0:07:17.360,0:07:20.880
black people from the start of their

0:07:18.960,0:07:22.000
enslavement in the united states and up

0:07:20.880,0:07:24.240
until this time

0:07:22.000,0:07:26.479
was defined propagated and distributed

0:07:24.240,0:07:28.080
to the public by white americans

0:07:26.479,0:07:30.080
this i can’t believe i have to say this

0:07:28.080,0:07:33.199
disclaimer but when we

0:07:30.080,0:07:34.960
when i say white americans i’m in no way

0:07:33.199,0:07:37.440
trying to make any listeners who are

0:07:34.960,0:07:39.199
white feel attacked for being white

0:07:37.440,0:07:40.479
we are not responsible for what our

0:07:39.199,0:07:42.800
ancestors have done

0:07:40.479,0:07:44.800
nat and i are both halfway yeah but you

0:07:42.800,0:07:46.720
have to acknowledge

0:07:44.800,0:07:48.879
the sides of the situation and what was

0:07:46.720,0:07:52.160
actually happening you cannot ignore

0:07:48.879,0:07:55.520
color in this historical event

0:07:52.160,0:07:57.520
sorry so that’s a great way to

0:07:55.520,0:07:58.879
phrase it yeah so this is really

0:07:57.520,0:08:00.720
important to acknowledge a note because

0:07:58.879,0:08:03.039
it’s going to illustrate too

0:08:00.720,0:08:04.560
as you’re going to see later how so many

0:08:03.039,0:08:06.800
white supremacy groups

0:08:04.560,0:08:08.160
were able to thrive exist and grow

0:08:06.800,0:08:10.319
during this time frame

0:08:08.160,0:08:12.400
because they were using these portrayals

0:08:10.319,0:08:13.840
to basically brainwash the majority of

0:08:12.400,0:08:15.280
other white americans

0:08:13.840,0:08:17.039
and justify to themselves the

0:08:15.280,0:08:18.400
dehumanization and mistreatment of

0:08:17.039,0:08:21.120
african americans

0:08:18.400,0:08:23.680
nat and i could literally do a whole

0:08:21.120,0:08:26.240
like series talking about the plethora

0:08:23.680,0:08:28.560
of racist propaganda

0:08:26.240,0:08:30.560
throughout our founding that is

0:08:28.560,0:08:32.080
conveniently rushed over in school

0:08:30.560,0:08:32.640
because there’s a lot if you start to

0:08:32.080,0:08:34.479
dig

0:08:32.640,0:08:36.159
but instead we’re going to focus on two

0:08:34.479,0:08:38.880
of the largest ones for right now and

0:08:36.159,0:08:41.200
the first of which is jim crow

0:08:38.880,0:08:43.120
and i’m going to ask nat what do you

0:08:41.200,0:08:44.959
know about jim crow

0:08:43.120,0:08:46.480
jim crow like when i think of jim crow

0:08:44.959,0:08:49.519
law i think about

0:08:46.480,0:08:53.200
uh laws that enforce segregation

0:08:49.519,0:08:54.320
um and just like overall discrimination

0:08:53.200,0:08:57.920
and like

0:08:54.320,0:08:59.360
just like uh i guess like it’s

0:08:57.920,0:09:02.800
separating

0:08:59.360,0:09:03.600
black americans and then white americans

0:09:02.800,0:09:06.640
like

0:09:03.600,0:09:07.120
in our laws and in our legislative

0:09:06.640,0:09:10.720
system

0:09:07.120,0:09:11.519
that’s it okay yeah so jim crow laws and

0:09:10.720,0:09:14.160
jim crow

0:09:11.519,0:09:15.519
are related but jim crow is actually a

0:09:14.160,0:09:18.080
character

0:09:15.519,0:09:19.120
so he’s a fictional character that was

0:09:18.080,0:09:22.240
created by

0:09:19.120,0:09:24.720
yeah do you want to add yeah well yeah

0:09:22.240,0:09:26.399
well yeah so he’s like not a jim crow

0:09:24.720,0:09:28.680
like the person jim crow is not

0:09:26.399,0:09:29.839
a real person but it’s like this

0:09:28.680,0:09:33.120
stereotypical

0:09:29.839,0:09:34.480
like really racist like cartoon that

0:09:33.120,0:09:37.519
white people

0:09:34.480,0:09:40.640
like drew and like created to depict

0:09:37.519,0:09:42.000
african americans and then am i

0:09:40.640,0:09:43.760
right yeah yeah no you’re right you’re

0:09:42.000,0:09:44.560
right it’s we’ll go into the history

0:09:43.760,0:09:46.640
some more

0:09:44.560,0:09:48.160
so jim crow fictional character and it

0:09:46.640,0:09:52.000
was created by a white

0:09:48.160,0:09:53.519
actor for minstrel shows in 1828 so this

0:09:52.000,0:09:56.640
is like slavery is still

0:09:53.519,0:09:58.560
legal during this time and minstrel show

0:09:56.640,0:10:00.320
was a form of entertainment that was run

0:09:58.560,0:10:02.000
by white people where they depicted

0:10:00.320,0:10:04.320
people of african descent

0:10:02.000,0:10:06.160
while wearing what is known as blackface

0:10:04.320,0:10:08.720
so for people who aren’t familiar

0:10:06.160,0:10:10.079
blackface is the practice of covering

0:10:08.720,0:10:12.399
your face and skin

0:10:10.079,0:10:14.000
in black substances to make yourself

0:10:12.399,0:10:15.760
appear black

0:10:14.000,0:10:17.680
so these shows and practices of

0:10:15.760,0:10:19.680
blackface would portray black people in

0:10:17.680,0:10:22.240
a degrading light as dimwitted

0:10:19.680,0:10:24.480
evil and then they would proceed to

0:10:22.240,0:10:26.399
profit off of the dehumanization and

0:10:24.480,0:10:29.600
degradation of these people

0:10:26.399,0:10:32.000
so jim crow was a character of a clumsy

0:10:29.600,0:10:34.160
dim-witted black slave and he served as

0:10:32.000,0:10:35.200
inspiration for the development of black

0:10:34.160,0:10:38.399
codes and

0:10:35.200,0:10:40.160
jim crow lies that were named after him

0:10:38.399,0:10:41.760
which were anti-black laws that were

0:10:40.160,0:10:43.519
used to perpetuate racism

0:10:41.760,0:10:45.279
discriminate against and encourage the

0:10:43.519,0:10:47.279
socio-economic oppression of black

0:10:45.279,0:10:48.640
people

0:10:47.279,0:10:50.320
and then the next thing we’re going to

0:10:48.640,0:10:53.519
talk about

0:10:50.320,0:10:56.640
to continue this joyful discussion

0:10:53.519,0:10:59.040
is the birth of a nation film so nat can

0:10:56.640,0:11:02.640
you tell me what you know about it

0:10:59.040,0:11:06.399
oh my goodness okay so birth of a nation

0:11:02.640,0:11:08.480
it was um i guess like propaganda for

0:11:06.399,0:11:12.480
the ku klux klan

0:11:08.480,0:11:15.360
correct and it basically

0:11:12.480,0:11:16.399
uh it was just like really awful and it

0:11:15.360,0:11:20.640
justified

0:11:16.399,0:11:23.279
white supremacy um and basically said

0:11:20.640,0:11:24.160
that non-white people were like the

0:11:23.279,0:11:27.040
reason

0:11:24.160,0:11:28.160
for all the us’s problem is like oh okay

0:11:27.040,0:11:30.800
and also

0:11:28.160,0:11:31.519
like we should just have a white only

0:11:30.800,0:11:33.120
country

0:11:31.519,0:11:34.800
and that’s what we should strive to be

0:11:33.120,0:11:36.720
you did a good job it was

0:11:34.800,0:11:39.680
the birth of a nation was supposed to

0:11:36.720,0:11:42.560
tell the story of the american civil war

0:11:39.680,0:11:43.440
but the reality is it glorified the

0:11:42.560,0:11:47.200
formation

0:11:43.440,0:11:49.200
and existence of the klu klux klan and

0:11:47.200,0:11:50.560
led to its refounding in georgia in

0:11:49.200,0:11:52.399
1915.

0:11:50.560,0:11:54.800
so i don’t know if people knew this but

0:11:52.399,0:11:57.120
the klu klux klan is a white supremacy

0:11:54.800,0:11:58.880
group it has been that way

0:11:57.120,0:12:00.639
since its founding and it was actually

0:11:58.880,0:12:02.320
stamped down by the federal government

0:12:00.639,0:12:04.000
around 1877

0:12:02.320,0:12:05.360
so they already tried to stamp it down

0:12:04.000,0:12:07.360
because of this film

0:12:05.360,0:12:08.959
it led to the reformation of it in

0:12:07.360,0:12:11.120
georgia in 1915

0:12:08.959,0:12:12.240
and that led it to spread throughout the

0:12:11.120,0:12:15.279
south

0:12:12.240,0:12:17.760
wow i had no idea that it

0:12:15.279,0:12:18.560
that the kkk it like died out it died

0:12:17.760,0:12:22.800
down and

0:12:18.560,0:12:25.440
re-emerged right crazy why do you know

0:12:22.800,0:12:26.480
why the federal government was why they

0:12:25.440,0:12:28.399
stamped it down

0:12:26.480,0:12:29.519
yeah because it’s a white supremacy

0:12:28.399,0:12:31.920
group and it’s

0:12:29.519,0:12:33.600
yeah but if yeah i guess that makes

0:12:31.920,0:12:35.279
sense but i don’t know i

0:12:33.600,0:12:36.720
feel like the government hasn’t done a

0:12:35.279,0:12:39.040
lot like

0:12:36.720,0:12:40.399
i’m thinking like late 1800s like they

0:12:39.040,0:12:42.800
weren’t doing a lot

0:12:40.399,0:12:44.240
but this book was saying that you’re

0:12:42.800,0:12:46.800
like you as a country

0:12:44.240,0:12:48.720
is really dependent on the leadership at

0:12:46.800,0:12:52.399
the time right so that’s why

0:12:48.720,0:12:54.240
abraham lincoln is widely praised for

0:12:52.399,0:12:55.360
being one of the greatest presidents of

0:12:54.240,0:12:58.560
all time

0:12:55.360,0:13:00.399
um because at the time you know it’s not

0:12:58.560,0:13:03.440
like everyone was like racism is wrong

0:13:00.399,0:13:04.959
no abraham lincoln was like racism is

0:13:03.440,0:13:07.519
wrong and we’re gonna do whatever it

0:13:04.959,0:13:08.560
takes to like eradicate it from the

0:13:07.519,0:13:10.639
united states

0:13:08.560,0:13:12.399
and because of that leadership this is

0:13:10.639,0:13:16.560
why we went into a war

0:13:12.399,0:13:18.000
if he had not felt this way so strongly

0:13:16.560,0:13:19.920
then like that war would not have

0:13:18.000,0:13:20.720
happened but imagine the streets that we

0:13:19.920,0:13:23.839
have today

0:13:20.720,0:13:25.600
and that that debate times that by like

0:13:23.839,0:13:27.120
10 000. that was like what abraham

0:13:25.600,0:13:28.639
lincoln’s having to go through and the

0:13:27.120,0:13:29.920
reason why we became the country we are

0:13:28.639,0:13:33.040
today is because of

0:13:29.920,0:13:34.240
the leadership that was in that position

0:13:33.040,0:13:36.079
i don’t know where i was going with that

0:13:34.240,0:13:37.600
obviously like

0:13:36.079,0:13:39.279
you’re fine you’re fine we just have to

0:13:37.600,0:13:40.639
bring up abraham lincoln in every

0:13:39.279,0:13:42.480
episode somehow because

0:13:40.639,0:13:46.480
i just love abraham you could fight me

0:13:42.480,0:13:49.519
on that i love abraham lincoln

0:13:46.480,0:13:51.760
the klu klux klan also known as the kkk

0:13:49.519,0:13:52.720
is a terrorist white supremacy group

0:13:51.760,0:13:55.199
formed by

0:13:52.720,0:13:57.199
white protestant nativists and

0:13:55.199,0:13:59.440
confederate veterans

0:13:57.199,0:14:01.040
in 1865 this is when it was formed it

0:13:59.440,0:14:04.079
was anti-black

0:14:01.040,0:14:06.320
it was anti-catholic it was anti-semitic

0:14:04.079,0:14:08.000
it was anti-immigration it was basically

0:14:06.320,0:14:12.079
anti-anyone who was not

0:14:08.000,0:14:12.720
exactly like them so they are most well

0:14:12.079,0:14:15.360
known for

0:14:12.720,0:14:16.000
killing lynching massacring black people

0:14:15.360,0:14:17.680
bombing their

0:14:16.000,0:14:19.760
schools and destroying their homes and

0:14:17.680,0:14:23.920
businesses and this film

0:14:19.760,0:14:26.880
glorified the kkk as saviors for quote

0:14:23.920,0:14:28.720
the helpless white minority unquote that

0:14:26.880,0:14:32.480
was literally in the film

0:14:28.720,0:14:35.839
oh my god are you serious i’m not even i

0:14:32.480,0:14:37.360
was like minority oh i don’t even know

0:14:35.839,0:14:40.959
where it is

0:14:37.360,0:14:43.680
i was like how do i i can’t anyways

0:14:40.959,0:14:45.680
yeah they portrayed black people again

0:14:43.680,0:14:46.160
they were not using black people in the

0:14:45.680,0:14:48.240
film

0:14:46.160,0:14:50.240
mind you they were using white actors in

0:14:48.240,0:14:51.120
blackface and they portrayed them as

0:14:50.240,0:14:54.000
predatory

0:14:51.120,0:14:55.839
scary evil savages that wanted to rape

0:14:54.000,0:14:58.320
and take advantage of white women

0:14:55.839,0:15:00.079
it also really because i did watch this

0:14:58.320,0:15:00.959
film i don’t know how i got through it i

0:15:00.079,0:15:04.000
watched it

0:15:00.959,0:15:06.000
yeah yeah yeah i watched it oh yeah

0:15:04.000,0:15:07.360
i do my research and i was like it

0:15:06.000,0:15:09.440
really portrays the

0:15:07.360,0:15:11.279
slaves as being very happy which is a

0:15:09.440,0:15:13.120
very

0:15:11.279,0:15:14.720
i’m gonna go on a tangent but it’s a

0:15:13.120,0:15:16.639
very common thing

0:15:14.720,0:15:17.920
that people especially in the south

0:15:16.639,0:15:19.760
history textbooks

0:15:17.920,0:15:20.959
uh united daughters of the confederacy

0:15:19.760,0:15:23.519
rewrote southern

0:15:20.959,0:15:25.360
history textbooks and in the state of

0:15:23.519,0:15:26.480
georgia that textbook was used up till

0:15:25.360,0:15:29.199
1970

0:15:26.480,0:15:31.360
and what those textbooks did was play on

0:15:29.199,0:15:31.759
the narrative of a happy slave and that

0:15:31.360,0:15:33.759
is an

0:15:31.759,0:15:35.759
incorrect false narrative that people

0:15:33.759,0:15:37.199
use over and over time and time again to

0:15:35.759,0:15:40.000
justify slavery and

0:15:37.199,0:15:43.759
to lower the severity and horrific

0:15:40.000,0:15:43.759
mistreatment of african-american people

0:15:44.480,0:15:49.839
yeah it’s just it’s important to think

0:15:47.839,0:15:50.880
about who’s writing the narrative it’s

0:15:49.839,0:15:52.720
important to think about who’s writing

0:15:50.880,0:15:54.320
our textbooks like oh my god

0:15:52.720,0:15:55.839
people want to talk about history books

0:15:54.320,0:15:58.320
being biased yes they are

0:15:55.839,0:16:00.160
they are and like that’s why you do

0:15:58.320,0:16:01.120
multiple research and you fact check

0:16:00.160,0:16:03.199
your sources

0:16:01.120,0:16:04.959
and yes our history textbooks in the

0:16:03.199,0:16:06.639
north were biased too

0:16:04.959,0:16:08.240
believe me i don’t think i understood

0:16:06.639,0:16:10.399
like the severity

0:16:08.240,0:16:11.519
of what slavery meant i don’t think i

0:16:10.399,0:16:13.199
understood what

0:16:11.519,0:16:15.199
the civil war meant i don’t think i

0:16:13.199,0:16:17.440
understood what internment camps mean

0:16:15.199,0:16:18.959
really empathize with that fear like

0:16:17.440,0:16:20.959
that fear of not being able to go to

0:16:18.959,0:16:23.040
sleep at night because you don’t know if

0:16:20.959,0:16:24.800
the klu klux klan is gonna come lynch

0:16:23.040,0:16:27.600
your dad lynch you

0:16:24.800,0:16:29.680
like it’s well i mean it’s hard to

0:16:27.600,0:16:30.560
empathize with something that’s just one

0:16:29.680,0:16:33.759
paragraph

0:16:30.560,0:16:37.040
in a giant textbook so

0:16:33.759,0:16:39.199
yeah yeah like it’s it’s it’s not a

0:16:37.040,0:16:41.839
coincidence that like oh you didn’t

0:16:39.199,0:16:45.120
realize the severity of it because

0:16:41.839,0:16:48.800
yeah it gets like two sentences so yeah

0:16:45.120,0:16:50.480
like oh by the way yes

0:16:48.800,0:16:52.639
they’ll they’ll like add a line that

0:16:50.480,0:16:54.320
says like some slave owners were really

0:16:52.639,0:16:57.120
kind to their slaves

0:16:54.320,0:16:59.680
that doesn’t that okay kindness does not

0:16:57.120,0:17:02.720
excuse the fact that it is immoral

0:16:59.680,0:17:05.679
to kidnap people from their homes

0:17:02.720,0:17:06.799
to enslave them to force them into labor

0:17:05.679,0:17:08.640
to rape them

0:17:06.799,0:17:11.520
to murder them to whip that like to

0:17:08.640,0:17:15.760
torture to abuse that is not

0:17:11.520,0:17:18.240
yeah like i don’t i don’t know uh yeah

0:17:15.760,0:17:20.000
so the film was huge propaganda with the

0:17:18.240,0:17:21.839
sole purpose to brainwash

0:17:20.000,0:17:23.360
white americans and create a narrative

0:17:21.839,0:17:25.839
against black people that would further

0:17:23.360,0:17:27.839
justify hate crimes against them

0:17:25.839,0:17:29.280
maybe this was like a cinematic

0:17:27.839,0:17:31.200
accomplishment at the time

0:17:29.280,0:17:32.640
because people widely accepted this as

0:17:31.200,0:17:35.679
historical fact

0:17:32.640,0:17:38.240
there is a scene in there that

0:17:35.679,0:17:39.200
reenacted the assassination of abraham

0:17:38.240,0:17:40.960
lincoln

0:17:39.200,0:17:42.559
which they did my boy dirty i don’t know

0:17:40.960,0:17:46.080
who played abraham lincoln but

0:17:42.559,0:17:47.919
he looked like he was like dying before

0:17:46.080,0:17:50.799
they assassinated him i’m probably gonna

0:17:47.919,0:17:50.799
take this out of the video

0:17:51.679,0:17:54.960
okay but before he was assassinated yeah

0:17:54.320,0:17:57.520
they really

0:17:54.960,0:17:58.000
i was like who played this man anyways

0:17:57.520,0:18:01.360
also

0:17:58.000,0:18:04.880
fun fact not super fun

0:18:01.360,0:18:06.400
but it’s a fact so in the 1920s fresh

0:18:04.880,0:18:07.120
off of the release of the birth of a

0:18:06.400,0:18:10.000
nation

0:18:07.120,0:18:11.840
kkk membership exceeded 4 million

0:18:10.000,0:18:15.360
nationwide

0:18:11.840,0:18:18.400
4 million yeah oh my god

0:18:15.360,0:18:22.480
that’s so much it’s a lot

0:18:18.400,0:18:24.559
it’s a lot a lot of people yeah

0:18:22.480,0:18:25.919
also a lot of fake scientific studies

0:18:24.559,0:18:26.320
were written and published during this

0:18:25.919,0:18:28.720
time

0:18:26.320,0:18:29.520
to all the general public that would

0:18:28.720,0:18:32.559
state

0:18:29.520,0:18:35.760
basically that africans were by nature

0:18:32.559,0:18:37.440
inferior to whites and that they were

0:18:35.760,0:18:39.280
more similar to great apes

0:18:37.440,0:18:40.559
the this is quote unquote intellectual

0:18:39.280,0:18:42.480
white this is the term they used to

0:18:40.559,0:18:44.160
describe themselves and

0:18:42.480,0:18:45.840
classified people of different ethnic

0:18:44.160,0:18:48.320
origin with certain traits

0:18:45.840,0:18:51.039
and it also ranked them by like their

0:18:48.320,0:18:52.960
closeness to intellectual white

0:18:51.039,0:18:54.960
which literally blows my mind because i

0:18:52.960,0:18:57.039
don’t know if this is news to anyone but

0:18:54.960,0:18:59.840
we as humans make borders

0:18:57.039,0:18:59.840
like this is

0:19:00.160,0:19:03.200
this is the first full-length episode

0:19:02.160,0:19:06.559
that

0:19:03.200,0:19:07.520
um at least i’ve posted in two weeks and

0:19:06.559,0:19:09.200
that’s not because i

0:19:07.520,0:19:10.640
was falling behind on research is

0:19:09.200,0:19:12.960
because this research was

0:19:10.640,0:19:15.360
literally so horrific and depressing

0:19:12.960,0:19:18.480
that i was losing a lot of sleep

0:19:15.360,0:19:21.120
and the reason why i’m so upset

0:19:18.480,0:19:22.880
in addition to just the like horrific

0:19:21.120,0:19:24.880
treatment of humans that we have

0:19:22.880,0:19:26.559
done and excused throughout the time is

0:19:24.880,0:19:28.000
also because there’s so much in american

0:19:26.559,0:19:29.520
history that they just don’t tell you

0:19:28.000,0:19:31.200
about in schools

0:19:29.520,0:19:32.720
and they also try to cover it up and

0:19:31.200,0:19:34.880
make lighter than it

0:19:32.720,0:19:36.640
is and that is probably what hurts the

0:19:34.880,0:19:37.039
most and that’s like the premise of nat

0:19:36.640,0:19:39.840
and i

0:19:37.039,0:19:41.520
show is all about popping your own

0:19:39.840,0:19:42.160
bubbles of ignorance and letting

0:19:41.520,0:19:44.320
yourself

0:19:42.160,0:19:46.000
understand what happened and reflect on

0:19:44.320,0:19:49.919
that and make those judgments

0:19:46.000,0:19:51.600
like jack and i are not trying to call

0:19:49.919,0:19:54.080
call out teachers like my mom’s a

0:19:51.600,0:19:56.480
teacher i under like we understand

0:19:54.080,0:19:58.160
how difficult uh teaching is i think

0:19:56.480,0:20:00.720
like the root of the problem

0:19:58.160,0:20:01.760
is the curriculum that teachers are

0:20:00.720,0:20:04.880
being told to teach

0:20:01.760,0:20:07.520
in classrooms and like our textbooks and

0:20:04.880,0:20:08.159
what states are outlining that students

0:20:07.520,0:20:10.400
have to learn

0:20:08.159,0:20:12.159
every year and like yeah you said like

0:20:10.400,0:20:12.480
oh maybe it’s because we’re children but

0:20:12.159,0:20:14.640
like

0:20:12.480,0:20:15.840
i don’t know i’m in high school and i

0:20:14.640,0:20:17.600
feel like

0:20:15.840,0:20:19.840
there’s no excuse like it needs to be

0:20:17.600,0:20:21.840
updated um

0:20:19.840,0:20:23.760
every american should be educated on

0:20:21.840,0:20:25.200
this like i like i don’t know why we

0:20:23.760,0:20:27.919
shouldn’t like

0:20:25.200,0:20:29.120
it’s historical facts like these things

0:20:27.919,0:20:32.640
actually happen

0:20:29.120,0:20:35.919
um and everyone should be aware of them

0:20:32.640,0:20:38.080
yeah we encourage listeners to

0:20:35.919,0:20:39.760
really take the time to dig into the

0:20:38.080,0:20:40.400
research of anything you’re interested

0:20:39.760,0:20:42.480
in

0:20:40.400,0:20:43.600
and especially if you want to dig into

0:20:42.480,0:20:45.360
american history

0:20:43.600,0:20:47.440
i recommend doing it when you’re having

0:20:45.360,0:20:49.840
a good mental health day

0:20:47.440,0:20:50.720
and you’re with a friend even if it’s

0:20:49.840,0:20:52.480
hard it

0:20:50.720,0:20:54.880
deserves your attention it deserves your

0:20:52.480,0:20:56.640
research time uh the images are

0:20:54.880,0:20:58.480
gonna let you know right now the images

0:20:56.640,0:21:01.360
are literally horrific

0:20:58.480,0:21:02.320
yeah just a fair warning it’s it’s gonna

0:21:01.360,0:21:05.760
be hard but

0:21:02.320,0:21:07.520
and like also like shout out to my other

0:21:05.760,0:21:09.679
white americans listening

0:21:07.520,0:21:11.200
like if you guys are like oh i feel so

0:21:09.679,0:21:13.280
uncomfortable when i

0:21:11.200,0:21:14.240
like learn about this i feel so guilty

0:21:13.280,0:21:16.559
i’m like okay

0:21:14.240,0:21:17.280
it doesn’t matter like you have to learn

0:21:16.559,0:21:19.039
about it

0:21:17.280,0:21:20.720
and sit in that discomfort like i’m

0:21:19.039,0:21:22.960
sorry but yeah

0:21:20.720,0:21:24.480
from one of my favorite science podcast

0:21:22.960,0:21:26.400
said something when they were covering a

0:21:24.480,0:21:28.080
happy topic like depression and whether

0:21:26.400,0:21:29.039
or not antidepressants worked and she

0:21:28.080,0:21:31.760
said

0:21:29.039,0:21:33.440
someone was like skewing research on a

0:21:31.760,0:21:35.440
scientific study to

0:21:33.440,0:21:36.480
i guess make the results seem less

0:21:35.440,0:21:38.480
morbid

0:21:36.480,0:21:39.840
and she was like science doesn’t exist

0:21:38.480,0:21:42.000
to make you feel better

0:21:39.840,0:21:43.360
and i i think that can be applied to

0:21:42.000,0:21:44.880
anything science doesn’t exist to make

0:21:43.360,0:21:46.400
you feel better and history doesn’t

0:21:44.880,0:21:48.480
exist to make you feel

0:21:46.400,0:21:49.440
good either you have to look at

0:21:48.480,0:21:51.200
realities

0:21:49.440,0:21:52.480
and then you have to and it always

0:21:51.200,0:21:54.480
question it you know like

0:21:52.480,0:21:55.919
nat and i cross check everything that we

0:21:54.480,0:21:58.559
put out in this episode

0:21:55.919,0:22:00.320
i like and we make mistakes and you can

0:21:58.559,0:22:01.039
find new information and you can change

0:22:00.320,0:22:04.240
your mind

0:22:01.039,0:22:06.720
that’s what learning is all about so

0:22:04.240,0:22:07.520
but you have to you have to like take

0:22:06.720,0:22:11.039
the time

0:22:07.520,0:22:12.159
to learn if we all educate ourselves on

0:22:11.039,0:22:15.440
these ugly truths

0:22:12.159,0:22:18.720
and then we all commit to

0:22:15.440,0:22:20.799
uh improving ourselves as individuals

0:22:18.720,0:22:22.640
and improving ourselves as a nation and

0:22:20.799,0:22:24.559
like making sure

0:22:22.640,0:22:26.080
this awful stuff doesn’t happen again

0:22:24.559,0:22:27.280
and seeing how

0:22:26.080,0:22:29.360
these awful things that happen in the

0:22:27.280,0:22:30.000
past like are affecting everything going

0:22:29.360,0:22:31.760
on today

0:22:30.000,0:22:34.960
and like really evaluating and getting

0:22:31.760,0:22:36.960
into the like ugly parts of american

0:22:34.960,0:22:38.240
society like it’s like how does like

0:22:36.960,0:22:41.919
hundreds of years

0:22:38.240,0:22:43.679
of this rhetoric and legislation being

0:22:41.919,0:22:47.039
passed and like representation

0:22:43.679,0:22:49.840
in media and news like

0:22:47.039,0:22:50.559
for hundreds and hundreds of years is

0:22:49.840,0:22:53.919
affecting

0:22:50.559,0:22:56.559
every american’s bias like like you’re

0:22:53.919,0:22:57.679
oh my god you pass it on you pass your

0:22:56.559,0:22:59.039
biases on

0:22:57.679,0:23:00.720
to your children and then your

0:22:59.039,0:23:03.840
children’s children did

0:23:00.720,0:23:06.000
right also i just want to thank that

0:23:03.840,0:23:06.960
and a lot of my good friends they know

0:23:06.000,0:23:09.039
who they are

0:23:06.960,0:23:11.120
uh you guys have been really lovely

0:23:09.039,0:23:13.200
helping me process all of this and get

0:23:11.120,0:23:16.880
through it so i appreciate you guys

0:23:13.200,0:23:20.559
a lot shout out all right

0:23:16.880,0:23:23.600
so after that heavy

0:23:20.559,0:23:25.520
happy happy heavy last episode

0:23:23.600,0:23:27.440
we are now going to talk about the

0:23:25.520,0:23:29.919
brighter part of the harlem renaissance

0:23:27.440,0:23:31.679
which is how the black narrative changed

0:23:29.919,0:23:33.360
so during the harlem renaissance blacks

0:23:31.679,0:23:34.880
had a newfound freedom to express

0:23:33.360,0:23:36.000
themselves in a way that they didn’t

0:23:34.880,0:23:37.679
have in the south

0:23:36.000,0:23:39.520
and it was a redefinition of black

0:23:37.679,0:23:41.840
expression social leaders of the

0:23:39.520,0:23:44.000
movement believed that art could open up

0:23:41.840,0:23:45.440
the doors to economic opportunity and

0:23:44.000,0:23:47.279
social acceptance

0:23:45.440,0:23:49.120
many of these people had not been able

0:23:47.279,0:23:51.440
to pursue their art and creativity

0:23:49.120,0:23:53.039
to become novelists and writers and

0:23:51.440,0:23:53.840
playwrights so the first person we’re

0:23:53.039,0:23:55.120
going to talk about

0:23:53.840,0:23:56.880
you cannot talk about the harlem

0:23:55.120,0:23:59.679
renaissance without mentioning this guy

0:23:56.880,0:24:00.400
his name is w.e.b dubois have you heard

0:23:59.679,0:24:04.159
of him

0:24:00.400,0:24:06.720
yeah what do you know um

0:24:04.159,0:24:07.760
he’s a poet right and he is also an

0:24:06.720,0:24:11.600
activist

0:24:07.760,0:24:14.720
yeah he’s an actor he wrote

0:24:11.600,0:24:17.679
he’s an author yeah

0:24:14.720,0:24:19.600
so w.e.b dubois he had a goal to

0:24:17.679,0:24:21.520
redefine the perception of the black

0:24:19.600,0:24:22.240
person so he was a scholar and an

0:24:21.520,0:24:24.559
activist

0:24:22.240,0:24:27.080
and was the first african-american to

0:24:24.559,0:24:28.960
earn a phd from harvard university in

0:24:27.080,0:24:31.520
1895.

0:24:28.960,0:24:32.960
i did not know that he literally like

0:24:31.520,0:24:35.039
had to he was not allowed to stay on

0:24:32.960,0:24:36.000
campus past 6 p.m and had to like sit in

0:24:35.039,0:24:39.279
a corner

0:24:36.000,0:24:43.000
but he got that degree

0:24:39.279,0:24:44.960
oh my god yeah so he also co-founded the

0:24:43.000,0:24:46.159
naacp

0:24:44.960,0:24:47.760
people who don’t know what that is that

0:24:46.159,0:24:50.480
is the national association for the

0:24:47.760,0:24:53.679
advancements of colored people

0:24:50.480,0:24:54.480
and fun fact he was mixed black and

0:24:53.679,0:24:56.480
white

0:24:54.480,0:24:58.559
so that’s he was actually able to freely

0:24:56.480,0:25:00.880
attend school with white people

0:24:58.559,0:25:02.640
where he grew up in massachusetts which

0:25:00.880,0:25:06.720
okay represent mixed people

0:25:02.640,0:25:10.400
hey um

0:25:06.720,0:25:12.640
yeah so actually he didn’t experience uh

0:25:10.400,0:25:15.600
jim crow laws until he went to tennessee

0:25:12.640,0:25:17.679
in 1885 for his undergrad degree

0:25:15.600,0:25:19.440
and when he was experiencing that for

0:25:17.679,0:25:21.760
the first time it really sparked his

0:25:19.440,0:25:23.360
analysis of american racism

0:25:21.760,0:25:25.760
and i was like how could how have i

0:25:23.360,0:25:27.440
never heard of w.e.b du bois before and

0:25:25.760,0:25:29.760
i really want to read more of his work

0:25:27.440,0:25:31.440
because i’m so curious and i always

0:25:29.760,0:25:32.159
wonder about how mixed people get

0:25:31.440,0:25:34.159
treated then

0:25:32.159,0:25:35.840
because how do you how do you choose

0:25:34.159,0:25:36.400
which side because people look different

0:25:35.840,0:25:38.960
right

0:25:36.400,0:25:40.799
and so how do the rights get organized

0:25:38.960,0:25:42.320
and i know how the rights got organized

0:25:40.799,0:25:46.240
in apartheid

0:25:42.320,0:25:47.919
which is the segregation of races in

0:25:46.240,0:25:49.840
south africa which we will cover in

0:25:47.919,0:25:51.520
season two

0:25:49.840,0:25:53.360
one of his works that he published was

0:25:51.520,0:25:55.200
called the souls of black folk

0:25:53.360,0:25:57.520
which was a book that elaborated on the

0:25:55.200,0:25:59.440
diversity of black experiences

0:25:57.520,0:26:01.919
and a lot of his work analyzed the

0:25:59.440,0:26:03.919
effects of systemic racism in creating

0:26:01.919,0:26:06.159
poverty-stricken areas in the black

0:26:03.919,0:26:08.159
community he protested lynching

0:26:06.159,0:26:10.640
and race riots and wanted to uplift the

0:26:08.159,0:26:13.039
voices of the african-american community

0:26:10.640,0:26:15.039
he was a huge writer who published many

0:26:13.039,0:26:15.520
works and gave documentation on what it

0:26:15.039,0:26:19.360
was

0:26:15.520,0:26:22.799
like to be black in america at this time

0:26:19.360,0:26:24.799
so fun fact this is my theory on why

0:26:22.799,0:26:26.640
they didn’t teach you about w.e.b

0:26:24.799,0:26:27.919
du bois in school at least they didn’t

0:26:26.640,0:26:29.600
teach me

0:26:27.919,0:26:32.240
it’s probably because when he was 93

0:26:29.600,0:26:34.159
years old this was in 1961 he joined the

0:26:32.240,0:26:35.039
communist party of the united states of

0:26:34.159,0:26:36.640
america

0:26:35.039,0:26:38.480
which i did not realize we had a

0:26:36.640,0:26:40.080
communist party but

0:26:38.480,0:26:42.080
if you were listening to our last

0:26:40.080,0:26:44.240
episode on the red scare we all know how

0:26:42.080,0:26:46.880
americans feel about that

0:26:44.240,0:26:48.320
so that’s probably could be a reason why

0:26:46.880,0:26:50.080
they left it out

0:26:48.320,0:26:51.679
wow interesting okay so then maybe

0:26:50.080,0:26:53.200
that’s it like

0:26:51.679,0:26:55.360
go back to the episode we were talking

0:26:53.200,0:26:56.240
about how the naacp was labeled as

0:26:55.360,0:26:57.760
communist

0:26:56.240,0:26:59.360
yeah i was thinking about that because i

0:26:57.760,0:26:59.679
was like i’m not surprised that they did

0:26:59.360,0:27:02.559
that

0:26:59.679,0:27:03.919
but also with the way segregation was

0:27:02.559,0:27:04.799
being enforced of course they’re going

0:27:03.919,0:27:06.720
to label

0:27:04.799,0:27:08.559
fighting for like equal rights is

0:27:06.720,0:27:10.640
communism the next person we’re going to

0:27:08.559,0:27:12.880
talk about is langston hughes

0:27:10.640,0:27:13.840
have you heard of him oh yeah he’s

0:27:12.880,0:27:16.720
another

0:27:13.840,0:27:18.000
author he’s another american poet

0:27:16.720,0:27:20.320
activist playwright

0:27:18.000,0:27:21.039
he wrote a piece called quote the negro

0:27:20.320,0:27:22.880
artist

0:27:21.039,0:27:24.640
and the racial mountain unquote which

0:27:22.880,0:27:25.440
was a manifesto that called for

0:27:24.640,0:27:28.799
confident

0:27:25.440,0:27:32.159
and unique black literature so

0:27:28.799,0:27:34.399
a direct quote from his book is quote

0:27:32.159,0:27:35.440
we younger negro artists who create now

0:27:34.399,0:27:37.360
intend to express

0:27:35.440,0:27:39.039
our individual dark-skinned selves

0:27:37.360,0:27:41.279
without fear or shame

0:27:39.039,0:27:43.039
if white people are pleased we are glad

0:27:41.279,0:27:45.200
if they are not it doesn’t matter

0:27:43.039,0:27:47.840
we know we are beautiful and ugly too

0:27:45.200,0:27:48.960
the tom tom cries and the tom tom laughs

0:27:47.840,0:27:51.039
if colored people

0:27:48.960,0:27:52.880
are pleased we are glad if they are not

0:27:51.039,0:27:54.080
that displeasure doesn’t matter either

0:27:52.880,0:27:56.159
unquote

0:27:54.080,0:27:57.520
so advocated for you to present your

0:27:56.159,0:27:58.960
experience as it is

0:27:57.520,0:28:02.000
the next person we’re going to talk

0:27:58.960,0:28:05.360
about is lewis armstrong

0:28:02.000,0:28:07.760
oh wow clearly you’ve heard of him so

0:28:05.360,0:28:08.960
he was a famous trumpet player composer

0:28:07.760,0:28:10.559
vocalist and actor

0:28:08.960,0:28:12.559
who was one of the most influential

0:28:10.559,0:28:14.240
figures in jazz music

0:28:12.559,0:28:16.159
so anyone who doesn’t know what jazz

0:28:14.240,0:28:18.080
music is it is a genre

0:28:16.159,0:28:19.760
that originated in african american

0:28:18.080,0:28:22.720
communities in new orleans

0:28:19.760,0:28:23.520
with roots in blues and ragtime ragtime

0:28:22.720,0:28:26.240
is like my

0:28:23.520,0:28:28.080
favorite piano genre ever i love scott

0:28:26.240,0:28:30.159
joplin who was a ragtime

0:28:28.080,0:28:31.600
composer my hands are too small though

0:28:30.159,0:28:35.440
so i never was able to play

0:28:31.600,0:28:37.039
like a ton of rock time so cute though

0:28:35.440,0:28:38.799
i like kept asking my piano teacher i

0:28:37.039,0:28:40.080
was like when can i start maple leaf rag

0:28:38.799,0:28:41.200
she’s like i just don’t think you can

0:28:40.080,0:28:42.880
hit the octave

0:28:41.200,0:28:44.640
and i couldn’t i could like barely reach

0:28:42.880,0:28:48.720
the office

0:28:44.640,0:28:50.480
yeah you’d like to press on nails

0:28:48.720,0:28:52.960
yeah and i actually i wanted to put some

0:28:50.480,0:28:54.640
examples in the podcast of jazz and

0:28:52.960,0:28:55.520
ragtime music for people who aren’t

0:28:54.640,0:28:58.559
familiar

0:28:55.520,0:29:00.000
but i’m not trying to get a suit so i’m

0:28:58.559,0:29:02.480
gonna actually link

0:29:00.000,0:29:03.600
the some videos to examples in our

0:29:02.480,0:29:06.720
youtube description

0:29:03.600,0:29:07.120
so check it out okay yeah subscribe to

0:29:06.720,0:29:09.520
us

0:29:07.120,0:29:11.279
so lewis armstrong performed in harlem a

0:29:09.520,0:29:13.120
lot and then his career really

0:29:11.279,0:29:15.120
blossomed during this era we’re next

0:29:13.120,0:29:16.720
going to talk about aaron douglas

0:29:15.120,0:29:18.559
so he’s known as the father of black

0:29:16.720,0:29:20.640
american art and he adapted

0:29:18.559,0:29:23.360
african techniques to realize paintings

0:29:20.640,0:29:26.320
and murals as well as book illustration

0:29:23.360,0:29:27.600
he was a very very talented artist for

0:29:26.320,0:29:30.000
african artists

0:29:27.600,0:29:31.600
when you paint something which is like

0:29:30.000,0:29:33.440
really opposite to european artists like

0:29:31.600,0:29:34.799
european artists are really realistic at

0:29:33.440,0:29:35.919
least during the italian renaissance

0:29:34.799,0:29:37.600
what we think of

0:29:35.919,0:29:39.039
is like you want to paint it like

0:29:37.600,0:29:41.200
exactly as it is

0:29:39.039,0:29:43.200
and like still life look like just real

0:29:41.200,0:29:45.120
and for african artists

0:29:43.200,0:29:46.880
which i want to state too african

0:29:45.120,0:29:48.559
artists like aaron douglas

0:29:46.880,0:29:49.919
has all the techniques as well he can

0:29:48.559,0:29:51.679
create just as like

0:29:49.919,0:29:53.760
realistic paintings as you want but

0:29:51.679,0:29:54.159
african techniques are really putting

0:29:53.760,0:29:55.760
life

0:29:54.159,0:29:57.120
into something so when you paint a tree

0:29:55.760,0:29:58.320
you don’t just paint the tree as it is

0:29:57.120,0:30:00.720
you like breathe life

0:29:58.320,0:30:02.240
into it and you give it that creativity

0:30:00.720,0:30:04.960
but okay next on the list

0:30:02.240,0:30:07.279
oscar jones oscar jones was the first

0:30:04.960,0:30:09.440
black filmmaker and he made a lot of

0:30:07.279,0:30:09.919
lovely black films featuring actual

0:30:09.440,0:30:13.039
black

0:30:09.919,0:30:15.120
actors hello playing black people in a

0:30:13.039,0:30:16.240
range of characters and personalities

0:30:15.120,0:30:18.960
that are assertive

0:30:16.240,0:30:21.039
articulate sophisticated and it allowed

0:30:18.960,0:30:23.840
black audiences to see themselves

0:30:21.039,0:30:25.760
displayed in a positive light in films

0:30:23.840,0:30:28.640
and they handled very hard subjects like

0:30:25.760,0:30:29.919
miscegenation and the brutality of rape

0:30:28.640,0:30:32.399
and then if anyone forgets what

0:30:29.919,0:30:35.120
miscegenation means it was

0:30:32.399,0:30:36.799
the like separation the belief that like

0:30:35.120,0:30:38.320
racist should not mix

0:30:36.799,0:30:41.520
at all so that was like the

0:30:38.320,0:30:43.440
miscegenation laws in virginia in 1924

0:30:41.520,0:30:45.360
from loving versus virginia case that we

0:30:43.440,0:30:47.440
covered in our episode called

0:30:45.360,0:30:50.960
we were illegal or are we illegal what

0:30:47.440,0:30:53.279
was it something about us being illegal

0:30:50.960,0:30:54.799
yeah yeah we talked about miscegenation

0:30:53.279,0:30:57.200
law so you should check that out

0:30:54.799,0:30:57.840
uh next josephine baker have you heard

0:30:57.200,0:31:00.960
of her

0:30:57.840,0:31:02.880
she’s a singer yeah

0:31:00.960,0:31:04.000
yeah she’s a performer but she also

0:31:02.880,0:31:06.399
fought for racial equality

0:31:04.000,0:31:08.640
by demanding in her contract that they

0:31:06.399,0:31:11.120
contain non-discrimination clauses

0:31:08.640,0:31:11.840
and that her audiences became integrated

0:31:11.120,0:31:13.919
these are

0:31:11.840,0:31:15.519
just a few people from the movement i

0:31:13.919,0:31:17.600
wanted to talk about and there are

0:31:15.519,0:31:19.200
literally so many more the list goes on

0:31:17.600,0:31:20.640
and on of all the black artists that

0:31:19.200,0:31:22.320
emerge in the harlem renaissance

0:31:20.640,0:31:24.480
but if you want us to cover a specific

0:31:22.320,0:31:26.640
person please email us we also saw a

0:31:24.480,0:31:28.880
rice and vibrant nightlife

0:31:26.640,0:31:30.080
it’s really popular to go to harlem for

0:31:28.880,0:31:32.640
the nightlife

0:31:30.080,0:31:34.720
and entrepreneurs in harlem realized

0:31:32.640,0:31:35.279
that some white people wanted to

0:31:34.720,0:31:36.880
experience

0:31:35.279,0:31:39.760
black culture without having to

0:31:36.880,0:31:42.480
socialize with african americans

0:31:39.760,0:31:43.519
so they created clubs to give the black

0:31:42.480,0:31:45.840
experience

0:31:43.519,0:31:48.000
and some of these were the cotton clubs

0:31:45.840,0:31:50.320
smalls paradise and connie’s inn that

0:31:48.000,0:31:51.440
had jazz and dance performers as well as

0:31:50.320,0:31:52.480
illegal alcohol

0:31:51.440,0:31:54.399
because this is the time of the

0:31:52.480,0:31:56.159
prohibition these clubs are actually

0:31:54.399,0:31:57.919
they were very controversial at the time

0:31:56.159,0:32:00.080
some people ridiculed the existence of

0:31:57.919,0:32:02.720
the clubs because they potentially

0:32:00.080,0:32:03.360
exotified black people but other people

0:32:02.720,0:32:04.720
also

0:32:03.360,0:32:06.559
felt that it was a sign that black

0:32:04.720,0:32:08.960
culture was becoming more accepted i

0:32:06.559,0:32:10.159
see yeah so there are differing opinions

0:32:08.960,0:32:12.559
on these clubs

0:32:10.159,0:32:14.240
so similar to the italian renaissance

0:32:12.559,0:32:14.960
something that many people might not

0:32:14.240,0:32:17.279
know

0:32:14.960,0:32:18.640
is that artists are actually supported

0:32:17.279,0:32:20.720
by patrons

0:32:18.640,0:32:22.080
the way that artists especially like in

0:32:20.720,0:32:25.120
the italian renaissance

0:32:22.080,0:32:26.799
it was like wealthy europeans would

0:32:25.120,0:32:28.640
pay for your art and invest in you and

0:32:26.799,0:32:31.120
that’s how you can make a living

0:32:28.640,0:32:32.559
and the same thing is needed for the

0:32:31.120,0:32:34.960
harlem renaissance

0:32:32.559,0:32:37.279
so a majority of wealth especially at

0:32:34.960,0:32:38.640
this time is concentrated in the pockets

0:32:37.279,0:32:40.320
of white americans

0:32:38.640,0:32:42.000
and so thus there needed to be white

0:32:40.320,0:32:44.240
patrons that supported these black

0:32:42.000,0:32:45.519
artists there is something that emerged

0:32:44.240,0:32:47.679
called the harmon awards

0:32:45.519,0:32:50.000
so the harmon awards were established by

0:32:47.679,0:32:52.399
william elmer harmon who was a wealthy

0:32:50.000,0:32:54.080
white real estate tycoon from ohio

0:32:52.399,0:32:56.559
he understood the benefit of having

0:32:54.080,0:32:58.320
black people participate in the economy

0:32:56.559,0:33:00.080
so harman believed that encouraging

0:32:58.320,0:33:02.000
blacks to be self-sufficient

0:33:00.080,0:33:03.200
would help the country in general become

0:33:02.000,0:33:05.600
more successful

0:33:03.200,0:33:07.519
by getting them into the economic system

0:33:05.600,0:33:10.480
and i think this is literally

0:33:07.519,0:33:11.519
so interesting because i’m like in the

0:33:10.480,0:33:13.200
middle of taking

0:33:11.519,0:33:15.120
a negotiation course from yale

0:33:13.200,0:33:16.240
university just like online and coursera

0:33:15.120,0:33:17.679
it’s the one i sent you

0:33:16.240,0:33:19.600
the reason why we negotiate is because

0:33:17.679,0:33:21.760
when we work together the pie

0:33:19.600,0:33:23.519
gets bigger there aren’t less slices

0:33:21.760,0:33:25.120
that was new to me i didn’t realize like

0:33:23.519,0:33:25.919
for some reason we feel like when we’re

0:33:25.120,0:33:27.519
negotiating

0:33:25.919,0:33:29.760
it’s like who’s gonna get more of the

0:33:27.519,0:33:32.799
pie like no when we work together

0:33:29.760,0:33:34.880
we can get more slices

0:33:32.799,0:33:36.559
um the pie gets bigger i like that i

0:33:34.880,0:33:39.279
remember that i did the first

0:33:36.559,0:33:40.720
like week of that course i remember the

0:33:39.279,0:33:42.320
whole pie metaphor

0:33:40.720,0:33:44.399
and so i just think that it’s so cool

0:33:42.320,0:33:47.360
that he understood this

0:33:44.399,0:33:50.240
concept in a time where many people have

0:33:47.360,0:33:52.399
a scarcity mindset and didn’t realize

0:33:50.240,0:33:54.080
that if you mobilize people to become

0:33:52.399,0:33:56.159
economically self-sufficient

0:33:54.080,0:33:57.360
you can as a whole increase a country’s

0:33:56.159,0:34:00.399
production and

0:33:57.360,0:34:01.760
everyone benefits we talked about the

0:34:00.399,0:34:03.840
dot-com bubble bursting

0:34:01.760,0:34:06.000
when a company has an ipo that means

0:34:03.840,0:34:08.960
that average investors can buy into it

0:34:06.000,0:34:10.720
when you buy into an i like a share of a

0:34:08.960,0:34:12.399
company you’re giving them money

0:34:10.720,0:34:15.040
to take and continue building their

0:34:12.399,0:34:17.040
company so when you have more people who

0:34:15.040,0:34:18.560
have the money to participate that means

0:34:17.040,0:34:19.679
more money’s flowing into the economy

0:34:18.560,0:34:21.839
that means a greater

0:34:19.679,0:34:23.760
gdp that means greater production that

0:34:21.839,0:34:24.480
means more chances for entrepreneurs to

0:34:23.760,0:34:26.320
continue

0:34:24.480,0:34:27.520
building out infrastructures and

0:34:26.320,0:34:29.040
providing more jobs you

0:34:27.520,0:34:31.119
you want everyone to be able to

0:34:29.040,0:34:31.440
participate in the economy since this is

0:34:31.119,0:34:34.240
not

0:34:31.440,0:34:35.520
an economics episode we’re not gonna get

0:34:34.240,0:34:37.440
that far into it but i

0:34:35.520,0:34:38.960
am going to link that course in the

0:34:37.440,0:34:41.040
youtube description

0:34:38.960,0:34:42.159
just like a fair warning it’s a little

0:34:41.040,0:34:43.599
heavy on math

0:34:42.159,0:34:45.440
but the principles are really

0:34:43.599,0:34:47.839
interesting and you can still get

0:34:45.440,0:34:50.879
like a larger understanding so this guy

0:34:47.839,0:34:52.800
found the harmon foundation in 1922

0:34:50.879,0:34:55.280
and with that formed something called

0:34:52.800,0:34:57.680
the harmon awards these awards were

0:34:55.280,0:34:58.800
awarded to black people for constructive

0:34:57.680,0:35:01.119
achievement

0:34:58.800,0:35:02.000
and they were awarded in sectors from

0:35:01.119,0:35:04.960
business

0:35:02.000,0:35:05.760
and industry science and invention music

0:35:04.960,0:35:08.160
education

0:35:05.760,0:35:10.079
religious service race relations and

0:35:08.160,0:35:12.560
fine arts so the awards range from

0:35:10.079,0:35:15.440
bronze to gold with monetary benefits

0:35:12.560,0:35:16.960
ranging from 100 usd to a thousand usd

0:35:15.440,0:35:19.920
during that time

0:35:16.960,0:35:20.480
which today would have been 1 500 usd to

0:35:19.920,0:35:23.599
14

0:35:20.480,0:35:25.599
000 usd for art shows too their uh black

0:35:23.599,0:35:26.560
artists were also able to profit off of

0:35:25.599,0:35:30.400
the sales of art

0:35:26.560,0:35:32.000
wow yeah okay so the harlem renaissance

0:35:30.400,0:35:33.440
was a time where black people could

0:35:32.000,0:35:36.000
shatter stereotypes

0:35:33.440,0:35:36.880
increase visibility and uplift african

0:35:36.000,0:35:39.599
voices

0:35:36.880,0:35:41.680
so much of the art was celebratory but

0:35:39.599,0:35:43.920
there were also lots of pieces that

0:35:41.680,0:35:45.040
illustrated the alienation racism

0:35:43.920,0:35:47.359
discrimination

0:35:45.040,0:35:48.640
and the discomfort of performing the

0:35:47.359,0:35:50.400
black identity

0:35:48.640,0:35:52.560
in a white world there’s a concept of

0:35:50.400,0:35:54.480
double consciousness being black

0:35:52.560,0:35:56.160
and american at the same time

0:35:54.480,0:35:58.079
playwriting contests at the time

0:35:56.160,0:35:59.280
encourage writers to write about things

0:35:58.079,0:36:01.599
as they know them

0:35:59.280,0:36:03.280
saying quote you do not have to confine

0:36:01.599,0:36:05.359
your writings to the portrayals of

0:36:03.280,0:36:05.920
beggars scandals and prostitutes you can

0:36:05.359,0:36:08.320
write about

0:36:05.920,0:36:10.560
ordinary decent colored people if you

0:36:08.320,0:36:11.440
want on the other hand do not fear the

0:36:10.560,0:36:13.440
truth

0:36:11.440,0:36:15.680
plumb the depths if you want to paint

0:36:13.440,0:36:18.240
crime and destitution and evil

0:36:15.680,0:36:19.760
paint it be true be sincere be thorough

0:36:18.240,0:36:23.359
and do a beautiful job

0:36:19.760,0:36:25.839
unquote yeah people are diverse right

0:36:23.359,0:36:29.040
like people have diverse experiences and

0:36:25.839,0:36:31.040
so you don’t always have to write about

0:36:29.040,0:36:32.320
like things that people expect you to

0:36:31.040,0:36:33.200
write whatever you want to write just be

0:36:32.320,0:36:35.839
true to who you are

0:36:33.200,0:36:37.599
because you are like yourself like it’s

0:36:35.839,0:36:40.320
only recently where like we could have

0:36:37.599,0:36:41.200
uh someone from like some a non-white

0:36:40.320,0:36:43.280
actor

0:36:41.200,0:36:44.560
like being the lead in a movie that has

0:36:43.280,0:36:46.480
nothing to do with

0:36:44.560,0:36:48.640
like their background and it’s like oh

0:36:46.480,0:36:50.640
just portraying them just like a normal

0:36:48.640,0:36:52.480
human being like just a normal i’m like

0:36:50.640,0:36:53.280
just thinking like disney channel stuff

0:36:52.480,0:36:55.520
or like yeah

0:36:53.280,0:36:57.200
oh my gosh i saw a disney channel show i

0:36:55.520,0:36:58.800
don’t even know what it was it was like

0:36:57.200,0:37:00.640
my sister’s watching in high school and

0:36:58.800,0:37:03.119
they had an asian character

0:37:00.640,0:37:05.119
who was literally like stereotypical

0:37:03.119,0:37:06.800
super stressed out about grades super

0:37:05.119,0:37:08.720
like academic and i was like

0:37:06.800,0:37:10.560
can’t you just make her like a fellow

0:37:08.720,0:37:11.760
camper like why does it have to be her

0:37:10.560,0:37:15.040
narrative

0:37:11.760,0:37:16.160
um yeah writing about it all the way

0:37:15.040,0:37:18.400
back during the

0:37:16.160,0:37:20.240
renaissance like yeah one play that

0:37:18.400,0:37:21.839
stood out to me in particular during

0:37:20.240,0:37:23.440
this time that i was reading about my

0:37:21.839,0:37:25.680
research is called

0:37:23.440,0:37:27.359
quote rachel unquote and that was

0:37:25.680,0:37:29.839
written by african american playwright

0:37:27.359,0:37:31.760
and poet angelina weld grimkay

0:37:29.839,0:37:32.880
and so the premise of that play is

0:37:31.760,0:37:34.640
basically rachel

0:37:32.880,0:37:36.320
the main character is an educated

0:37:34.640,0:37:38.000
sensitive young black woman

0:37:36.320,0:37:40.560
who comes to the understanding of the

0:37:38.000,0:37:42.240
harsh realities of american racism

0:37:40.560,0:37:44.079
she comes to learn that her brother and

0:37:42.240,0:37:46.000
father were lynched she then becomes

0:37:44.079,0:37:48.400
depressed and vows never to have

0:37:46.000,0:37:50.720
children and rejects the love of the man

0:37:48.400,0:37:51.760
she loves think that that’s such a

0:37:50.720,0:37:54.560
realistic

0:37:51.760,0:37:55.680
probably experience of women at the time

0:37:54.560,0:37:57.440
and i think women

0:37:55.680,0:37:59.119
especially will go through this as well

0:37:57.440,0:38:00.800
like is it ethical to bring

0:37:59.119,0:38:02.400
more people into this world if you know

0:38:00.800,0:38:04.079
that they’re gonna suffer

0:38:02.400,0:38:05.599
in that way and especially during this

0:38:04.079,0:38:07.680
time i can’t imagine

0:38:05.599,0:38:10.400
like wrestling with that when the stock

0:38:07.680,0:38:12.240
market crashed in 1929

0:38:10.400,0:38:13.839
this also led to the decline of the

0:38:12.240,0:38:16.160
harlem renaissance

0:38:13.839,0:38:17.920
as you know from the great depression

0:38:16.160,0:38:20.160
episode we know so much we’re just

0:38:17.920,0:38:22.160
learning together

0:38:20.160,0:38:25.280
this is the crash that led to the united

0:38:22.160,0:38:26.960
states historical great depression

0:38:25.280,0:38:29.040
during this time many people lost their

0:38:26.960,0:38:31.440
money including wealthy white patrons

0:38:29.040,0:38:34.000
so they’re not investing into black art

0:38:31.440,0:38:36.560
and not going to clubs in harlem as much

0:38:34.000,0:38:38.720
so regardless the harlem renaissance

0:38:36.560,0:38:40.640
created a new image of sophisticated and

0:38:38.720,0:38:41.920
intellectual african americans and gave

0:38:40.640,0:38:43.920
a voice to a community

0:38:41.920,0:38:44.960
that had been voiceless for hundreds of

0:38:43.920,0:38:47.920
years

0:38:44.960,0:38:49.520
yeah and it gave these artists pride in

0:38:47.920,0:38:51.440
and control over how the black

0:38:49.520,0:38:52.160
experience was represented in american

0:38:51.440,0:38:53.839
culture

0:38:52.160,0:38:55.359
and it also set the stage for the civil

0:38:53.839,0:38:56.880
rights movement so

0:38:55.359,0:38:58.720
most importantly although the

0:38:56.880,0:39:00.320
renaissance came to an end the artwork

0:38:58.720,0:39:01.680
of those artists still lives on to

0:39:00.320,0:39:04.960
inspire and empower us

0:39:01.680,0:39:07.200
throughout generations yes it lives on

0:39:04.960,0:39:09.920
forever

0:39:07.200,0:39:11.920
yeah but yeah so that’s the harlem

0:39:09.920,0:39:14.080
renaissance thank you for

0:39:11.920,0:39:28.510
sticking with us throughout

0:39:14.080,0:39:28.510
[Music]

Are You A Communist?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

Wiretaps, undercover surveillance, and Soviet spies: this is what the US looked like in the 1950ā€™s. In this episode, Nat goes over the Red Scare and McCarthyism, and the widespread fear of communism that shook the country.

Sources:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1uEeadIGqf3zO8auijhkVCbja3Dt17ZGpfowoahB-uQc/edit?usp=sharing

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:03.030
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:01.620,0:00:09.660
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:03.030,0:00:10.700
that I’m Jack and today actually don’t

0:00:09.660,0:00:12.840
know what you’re gonna talk about today

0:00:10.700,0:00:17.640
yet today I’m going to be talking about

0:00:12.840,0:00:22.380
communism fun communism in the red

0:00:17.640,0:00:25.260
square favorite yeah before I talk about

0:00:22.380,0:00:27.660
today’s topic I wanted to remind all of

0:00:25.260,0:00:30.539
our new listeners to subscribe to our

0:00:27.660,0:00:33.030
show and to leave a review wherever

0:00:30.539,0:00:36.960
you’re listening to us from and also to

0:00:33.030,0:00:44.730
follow us on our social media at HD W&K

0:00:36.960,0:00:47.010
and Katie yeah and JT social media you

0:00:44.730,0:00:48.870
guys can answer our polls and you also

0:00:47.010,0:00:51.420
get the latest updates about our new

0:00:48.870,0:00:54.270
episodes which is super cool and some

0:00:51.420,0:00:56.969
more exciting news you can now check out

0:00:54.270,0:00:59.250
our patreon to become a supporter of the

0:00:56.969,0:01:02.370
show and you can see how you can become

0:00:59.250,0:01:05.070
a history hero and get a fun shout out

0:01:02.370,0:01:14.850
in one of our future episodes so

0:01:05.070,0:01:19.159
definitely check that out enough of our

0:01:14.850,0:01:19.159
propaganda to get you to support us

0:01:20.720,0:01:28.250
today I’m talking about the Red Scare

0:01:23.729,0:01:30.780
and McCarthyism so before I go on ahead

0:01:28.250,0:01:33.750
Jack what do you know about the Red

0:01:30.780,0:01:35.310
Scare okay I’ve never heard of

0:01:33.750,0:01:38.970
McCarthyism that second thing that you

0:01:35.310,0:01:44.220
just said but the Red Scare was during

0:01:38.970,0:01:48.240
the is it like World War two yeah it is

0:01:44.220,0:01:50.340
right it’s okay so World War two yeah I

0:01:48.240,0:01:54.810
think we’re just like very scared of the

0:01:50.340,0:01:57.390
rise of communism to the point where I

0:01:54.810,0:01:59.490
believe people were like reporting their

0:01:57.390,0:02:04.049
neighbors if they thought you were a

0:01:59.490,0:02:08.009
communist um but yeah I only know cuz

0:02:04.049,0:02:10.819
the space race rumor like one of the

0:02:08.009,0:02:13.060
yeah with the space race when they like

0:02:10.819,0:02:15.849
formed a like joined alliances

0:02:13.060,0:02:18.099
with the Soviet Union because like Nazi

0:02:15.849,0:02:21.910
Germany was worse than communism at the

0:02:18.099,0:02:24.430
time so ya know yeah it’s like kind of

0:02:21.910,0:02:27.099
in the same time period it’s during the

0:02:24.430,0:02:28.930
Cold War but yeah so I so I remember

0:02:27.099,0:02:31.690
learning about the Red Scare in high

0:02:28.930,0:02:33.700
school I just remember like Senator

0:02:31.690,0:02:34.900
McCarthy who will talk about later and

0:02:33.700,0:02:37.150
yeah pretty much the same thing just

0:02:34.900,0:02:40.810
like Oh communism is bad and it’s gonna

0:02:37.150,0:02:42.760
tear down our country but I like after

0:02:40.810,0:02:46.299
doing research I did not realize the

0:02:42.760,0:02:48.040
extent that it had in our government and

0:02:46.299,0:02:52.239
like the laws we were passing and it’s

0:02:48.040,0:02:54.640
so scary um also like I did not realize

0:02:52.239,0:02:55.870
there actually to read scares so this

0:02:54.640,0:02:58.390
was news to me

0:02:55.870,0:03:02.860
so the first Red Scare it actually began

0:02:58.390,0:03:04.920
during World War one so in 1917 there is

0:03:02.860,0:03:09.069
the outbreak of the Russian Revolution

0:03:04.920,0:03:11.110
led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks

0:03:09.069,0:03:14.250
and Bolsheviks are basically it’s like

0:03:11.110,0:03:16.989
another word for communism kind of and

0:03:14.250,0:03:19.600
Lenin and the Bolsheviks destroy the

0:03:16.989,0:03:22.359
Romanov dynasty that had been ruling

0:03:19.600,0:03:24.970
Russia up until then so okay that them

0:03:22.359,0:03:33.609
is it the monarchy with like princess

0:03:24.970,0:03:39.459
Anastasia that goes missing yeah super

0:03:33.609,0:03:41.560
dark yeah I’m not like nighttime and

0:03:39.459,0:03:46.450
we’re in closets like I don’t want to

0:03:41.560,0:03:51.730
not be able to sleep yeah in our

0:03:46.450,0:03:54.760
appearance yeah so yeah the Romanov

0:03:51.730,0:03:57.130
dynasty had been ruling forever and the

0:03:54.760,0:04:00.700
US was actually supporting the dynasty

0:03:57.130,0:04:02.440
and Tsar Nicholas and after World War

0:04:00.700,0:04:05.260
one they actually sent troops to Russia

0:04:02.440,0:04:08.139
hoping that they could help defeat the

0:04:05.260,0:04:10.150
red Communist rebel forces but the

0:04:08.139,0:04:12.850
Bolsheviks one and they murder the

0:04:10.150,0:04:15.700
entire Romanov family and they slowly

0:04:12.850,0:04:17.650
secure control all over Russia and so

0:04:15.700,0:04:20.769
this is pretty much the beginning of the

0:04:17.650,0:04:22.930
rise of the Communist Party but it’s not

0:04:20.769,0:04:25.380
like this was the first time anyone had

0:04:22.930,0:04:26.560
heard of communism so Karl Marx’s

0:04:25.380,0:04:29.590
ideology

0:04:26.560,0:04:33.520
had been well-known since 1848 there’s

0:04:29.590,0:04:36.550
kind of the father of communism and but

0:04:33.520,0:04:39.160
this revolution in particular was so I

0:04:36.550,0:04:41.440
guess triggering because up until now it

0:04:39.160,0:04:43.300
had just been a theory and before this

0:04:41.440,0:04:46.360
no country in the world had had a

0:04:43.300,0:04:48.820
successful communist revolution and so

0:04:46.360,0:04:55.450
capitalist countries all around the

0:04:48.820,0:04:59.350
world were like international fear of

0:04:55.450,0:05:01.030
communism and anarchy in general so in

0:04:59.350,0:05:03.340
the u.s. veterans are returning home

0:05:01.030,0:05:06.040
from World War one and workers were

0:05:03.340,0:05:09.220
demanding increases in order to keep up

0:05:06.040,0:05:11.470
with increasing inflation in the US and

0:05:09.220,0:05:15.280
so in the short period following World

0:05:11.470,0:05:18.669
War one there are actually over 3,300

0:05:15.280,0:05:20.979
labor strikes in the US and in 1919 a

0:05:18.669,0:05:23.169
small group of radicals formed the

0:05:20.979,0:05:26.530
Communist Labor Party and the press

0:05:23.169,0:05:29.080
basically since sensationalized all of

0:05:26.530,0:05:31.150
these labor strikes as being caused by

0:05:29.080,0:05:34.450
immigrants who wanted to destroy the

0:05:31.150,0:05:36.910
American Way of life and everyone

0:05:34.450,0:05:39.490
including both progressive and

0:05:36.910,0:05:42.280
conservative Americans were super scared

0:05:39.490,0:05:44.860
of a communist revolution in the US and

0:05:42.280,0:05:47.050
they pretty much decided that the labor

0:05:44.860,0:05:49.840
activism was a threat to national

0:05:47.050,0:05:53.200
security and it had to be soft as soon

0:05:49.840,0:05:55.840
as possible and so I just wanted a quick

0:05:53.200,0:05:57.820
throwback to episode 5 is it free speech

0:05:55.840,0:06:01.450
or espionage we talked about the

0:05:57.820,0:06:02.889
Sedition Act of 1918 you remember but

0:06:01.450,0:06:05.710
you don’t have to quote it but dude is

0:06:02.889,0:06:09.610
it like we talked about wasn’t it that

0:06:05.710,0:06:11.830
like in wartime you cannot your freedom

0:06:09.610,0:06:15.060
of speech is like limited in times of

0:06:11.830,0:06:17.830
war yeah kind of it yeah like this act

0:06:15.060,0:06:18.220
it targets people who criticize the

0:06:17.830,0:06:21.100
government

0:06:18.220,0:06:24.100
so yeah limits their free speech and it

0:06:21.100,0:06:25.300
monitored radicals and labor unions with

0:06:24.100,0:06:27.400
the threat of deportation

0:06:25.300,0:06:31.450
so yeah you were spot on we go way more

0:06:27.400,0:06:36.310
into detail in episode 5 so pay

0:06:31.450,0:06:37.330
attention ok I have a question too

0:06:36.310,0:06:39.500
before you go on

0:06:37.330,0:06:42.080
so you said anarchy and communism

0:06:39.500,0:06:43.580
like both they’re scared of both is it

0:06:42.080,0:06:45.890
their separate scares though because

0:06:43.580,0:06:48.860
like is communism anarchy are they

0:06:45.890,0:06:51.350
they’re not the same no not at all

0:06:48.860,0:06:53.090
barely not even similar but they’re just

0:06:51.350,0:06:55.010
scared of a revolution that will

0:06:53.090,0:06:57.080
overthrow their government and like

0:06:55.010,0:06:59.360
thought of system the American system

0:06:57.080,0:07:02.120
and capitalism and so they kind of put

0:06:59.360,0:07:04.370
the two together because like communism

0:07:02.120,0:07:06.320
has nothing to do with anarchy but

0:07:04.370,0:07:08.780
they’re just like oh in order to become

0:07:06.320,0:07:12.640
a communist come communist country we’d

0:07:08.780,0:07:15.560
have to overthrow our current way of

0:07:12.640,0:07:17.450
government so yeah that’s kind of why

0:07:15.560,0:07:20.000
they’re like okay anarchy in general

0:07:17.450,0:07:22.060
like that Anakin anarchy just means no

0:07:20.000,0:07:26.090
government at all and like everyone

0:07:22.060,0:07:28.310
martyrs whatever they want oh so yeah

0:07:26.090,0:07:29.900
they were just scared of an overthrow of

0:07:28.310,0:07:34.520
the government if that makes sense

0:07:29.900,0:07:37.160
and they kind of their I mean their fear

0:07:34.520,0:07:40.760
isn’t unwarranted because in the night

0:07:37.160,0:07:43.640
in 1919 the u.s. is shook by a series of

0:07:40.760,0:07:45.320
bombings carried out by anarchists that

0:07:43.640,0:07:47.590
targeted the homes of law enforcement

0:07:45.320,0:07:51.110
and government officials in Boston

0:07:47.590,0:07:53.930
Cleveland Philadelphia Washington DC in

0:07:51.110,0:07:56.360
New York City and so Americans are

0:07:53.930,0:07:58.669
absolutely terrified because their worst

0:07:56.360,0:08:01.520
fears seem to be coming through like

0:07:58.669,0:08:04.640
right in front of their own eyes and US

0:08:01.520,0:08:06.800
Attorney General Alexander okay I’m

0:08:04.640,0:08:09.440
gonna say the US Attorney General

0:08:06.800,0:08:11.780
Alexander mitchell Palmer would carry

0:08:09.440,0:08:12.650
out what would later be known as the

0:08:11.780,0:08:15.350
Palmer Raids

0:08:12.650,0:08:17.870
and these were a series of violent law

0:08:15.350,0:08:21.620
enforcement raids that targeted leftist

0:08:17.870,0:08:24.890
radicals and anarchists in 1919 and 1920

0:08:21.620,0:08:25.400
and this would later be known as the red

0:08:24.890,0:08:28.669
summer

0:08:25.400,0:08:31.460
okay so through Palmer support the

0:08:28.669,0:08:34.640
Federal Bureau of Investigation also

0:08:31.460,0:08:36.950
known as the FBI is created under the

0:08:34.640,0:08:39.890
leadership of J Edgar Hoover so it’s

0:08:36.950,0:08:42.860
basically created to find aunt economy

0:08:39.890,0:08:43.370
to find communists within the federal

0:08:42.860,0:08:47.540
government

0:08:43.370,0:08:49.790
so in January 8th 1920s VI agents break

0:08:47.540,0:08:52.520
into the homes of suspected and our case

0:08:49.790,0:08:52.960
without any search words and then the

0:08:52.520,0:08:55.290
arrest

0:08:52.960,0:08:58.090
labor leaders they end up holding about

0:08:55.290,0:09:01.540
5,000 citizens without respecting their

0:08:58.090,0:09:04.260
right to legal counsel and eventually

0:09:01.540,0:09:07.570
most of these people are released but

0:09:04.260,0:09:11.620
249 Russian immigrants are deported

0:09:07.570,0:09:14.100
without just cause so this is like

0:09:11.620,0:09:17.560
completely awful and is obviously a

0:09:14.100,0:09:20.110
blatant violation of civil liberties but

0:09:17.560,0:09:21.610
Palmer he believed that American civil

0:09:20.110,0:09:24.070
liberties were less important than

0:09:21.610,0:09:26.710
protecting national security so I it’s

0:09:24.070,0:09:28.750
just like horrifying to see I don’t know

0:09:26.710,0:09:30.220
just like the tenants of our legal

0:09:28.750,0:09:33.340
system it was completely thrown out the

0:09:30.220,0:09:35.800
window and yeah and they’re targeting

0:09:33.340,0:09:39.940
immigrants too so I’m sure they had a

0:09:35.800,0:09:42.250
lot less power you know there’s always a

0:09:39.940,0:09:44.710
loophole it’s like life and liberty all

0:09:42.250,0:09:46.140
men are created equal but but like you

0:09:44.710,0:09:49.120
know I mean there’s always something

0:09:46.140,0:09:51.250
yeah exactly so that was really

0:09:49.120,0:09:52.900
upsetting to hear about and it like

0:09:51.250,0:09:55.570
continues like this it it just gets

0:09:52.900,0:09:57.430
worse so basically so this is a first

0:09:55.570,0:09:59.080
Red Scare right so eventually it dies

0:09:57.430,0:10:01.120
down because then we enter World War two

0:09:59.080,0:10:03.940
and we’re focused on Nazi Germany but

0:10:01.120,0:10:06.430
then World War two ends and then the

0:10:03.940,0:10:09.130
fear of communism is reignited and

0:10:06.430,0:10:11.050
becomes much more intense because after

0:10:09.130,0:10:13.810
World War two the US and Soviet Union

0:10:11.050,0:10:15.370
become enemies in the Cold War so that’s

0:10:13.810,0:10:18.700
yeah we touched on the Cold War a little

0:10:15.370,0:10:28.000
bit in our space race episode a lot more

0:10:18.700,0:10:31.390
lighthearted than check it out yeah ten

0:10:28.000,0:10:34.300
out of ten great yeah so the whole

0:10:31.390,0:10:36.880
country is scared of Americans working

0:10:34.300,0:10:39.010
as Soviet spies and this poses a threat

0:10:36.880,0:10:41.710
to national security so you might be

0:10:39.010,0:10:43.810
thinking like okay everyone just chill

0:10:41.710,0:10:45.940
that’s a bit dramatic that they’re like

0:10:43.810,0:10:48.610
Soviet spies in our government but

0:10:45.940,0:10:51.550
there’s actually quite a long history of

0:10:48.610,0:10:54.100
the Soviet Union carrying out espionage

0:10:51.550,0:10:56.260
activities inside the US through the

0:10:54.100,0:10:59.740
help of US citizens especially during

0:10:56.260,0:11:02.170
World War two um there are also several

0:10:59.740,0:11:05.200
huge events around the world at this

0:11:02.170,0:11:06.400
time that really like ignite this fear

0:11:05.200,0:11:09.190
and make the threat

0:11:06.400,0:11:12.580
of a communist revolution seem more

0:11:09.190,0:11:15.850
likely and so in August 40 in August

0:11:12.580,0:11:18.430
1949 the Soviet Union successfully tests

0:11:15.850,0:11:22.240
its first nuclear bomb and the US is

0:11:18.430,0:11:28.990
like oh no try not to swear but like

0:11:22.240,0:11:31.600
insert expletive but also 1949 communist

0:11:28.990,0:11:36.250
forces led by Mao Zedong take control

0:11:31.600,0:11:39.610
over China and then it through 1950 to

0:11:36.250,0:11:41.589
1953 US troops are fighting the

0:11:39.610,0:11:45.370
Communists supported forces of North

0:11:41.589,0:11:47.560
Korea in the Korean War and so yeah

0:11:45.370,0:11:49.089
we’re fighting communists all over the

0:11:47.560,0:11:50.890
world and we’re just like we’re seeing

0:11:49.089,0:11:52.930
it spread and we’re like oh my gosh it’s

0:11:50.890,0:11:56.440
only a matter of time before it takes

0:11:52.930,0:11:58.570
over the US so very quickly we start to

0:11:56.440,0:12:02.279
see I guess our federal government

0:11:58.570,0:12:05.440
respond to this right so in March 21st

0:12:02.279,0:12:09.160
1947 President Harry Truman issues

0:12:05.440,0:12:11.740
executive order 9 8:35 also known as the

0:12:09.160,0:12:14.050
loyalty order this mandates that all

0:12:11.740,0:12:16.000
federal employees must be analyzed to

0:12:14.050,0:12:19.209
determine whether they were sufficiently

0:12:16.000,0:12:21.339
loyal to the government which like just

0:12:19.209,0:12:24.040
the wording itself like oil to the

0:12:21.339,0:12:25.930
government that’s so ominous and it’s

0:12:24.040,0:12:28.120
like a huge deal for a country that

0:12:25.930,0:12:30.100
prides itself with the values of

0:12:28.120,0:12:32.470
personal liberty and freedom of

0:12:30.100,0:12:36.000
political organization like I don’t know

0:12:32.470,0:12:39.459
this is just crazy that this got passed

0:12:36.000,0:12:43.029
yeah it kinda it feels a bit 1984 which

0:12:39.459,0:12:45.880
I’ve been just such a 1984 I like have

0:12:43.029,0:12:48.400
issues with that book but um yeah that

0:12:45.880,0:12:52.180
feels that line just feels very like

0:12:48.400,0:12:53.020
it’s out of a dystopian novel this is

0:12:52.180,0:12:56.020
what Harry

0:12:53.020,0:12:58.450
President Truman passes also in the FBI

0:12:56.020,0:13:01.600
under the leadership of day edgar Hoover

0:12:58.450,0:13:03.660
they begin compiling extensive files on

0:13:01.600,0:13:06.670
suspected spies through the use of

0:13:03.660,0:13:09.279
wiretaps and surveillance and they also

0:13:06.670,0:13:11.320
infiltrate leftist groups and these

0:13:09.279,0:13:13.779
files and evidence are later used in the

0:13:11.320,0:13:16.390
court and so one of these was the high

0:13:13.779,0:13:19.270
profile conviction of Julius and Ethel

0:13:16.390,0:13:20.529
Rosenberg for espionage they were

0:13:19.270,0:13:23.139
basically accused

0:13:20.529,0:13:26.499
of overseeing a spy network at Seoul

0:13:23.139,0:13:29.919
American atomic bomb secrets and handed

0:13:26.499,0:13:32.469
them over to the Soviet Union and they

0:13:29.919,0:13:35.049
were found guilty and were executed two

0:13:32.469,0:13:38.159
years later making them the only alleged

0:13:35.049,0:13:41.769
spies executed during the Red Scare and

0:13:38.159,0:13:43.959
Hoover was super anti-communist and he

0:13:41.769,0:13:46.629
was also super quick to label any kind

0:13:43.959,0:13:48.519
of protest as communist including major

0:13:46.629,0:13:50.799
civil rights demonstrations at the time

0:13:48.519,0:13:54.429
so he had actually labeled Martin Luther

0:13:50.799,0:13:58.389
King jr. as a communist so we see our

0:13:54.429,0:14:03.039
presidents passing laws we see our

0:13:58.389,0:14:05.829
judicial system uh also freaking out and

0:14:03.039,0:14:07.599
then the FBI is freaking out and then if

0:14:05.829,0:14:10.149
we look at the House of Representatives

0:14:07.599,0:14:12.519
in Congress we see the creation of the

0:14:10.149,0:14:15.879
house on American Activities Committee

0:14:12.519,0:14:17.799
also known as eight new AC it was

0:14:15.879,0:14:21.069
actually formed in 1938 but it really

0:14:17.799,0:14:23.079
reached its height in the 1950s so

0:14:21.069,0:14:24.759
federal employees especially those in

0:14:23.079,0:14:26.589
the State Department and intelligence

0:14:24.759,0:14:28.749
agencies were analyzed to determine

0:14:26.589,0:14:31.720
whether or not they were loyal to the

0:14:28.749,0:14:34.119
government and again this isn’t even a

0:14:31.720,0:14:36.459
partisan issue politicians on both sides

0:14:34.119,0:14:38.709
try to make sure no one thought they

0:14:36.459,0:14:41.369
were anti-communist and no one wanted to

0:14:38.709,0:14:43.899
criticize these tactics used to punish

0:14:41.369,0:14:45.249
suspected communists because they were

0:14:43.899,0:14:48.220
scared of the backlash they would

0:14:45.249,0:14:50.559
receive yeah then you look like you’re a

0:14:48.220,0:14:52.569
communist it’s like what’s the big deal

0:14:50.559,0:14:55.029
if you’re not a communist what then we

0:14:52.569,0:14:57.189
should have this policy yeah if people

0:14:55.029,0:14:59.829
are so quick to point thing you’re so

0:14:57.189,0:15:02.799
quick to convict and it’s just like a

0:14:59.829,0:15:05.439
really terrifying time yeah it’s like

0:15:02.799,0:15:08.109
that um what is it like the witch the

0:15:05.439,0:15:12.159
witch like yeah things that were going

0:15:08.109,0:15:16.149
on yeah yeah literally it’s just like

0:15:12.159,0:15:18.639
pointing all yours yeah I have a

0:15:16.149,0:15:21.159
question with them so what I’m are you

0:15:18.639,0:15:23.199
gonna explain kind of what is deemed as

0:15:21.159,0:15:25.839
loyal versus not loyal to the government

0:15:23.199,0:15:28.070
I mean that’s the thing is like it’s

0:15:25.839,0:15:31.550
super vague

0:15:28.070,0:15:34.630
as our umbrella like oh if you’re seen

0:15:31.550,0:15:37.460
as more to the left more communists in

0:15:34.630,0:15:39.230
some way like okay you’re not loyal to

0:15:37.460,0:15:41.630
the government but people use this

0:15:39.230,0:15:43.310
tactic actually the tactic itself is

0:15:41.630,0:15:44.330
called red-baiting when you just point

0:15:43.310,0:15:45.980
fingers at someone you’re like you’re

0:15:44.330,0:15:48.230
communist and you’re out of here

0:15:45.980,0:15:50.690
but like politicians would just use it

0:15:48.230,0:15:51.740
against their political enemies and so

0:15:50.690,0:15:53.090
like if you didn’t get along with

0:15:51.740,0:15:56.180
someone you really okay with he’s a

0:15:53.090,0:15:58.280
communist like the n-double-a-cp was

0:15:56.180,0:16:01.730
labeled as a communist or of course they

0:15:58.280,0:16:04.010
were we can I could go on and on and on

0:16:01.730,0:16:06.170
but ya know I’m not surprised that they

0:16:04.010,0:16:08.420
label at the end of lazy P is communist

0:16:06.170,0:16:10.760
so like there doesn’t even have to be

0:16:08.420,0:16:12.670
evidence like you could just say I just

0:16:10.760,0:16:16.370
know like there are communists and

0:16:12.670,0:16:18.940
people yeah they’re just little evidence

0:16:16.370,0:16:21.260
is needed in order to convict someone so

0:16:18.940,0:16:24.710
it really is just like the Salem witch

0:16:21.260,0:16:26.690
trials but yeah so as a result obviously

0:16:24.710,0:16:29.480
you left his political group membership

0:16:26.690,0:16:32.270
Falls and opposing voices fall silent

0:16:29.480,0:16:32.900
because everyone’s horrified and also

0:16:32.270,0:16:34.910
this is crazy

0:16:32.900,0:16:37.640
twenty-eight states actually banned the

0:16:34.910,0:16:40.160
public use or the public display of red

0:16:37.640,0:16:44.060
flags in their state which is like so

0:16:40.160,0:16:45.920
extreme and yeah and so the height of

0:16:44.060,0:16:47.660
the Red Scare I mean I can’t really talk

0:16:45.920,0:16:50.260
about the red sphere without talking

0:16:47.660,0:16:53.420
about Senator Joseph McCarthy of

0:16:50.260,0:16:55.940
Wisconsin and McCarthyism so he’s pretty

0:16:53.420,0:16:58.070
much synonymous with the Red Scare he

0:16:55.940,0:17:00.290
spent five years trying to expose

0:16:58.070,0:17:03.140
communists in the government and his

0:17:00.290,0:17:06.050
career is an anti-communist basically

0:17:03.140,0:17:08.390
begins in February 1950 when he gives a

0:17:06.050,0:17:12.920
speech where he declares that he has a

0:17:08.390,0:17:15.140
list of 205 sorry 205 known members of

0:17:12.920,0:17:18.079
the Communist Party who were quote

0:17:15.140,0:17:20.570
working and shaping policy unquote in

0:17:18.079,0:17:23.120
the State Department and the next month

0:17:20.570,0:17:25.130
the Senate launched an investigation but

0:17:23.120,0:17:27.709
they don’t find any proof of any

0:17:25.130,0:17:29.900
subversive activity and actually at the

0:17:27.709,0:17:32.360
beginning many of his colleagues both

0:17:29.900,0:17:34.790
Democratic and Republican including

0:17:32.360,0:17:37.790
President Dwight Eisenhower they don’t

0:17:34.790,0:17:39.860
like him or the tactics he’s using but

0:17:37.790,0:17:41.720
McCarthy continues his red-baiting

0:17:39.860,0:17:44.510
techniques and in nineteen

0:17:41.720,0:17:46.610
at the beginning of his second term as

0:17:44.510,0:17:48.980
Senator he’s put in charge of the

0:17:46.610,0:17:51.530
Committee on government operations and

0:17:48.980,0:17:53.720
this position allows him to launch even

0:17:51.530,0:17:55.940
more investigations of the alleged

0:17:53.720,0:17:59.750
communist infiltration of the government

0:17:55.940,0:18:01.820
so he has even more power and over the

0:17:59.750,0:18:05.090
course of several hearings McCarthy

0:18:01.820,0:18:08.000
interrogated these witnesses extremely

0:18:05.090,0:18:10.010
aggressively and it can be considered as

0:18:08.000,0:18:12.500
a direct violation of their civil rights

0:18:10.010,0:18:14.539
and although there’s little to no

0:18:12.500,0:18:16.640
evidence of espionage more than two

0:18:14.539,0:18:19.190
thousand government employees lost their

0:18:16.640,0:18:22.130
jobs as a result of his investigations

0:18:19.190,0:18:24.260
which is so like two thousand people

0:18:22.130,0:18:29.990
over the course of a few years

0:18:24.260,0:18:31.640
it’s an insane yes like okay the thing

0:18:29.990,0:18:34.220
is when you’re saying this I’m gonna go

0:18:31.640,0:18:38.030
back to 1984 so you know and I if you’ve

0:18:34.220,0:18:42.830
read 1984 for the viewers who have not

0:18:38.030,0:18:44.270
read 1984 it’s a big um not a big novel

0:18:42.830,0:18:46.070
but it’s a it’s a really really

0:18:44.270,0:18:47.720
important novel that I think they may

0:18:46.070,0:18:49.850
call high school most high schoolers

0:18:47.720,0:18:51.980
read and it basically is supposed to

0:18:49.850,0:18:54.799
talk about a dystopian society that

0:18:51.980,0:18:56.900
would result with the rise of is it

0:18:54.799,0:19:01.220
communism it’s like government regime

0:18:56.900,0:19:02.780
that’s like Aryan totalitarian and

0:19:01.220,0:19:08.780
they’re always inspecting you but the

0:19:02.780,0:19:10.520
last scene in it spoiler the last one of

0:19:08.780,0:19:14.000
the last scenes is they basically like

0:19:10.520,0:19:16.039
torture the main character with his

0:19:14.000,0:19:18.350
greatest fear to get him to admit to

0:19:16.039,0:19:20.600
crimes that he didn’t necessarily commit

0:19:18.350,0:19:22.580
but also like betray like his loved ones

0:19:20.600,0:19:25.850
and they like play on like your greatest

0:19:22.580,0:19:27.620
fears and that just feels like this book

0:19:25.850,0:19:29.870
that is like totalitarian and like

0:19:27.620,0:19:32.059
anti-communist anti-surveillance and

0:19:29.870,0:19:34.370
then the tactics that were being used by

0:19:32.059,0:19:36.500
McCarthy where you literally interrogate

0:19:34.370,0:19:38.990
so I don’t know what extent so you get

0:19:36.500,0:19:43.309
them to admit to things that maybe they

0:19:38.990,0:19:46.610
didn’t even do I like it’s well yeah no

0:19:43.309,0:19:49.190
you’re completely right like the court

0:19:46.610,0:19:55.309
the legal system was not just at all

0:19:49.190,0:19:58.159
like there’s no evidence and people like

0:19:55.309,0:19:59.990
are being defended properly and no one’s

0:19:58.159,0:20:01.580
listening like literally as soon as you

0:19:59.990,0:20:05.029
hear the word communism like you’re just

0:20:01.580,0:20:06.860
painted as evil and as a traitor to the

0:20:05.029,0:20:11.480
country and so no one takes it seriously

0:20:06.860,0:20:13.820
but again like I mean yeah McCarthy had

0:20:11.480,0:20:16.039
like a huge like a lot of people

0:20:13.820,0:20:17.779
supported him I guess in politics people

0:20:16.039,0:20:20.090
just were scared to get on his bad side

0:20:17.779,0:20:21.980
because they’d be his next victim but

0:20:20.090,0:20:25.190
the American people like were really

0:20:21.980,0:20:26.450
scared of a revolution in their country

0:20:25.190,0:20:29.210
and then they thought their way of life

0:20:26.450,0:20:32.299
is going to be disrupted and again

0:20:29.210,0:20:33.740
they’re hearing like what the press is

0:20:32.299,0:20:36.889
telling them what the government is

0:20:33.740,0:20:40.249
telling them about communism we don’t

0:20:36.889,0:20:41.570
know I don’t know how the picture was

0:20:40.249,0:20:43.610
painted of course it’s going to be a

0:20:41.570,0:20:45.320
bias about it but yeah like people are

0:20:43.610,0:20:47.600
just scared like did you just hear the

0:20:45.320,0:20:49.220
word communism and you automatically are

0:20:47.600,0:20:53.749
just horrified so yeah it’s like the

0:20:49.220,0:20:55.460
pair lost in 1984 is insane horrifying

0:20:53.749,0:20:58.610
this is real life this actually happened

0:20:55.460,0:21:02.450
in the US this is a fictional novel and

0:20:58.610,0:21:05.629
and not that far like away I go this is

0:21:02.450,0:21:08.690
it’s less than a hundred years yeah this

0:21:05.629,0:21:09.710
is in the 1950s like it’s really not

0:21:08.690,0:21:13.610
that long ago

0:21:09.710,0:21:16.309
and yeah okay so this kind of brings me

0:21:13.610,0:21:19.220
to my next point this I had never heard

0:21:16.309,0:21:21.590
of this but McCarthy apparently he

0:21:19.220,0:21:24.169
didn’t just attack communists in the

0:21:21.590,0:21:26.419
government he also attacked the lgbtq+

0:21:24.169,0:21:28.999
community and what would later be known

0:21:26.419,0:21:31.639
as the lavender scare I really had never

0:21:28.999,0:21:35.869
heard about this but basically McCarthy

0:21:31.639,0:21:38.210
argued that LGBT lgbtq+ employees could

0:21:35.869,0:21:40.210
be blackmailed by enemy agents over

0:21:38.210,0:21:44.720
their sexuality and could thereby

0:21:40.210,0:21:46.879
betrayed national secrets in 1950 Senate

0:21:44.720,0:21:48.950
Republicans write up a report saying

0:21:46.879,0:21:50.840
that gay and lesbian government workers

0:21:48.950,0:21:54.440
were a potential moral threat to the

0:21:50.840,0:21:57.320
government and later in 1953 President

0:21:54.440,0:22:00.080
Eisenhower signed executive order one

0:21:57.320,0:22:02.600
zero four five zero which allowed the

0:22:00.080,0:22:04.759
government to track down gay and lesbian

0:22:02.600,0:22:06.889
government employees and fire them due

0:22:04.759,0:22:09.809
to the labeling of sexual pervasion

0:22:06.889,0:22:13.859
as an undesirable trait for employment

0:22:09.809,0:22:17.219
which this is horrifying so several

0:22:13.859,0:22:19.710
employees either were fired or they

0:22:17.219,0:22:21.809
resigned out of fear and variance

0:22:19.710,0:22:23.450
various surveillance measures were

0:22:21.809,0:22:26.219
instituted to try and track down

0:22:23.450,0:22:29.099
employees intimate habits like this is a

0:22:26.219,0:22:32.070
violation of privacy and civil rights

0:22:29.099,0:22:34.979
civil liberties I’m like every level

0:22:32.070,0:22:36.899
yeah everything it’s like the things

0:22:34.979,0:22:39.840
that we criticize with other countries

0:22:36.899,0:22:41.519
that have communist regimes and like

0:22:39.840,0:22:45.080
we’re literally doing the same exact

0:22:41.519,0:22:48.809
thing in order to smash down communism

0:22:45.080,0:22:51.479
yeah exactly like oh my gosh it’s just I

0:22:48.809,0:22:53.969
can’t believe we got away with this but

0:22:51.479,0:22:56.849
the most horrifying aspect of us is that

0:22:53.969,0:22:59.820
this governmental van on lgbtq+

0:22:56.849,0:23:01.440
employees wasn’t officially lifted until

0:22:59.820,0:23:04.830
President Bill Clinton’s administration

0:23:01.440,0:23:07.349
in the 1990s so this is this like

0:23:04.830,0:23:09.629
executive order was in place for a very

0:23:07.349,0:23:11.489
long time I don’t know if everyone acted

0:23:09.629,0:23:15.149
upon it but it’s still like the

0:23:11.489,0:23:19.799
government had the right to like so yeah

0:23:15.149,0:23:21.570
to spy on you and see like like go into

0:23:19.799,0:23:23.729
your intimate personal life like that’s

0:23:21.570,0:23:26.070
such a breach of privacy it’s so

0:23:23.729,0:23:26.609
horrifying and yeah just like a friendly

0:23:26.070,0:23:28.169
reminder

0:23:26.609,0:23:30.330
everyone it wasn’t until a month ago

0:23:28.169,0:23:33.929
that the Supreme Court ruled that the

0:23:30.330,0:23:36.059
1964 Civil Rights Act protects lgbtq+

0:23:33.929,0:23:38.789
employees from discrimination based on

0:23:36.059,0:23:40.080
sex so there’s so so much work that

0:23:38.789,0:23:44.969
needs to be done

0:23:40.080,0:23:47.309
okay there’s kind of a theme yeah I mean

0:23:44.969,0:23:52.019
history is like progressive through time

0:23:47.309,0:23:53.999
right so there’s always work that’s true

0:23:52.019,0:23:55.559
but yeah like I guess the reason I

0:23:53.999,0:23:57.450
pointed out is because like when we talk

0:23:55.559,0:23:59.849
about the Red Scare it’s easy to dismiss

0:23:57.450,0:24:02.159
it as like oh it was so long ago but

0:23:59.849,0:24:04.469
like we see we still see the effects up

0:24:02.159,0:24:06.299
until recent history you’re right

0:24:04.469,0:24:08.849
actually there’s a really good quote and

0:24:06.299,0:24:11.580
I forget who said it I will look it up

0:24:08.849,0:24:15.809
and like recoat this later but it was

0:24:11.580,0:24:17.789
something like with history we often

0:24:15.809,0:24:18.440
think that the future is closer than it

0:24:17.789,0:24:20.779
is and

0:24:18.440,0:24:23.149
passes further away and that’s so true

0:24:20.779,0:24:26.509
like we think that we’re more further

0:24:23.149,0:24:28.220
ahead with being accepting and open to

0:24:26.509,0:24:30.200
people and world peace than we actually

0:24:28.220,0:24:33.710
are we don’t see like the work that we

0:24:30.200,0:24:35.629
have to do still and we think that the

0:24:33.710,0:24:37.720
terrible events in our past are a lot

0:24:35.629,0:24:40.370
further back than they actually are I

0:24:37.720,0:24:42.799
love that quote so much that’s such a

0:24:40.370,0:24:51.710
that’s so true though like really if you

0:24:42.799,0:24:53.269
think about it this so – I’m like oh my

0:24:51.710,0:24:54.740
god but yeah that’s how it’s important

0:24:53.269,0:24:56.570
to talk about history because it’s

0:24:54.740,0:24:58.700
really not that long ago it has

0:24:56.570,0:25:01.309
obviously has lasting effects on our

0:24:58.700,0:25:04.789
society today so yeah but I guess to

0:25:01.309,0:25:08.389
continue obviously the Red Scare has to

0:25:04.789,0:25:11.330
come to an end and so people were able

0:25:08.389,0:25:13.850
to overlook Senator McCarthy attacks on

0:25:11.330,0:25:15.830
government employees and other elites in

0:25:13.850,0:25:17.690
the US but people immediately lost

0:25:15.830,0:25:20.360
support for him once he decided to go

0:25:17.690,0:25:23.929
after members of the Armed Services so

0:25:20.360,0:25:26.090
in April 1954 millions of Americans

0:25:23.929,0:25:28.850
watched as Senator McCarthy attacked

0:25:26.090,0:25:30.950
members of the army and it’s legal TV on

0:25:28.850,0:25:32.929
live television and almost immediately

0:25:30.950,0:25:35.149
the sense of I guess like

0:25:32.929,0:25:37.759
invulnerability that had surrounded him

0:25:35.149,0:25:39.679
disappears and there are pretty much two

0:25:37.759,0:25:42.919
reasons for his downfall

0:25:39.679,0:25:44.870
so first the Army’s legal counsel was

0:25:42.919,0:25:47.960
able to undermine his credibility

0:25:44.870,0:25:50.029
by showing evidence that Senator

0:25:47.960,0:25:51.649
McCarthy had tried to win preferential

0:25:50.029,0:25:54.470
treatment for his age when they were

0:25:51.649,0:25:58.309
drafted in the war and that’s like super

0:25:54.470,0:26:00.799
I think yeah that’s illegal and not good

0:25:58.309,0:26:03.230
at all so they’re like okay this dude’s

0:26:00.799,0:26:05.539
not good yeah wait can we talk about

0:26:03.230,0:26:08.870
what that means like in more layman’s

0:26:05.539,0:26:11.450
terms when his aides and his colleagues

0:26:08.870,0:26:14.659
like his like staff they were drafted

0:26:11.450,0:26:16.490
into the war I guess I guess is World

0:26:14.659,0:26:17.840
War two this is like showing evidence in

0:26:16.490,0:26:20.450
the past when they were drafted into the

0:26:17.840,0:26:23.419
war he was like oh I want them to be in

0:26:20.450,0:26:25.399
like easy positions or I want them to be

0:26:23.419,0:26:27.470
like stationed in the u.s. somewhere but

0:26:25.399,0:26:28.970
he basically asks the army to be like

0:26:27.470,0:26:31.460
hey like I don’t want them to get hurt

0:26:28.970,0:26:32.300
can you put them somewhere nice and

0:26:31.460,0:26:35.960
cushy

0:26:32.300,0:26:38.330
you like Wow okay and we were being

0:26:35.960,0:26:41.540
drafted like it station all over the

0:26:38.330,0:26:43.340
world yeah so secondly of the American

0:26:41.540,0:26:46.100
people were able to see for the first

0:26:43.340,0:26:48.560
time on live television how Senator

0:26:46.100,0:26:50.660
McCarthy intimidated witnesses and gave

0:26:48.560,0:26:52.760
evasive responses when questioned

0:26:50.660,0:26:55.460
because people I mean they didn’t really

0:26:52.760,0:26:56.990
have televised court like that this was

0:26:55.460,0:27:00.410
the first time the American people were

0:26:56.990,0:27:01.640
actually seeing him in work and like you

0:27:00.410,0:27:04.640
know doing his thing and they’re like

0:27:01.640,0:27:10.310
this is awful like this guy’s horrible

0:27:04.640,0:27:11.330
and so I guess one of the most one of

0:27:10.310,0:27:14.090
the things people remember the most

0:27:11.330,0:27:16.370
about Senator McCarthy is when he

0:27:14.090,0:27:19.550
started to attack a young army lawyer

0:27:16.370,0:27:23.420
and the Army’s chief counsel Joseph

0:27:19.550,0:27:26.510
Welch Welch famously shouted have you no

0:27:23.420,0:27:29.870
decency sir at long last have you left

0:27:26.510,0:27:35.980
no sense of decency which I get in like

0:27:29.870,0:27:38.030
nineteen fifties this is the biggest

0:27:35.980,0:27:40.340
like insult

0:27:38.030,0:27:42.680
ever just like oh you have no sense of

0:27:40.340,0:27:45.320
decency live and yeah like this

0:27:42.680,0:27:54.590
soundbite is really popular it’s in this

0:27:45.320,0:28:00.110
song caught their eyes by jay-z oh my

0:27:54.590,0:28:02.510
gosh that’s a guy from the doozie you

0:28:00.110,0:28:06.800
should link it in the show notes in our

0:28:02.510,0:28:09.320
description where the original soundbite

0:28:06.800,0:28:11.000
you could link both I was thinking the

0:28:09.320,0:28:22.490
original sound might put the song to

0:28:11.000,0:28:25.580
that’s fine you know but yeah so that’s

0:28:22.490,0:28:28.640
like a really famous quote and so after

0:28:25.580,0:28:30.470
this this any like they also do support

0:28:28.640,0:28:31.760
for McCarthy they’re like finally we can

0:28:30.470,0:28:34.490
go after him we hate him

0:28:31.760,0:28:37.880
they vote to condemn Senator McCarthy

0:28:34.490,0:28:40.400
for his quote inexcusable reprehensible

0:28:37.880,0:28:43.160
vulgar and insulting conduct that was

0:28:40.400,0:28:44.519
unbecoming of a senator unquote and his

0:28:43.160,0:28:46.820
five-year long reign of

0:28:44.519,0:28:49.830
are finally came crashing down and

0:28:46.820,0:28:51.809
Senator McCarthy would keep his position

0:28:49.830,0:28:54.649
as Senator but he pretty much lost all

0:28:51.809,0:28:57.209
of his power and he actually died in

0:28:54.649,0:28:59.729
1957 at the age of 48

0:28:57.209,0:29:01.469
due to acute hepatitis and liver or

0:28:59.729,0:29:05.580
liver failure as a result of

0:29:01.469,0:29:07.739
complications from alcoholism so he like

0:29:05.580,0:29:11.429
pretty much dies right after he lived he

0:29:07.739,0:29:14.700
leaves office and that’s the fall of

0:29:11.429,0:29:17.009
McCarthyism and basically the right

0:29:14.700,0:29:20.909
scare kind of after his reign of terror

0:29:17.009,0:29:25.559
ends people because like you know it’s

0:29:20.909,0:29:27.059
not red-baiting it has less power it’s

0:29:25.559,0:29:29.729
not as common anymore people are like

0:29:27.059,0:29:32.070
okay actually this is horrible and maybe

0:29:29.729,0:29:35.039
we should reconsider what we’re doing

0:29:32.070,0:29:39.059
and so the Red Scare finally come kind

0:29:35.039,0:29:41.099
of kind of quiets down and communism is

0:29:39.059,0:29:43.499
still obviously the cold war lasts

0:29:41.099,0:29:46.799
forever but I guess in government and

0:29:43.499,0:29:49.529
attacking other federal employees and

0:29:46.799,0:29:51.869
even like Hollywood actors were also

0:29:49.529,0:29:54.479
tagged to like it was crazy so yeah the

0:29:51.869,0:29:56.729
type of tactic of red-baiting quiets

0:29:54.479,0:29:57.209
down but we still are very much in the

0:29:56.729,0:30:00.089
Cold War

0:29:57.209,0:30:03.989
um so Soviet Union is so very much our

0:30:00.089,0:30:06.359
enemy and while a small number of the

0:30:03.989,0:30:08.489
accused communists may have been guilty

0:30:06.359,0:30:10.709
of conspiring to revolt against the

0:30:08.489,0:30:13.320
government the vast majority of victims

0:30:10.709,0:30:16.469
of the Red Scare were falsely accused or

0:30:13.320,0:30:18.749
had not done nothing more than exercise

0:30:16.469,0:30:21.119
their constitutional right to join a

0:30:18.749,0:30:23.789
political party and the thousands of

0:30:21.119,0:30:26.519
alleged communist sympathizers had their

0:30:23.789,0:30:28.709
lives and their reputations completely

0:30:26.519,0:30:31.200
destroyed they were attacked by law

0:30:28.709,0:30:33.869
enforcement revoked of basic civil

0:30:31.200,0:30:36.389
liberties they’re alienated from their

0:30:33.869,0:30:38.729
families and their friends and they’re

0:30:36.389,0:30:43.320
fired from their jobs so this ruined so

0:30:38.729,0:30:45.779
many people’s entire life and again the

0:30:43.320,0:30:48.209
word communism was turned into term that

0:30:45.779,0:30:51.029
Americans would immediately react to

0:30:48.209,0:30:52.710
with disgust or fear regardless of

0:30:51.029,0:30:54.599
whether or not they actually understood

0:30:52.710,0:30:56.849
what it means and you can still see

0:30:54.599,0:30:57.910
similar reactions today with both the

0:30:56.849,0:31:00.820
terms communist

0:30:57.910,0:31:03.280
them in socialism even though at least

0:31:00.820,0:31:07.090
me personally I really didn’t understand

0:31:03.280,0:31:09.070
the ideology until more recently and of

0:31:07.090,0:31:11.860
course I’m not trying to push like any

0:31:09.070,0:31:15.430
political views on listeners I do think

0:31:11.860,0:31:17.560
it really is important like to educate

0:31:15.430,0:31:19.180
yourself and take the time to understand

0:31:17.560,0:31:21.250
these concepts whether you agree with

0:31:19.180,0:31:22.930
them or not and the same thing goes for

0:31:21.250,0:31:25.930
capitalism like you should educate

0:31:22.930,0:31:28.570
yourself on what this really means and

0:31:25.930,0:31:30.370
understand it well because like if we

0:31:28.570,0:31:32.800
don’t understand something it’s super

0:31:30.370,0:31:36.730
easy to be swept up in a mass hysteria

0:31:32.800,0:31:39.220
and be overcome by fear but knowledge is

0:31:36.730,0:31:41.950
power and it can help keep us rational

0:31:39.220,0:31:43.690
so I think that it’s really one of the

0:31:41.950,0:31:46.570
main lessons that we can learn from the

0:31:43.690,0:31:49.270
Red Scare and that’s how we make sure we

0:31:46.570,0:31:52.900
don’t repeat this really shameful part

0:31:49.270,0:31:57.670
of history in the future and yeah that’s

0:31:52.900,0:32:00.400
pretty much summary of the Red Scare I

0:31:57.670,0:32:04.150
love it know very nicely said very

0:32:00.400,0:32:08.320
nicely wrapped up in a bow everyone

0:32:04.150,0:32:10.110
hopefully uh yeah hopefully you guys

0:32:08.320,0:32:14.040
learn something new

0:32:10.110,0:32:33.779
we’ll see you again next time

0:32:14.040,0:32:33.779
[Music]

The Internet BROKE The Stock Market?!

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

With the rise of the internet companies in the mid 90’s everyone was eager jump on the bandwagon of investments in the hopes of gaining riches. Hear Jac explain the dot com bubble, who lost it all, and who got rich after the pop!

Sources:

http://hnn.us/article/173359

https://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/dotcom-bubble.asp

https://time.com/3741681/2000-dotcom-stock-bust/

https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/10/are-we-cusp-next-dot-com-bubble/600232/

https://time.com/3741681/2000-dotcom-stock-bust/

https://www.history.com/news/who-invented-the-internet#:~:text=The%20first%20workable%20prototype%20of,communicate%20on%20a%20single%20network.

https://home.cern/science/computing/birth-web#:~:text=Tim%20Berners%2DLee%2C%20a%20British,and%20institutes%20around%20the%20world.

Transcript

0:00:00.030,0:00:03.600
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:01.740,0:00:08.280
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:03.600,0:00:11.759
that I’m Matt I’m Jack and today jack is

0:00:08.280,0:00:16.740
gonna talk about something related to

0:00:11.759,0:00:21.240
the Internet all right so now have you

0:00:16.740,0:00:23.970
heard of the dot-com bubble yeah I have

0:00:21.240,0:00:26.609
but I really could not tell you what it

0:00:23.970,0:00:29.279
was that’s okay do you kind of know like

0:00:26.609,0:00:31.679
where what time frame it was I guess

0:00:29.279,0:00:36.750
like it’s the emergence of calm so that

0:00:31.679,0:00:41.160
could give something yeah late 90s

0:00:36.750,0:00:44.760
yes yes yeah mid to late 90s was like

0:00:41.160,0:00:46.440
mid 90s but yeah it’s basically we’ll

0:00:44.760,0:00:48.239
see how long this episode actually goes

0:00:46.440,0:00:51.449
because it’s kind of self-explanatory

0:00:48.239,0:00:53.370
there was a dot-com bubble which a

0:00:51.449,0:00:56.010
bubble is a stock market term which I

0:00:53.370,0:00:58.649
will explain later but basically all of

0:00:56.010,0:00:59.969
these companies were emerging and a lot

0:00:58.649,0:01:02.219
of people were investing in these

0:00:59.969,0:01:05.100
companies because they had that buzzword

0:01:02.219,0:01:07.290
of internet in them and eventually those

0:01:05.100,0:01:09.180
companies started to fail because

0:01:07.290,0:01:13.229
everything was over evaluated and we had

0:01:09.180,0:01:16.080
a market crash so I’m just gonna kind of

0:01:13.229,0:01:18.659
try to explain how that bubble emerged

0:01:16.080,0:01:20.700
why it crashed and then how there are

0:01:18.659,0:01:22.810
some parallels to companies that we see

0:01:20.700,0:01:25.280
today as well

0:01:22.810,0:01:27.470
interesting all right I’m excited yeah

0:01:25.280,0:01:29.990
so I’m going to start out by asking you

0:01:27.470,0:01:31.820
what is the Internet and how does it

0:01:29.990,0:01:35.150
work

0:01:31.820,0:01:35.900
oh my god morning questions to start

0:01:35.150,0:01:39.320
your day

0:01:35.900,0:01:41.240
oh boy okay this is probably like such a

0:01:39.320,0:01:51.430
easy question what is the internet on

0:01:41.240,0:02:00.680
the Internet is the world of idle and

0:01:51.430,0:02:03.500
how does it work I really you’re totally

0:02:00.680,0:02:05.960
fine I was I think two years into my

0:02:03.500,0:02:07.940
computer science degree and I would

0:02:05.960,0:02:10.550
still be like yeah how does the internet

0:02:07.940,0:02:12.440
work how like what is that so don’t even

0:02:10.550,0:02:16.160
worry about it it’s not common knowledge

0:02:12.440,0:02:18.590
to just process how technology came

0:02:16.160,0:02:21.380
about but I will give you a brief lesson

0:02:18.590,0:02:24.020
so the internet was actually it wasn’t

0:02:21.380,0:02:26.810
created by one specific person it’s

0:02:24.020,0:02:28.790
created with the collaboration of a

0:02:26.810,0:02:30.250
dozen different scientists programmers

0:02:28.790,0:02:33.080
and engineers who worked to develop

0:02:30.250,0:02:35.780
smaller technologies which then came

0:02:33.080,0:02:38.510
together to form the Internet the first

0:02:35.780,0:02:42.410
workable prototype of the Internet came

0:02:38.510,0:02:45.140
in October of 1969 with the creation of

0:02:42.410,0:02:46.790
ARPANET and ARPANET stands for the

0:02:45.140,0:02:50.420
Advanced Research Projects Agency

0:02:46.790,0:02:51.709
network and that was a like network that

0:02:50.420,0:02:55.580
was funded by the United States

0:02:51.709,0:02:59.030
Department of Defense so a fun fact is

0:02:55.580,0:03:00.200
actually our armies and our militaries

0:02:59.030,0:03:01.790
and our Department of Defense will

0:03:00.200,0:03:04.790
always have the most up-to-date

0:03:01.790,0:03:06.620
technology because that’s most of the

0:03:04.790,0:03:08.989
technology that we develop as you saw

0:03:06.620,0:03:10.970
with the space race comes out of a need

0:03:08.989,0:03:13.820
to defend yourselves which is

0:03:10.970,0:03:14.780
unfortunate but it’s true that really if

0:03:13.820,0:03:16.250
you feel like you’re going to die

0:03:14.780,0:03:21.500
without this technology it really

0:03:16.250,0:03:24.489
motivates you to start working yeah

0:03:21.500,0:03:27.200
they’ll always have the newest and

0:03:24.489,0:03:29.360
shiniest of technology in there and I

0:03:27.200,0:03:31.940
remember during one of my internships I

0:03:29.360,0:03:33.830
had a manager who was a little older

0:03:31.940,0:03:36.170
than us and she talked about what it was

0:03:33.830,0:03:38.180
like to have the first personal computer

0:03:36.170,0:03:40.579
in the 80s because the military people

0:03:38.180,0:03:44.420
had it first so she got to be a part of

0:03:40.579,0:03:45.680
that test wave oh good so yeah it’s

0:03:44.420,0:03:47.780
really cool so if you

0:03:45.680,0:03:52.879
or interested in tech maybe join the

0:03:47.780,0:03:55.579
military do some surgery oh yeah so then

0:03:52.879,0:03:58.540
the Internet in layman’s terms is

0:03:55.579,0:04:01.970
basically just a large network of nodes

0:03:58.540,0:04:04.010
so a nodule is just like one point right

0:04:01.970,0:04:06.650
and an odd good a node could be a

0:04:04.010,0:04:08.659
computer or a phone anything that’s

0:04:06.650,0:04:11.030
connected to the Internet it’s a node so

0:04:08.659,0:04:14.680
that all connects to each other and

0:04:11.030,0:04:17.359
that’s what we form the internet through

0:04:14.680,0:04:18.680
okay yeah if you get lost just let me

0:04:17.359,0:04:21.919
know and I’ll try to explain it again

0:04:18.680,0:04:24.080
but the yeah it’s just each node is

0:04:21.919,0:04:26.389
talking to each other that’s it so like

0:04:24.080,0:04:28.220
I’ll send you data and you send me data

0:04:26.389,0:04:30.289
back and that’s it and it’s just a bunch

0:04:28.220,0:04:33.919
of these little nodes sending data to

0:04:30.289,0:04:36.710
each other okay yeah and that whole

0:04:33.919,0:04:40.340
network is called the internet gotcha

0:04:36.710,0:04:44.660
okay yeah so it’s just a huge exchange

0:04:40.340,0:04:46.789
of data and in 1969 ARPANET delivered

0:04:44.660,0:04:48.710
its first message which was node to node

0:04:46.789,0:04:52.070
communication from one computer to

0:04:48.710,0:04:55.490
another which was at the time personal

0:04:52.070,0:04:57.800
computers didn’t arise till the 1980s so

0:04:55.490,0:05:03.710
in 1969 computers are still about the

0:04:57.800,0:05:05.449
size of a small house oh yeah so the

0:05:03.710,0:05:07.820
first two computer will not the first

0:05:05.449,0:05:10.699
two computers but the computers that did

0:05:07.820,0:05:14.000
the first like internet connection were

0:05:10.699,0:05:16.550
based in a research lab in UCLA and then

0:05:14.000,0:05:20.240
another research lab at Stanford and the

0:05:16.550,0:05:23.479
message was just one word it was login

0:05:20.240,0:05:25.639
and even that message was a bit too long

0:05:23.479,0:05:29.419
they only got the first two letters of

0:05:25.639,0:05:32.510
that so ello but that counts great oh my

0:05:29.419,0:05:35.720
gosh yeah so the world wide web was

0:05:32.510,0:05:37.550
actually started in 1989 and that was

0:05:35.720,0:05:39.830
invented by Tim berners-lee and it was

0:05:37.550,0:05:41.690
just made for scientists in universities

0:05:39.830,0:05:43.130
and institutions around the world the

0:05:41.690,0:05:45.139
world wide web is actually just the most

0:05:43.130,0:05:47.060
popular platform for accessing data and

0:05:45.139,0:05:50.510
information sharing through hyperlinks

0:05:47.060,0:05:53.479
and browsers but yeah the there are a

0:05:50.510,0:05:57.139
few different transfer protocol servers

0:05:53.479,0:05:59.330
that existed before that limit losing

0:05:57.139,0:06:03.229
you I do think that’s like sick

0:05:59.330,0:06:05.240
ah okay cool cool hey yeah and a

0:06:03.229,0:06:07.759
Transfer Protocol is just if we’re gonna

0:06:05.240,0:06:10.250
transfer something and we follow a

0:06:07.759,0:06:12.349
protocol a set of rules so that’s how

0:06:10.250,0:06:15.080
we’re gonna exchange data is this

0:06:12.349,0:06:16.699
Transfer Protocol so the so that’s like

0:06:15.080,0:06:19.900
how you exchange data between the nodes

0:06:16.699,0:06:22.099
or like all the computers from just

0:06:19.900,0:06:24.889
exactly they have to follow a specific

0:06:22.099,0:06:27.259
protocol is it like when you say like a

0:06:24.889,0:06:29.479
specific protocol is it almost like like

0:06:27.259,0:06:31.310
I’m like trying to relate it like to

0:06:29.479,0:06:33.620
coding is it like the same like language

0:06:31.310,0:06:35.479
or like is that I might complete the ER

0:06:33.620,0:06:39.650
yeah so you’re yeah you’re getting that

0:06:35.479,0:06:41.569
there’s like yeah it is the same

0:06:39.650,0:06:44.150
language you can use different languages

0:06:41.569,0:06:45.710
it’s more in regards to I hope I’m doing

0:06:44.150,0:06:47.810
this right this is like I’m pulling from

0:06:45.710,0:06:50.539
my networks class that I took junior

0:06:47.810,0:06:52.879
year it there transfer protocols that

0:06:50.539,0:06:56.659
regard how you switch packets and

0:06:52.879,0:06:58.759
packets are like your piece of data so

0:06:56.659,0:07:00.919
when we if we let’s say we’re both

0:06:58.759,0:07:03.380
trying to send an email to the same

0:07:00.919,0:07:05.449
person and we follow a specific transfer

0:07:03.380,0:07:07.490
protocol so it’s whoever sent the

0:07:05.449,0:07:10.039
message first that one is going to get

0:07:07.490,0:07:12.229
delivered before my message whereas if

0:07:10.039,0:07:13.819
we sent them at the same time what

0:07:12.229,0:07:16.039
happens when we both send it at the same

0:07:13.819,0:07:17.659
time then like is it gonna be a block do

0:07:16.039,0:07:20.120
this is the person receiving it not get

0:07:17.659,0:07:23.389
any like who gets to send their message

0:07:20.120,0:07:24.949
first oh yeah so that’s like transfer

0:07:23.389,0:07:27.590
protocols is like the rules that you’re

0:07:24.949,0:07:30.199
gonna follow when you send data okay

0:07:27.590,0:07:32.979
that make sense yeah yeah I hope I’m

0:07:30.199,0:07:35.629
doing this right if any like no I just

0:07:32.979,0:07:39.080
people like come for me it’s just like

0:07:35.629,0:07:43.129
email or tweet us I will change what I’m

0:07:39.080,0:07:47.029
saying if it’s not exactly correct no no

0:07:43.129,0:07:47.770
you’re doing agree at least it sounds

0:07:47.029,0:07:49.789
smart

0:07:47.770,0:07:52.009
okay so now we’re gonna actually get

0:07:49.789,0:07:55.039
into the dot-com bubble so the Internet

0:07:52.009,0:07:58.129
is a really new cool thing the dot-com

0:07:55.039,0:08:03.199
bubble actually lasted from 1995 to 2001

0:07:58.129,0:08:05.029
in April 30th 1993 the web became public

0:08:03.199,0:08:08.000
domain which means everybody could use

0:08:05.029,0:08:11.029
it now because before it was just mainly

0:08:08.000,0:08:12.830
for scientists and PhDs and university

0:08:11.029,0:08:14.120
people to exchange data

0:08:12.830,0:08:16.460
but now they’re like let’s give it to

0:08:14.120,0:08:19.310
everyone so with the web becoming public

0:08:16.460,0:08:21.319
domain we start to see a rise in online

0:08:19.310,0:08:25.490
internet based companies which are dub

0:08:21.319,0:08:27.050
comm SOCOM is just a domain name like

0:08:25.490,0:08:29.840
when you have google.com and

0:08:27.050,0:08:32.870
facebook.com that’s just your domain but

0:08:29.840,0:08:37.219
you could have like da IO org those are

0:08:32.870,0:08:39.110
all just different domain names so then

0:08:37.219,0:08:43.010
now we’re gonna explain what a bubble is

0:08:39.110,0:08:45.500
so we could do a whole nother episode on

0:08:43.010,0:08:48.110
how the stock market works but too

0:08:45.500,0:08:50.390
briefly if you want that please tweet us

0:08:48.110,0:08:53.890
or email us and we can go into it but

0:08:50.390,0:08:56.149
the stock market just as like piece of

0:08:53.890,0:08:57.649
advice to like anyone who doesn’t really

0:08:56.149,0:08:59.270
know how the stock market works it’s not

0:08:57.649,0:09:01.820
actually a direct reflection on how the

0:08:59.270,0:09:05.300
economy’s doing so the stock market is

0:09:01.820,0:09:07.250
basically just how we as a society are

0:09:05.300,0:09:09.800
perceiving the valuation of certain

0:09:07.250,0:09:11.870
companies so with the stock market not

0:09:09.800,0:09:14.420
actually being a direct reflection of

0:09:11.870,0:09:17.839
how the economy is doing each company

0:09:14.420,0:09:20.450
stock is also not a direct reflection on

0:09:17.839,0:09:22.730
how that company is doing it is just the

0:09:20.450,0:09:24.890
perceived value that we as consumers are

0:09:22.730,0:09:27.050
placing on it so if you think a company

0:09:24.890,0:09:29.420
is gonna do really well and everyone’s

0:09:27.050,0:09:31.100
buying into this company the valuation

0:09:29.420,0:09:34.360
is going to go up that doesn’t mean that

0:09:31.100,0:09:39.980
the company is actually doing well yeah

0:09:34.360,0:09:42.290
so a bubble emerges then when investor

0:09:39.980,0:09:44.600
valuation of an industry or company is

0:09:42.290,0:09:49.160
greater than the actual value of that

0:09:44.600,0:09:50.899
company okay right so hence the dot-com

0:09:49.160,0:09:53.180
bubble also known as the internet bubble

0:09:50.899,0:09:55.610
was the rapid rise in US technology

0:09:53.180,0:09:57.740
stock equity evaluations fueled by

0:09:55.610,0:10:00.680
investments in internet-based companies

0:09:57.740,0:10:02.510
and we knew that this was a bubble when

0:10:00.680,0:10:04.040
it was happening at the time because a

0:10:02.510,0:10:05.720
lot of the companies who are going to

0:10:04.040,0:10:07.490
market with their IPOs

0:10:05.720,0:10:11.060
which an IPO is an initial public

0:10:07.490,0:10:13.520
offering when you as a company go public

0:10:11.060,0:10:15.709
that means that you’re opening up your

0:10:13.520,0:10:19.490
stocks of the company to be bought by

0:10:15.709,0:10:22.520
individual investors like us and your

0:10:19.490,0:10:25.100
IPO is that valuation that you get once

0:10:22.520,0:10:26.270
it reaches the stock market and so with

0:10:25.100,0:10:29.240
a lot of these companies that were

0:10:26.270,0:10:31.670
to the IPO they had huge valuations

0:10:29.240,0:10:33.260
within the first day which doesn’t make

0:10:31.670,0:10:35.990
sense for a company that’s just now

0:10:33.260,0:10:37.550
emerging in the market yeah yeah

0:10:35.990,0:10:41.779
sometimes they would double on the first

0:10:37.550,0:10:45.380
day which is just wow not it’s a lot of

0:10:41.779,0:10:47.360
growth for 24 hours yeah yeah right so

0:10:45.380,0:10:48.440
obviously we ran into a lot of problems

0:10:47.360,0:10:50.870
tons of companies

0:10:48.440,0:10:52.209
we’re emerging with no rational business

0:10:50.870,0:10:55.399
plans for short-term or long-term

0:10:52.209,0:10:56.630
survival venture capitalists which are

0:10:55.399,0:10:58.310
if you don’t know what venture

0:10:56.630,0:11:00.680
capitalists are they’re just early stage

0:10:58.310,0:11:02.450
investors so if you’re specifically a

0:11:00.680,0:11:04.550
venture capitalist you like to invest in

0:11:02.450,0:11:08.180
startups which are companies that are

0:11:04.550,0:11:10.279
really really brand new but all of these

0:11:08.180,0:11:12.680
types of investors were really scared

0:11:10.279,0:11:15.560
about missing on missing out on the

0:11:12.680,0:11:17.690
growth that they were just pouring tons

0:11:15.560,0:11:21.140
of money into any company that said they

0:11:17.690,0:11:23.540
were internet base yeah well yeah I mean

0:11:21.140,0:11:26.330
that makes sense because like okay so

0:11:23.540,0:11:29.270
it’s like this new technology like that

0:11:26.330,0:11:31.610
has only been used by academic

0:11:29.270,0:11:33.020
scientists people in the military and so

0:11:31.610,0:11:34.430
for regular people like they don’t

0:11:33.020,0:11:37.339
probably don’t understand the technology

0:11:34.430,0:11:40.100
even in 2020 I so could not tell you

0:11:37.339,0:11:41.990
what the internet was so I’m sure like

0:11:40.100,0:11:44.839
people it’s like lack of understanding

0:11:41.990,0:11:47.510
of the technology and also just like

0:11:44.839,0:11:50.270
this huge revolution like I take it for

0:11:47.510,0:11:51.920
granted because I am like young and I’ve

0:11:50.270,0:11:54.589
had the internet my whole life growing

0:11:51.920,0:11:56.390
up I can’t imagine what it’d be like

0:11:54.589,0:12:00.579
without the internet and suddenly you

0:11:56.390,0:12:03.290
have the whole world’s accumulation of

0:12:00.579,0:12:05.589
entertainment like at your fingertips oh

0:12:03.290,0:12:08.540
I can’t even imagine like how

0:12:05.589,0:12:11.149
revolutionary and life-changing that

0:12:08.540,0:12:13.220
must be and so obviously yeah everyone’s

0:12:11.149,0:12:15.709
freaking on I think the whole lack of

0:12:13.220,0:12:17.870
understanding of what the technology

0:12:15.709,0:12:18.770
behind it probably did really hurt when

0:12:17.870,0:12:21.079
you’re saying like they’re just

0:12:18.770,0:12:23.209
investing money wherever it was like say

0:12:21.079,0:12:27.230
if someone has the word Internet yes

0:12:23.209,0:12:29.600
take my money what you take it make me

0:12:27.230,0:12:31.430
rich so know exactly and I I think

0:12:29.600,0:12:33.829
there’s a really strong parallel to

0:12:31.430,0:12:36.140
cryptocurrency today which we could do a

0:12:33.829,0:12:38.900
whole episode on crypto but a lot of

0:12:36.140,0:12:40.550
people don’t understand it

0:12:38.900,0:12:42.589
or some people I honestly think that

0:12:40.550,0:12:44.210
people overcomplicate crypto and they

0:12:42.589,0:12:46.339
make it this elusive thing so people

0:12:44.210,0:12:48.140
just think that it’s gonna make money

0:12:46.339,0:12:50.300
like I have to get my money into it and

0:12:48.140,0:12:51.920
then they make investments based on just

0:12:50.300,0:12:53.930
that buzzword of crypto instead of

0:12:51.920,0:12:57.140
actually evaluating okay like is this

0:12:53.930,0:12:58.839
crypto currency a kind that I believe in

0:12:57.140,0:13:04.339
do I think it’s gonna be sustainable

0:12:58.839,0:13:05.529
mm-hmm similar things yeah yeah but

0:13:04.339,0:13:08.000
you’re right a lot of the companies

0:13:05.529,0:13:10.910
because they’re getting backed by all

0:13:08.000,0:13:13.070
this money without any business plans

0:13:10.910,0:13:16.210
the idea was just they wanted to grow

0:13:13.070,0:13:19.100
big and grow really fast which isn’t

0:13:16.210,0:13:21.620
necessarily sustainable or practical for

0:13:19.100,0:13:24.020
most companies there’s always gonna be

0:13:21.620,0:13:28.070
like an uptake time and growing your

0:13:24.020,0:13:29.510
company and so eventually when all of

0:13:28.070,0:13:32.270
these companies failed to turn a profit

0:13:29.510,0:13:34.880
people lost their money and this was a

0:13:32.270,0:13:38.510
huge contribution to the 2001 stock

0:13:34.880,0:13:40.700
market crash that happened later on yeah

0:13:38.510,0:13:42.710
and so a lot of people there was a 2001

0:13:40.700,0:13:44.510
crash and a lot of people attributed to

0:13:42.710,0:13:48.110
the terrorist attacks that we had to

0:13:44.510,0:13:49.100
September 11th 2001 and if you’re

0:13:48.110,0:13:50.930
listening in you’re outside of the

0:13:49.100,0:13:53.720
states that was a huge deal in the

0:13:50.930,0:13:55.640
United States because me a very

0:13:53.720,0:13:57.709
significant terrorist attack and that

0:13:55.640,0:13:59.300
people said that the stock market crash

0:13:57.709,0:14:02.540
was related to that too but actually the

0:13:59.300,0:14:04.700
dot-com bubble burst was a potentially

0:14:02.540,0:14:07.700
larger chunk in it just because a lot of

0:14:04.700,0:14:09.529
the I’m gonna try to explain the Nasdaq

0:14:07.700,0:14:12.200
are you familiar with the Naza yeah

0:14:09.529,0:14:14.779
that’s like the collection of like the

0:14:12.200,0:14:18.529
big like a certain types of the big

0:14:14.779,0:14:20.660
companies yeah it’s an index of how the

0:14:18.529,0:14:23.480
stock market’s doing but it’s taken from

0:14:20.660,0:14:25.670
just like a chunk of large companies or

0:14:23.480,0:14:27.589
a lot of companies that make up the

0:14:25.670,0:14:28.910
stock market and they I don’t want to

0:14:27.589,0:14:31.880
say average because I don’t think it’s

0:14:28.910,0:14:34.040
an average but they will like to take

0:14:31.880,0:14:35.720
how those are doing and then figure out

0:14:34.040,0:14:38.209
this index and that indicates how the

0:14:35.720,0:14:40.910
stock market as a heat pole is doing so

0:14:38.209,0:14:43.370
that the dot-com bubble bursting

0:14:40.910,0:14:46.120
actually affected Nasdaq a lot more

0:14:43.370,0:14:49.280
because Nasdaq at the time was really

0:14:46.120,0:14:51.290
heavily dependent on huge tech

0:14:49.280,0:14:52.610
internet-based companies so that was a

0:14:51.290,0:14:56.360
large sector

0:14:52.610,0:14:58.279
yeah okay yeah and subsequently most of

0:14:56.360,0:15:02.180
the internet companies went bankrupt or

0:14:58.279,0:15:04.850
many of them did oh wow yeah so facts

0:15:02.180,0:15:08.000
and figures from the time during the

0:15:04.850,0:15:10.730
bubble kind of building up the Nasdaq

0:15:08.000,0:15:14.390
grew from a thousand points in 1995 to

0:15:10.730,0:15:17.380
over 5,000 points in 2000 with little

0:15:14.390,0:15:21.589
inflation that’s not good

0:15:17.380,0:15:24.380
yeah so then from March to April of 2000

0:15:21.589,0:15:26.300
dot-com stocks had lost nearly 1

0:15:24.380,0:15:29.329
trillion in stock value so that’s just

0:15:26.300,0:15:31.040
one month to lose a tune and stock value

0:15:29.329,0:15:34.029
for like all the companies is still a

0:15:31.040,0:15:37.579
huge deal that’s so much money though

0:15:34.029,0:15:39.920
mm-hmm comprehend that yeah it’s a lot

0:15:37.579,0:15:42.769
and even the blue chip technology

0:15:39.920,0:15:46.610
companies so a blue chip technology

0:15:42.769,0:15:48.980
company is just a really well

0:15:46.610,0:15:51.470
established and safe investment so those

0:15:48.980,0:15:54.170
are big companies like Cisco Intel and

0:15:51.470,0:15:55.850
Oracle so those are supposed to be

0:15:54.170,0:15:57.709
really stable if you put your money

0:15:55.850,0:15:59.779
there they’ve been established those

0:15:57.709,0:16:05.750
still lost more than 80 percent of their

0:15:59.779,0:16:08.779
value upon the bursts 80% mm-hmm that’s

0:16:05.750,0:16:11.000
a lot it was rough and the Nasdaq did

0:16:08.779,0:16:14.630
not recover back to its dot-com peak

0:16:11.000,0:16:17.420
until 2015 and the total number of job

0:16:14.630,0:16:20.870
losses from the dot-com bubble burst was

0:16:17.420,0:16:22.910
400 15,000 which today since we’re at

0:16:20.870,0:16:24.560
like 40 million it doesn’t seem like

0:16:22.910,0:16:29.480
that much but I’m sure at the time it

0:16:24.560,0:16:32.390
was a lot yeah wow that’s insane yeah

0:16:29.480,0:16:35.029
but some companies did survive so can

0:16:32.390,0:16:39.170
you take a guess as to what they were

0:16:35.029,0:16:44.300
think about the biggest most richest

0:16:39.170,0:16:46.089
person that exists today Oh Bill Gates

0:16:44.300,0:16:49.399
Microsoft

0:16:46.089,0:16:51.170
no actually Bill Gates is part of the PC

0:16:49.399,0:16:52.760
era because you know pert he makes

0:16:51.170,0:16:53.890
personal computers rape and that was

0:16:52.760,0:17:00.380
like in the 80s

0:16:53.890,0:17:04.840
thank richer than Bill Gates the lead

0:17:00.380,0:17:07.930
Amazon is you

0:17:04.840,0:17:10.570
Amazon upon their initial IPO trading at

0:17:07.930,0:17:13.560
7:00 at the peak of the dot-com bubble

0:17:10.570,0:17:16.870
they were trading at $100 per share and

0:17:13.560,0:17:20.080
which is a lot but today Amazon trades

0:17:16.870,0:17:24.610
for over two thousand seven dollars oh

0:17:20.080,0:17:26.620
my god yeah crazy in my head on my game

0:17:24.610,0:17:29.260
and what’s not okay for me personally

0:17:26.620,0:17:31.720
Amazon hasn’t become relevant like into

0:17:29.260,0:17:34.450
like the past like five or six years but

0:17:31.720,0:17:35.560
Wow they’ve been oh yeah they’ve been

0:17:34.450,0:17:38.620
here for a while

0:17:35.560,0:17:40.810
that’s he’s been trekking along I think

0:17:38.620,0:17:43.090
two will go into this but some of the

0:17:40.810,0:17:46.080
good things that came out of the dot-com

0:17:43.090,0:17:47.770
bubble were it did inspire a lot of

0:17:46.080,0:17:50.320
entrepreneurship because it’s like this

0:17:47.770,0:17:52.660
new technology it’s really when you

0:17:50.320,0:17:53.950
start internet-based companies they

0:17:52.660,0:17:57.040
still talk about this all the time like

0:17:53.950,0:17:59.200
e-commerce but doing that you can really

0:17:57.040,0:18:01.090
there’s not a ton of like money that you

0:17:59.200,0:18:02.980
have to put into upfront to start those

0:18:01.090,0:18:05.500
company so everyone likes to jump on

0:18:02.980,0:18:07.690
that and that type of entrepreneurship

0:18:05.500,0:18:11.530
hadn’t really been seen since before the

0:18:07.690,0:18:13.780
Great Depression so oh and in spired a

0:18:11.530,0:18:16.930
lot of new young entrepreneurs so much

0:18:13.780,0:18:20.320
so but that by the spring of 1999 there

0:18:16.930,0:18:23.260
was a survey done by Vanguard and it

0:18:20.320,0:18:26.920
said that one in 12 Americans were in

0:18:23.260,0:18:29.860
some stage of a founding business oh my

0:18:26.920,0:18:31.690
god really yeah like involved in some

0:18:29.860,0:18:32.830
way whether they’re an investor whether

0:18:31.690,0:18:35.290
they’re trying to build their own

0:18:32.830,0:18:37.000
weather they were like doing marketing

0:18:35.290,0:18:40.540
for one you just like you have your hand

0:18:37.000,0:18:45.210
in something yeah and then I have a cute

0:18:40.540,0:18:47.800
video a cute video that CNBC posted from

0:18:45.210,0:18:50.140
interviewing Jeff Bezos during the

0:18:47.800,0:18:51.940
dot-com bubble era and I’ll send it to

0:18:50.140,0:18:55.030
you after this we can also link it in

0:18:51.940,0:18:56.680
our show notes or check it out it’ll be

0:18:55.030,0:18:59.920
like in the description and on our

0:18:56.680,0:19:04.120
youtube video prepared too oh yeah I’ll

0:18:59.920,0:19:05.680
tweet it as well I really admired it I

0:19:04.120,0:19:09.010
know that Jeff Bezos is a very

0:19:05.680,0:19:12.280
polarizing character these days but I I

0:19:09.010,0:19:14.680
think this is also my two cents as just

0:19:12.280,0:19:17.600
like a college student in stem but even

0:19:14.680,0:19:19.820
the interviewer in it talks about

0:19:17.600,0:19:22.190
oh but like your you have to put money

0:19:19.820,0:19:25.220
into your company to make it run that’s

0:19:22.190,0:19:26.690
a lot of cost and the Internet this and

0:19:25.220,0:19:28.549
the Internet VAT and Jeff Bezos

0:19:26.690,0:19:31.130
literally says like Internet shouldn’t

0:19:28.549,0:19:32.929
turn that at one point in the video but

0:19:31.130,0:19:35.390
he was like the point of a company is

0:19:32.929,0:19:37.760
that you’re making like a good service

0:19:35.390,0:19:39.320
for consumers and that’s how you have a

0:19:37.760,0:19:41.360
good company so he’s like maybe the

0:19:39.320,0:19:43.100
Internet’s a part of that but at the end

0:19:41.360,0:19:45.320
of the day it’s about good customer

0:19:43.100,0:19:47.150
service being like an engineer in

0:19:45.320,0:19:49.700
Silicon Valley right now I really like

0:19:47.150,0:19:51.350
seeing that because even today a lot of

0:19:49.700,0:19:53.090
people want to follow the hype but at

0:19:51.350,0:19:56.000
the end of the day businesses that work

0:19:53.090,0:19:57.530
don’t have to be followed by the

0:19:56.000,0:19:59.179
internet or have to have like the most

0:19:57.530,0:20:00.710
emerging technology so you see all the

0:19:59.179,0:20:03.169
different types of businesses on Shark

0:20:00.710,0:20:04.730
Tank that get distributed you know

0:20:03.169,0:20:06.440
making a good product is making a good

0:20:04.730,0:20:09.380
product and you’re solving a problem and

0:20:06.440,0:20:11.809
that’s ultimately the types of companies

0:20:09.380,0:20:13.340
that I think will succeed ya know that’s

0:20:11.809,0:20:15.169
a good point it’s like it’s all about

0:20:13.340,0:20:17.120
the foundation of the company it doesn’t

0:20:15.169,0:20:19.880
matter how many flashy words you have

0:20:17.120,0:20:22.250
like yeah there has to be a good balance

0:20:19.880,0:20:23.630
between like technology but it’s not

0:20:22.250,0:20:24.880
gonna succeed unless you have a good

0:20:23.630,0:20:27.409
business

0:20:24.880,0:20:29.270
the big takeaway from that is that

0:20:27.409,0:20:30.559
bubbles are always going to naturally

0:20:29.270,0:20:33.020
arise with the emergence of new

0:20:30.559,0:20:35.600
technology and the best investments

0:20:33.020,0:20:37.610
aren’t always the most popular so you

0:20:35.600,0:20:39.799
can see similar trends today too with

0:20:37.610,0:20:41.720
things like artificial intelligence and

0:20:39.799,0:20:45.440
machine learning those are huge buzz

0:20:41.720,0:20:47.480
words and again I’m just a college look

0:20:45.440,0:20:50.030
fresh college student who took one class

0:20:47.480,0:20:53.570
on AI but I think it’s a little

0:20:50.030,0:20:55.370
overhyped just because you have to in

0:20:53.570,0:20:57.620
class they talk about the most recent

0:20:55.370,0:20:59.659
research and it’s cool but it’s not

0:20:57.620,0:21:03.970
we’re not gonna be taken over by like

0:20:59.659,0:21:07.340
superior computer overlords anytime soon

0:21:03.970,0:21:09.230
so I encourage everyone to look into

0:21:07.340,0:21:11.840
anything you’re gonna invest in look

0:21:09.230,0:21:14.510
into the company and don’t just buy into

0:21:11.840,0:21:18.500
it because everyone else’s hmm that’s

0:21:14.510,0:21:21.830
really good advice yeah that’s the

0:21:18.500,0:21:23.809
dot-com bubble wow that’s really

0:21:21.830,0:21:25.460
interesting at first I was like wow how

0:21:23.809,0:21:26.720
did I not know that it’s like how come

0:21:25.460,0:21:28.510
we don’t learn about it well like first

0:21:26.720,0:21:30.190
of all I was like three at the time

0:21:28.510,0:21:34.690
[Laughter]

0:21:30.190,0:21:38.200
and yeah like as I said technology and

0:21:34.690,0:21:39.549
sex are not really my forte by like once

0:21:38.200,0:21:42.879
you explained it Michael hey this isn’t

0:21:39.549,0:21:45.190
really that confusing like I don’t know

0:21:42.879,0:21:47.230
I feel like it’s pretty easy to

0:21:45.190,0:21:48.519
understand once you take the time to

0:21:47.230,0:21:50.710
learn about it but I don’t know it

0:21:48.519,0:21:53.399
always kind of seems scary also like one

0:21:50.710,0:21:55.809
thing because of course I always got the

0:21:53.399,0:21:57.879
International mindset right I’m like

0:21:55.809,0:21:59.679
okay with the emergence of the internet

0:21:57.879,0:22:01.809
and like all these tech companies – I’m

0:21:59.679,0:22:04.090
sure it also just changed like the

0:22:01.809,0:22:05.950
composition of how we create businesses

0:22:04.090,0:22:07.539
and then like manage management within

0:22:05.950,0:22:09.100
businesses because like you’re talking

0:22:07.539,0:22:11.860
about how there’s technology being

0:22:09.100,0:22:14.409
developed all over the world and so I’m

0:22:11.860,0:22:16.570
sure like at this time like obviously

0:22:14.409,0:22:18.309
like there’s been like international

0:22:16.570,0:22:20.830
multinational like corporations before

0:22:18.309,0:22:22.269
this but especially with the internet

0:22:20.830,0:22:24.100
and all these tiny little technologies

0:22:22.269,0:22:26.590
like you have all these companies that

0:22:24.100,0:22:30.570
are investing in overseas technology and

0:22:26.590,0:22:33.940
working with engineers and entrepreneurs

0:22:30.570,0:22:37.929
overseas so I’m like curious to see like

0:22:33.940,0:22:39.909
how that impacted our stock market – and

0:22:37.929,0:22:41.590
like the global cyber I don’t know I

0:22:39.909,0:22:43.690
just think it’s like it must have been

0:22:41.590,0:22:45.309
such a revolutionary time period all

0:22:43.690,0:22:47.799
this new technology and then like all

0:22:45.309,0:22:50.049
this multinational cooperation as well

0:22:47.799,0:22:52.389
so it just must have been a wild time

0:22:50.049,0:22:55.120
people are talking about how Alibaba

0:22:52.389,0:22:59.320
you’re familiar with that company it’s a

0:22:55.120,0:23:00.970
good our business set up to Amazon where

0:22:59.320,0:23:03.340
you can kind of just buy everything I

0:23:00.970,0:23:06.669
will say that I have used Alibaba before

0:23:03.340,0:23:09.820
and that camera recognition is amazing

0:23:06.669,0:23:13.570
like that technology is great have you

0:23:09.820,0:23:15.490
used it no but was it is that what you

0:23:13.570,0:23:20.950
were using what was when we’re in China

0:23:15.490,0:23:22.659
together what was yeah yeah yeah right

0:23:20.950,0:23:24.759
so hopefully I’m I’m not remembering

0:23:22.659,0:23:27.519
this incorrectly but Alibaba is like the

0:23:24.759,0:23:29.169
parent company of Taobao and how about

0:23:27.519,0:23:31.240
you just take a picture of something and

0:23:29.169,0:23:36.129
then exactly what you want shows up it’s

0:23:31.240,0:23:37.720
fantastic but with that a lot of people

0:23:36.129,0:23:40.029
say that Oh a lot of people are just

0:23:37.720,0:23:42.960
investing in it because it’s overhyped

0:23:40.029,0:23:44.159
and budged so

0:23:42.960,0:23:45.510
now just do your research if you think

0:23:44.159,0:23:46.770
it’s a good company put your money

0:23:45.510,0:23:48.149
towards it if you don’t think it’s a

0:23:46.770,0:23:50.190
good company don’t put your money

0:23:48.149,0:23:52.799
towards it it’s good advice that

0:23:50.190,0:23:54.990
people’s to remember and yeah yeah

0:23:52.799,0:23:57.510
thanks so much for sharing all this this

0:23:54.990,0:23:59.279
is really interesting Lee oh yeah I need

0:23:57.510,0:24:02.399
to like look more into the stock market

0:23:59.279,0:24:03.840
it’s what do you explain it also just

0:24:02.399,0:24:05.700
like computer science in general like

0:24:03.840,0:24:07.590
the word computer science it’s so scary

0:24:05.700,0:24:10.529
to me but you got a good a job of

0:24:07.590,0:24:14.149
explaining it and yeah I would like to

0:24:10.529,0:24:17.070
hear this episode so yeah for those of

0:24:14.149,0:24:19.559
you would also like Jack to cover

0:24:17.070,0:24:21.090
certain topics let us know a lot of

0:24:19.559,0:24:22.830
people if I say like oh I majored in

0:24:21.090,0:24:25.649
computer science you feel like so smart

0:24:22.830,0:24:27.840
not really guys like it’s the same as

0:24:25.649,0:24:29.429
learning any other subject and you just

0:24:27.840,0:24:31.409
got to break it down and if you’re

0:24:29.429,0:24:33.690
interested in trying to get better at

0:24:31.409,0:24:35.340
understanding like investments the

0:24:33.690,0:24:37.320
economy things like that I think a lot

0:24:35.340,0:24:39.390
of people like to make it more scary

0:24:37.320,0:24:41.520
than it actually is everyone has the

0:24:39.390,0:24:43.890
ability to learn about it and empower

0:24:41.520,0:24:46.559
yourselves and invest in things and

0:24:43.890,0:24:49.260
build things and learn how to code you

0:24:46.559,0:24:51.330
are just as able to do that as anyone

0:24:49.260,0:24:53.820
else so we can definitely talk more

0:24:51.330,0:24:56.070
about that that’s so true that’s a good

0:24:53.820,0:24:58.440
point to make thanks for sharing that

0:24:56.070,0:25:00.220
Jack and yeah let’s let’s all get rich

0:24:58.440,0:25:12.979
together that’s all

0:25:00.220,0:25:12.979
[Music]

Canada Burned Down The White House?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

America has a long and expansive history of war, but none is as often forgotten or is as pointless as the War of 1812. In this episode, Nat talks about Americaā€™s first declared war that involved the kidnapping of American sailors, the capture of our nationā€™s capital by Canadian and British forces and the destruction of the White House.

Sources:

Transcript

0:00:00.060,0:00:04.589
hi everyone and welcome back to another

0:00:02.280,0:00:08.160
episode of how did we not know that my

0:00:04.589,0:00:10.349
name is Jack I’m Nana and today and that

0:00:08.160,0:00:13.679
is going to talk about a very important

0:00:10.349,0:00:15.120
war that happened yeah yeah today I’m

0:00:13.679,0:00:20.070
going to be talking about the war of

0:00:15.120,0:00:22.380
1812 super city so before I get into it

0:00:20.070,0:00:26.119
Jack what do you know about the war of

0:00:22.380,0:00:29.609
1812 nothing I know it was 200 years ago

0:00:26.119,0:00:33.360
so the while ago I don’t even was it a

0:00:29.609,0:00:39.930
US war yeah yeah so we fought and it was

0:00:33.360,0:00:42.840
on US soil okay yeah so I so like did

0:00:39.930,0:00:46.620
not know a lot about war of 1812 I was

0:00:42.840,0:00:48.660
like oh it sounds super boring um like

0:00:46.620,0:00:50.730
okay if listeners have like realized we

0:00:48.660,0:00:54.000
don’t really talk about a lot of stuff

0:00:50.730,0:00:55.739
like in like the early 1800s like the

0:00:54.000,0:00:57.629
very beginning years of America like

0:00:55.739,0:01:00.239
that’s for a reason like personally I’m

0:00:57.629,0:01:02.579
not very interested in the topic but I

0:01:00.239,0:01:06.360
was like okay I know nothing about war

0:01:02.579,0:01:08.630
of 1812 so I should look into it um so

0:01:06.360,0:01:12.510
I’ll just like dive right into it so

0:01:08.630,0:01:14.159
basically in the year of 1812 America is

0:01:12.510,0:01:16.350
a really really young country right

0:01:14.159,0:01:20.970
likes I know in case you forgot we

0:01:16.350,0:01:23.909
gained our independence in 1776 and then

0:01:20.970,0:01:25.439
so Great Britain so there are there that

0:01:23.909,0:01:28.650
people were fighting in the war right at

0:01:25.439,0:01:30.509
this time Great Britain is really huge

0:01:28.650,0:01:33.810
and they’re the world’s greatest naval

0:01:30.509,0:01:35.880
power and even though we’re such a young

0:01:33.810,0:01:38.310
tiny country we still end up going to

0:01:35.880,0:01:41.100
war with them and so yeah so basically

0:01:38.310,0:01:44.850
war of 1812 is uh subversives Great

0:01:41.100,0:01:47.549
Britain um and so the causes of the war

0:01:44.850,0:01:49.470
you might be wondering why yeah I feel

0:01:47.549,0:01:53.700
like we just had the American Revolution

0:01:49.470,0:01:55.530
then to go into another war right like

0:01:53.700,0:01:58.140
we’re still recovering from the war of

0:01:55.530,0:02:00.960
independence and then also like we’re

0:01:58.140,0:02:02.939
still trying to establish ourselves as

0:02:00.960,0:02:04.619
like our sandwich our government and

0:02:02.939,0:02:06.869
establish ourselves as an independent

0:02:04.619,0:02:09.420
nation but we were still really pissed

0:02:06.869,0:02:12.530
at Great Britain and you’re so mad that

0:02:09.420,0:02:13.870
we decided that we should go to war so

0:02:12.530,0:02:17.349
there’s

0:02:13.870,0:02:19.870
really one like clear main cause for the

0:02:17.349,0:02:24.459
war but like historians have kind of

0:02:19.870,0:02:27.849
broken it down into three three overall

0:02:24.459,0:02:31.900
reasons so at the time Great Britain is

0:02:27.849,0:02:35.650
fighting France in the Napoleonic Wars

0:02:31.900,0:02:38.940
I also yeah we got a research Napoleon

0:02:35.650,0:02:42.370
because he’s a big guy and I don’t even

0:02:38.940,0:02:44.650
yeah I realize I never really took like

0:02:42.370,0:02:46.420
European history classes and I think

0:02:44.650,0:02:47.410
that’s like kind of problem you should

0:02:46.420,0:02:50.370
probably know this up

0:02:47.410,0:02:50.370
because it basically

0:02:51.250,0:02:57.310
no you’re good you say like I feel like

0:02:54.970,0:02:58.870
these wars like when I was looking into

0:02:57.310,0:03:00.520
the Napoleonic Wars I was like oh my

0:02:58.870,0:03:02.920
gosh how did I not know about this this

0:03:00.520,0:03:05.530
was such a huge deal and they were

0:03:02.920,0:03:07.240
fighting for so long yeah see I feel the

0:03:05.530,0:03:10.050
opposite way I feel like we learned a

0:03:07.240,0:03:12.130
lot more about European history than

0:03:10.050,0:03:14.590
anywhere else in the world and I know

0:03:12.130,0:03:16.480
there’s a lot going on in Asia probably

0:03:14.590,0:03:18.790
lots of things in South America and

0:03:16.480,0:03:21.580
Africa too and we just like but that’s

0:03:18.790,0:03:24.130
fairly we’re a dominant we won’t even

0:03:21.580,0:03:25.360
know I really completely agree with you

0:03:24.130,0:03:28.410
know I think you’re actually true I

0:03:25.360,0:03:30.490
think I just don’t remember a lot of

0:03:28.410,0:03:31.960
Guttenberg you hear me complain about

0:03:30.490,0:03:34.690
this all the time Gutenberg printing

0:03:31.960,0:03:36.490
press we sweat like half a year on the

0:03:34.690,0:03:39.400
Gutenberg printing press it’s pretty

0:03:36.490,0:03:41.500
self-explanatory okay he just made

0:03:39.400,0:03:43.750
little stencils and then printed books

0:03:41.500,0:03:45.640
that’s all the lesson had to be it was a

0:03:43.750,0:03:48.610
one-liner sentence and they stretched

0:03:45.640,0:03:50.950
that out for forever it’s like the most

0:03:48.610,0:03:53.550
influential piece of history I don’t

0:03:50.950,0:03:57.820
know you’re talking about

0:03:53.550,0:04:00.310
hey but but yeah so definitely skipped

0:03:57.820,0:04:03.550
over a war of 1812 at least in my

0:04:00.310,0:04:04.900
classes and so yeah so Great Britain and

0:04:03.550,0:04:08.380
France are fighting in the Napoleonic

0:04:04.900,0:04:10.420
Wars and so both these two countries are

0:04:08.380,0:04:13.209
trying to stop the other country from

0:04:10.420,0:04:14.290
trading with the u.s. so that so because

0:04:13.209,0:04:16.600
they don’t want the other country to

0:04:14.290,0:04:19.900
like benefit from trading yeah whatever

0:04:16.600,0:04:21.459
and so the US was super upset with Great

0:04:19.900,0:04:23.230
Britain for restricting their trade

0:04:21.459,0:04:25.120
because they’re like oh my gosh like we

0:04:23.230,0:04:25.630
just gained our independence from you

0:04:25.120,0:04:28.600
guys

0:04:25.630,0:04:31.090
you can’t like be telling us what we can

0:04:28.600,0:04:33.760
and can’t do so they were pretty Great

0:04:31.090,0:04:35.890
Britain for that also another crazy

0:04:33.760,0:04:39.910
thing that’s happening at this time so

0:04:35.890,0:04:41.830
they’re upset about the Royal Navy like

0:04:39.910,0:04:44.140
the Great Britain Great Britain’s Navy

0:04:41.830,0:04:46.570
their policy of impressment

0:04:44.140,0:04:49.540
of American sailors and basically like

0:04:46.570,0:04:53.230
impressment means is that Great Britain

0:04:49.540,0:04:55.720
would like they would attack your ships

0:04:53.230,0:04:58.510
and they call them in like kidnap the US

0:04:55.720,0:05:00.400
sailors on those ships bring them back

0:04:58.510,0:05:03.610
to Britain and be like okay now you have

0:05:00.400,0:05:04.780
to fight in our army and this because I

0:05:03.610,0:05:06.639
guess

0:05:04.780,0:05:08.500
there is a shortage of sailors during

0:05:06.639,0:05:10.630
this war it had been going on for so

0:05:08.500,0:05:12.580
long and so many people died so they’re

0:05:10.630,0:05:17.139
like oh we need new sailors so let’s

0:05:12.580,0:05:19.600
just kidnap them um and so yeah Great

0:05:17.139,0:05:20.889
Britain benefits a lot from this policy

0:05:19.600,0:05:22.150
because like not only are they getting

0:05:20.889,0:05:24.580
more sailors but they’re also

0:05:22.150,0:05:26.440
interfering with trade between the u.s.

0:05:24.580,0:05:29.590
and France by like attacking these ships

0:05:26.440,0:05:35.460
and everything and like yeah the u.s. is

0:05:29.590,0:05:37.960
like what the heck you literally and

0:05:35.460,0:05:39.940
members of Congress trying to use this

0:05:37.960,0:05:42.190
as like one of the really big reasons to

0:05:39.940,0:05:43.780
declare war in Britain publicly they’re

0:05:42.190,0:05:46.840
kind of like we can’t let them get away

0:05:43.780,0:05:48.850
with this we must fight and then like

0:05:46.840,0:05:52.060
the third and final reason is that

0:05:48.850,0:05:55.210
America was trying to expand its

0:05:52.060,0:05:57.460
territory so at the time Canada is a

0:05:55.210,0:06:00.419
British colony and so they’re like okay

0:05:57.460,0:06:03.040
we got our eyes set and Canada and so

0:06:00.419,0:06:05.500
you know war might if we win the war

0:06:03.040,0:06:08.290
maybe we’ll gain all of Canada as well

0:06:05.500,0:06:13.840
the United States wanted it like we were

0:06:08.290,0:06:15.610
like okay Oh huge country oh my gosh

0:06:13.840,0:06:18.130
that’s like all of North America it’s

0:06:15.610,0:06:20.560
just that is like that was like pretty

0:06:18.130,0:06:22.330
much the goal okay God like all these

0:06:20.560,0:06:25.750
presidents at the beginning like they

0:06:22.330,0:06:27.340
really had yeah that’s when I guess you

0:06:25.750,0:06:28.840
know times were simpler back then you

0:06:27.340,0:06:30.880
just wanted to gain more land also

0:06:28.840,0:06:34.030
question I don’t know I know you’ve

0:06:30.880,0:06:35.020
worked in Canada so I have no idea about

0:06:34.030,0:06:37.570
the history of Canada

0:06:35.020,0:06:39.580
I met one nice Canadian on a plane and

0:06:37.570,0:06:41.470
he said that the unifying factor of

0:06:39.580,0:06:44.919
Canadians was that they were American

0:06:41.470,0:06:47.800
yes thank you guys have a history surely

0:06:44.919,0:06:49.870
like dude okay this is completely for

0:06:47.800,0:06:52.690
catering I will get into how this

0:06:49.870,0:06:55.570
impacted the Canadian identity later at

0:06:52.690,0:06:57.580
the end but like literally I did not

0:06:55.570,0:06:59.470
like hear about this war until I went to

0:06:57.580,0:07:01.690
Canada and as soon as I stepped foot in

0:06:59.470,0:07:04.840
Canada so I was like working in Ottawa

0:07:01.690,0:07:06.490
right so it’s the capital um everyone is

0:07:04.840,0:07:07.990
talk about war of 1812 as soon as I was

0:07:06.490,0:07:11.770
brought up I was Americans they’re like

0:07:07.990,0:07:13.930
oh like throwback to that Oh Lord of

0:07:11.770,0:07:15.820
1812 well and they’re very proud of it

0:07:13.930,0:07:18.190
for like a lot of I will get into later

0:07:15.820,0:07:21.310
but yeah I was like oh my god

0:07:18.190,0:07:28.540
that’s hilarious throwback to 1812 y’all

0:07:21.310,0:07:30.700
remember that nobody’s like oh yeah for

0:07:28.540,0:07:33.160
sure I know everything

0:07:30.700,0:07:35.920
no way that’s totally a parallel because

0:07:33.160,0:07:38.560
I know okay I should probably talk to my

0:07:35.920,0:07:39.820
English friends but like for us right

0:07:38.560,0:07:41.890
the American Revolution is like

0:07:39.820,0:07:43.630
everything but for them it’s like okay

0:07:41.890,0:07:45.850
this group of people just kind of went

0:07:43.630,0:07:47.740
off to another country and started that

0:07:45.850,0:07:49.510
and there’s a war but they that’s not

0:07:47.740,0:07:51.670
like a huge part in their history that

0:07:49.510,0:07:58.090
they talk about yeah it’s kind of like

0:07:51.670,0:08:07.650
okay like the are loud neighbors we want

0:07:58.090,0:08:09.850
a nice life yeah but yeah they’re yeah

0:08:07.650,0:08:11.710
politicians and presidents have their

0:08:09.850,0:08:13.690
eyes set on Canada and then other Native

0:08:11.710,0:08:15.880
American territories and they’re like

0:08:13.690,0:08:19.090
let’s just take over the whole continent

0:08:15.880,0:08:21.430
while we’re at it um and so Congress is

0:08:19.090,0:08:24.280
really divided about going to war with

0:08:21.430,0:08:26.860
Great Britain because obviously Great

0:08:24.280,0:08:29.770
Britain has a way stronger Navy and a

0:08:26.860,0:08:32.110
lot more funding so to put it in

0:08:29.770,0:08:34.240
perspective the US Army only has about

0:08:32.110,0:08:36.010
ten to twelve thousand soldiers and they

0:08:34.240,0:08:39.760
weren’t like properly trained or

0:08:36.010,0:08:42.370
equipped and the US Navy only had 17

0:08:39.760,0:08:45.880
ships or Great Britain has a thousand

0:08:42.370,0:08:48.370
and then Britain collected 40 times more

0:08:45.880,0:08:51.520
tax revenue than the US so they’re way

0:08:48.370,0:08:52.150
more loaded than we are but at the time

0:08:51.520,0:08:54.610
again

0:08:52.150,0:08:58.090
Great Britain is fighting Napoleon and

0:08:54.610,0:08:59.440
um yeah they’re fighting Napoleon and so

0:08:58.090,0:09:00.880
they’re super distracted we’re not

0:08:59.440,0:09:03.790
really concentrating all of their

0:09:00.880,0:09:05.080
efforts on fighting the US and so

0:09:03.790,0:09:06.820
they’re kind of using that to their

0:09:05.080,0:09:10.390
advantage like okay they’re putting all

0:09:06.820,0:09:14.290
their efforts and all their best men I

0:09:10.390,0:09:16.720
guess um in France and so the northern

0:09:14.290,0:09:19.750
states they’re do you remember like the

0:09:16.720,0:09:22.330
Federalist Party I like yeah so that’s

0:09:19.750,0:09:23.920
like mostly northern states are in the

0:09:22.330,0:09:25.420
Federalist Party and so they don’t

0:09:23.920,0:09:28.570
support the war with Great Britain

0:09:25.420,0:09:30.250
because they rely on trade with the

0:09:28.570,0:09:31.470
country because like they don’t have a

0:09:30.250,0:09:33.180
lot of farming so they

0:09:31.470,0:09:34.470
really they want to keep trading with

0:09:33.180,0:09:37.350
Great Britain so they’re like let’s not

0:09:34.470,0:09:39.510
go to war but southern states have a lot

0:09:37.350,0:09:40.740
of farmland to implantation so they

0:09:39.510,0:09:43.590
don’t really have to worry about that

0:09:40.740,0:09:45.390
and they were like hey like yeah we

0:09:43.590,0:09:47.610
should go to war with Great Britain

0:09:45.390,0:09:50.400
because they also want more land for

0:09:47.610,0:09:51.990
farming and for slavery so yeah there’s

0:09:50.400,0:09:56.970
very much a divide between north and

0:09:51.990,0:09:58.590
south again um yeah and so when it’s

0:09:56.970,0:10:01.680
voted on in Congress it would actually

0:09:58.590,0:10:05.310
be the smallest margin of votes for a

0:10:01.680,0:10:06.840
declaration of war in US history so it

0:10:05.310,0:10:09.300
was so close like they just barely

0:10:06.840,0:10:12.180
passed it and so yeah this kind of shows

0:10:09.300,0:10:13.980
you what like the general feelings about

0:10:12.180,0:10:16.500
entering the war like people weren’t

0:10:13.980,0:10:20.070
really excited about it and I’m June

0:10:16.500,0:10:22.050
18th 1812 President James Madison signs

0:10:20.070,0:10:24.150
a declaration of war against Great

0:10:22.050,0:10:26.420
Britain and this is actually the first

0:10:24.150,0:10:28.230
time the u.s. declares war on anybody

0:10:26.420,0:10:31.020
because like in the war of independence

0:10:28.230,0:10:32.340
not like a country yet um now that

0:10:31.020,0:10:33.870
they’re the first country or like yeah

0:10:32.340,0:10:40.200
your First Lord

0:10:33.870,0:10:42.570
hmm interesting take on it and so yeah

0:10:40.200,0:10:45.900
so the war begins it almost immediately

0:10:42.570,0:10:48.630
like the US forces are attacking Canada

0:10:45.900,0:10:50.550
in order to like strike at Creighton

0:10:48.630,0:10:52.910
because it’s a British colony and so

0:10:50.550,0:10:54.960
their thought process is that you know

0:10:52.910,0:10:56.490
Canadians are going to join forces with

0:10:54.960,0:10:58.740
us because they’re going to want to

0:10:56.490,0:11:01.260
revolt against Great Britain and like

0:10:58.740,0:11:04.110
join like the free country of America

0:11:01.260,0:11:06.810
and they’re going to join our side but

0:11:04.110,0:11:09.810
like this that’s not what happened and

0:11:06.810,0:11:11.940
so like we went in way too confident and

0:11:09.810,0:11:15.360
we were very quickly defeated by

0:11:11.940,0:11:17.820
Canadian and British troops yeah and I

0:11:15.360,0:11:18.900
was like no we’re we’re not one of you

0:11:17.820,0:11:22.950
guys sorry

0:11:18.900,0:11:24.540
question so if okay so at this time

0:11:22.950,0:11:27.500
there’s already like an established

0:11:24.540,0:11:31.200
Canada but that’s just a territory of

0:11:27.500,0:11:33.930
England you know do we consider Canada

0:11:31.200,0:11:36.200
its own Canadian country or is it just

0:11:33.930,0:11:40.890
like this is just more of England land

0:11:36.200,0:11:43.890
yeah I think I think that’s a time like

0:11:40.890,0:11:44.690
Canada is still a young relatively

0:11:43.890,0:11:46.700
younger British

0:11:44.690,0:11:48.620
Hannie so i think it just is like okay

0:11:46.700,0:11:51.140
they’re like primarily afraid of I think

0:11:48.620,0:11:52.460
the people like living in Canada like

0:11:51.140,0:11:55.370
the residents of Canada

0:11:52.460,0:11:57.460
feel more independent from Britain but

0:11:55.370,0:12:02.450
like Americans kind of see them as just

0:11:57.460,0:12:03.980
British people yeah British people yeah

0:12:02.450,0:12:08.150
I believe that’s like a general

0:12:03.980,0:12:09.980
sentiment but we argue out very quickly

0:12:08.150,0:12:12.910
defeated by Canada and we’re very

0:12:09.980,0:12:16.220
shocked like whoa we were not expecting

0:12:12.910,0:12:19.430
strong resistance everyone’s supposed to

0:12:16.220,0:12:25.400
be so nice in Canada hey everyone how we

0:12:19.430,0:12:27.890
planned it but yeah so US troops they

0:12:25.400,0:12:31.070
actually surrendered the town of Detroit

0:12:27.890,0:12:34.220
Michigan without any shots being fired

0:12:31.070,0:12:36.920
like they’re just so scared that they I

0:12:34.220,0:12:38.630
think they kind of just run away like no

0:12:36.920,0:12:44.720
in the United States we were just like

0:12:38.630,0:12:46.610
you can have Detroit yeah and like they

0:12:44.720,0:12:51.230
claim the town of Detroit so we are

0:12:46.610,0:12:55.430
invaded by Canada also this is very nice

0:12:51.230,0:12:57.320
the Canada that I know a so polite it’s

0:12:55.430,0:12:59.420
like if you met a really nice person and

0:12:57.320,0:13:01.610
you’re like can I use your bathroom and

0:12:59.420,0:13:03.020
they’re like no you know what I mean it

0:13:01.610,0:13:04.850
catches you really off-guard because you

0:13:03.020,0:13:07.040
think that it’s just like a given that

0:13:04.850,0:13:09.470
they would let you use your yeah I don’t

0:13:07.040,0:13:11.870
know okay well that’s kind of like one

0:13:09.470,0:13:13.430
of the issues with this like why we were

0:13:11.870,0:13:16.070
quickly defeated because we didn’t like

0:13:13.430,0:13:18.110
give much thought to it and we like our

0:13:16.070,0:13:21.200
planning wasn’t great we’re kind of like

0:13:18.110,0:13:23.810
let’s just go yeah it was our first war

0:13:21.200,0:13:26.860
to be fair it was the first time we were

0:13:23.810,0:13:29.420
Rikki so we got to cut us some slack but

0:13:26.860,0:13:33.050
but yeah so okay so now I’m going to

0:13:29.420,0:13:35.930
rewind to the fall of 1811 so before the

0:13:33.050,0:13:37.220
war has officially been declared um and

0:13:35.930,0:13:40.520
I’m going to talk about the Battle of

0:13:37.220,0:13:43.010
Tippecanoe in Indiana have you heard of

0:13:40.520,0:13:46.040
this battle because this maybe it’s

0:13:43.010,0:13:48.140
because I like I don’t know Illinois is

0:13:46.040,0:13:50.330
close to Indiana but I feel like I’ve

0:13:48.140,0:13:52.339
heard of the Battle of Tippecanoe so

0:13:50.330,0:13:54.530
many times at school but I didn’t like

0:13:52.339,0:13:58.209
remember what it was but so basically

0:13:54.530,0:14:02.899
fall of 1811 um so in

0:13:58.209,0:14:04.819
Tippecanoe Indiana so Shawnee chief to

0:14:02.899,0:14:07.730
come sir his name is to come sir

0:14:04.819,0:14:10.600
he’s the leader of profit sound which is

0:14:07.730,0:14:13.579
a Native American settlement and so

0:14:10.600,0:14:16.550
chief Tecumseh he’s encouraging other

0:14:13.579,0:14:18.529
Native Americans to abandon the ways of

0:14:16.550,0:14:23.110
whites especially in regards to alcohol

0:14:18.529,0:14:25.759
and consumer goods and he’s like okay ah

0:14:23.110,0:14:27.199
like just don’t listen to what all the

0:14:25.759,0:14:29.089
white people are telling you like just

0:14:27.199,0:14:32.089
ignore them and then like we should all

0:14:29.089,0:14:34.790
I guess like unite let’s create our own

0:14:32.089,0:14:36.860
side on my end like there’s safety in

0:14:34.790,0:14:38.420
numbers like yeah so he’s creating the

0:14:36.860,0:14:40.639
settlement and he’s also a lot more

0:14:38.420,0:14:43.220
militant than other Native American

0:14:40.639,0:14:45.769
leaders at the time and so his vision is

0:14:43.220,0:14:48.470
uniting Native American tribes across

0:14:45.769,0:14:51.199
the country and actively resisting white

0:14:48.470,0:14:53.389
settlement and so obviously the US

0:14:51.199,0:14:56.660
government is not a fan of to come so

0:14:53.389,0:14:59.329
and so they send General William Henry

0:14:56.660,0:15:01.370
Harrison to destroy the settlement of

0:14:59.329,0:15:03.769
profits found in the Battle of

0:15:01.370,0:15:05.660
Tippecanoe which also okay

0:15:03.769,0:15:08.300
I just want to add a quick side note so

0:15:05.660,0:15:11.029
William Henry Harrison this general he

0:15:08.300,0:15:14.480
would later become president in 1840 and

0:15:11.029,0:15:17.360
he gives the longest inauguration speech

0:15:14.480,0:15:19.730
ever in US history he catches a cold

0:15:17.360,0:15:22.850
from this speech and then he dies forty

0:15:19.730,0:15:24.500
days later oh I think I’ve heard of this

0:15:22.850,0:15:28.720
president isn’t that is he the one with

0:15:24.500,0:15:31.579
the shortest term yeah passes away

0:15:28.720,0:15:34.399
pretty much yeah a little what was his

0:15:31.579,0:15:37.220
name again here William Henry Harrison

0:15:34.399,0:15:39.829
William Henry Harrison yikes

0:15:37.220,0:15:41.509
yeah I thought that was I did not know

0:15:39.829,0:15:44.420
that so I know long was his speech do

0:15:41.509,0:15:46.399
you know like an hour no I think it was

0:15:44.420,0:15:52.269
a long long time I think it was like a

0:15:46.399,0:15:55.819
few hours but yeah yeah but yes I just

0:15:52.269,0:15:57.500
remember I just want to throw that so

0:15:55.819,0:15:59.990
back to the Battle of Tippecanoe so

0:15:57.500,0:16:04.370
Harrison his forces defeat to come sir

0:15:59.990,0:16:06.500
and this defeat convinces many Native

0:16:04.370,0:16:09.259
Americans in the region including to

0:16:06.500,0:16:12.110
come sir that they need to join British

0:16:09.259,0:16:13.700
forces later in the war of 1812

0:16:12.110,0:16:16.310
because they need to fight against the

0:16:13.700,0:16:17.959
US in order to prevent American settlers

0:16:16.310,0:16:20.329
from pushing them further out of their

0:16:17.959,0:16:23.390
lands um so this is really important

0:16:20.329,0:16:24.920
because once the war of 1812 starts the

0:16:23.390,0:16:27.730
u.s. is fighting against British

0:16:24.920,0:16:30.680
Canadian and Native American troops um

0:16:27.730,0:16:33.050
yeah so it’s like it’s not looking good

0:16:30.680,0:16:35.120
for the US but we do have quite a few

0:16:33.050,0:16:37.370
successes throughout the war like

0:16:35.120,0:16:39.860
surprisingly so in the early months of

0:16:37.370,0:16:42.800
the war we actually scored a lot of

0:16:39.860,0:16:44.839
victories against the Royal Navy because

0:16:42.800,0:16:46.610
again they’re fighting in France and

0:16:44.839,0:16:48.890
they’re not really I’m paying too much

0:16:46.610,0:16:51.079
attention to us we’re just kind of like

0:16:48.890,0:16:54.529
a side note really oh gosh now we gotta

0:16:51.079,0:16:57.470
worry about these guys again but um we

0:16:54.529,0:17:01.010
also defeat British invasions in New

0:16:57.470,0:17:03.649
York and Baltimore and then General

0:17:01.010,0:17:06.709
William Henry Harrison and he reclaims

0:17:03.649,0:17:09.169
Detroit in the Battle of Thames and then

0:17:06.709,0:17:13.939
he actually kills – comes up in this

0:17:09.169,0:17:18.140
conflict so yeah so we do Windows but

0:17:13.939,0:17:21.049
then we also suffer a lot of defeats and

0:17:18.140,0:17:23.449
so we lose Detroit originally Pro back

0:17:21.049,0:17:25.189
to that and then this is like just the

0:17:23.449,0:17:29.240
while they’re saying I can’t get over

0:17:25.189,0:17:30.740
this so on August 24 1814 um also August

0:17:29.240,0:17:34.220
21st is my little sister’s birthday so

0:17:30.740,0:17:37.790
shout-out to her so British and Canadian

0:17:34.220,0:17:41.210
Forces C’s Washington DC and burn down

0:17:37.790,0:17:43.580
the White House so it’s just like that

0:17:41.210,0:17:44.809
think of it is like not only was our

0:17:43.580,0:17:48.169
nation’s capitol

0:17:44.809,0:17:50.090
like invaded and seized by foreign

0:17:48.169,0:17:52.549
troops but they literally burned down

0:17:50.090,0:17:56.210
the White House this is what Canadians

0:17:52.549,0:17:59.750
are both Canadian and British troops

0:17:56.210,0:18:01.190
how dare what oh my gosh I didn’t

0:17:59.750,0:18:04.580
realize the White House got burned down

0:18:01.190,0:18:08.450
like how burned to a crisp or just like

0:18:04.580,0:18:12.950
a little charred I don’t know I died I

0:18:08.450,0:18:14.900
honestly don’t know um yeah but I do

0:18:12.950,0:18:17.419
know that like the design of the White

0:18:14.900,0:18:19.520
House has changed a lot since it was

0:18:17.419,0:18:21.110
okay we didn’t even have a White House

0:18:19.520,0:18:23.570
for a while I don’t know I know that

0:18:21.110,0:18:24.919
design has came so I’m guessing it had

0:18:23.570,0:18:27.340
to do with the fact that becomes

0:18:24.919,0:18:27.340
destroyed

0:18:27.630,0:18:33.179
that was probably a big factor but yeah

0:18:30.000,0:18:36.380
third opportunity to remodel I guess you

0:18:33.179,0:18:39.780
want to put some light on the situation

0:18:36.380,0:18:42.360
yeah look at it but yeah when I was

0:18:39.780,0:18:44.940
working in Canada this is what little

0:18:42.360,0:18:47.130
people would always read this up all the

0:18:44.940,0:18:49.590
time like Oh remember when we burnt down

0:18:47.130,0:18:51.419
the White House in the war of 1812 and

0:18:49.590,0:18:53.730
like he would love to like talk about it

0:18:51.419,0:18:57.990
I’m like oh my gosh like I really have

0:18:53.730,0:19:00.030
no idea that what Canadians remember and

0:18:57.990,0:19:01.950
they are very proud of it this is the

0:19:00.030,0:19:04.470
first time I’m hearing that the White

0:19:01.950,0:19:10.230
House was burnt down by Canadian that’s

0:19:04.470,0:19:11.970
what we don’t talk about this it’s

0:19:10.230,0:19:14.070
probably cuz it’s embarrassing for us

0:19:11.970,0:19:17.190
right yeah

0:19:14.070,0:19:19.679
but I thought that was wild our capital

0:19:17.190,0:19:23.850
like was seized by foreign invaders

0:19:19.679,0:19:27.169
that’s laughs but again like there are

0:19:23.850,0:19:30.240
more successes so despite all this like

0:19:27.169,0:19:33.150
we still have some victories and we turn

0:19:30.240,0:19:36.900
out okay in the end obviously and so on

0:19:33.150,0:19:40.590
September 13th 1814 for two years after

0:19:36.900,0:19:43.080
the war began u.s. soldiers successfully

0:19:40.590,0:19:45.780
defend Fort McHenry after 25 hours

0:19:43.080,0:19:48.000
straight of bombardment by the British

0:19:45.780,0:19:50.010
Navy that’s a long time and then the

0:19:48.000,0:19:52.860
next morning the fourth soldier is

0:19:50.010,0:19:54.720
raised a giant year’s flag and this

0:19:52.860,0:19:56.850
would be the site that inspired an

0:19:54.720,0:19:59.730
onlooker to write a poem about the

0:19:56.850,0:20:02.490
battle and the poet was Francis Scott

0:19:59.730,0:20:04.559
Key and his poem would later be set to

0:20:02.490,0:20:05.910
the tune of an old English drinking song

0:20:04.559,0:20:08.220
and would become known as the

0:20:05.910,0:20:11.850
star-spangled banner our national anthem

0:20:08.220,0:20:15.299
so sweet but I didn’t realize it was to

0:20:11.850,0:20:16.799
the tune of a drinking song also did not

0:20:15.299,0:20:21.720
know that I found it out of my research

0:20:16.799,0:20:25.280
and I was like oh yeah but I definitely

0:20:21.720,0:20:25.280
thought that the star-spangled banner

0:20:26.630,0:20:32.610
were the 1812 yeah me too I thought that

0:20:29.640,0:20:35.159
the we had that are like national anthem

0:20:32.610,0:20:38.040
was locked down like by the Revolution

0:20:35.159,0:20:39.540
time I didn’t realize it was like 40

0:20:38.040,0:20:42.510
years later and

0:20:39.540,0:20:44.580
took a while for his poem to be like

0:20:42.510,0:20:47.130
sent to the tune of music and then

0:20:44.580,0:20:50.580
chosen as an anthem so we didn’t have an

0:20:47.130,0:20:54.060
anthem for a while I think on yeah

0:20:50.580,0:20:58.200
so it’s wild so alright so now I’m gonna

0:20:54.060,0:21:00.180
so flash forward to February 17th 1815

0:20:58.200,0:21:03.600
so this is three years after the start

0:21:00.180,0:21:06.420
of the war um the Treaty of Ghent is

0:21:03.600,0:21:10.380
ratified which officially ends the war

0:21:06.420,0:21:13.050
of 1812 um so if you look at this treaty

0:21:10.380,0:21:17.040
you can easily see how pointless this

0:21:13.050,0:21:19.350
whole war is because so the US and Great

0:21:17.040,0:21:21.410
Britain they keep their original

0:21:19.350,0:21:23.790
territories like theirs they don’t

0:21:21.410,0:21:25.740
there’s no exchange in territories

0:21:23.790,0:21:29.610
between the two nations so it’s not like

0:21:25.740,0:21:31.590
okay we gain Canada or like Great

0:21:29.610,0:21:34.500
Britain one parts of us know nothing

0:21:31.590,0:21:37.470
happens and then the treaty says nothing

0:21:34.500,0:21:39.420
about ending British impressment

0:21:37.470,0:21:41.760
of US sailors and it doesn’t say

0:21:39.420,0:21:43.470
anything about like restricting trade so

0:21:41.760,0:21:46.470
like literally the reasons we came into

0:21:43.470,0:21:49.380
war like nothing there’s nothing yet

0:21:46.470,0:21:51.270
nothing is achieved and basically

0:21:49.380,0:21:54.510
everything returns back to normal for

0:21:51.270,0:21:56.820
the US and Great Britain but okay so

0:21:54.510,0:22:01.140
actually I thought this is so funny so

0:21:56.820,0:22:03.750
on January 8th 1815 so unaware that the

0:22:01.140,0:22:05.850
war had already ended British troops

0:22:03.750,0:22:08.940
attacked the u.s. in the Battle of New

0:22:05.850,0:22:12.180
Orleans and they are quickly defeated by

0:22:08.940,0:22:14.880
General Andrew Jackson’s army and so

0:22:12.180,0:22:16.500
even though this was technically after

0:22:14.880,0:22:18.750
peace had been declared and it’s like

0:22:16.500,0:22:22.290
that it shouldn’t really be part of war

0:22:18.750,0:22:24.240
of 1812 this left Americans with a taste

0:22:22.290,0:22:26.460
of victory so they’re like oh yeah we

0:22:24.240,0:22:29.490
definitely want this or check this out

0:22:26.460,0:22:30.960
uh even though none of their pre-war

0:22:29.490,0:22:33.060
objectives we’re at ease they were like

0:22:30.960,0:22:36.830
yep we definitely won like pat on the

0:22:33.060,0:22:36.830
back for us it’s the American Way

0:22:38.350,0:22:42.309
we also won like we’re feeling pretty

0:22:40.600,0:22:44.919
good like that last battle doesn’t

0:22:42.309,0:22:46.780
really count and like so like yeah there

0:22:44.919,0:22:48.730
because each country like has their own

0:22:46.780,0:22:52.780
successes in defeat so both countries

0:22:48.730,0:22:55.240
are like yeah we want for us and however

0:22:52.780,0:22:57.370
while there are no clear winners there

0:22:55.240,0:22:59.710
is definitely a loser of the war and

0:22:57.370,0:23:03.250
that is the Native Americans so they

0:22:59.710,0:23:05.110
suffer significant casualties from this

0:23:03.250,0:23:10.780
war and they lose a lot of their

0:23:05.110,0:23:13.929
territory to the US um so despite how

0:23:10.780,0:23:16.900
little was achieved as a result the war

0:23:13.929,0:23:19.690
of 1812 has a huge impact on American

0:23:16.900,0:23:21.190
patriotism and politics at the time so

0:23:19.690,0:23:23.890
it’s seen as a second war of

0:23:21.190,0:23:26.590
independence to Americans or like yes

0:23:23.890,0:23:29.830
we’d be separated yet again and then if

0:23:26.590,0:23:31.900
this begins an era of like partisan

0:23:29.830,0:23:33.309
agreement so both parties are agreeing

0:23:31.900,0:23:35.950
with each other and then there’s a lot

0:23:33.309,0:23:38.500
of national pride that is being felt and

0:23:35.950,0:23:40.990
this will later be known as the era of

0:23:38.500,0:23:43.980
good feelings which is like such a cool

0:23:40.990,0:23:47.200
name just like good vibes only basically

0:23:43.980,0:23:49.990
modern-day yeah yeah I love it

0:23:47.200,0:23:51.880
but um yeah so the war of 1812 is

0:23:49.990,0:23:54.159
basically the end of the Federalist

0:23:51.880,0:23:57.159
Party because they’re seen as being

0:23:54.159,0:24:00.130
unpatriotic for their anti-war fans and

0:23:57.159,0:24:02.380
it produces a new generation of American

0:24:00.130,0:24:05.470
generals and it helps lead Andrew

0:24:02.380,0:24:07.960
Jackson John Quincy Adams James Monroe

0:24:05.470,0:24:10.419
and William Henry Harrison into the US

0:24:07.960,0:24:14.169
presidency so this really impacts our

0:24:10.419,0:24:16.330
politics and most importantly the war of

0:24:14.169,0:24:19.240
1812 confirms that the u.s. really

0:24:16.330,0:24:21.970
exists so it really like solidified

0:24:19.240,0:24:24.250
their real nation yeah a real

0:24:21.970,0:24:25.870
independent nation and so after this

0:24:24.250,0:24:29.140
Great Britain would never invade the

0:24:25.870,0:24:31.750
u.s. again and the u.s. not only saw

0:24:29.140,0:24:33.760
itself as an indicate independent nation

0:24:31.750,0:24:35.440
separate from Great Britain but also as

0:24:33.760,0:24:37.179
a big player on the world stage for like

0:24:35.440,0:24:40.419
while we could we can really achieve

0:24:37.179,0:24:44.320
anything if we have enough soldiers and

0:24:40.419,0:24:47.320
like gun power but um yeah and so today

0:24:44.320,0:24:48.640
when we remember the war of 1812 I think

0:24:47.320,0:24:51.220
it’s also important to remember that

0:24:48.640,0:24:52.299
there are four very distinct versions of

0:24:51.220,0:24:54.489
the story

0:24:52.299,0:24:57.759
so in comparison to the American

0:24:54.489,0:25:00.209
perspective the British version is often

0:24:57.759,0:25:03.159
overshadowed in history books by the

0:25:00.209,0:25:05.619
Napoleonic Wars and so I actually like

0:25:03.159,0:25:07.629
texted my aim British friends the other

0:25:05.619,0:25:10.509
day shout out to him he knows who he is

0:25:07.629,0:25:12.849
and I was okay what do you know about

0:25:10.509,0:25:14.919
war of 1812 he was like literally like I

0:25:12.849,0:25:17.979
don’t know that much he’s like we always

0:25:14.919,0:25:19.899
talked about poliana cores and yeah he

0:25:17.979,0:25:23.229
doesn’t really remember war of 1812

0:25:19.899,0:25:25.359
um and so to again to put these two

0:25:23.229,0:25:27.969
conflicts into perspective the war of

0:25:25.359,0:25:30.700
1812 and then the poliana cores so in

0:25:27.969,0:25:33.219
the war of 1812 20,000 people died on

0:25:30.700,0:25:37.299
both sides but then in the Napoleonic

0:25:33.219,0:25:39.099
Wars 3.5 million people died so that’s

0:25:37.299,0:25:42.459
like a huge difference so obviously it

0:25:39.099,0:25:45.249
makes sense why this war is over tattled

0:25:42.459,0:25:48.339
because again it’s pretty pointless in

0:25:45.249,0:25:51.129
the end and additionally the British see

0:25:48.339,0:25:51.969
the main cause of the world of 1812 is

0:25:51.129,0:25:54.329
American

0:25:51.969,0:25:57.549
America’s desire for territorial

0:25:54.329,0:26:01.149
acquisition so they’re like you guys

0:25:57.549,0:26:02.859
just wanted to take Canada so chill make

0:26:01.149,0:26:06.820
sense I feel like you’re a new nation

0:26:02.859,0:26:10.119
you want to prove that your mess with

0:26:06.820,0:26:18.729
question on the dates of the war so how

0:26:10.119,0:26:20.229
long did the war lasts like 1815 it’s

0:26:18.729,0:26:22.719
like a really stupid name because it

0:26:20.229,0:26:24.700
lasts multiple years but and then

0:26:22.719,0:26:27.399
follow-up question so you mentioned

0:26:24.700,0:26:28.929
Andrew Jackson like towards the end of

0:26:27.399,0:26:30.609
it and then also that the Native

0:26:28.929,0:26:33.279
Americans suffered the most so Trail of

0:26:30.609,0:26:34.929
Tears is that related to this at all I

0:26:33.279,0:26:37.479
don’t really know much about the Trail

0:26:34.929,0:26:40.839
of Tears other than Andrew Jackson did

0:26:37.479,0:26:42.369
it and it was a really sad point yeah so

0:26:40.839,0:26:45.820
actually honestly we should cover that

0:26:42.369,0:26:47.829
in one of our next episodes but yeah so

0:26:45.820,0:26:51.039
Andrew Jackson at this time he’s a

0:26:47.829,0:26:53.829
general in the war and like he gains a

0:26:51.039,0:26:55.509
lot of I guess like natural recognition

0:26:53.829,0:26:58.089
and people are like well he’s a war hero

0:26:55.509,0:27:00.279
and so that’s what what helps him win

0:26:58.089,0:27:03.399
presidency but Trail of Tears and isn’t

0:27:00.279,0:27:05.710
until after he assumed power is u.s.

0:27:03.399,0:27:09.010
president and it was

0:27:05.710,0:27:11.350
basically basically what happened like

0:27:09.010,0:27:13.990
just totally dude brief summary like the

0:27:11.350,0:27:15.340
u.s. wanted to acquire all this Native

0:27:13.990,0:27:18.670
American territory that was spread

0:27:15.340,0:27:21.670
across the country and so they force the

0:27:18.670,0:27:25.180
American tribes to relocate to the Great

0:27:21.670,0:27:26.950
Plains so then like white settlers could

0:27:25.180,0:27:30.340
live in their lands until they literally

0:27:26.950,0:27:32.500
force them to like walk um like hundreds

0:27:30.340,0:27:34.840
of thousand miles and so many Native

0:27:32.500,0:27:38.620
Americans died on the way because it’s a

0:27:34.840,0:27:41.920
really like awful journey yeah I just

0:27:38.620,0:27:44.260
did the road trip back from the west of

0:27:41.920,0:27:45.670
the East that’s not a joke I was like

0:27:44.260,0:27:49.120
why would anyone ever want to walk

0:27:45.670,0:27:51.520
through like Nevada or Nebraska for this

0:27:49.120,0:27:54.460
long it’s really the long way he

0:27:51.520,0:27:59.260
definitely did not have a choice in that

0:27:54.460,0:28:01.540
and yeah so I mean I don’t I think I’m

0:27:59.260,0:28:04.090
assuming that Andy Jackson always kind

0:28:01.540,0:28:06.430
of had these views since he was like

0:28:04.090,0:28:10.690
younger but I don’t know if this war

0:28:06.430,0:28:13.540
kind of helped fuel his views that was

0:28:10.690,0:28:16.570
later Lee yeah but um yeah so we should

0:28:13.540,0:28:18.730
come later yeah I’ll take that one up

0:28:16.570,0:28:21.610
since I brought it up I’ll cover it

0:28:18.730,0:28:25.720
right everyone stay tuned for that but

0:28:21.610,0:28:27.310
hey awesome so actually yeah so the in

0:28:25.720,0:28:30.430
regards to the Native American

0:28:27.310,0:28:32.410
perspective so the Native Americans once

0:28:30.430,0:28:34.420
again lost many lives and a lot of

0:28:32.410,0:28:36.550
territories at the hands of American

0:28:34.420,0:28:38.980
soldiers and to come so one of their

0:28:36.550,0:28:42.070
most notable heroes dies in the conflict

0:28:38.980,0:28:44.740
and so the defeat of succumb saw and the

0:28:42.070,0:28:47.320
Indian Confederation or Prophetstown in

0:28:44.740,0:28:50.260
this whole vision of uniting Native

0:28:47.320,0:28:52.780
American tribes um hit that defeat would

0:28:50.260,0:28:54.430
be seen as a decisive turning point and

0:28:52.780,0:28:56.860
they’re losing struggle to govern

0:28:54.430,0:28:59.740
themselves and stand up against the US

0:28:56.860,0:29:01.300
government so that’s kind of how it’s

0:28:59.740,0:29:03.550
remembered from the Native American

0:29:01.300,0:29:06.640
perspective and like we talked about

0:29:03.550,0:29:08.950
earlier for Canadians the war of 1812 is

0:29:06.640,0:29:12.010
a cornerstone of nationhood and it’s

0:29:08.950,0:29:13.930
talked about a lot lot more and it shows

0:29:12.010,0:29:16.090
that they’re this warlike shows that

0:29:13.930,0:29:18.010
they’re not only a distinct nation from

0:29:16.090,0:29:19.190
America but also that they’re strong

0:29:18.010,0:29:21.230
enough to

0:29:19.190,0:29:24.440
luckily defeat an American attack and

0:29:21.230,0:29:29.020
are actually able to invade the US and

0:29:24.440,0:29:32.120
seize the nation’s capital and yeah so

0:29:29.020,0:29:33.730
Canadians are very proud of this moment

0:29:32.120,0:29:36.230
because yeah they’re like okay we’re not

0:29:33.730,0:29:38.060
we’re not the same as America like we’re

0:29:36.230,0:29:40.070
two different nations we need to be

0:29:38.060,0:29:43.970
regarded as two different nations we

0:29:40.070,0:29:45.890
have different values and yeah and like

0:29:43.970,0:29:50.660
me yeah we might be polite but it

0:29:45.890,0:29:52.160
doesn’t mean were weak that’s true I

0:29:50.660,0:29:53.390
wonder if that should be like a saying

0:29:52.160,0:29:57.110
Rick Canadians

0:29:53.390,0:30:04.190
yeah but not weak polite but not

0:29:57.110,0:30:06.530
pushovers yeah too much yeah yeah and so

0:30:04.190,0:30:08.240
that’s basically a very brief summary of

0:30:06.530,0:30:11.510
the war of 1812 there are so many

0:30:08.240,0:30:13.820
battles that I I don’t know how to talk

0:30:11.510,0:30:16.060
about like battles so if you’re

0:30:13.820,0:30:18.290
interested there’s so much information

0:30:16.060,0:30:20.990
available on the Internet but yeah

0:30:18.290,0:30:24.650
that’s basically a brief summary of the

0:30:20.990,0:30:26.330
war of 1812 okay thank you now I really

0:30:24.650,0:30:28.490
I appreciate that you like to cover the

0:30:26.330,0:30:30.650
wars I just had a conversation with my

0:30:28.490,0:30:32.900
sister and she was like yeah not always

0:30:30.650,0:30:35.180
covers the war that’s really good and I

0:30:32.900,0:30:37.730
struggle to cover things that aren’t

0:30:35.180,0:30:42.260
tech related or like science and stuff

0:30:37.730,0:30:45.500
so thank you for covering this yeah yeah

0:30:42.260,0:30:47.270
I was I kind of was a little reluctant

0:30:45.500,0:30:51.890
to start my research just because I was

0:30:47.270,0:30:55.730
like early 1800s it’s so boring but such

0:30:51.890,0:30:58.790
a wild part of US history and yeah it

0:30:55.730,0:31:00.650
was it’s an interesting war rate and the

0:30:58.790,0:31:02.600
title doesn’t give it away you just call

0:31:00.650,0:31:05.240
it the war of 1812 that doesn’t tell you

0:31:02.600,0:31:07.610
anything significant about it yeah

0:31:05.240,0:31:09.680
that’s a time period right if you could

0:31:07.610,0:31:12.050
rename the war what would you rename it

0:31:09.680,0:31:14.210
oh my gosh that’s a great question

0:31:12.050,0:31:16.820
like something I need to do something

0:31:14.210,0:31:20.240
about like Canada and beating us and

0:31:16.820,0:31:23.000
yeah something like the the Canadian war

0:31:20.240,0:31:25.850
or something like that I feel like

0:31:23.000,0:31:27.620
that’s a great the Canadian war because

0:31:25.850,0:31:28.150
I just have a hard time seeing Canadians

0:31:27.620,0:31:31.200
wanting

0:31:28.150,0:31:33.910
to have a war with us yeah yeah I think

0:31:31.200,0:31:35.920
America’s PR team at the time when they

0:31:33.910,0:31:39.520
decided to name this war they really

0:31:35.920,0:31:41.830
need a lesson on clickbait catchy name

0:31:39.520,0:31:44.080
I’m gonna click on more everything’s all

0:31:41.830,0:31:46.000
we need but it’s kind of embarrassing

0:31:44.080,0:31:48.760
for us maybe the Canadians have a

0:31:46.000,0:31:53.080
different name for it like the time we

0:31:48.760,0:31:55.960
beat the u.s. we our greatest moment in

0:31:53.080,0:31:59.680
history would it like the Canadian

0:31:55.960,0:32:02.470
Revolution or something oh my god the

0:31:59.680,0:32:08.110
great canadian victory yeah yeah if you

0:32:02.470,0:32:10.330
guys have any ideas send us an email and

0:32:08.110,0:32:12.490
how did we not know that at gmail.com or

0:32:10.330,0:32:13.270
if you’re watching on YouTube leave it

0:32:12.490,0:32:16.990
in the comments below

0:32:13.270,0:32:19.810
yeah like and subscribe tweet us how did

0:32:16.990,0:32:23.470
we not know that or hdw nkt I think

0:32:19.810,0:32:25.570
that’s our tag during tweet us to follow

0:32:23.470,0:32:28.980
please tweet us yeah we’re desperate

0:32:25.570,0:32:28.980
we’re begging you

0:32:34.160,0:32:55.500
[Music]

What Were The Stonewall Riots?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
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  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

In a time where it was illegal to be who you were and love who you wanted to love, abuse and discrimination to the LGBTQ+ community was constant. What did discrimination look like? How did a routine police raid escalate, and what did people do when they finally had enough? In celebration of the 50th pride anniversary, Jac explains what the Stonewall riots were and how they lead to a liberation of gay rights in the United States.

Sources:

https://time.com/5598363/stonewall-beginnings-history/

https://www.history.com/topics/gay-rights/the-stonewall-riots

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-stonewall-riot

https://time.com/5598363/stonewall-beginnings-history/

https://www.history.com/news/stonewall-riots-facts-gay-rights-lgbt

https://www.loc.gov/lgbt-pride-month/about/

https://www.hrw.org/topic/lgbt-rights?gclid=Cj0KCQjwrIf3BRD1ARIsAMuugNsh0JXXzcnPRRZjUz3cE-XQiVfVKW7yij32i7x7C22103jR2PXt0cgaAlVmEALw_wcB

https://www.parent24.com/Teen_13-18/Development/lgbtqiap-we-help-you-understand-23-gender-terms-20190124#:~:text=An%20acronym%20that%20stands%20for,%22not%20limited%20to%22).

https://www.glbthistory.org/

http://milkfoundation.org/about/harvey-milk-biography/

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:04.380
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.460,0:00:11.010
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:04.380,0:00:16.109
that I’m Matt I’m Jack something really

0:00:11.010,0:00:20.100
exciting yeah okay so as you may or may

0:00:16.109,0:00:23.670
not know this month is Pride Month June

0:00:20.100,0:00:26.010
and this year is actually going to be

0:00:23.670,0:00:29.429
the 50th anniversary of the pride

0:00:26.010,0:00:32.279
parades so today I decided that we

0:00:29.429,0:00:33.750
should talk about Stonewall Riots

0:00:32.279,0:00:37.140
because that is a really significant

0:00:33.750,0:00:39.360
part of Pride history and I did not know

0:00:37.140,0:00:42.960
a lot about it I have a lot of friends

0:00:39.360,0:00:44.610
in the lgbtq+ community and I’m always

0:00:42.960,0:00:47.239
hearing about the Stonewall Riots but I

0:00:44.610,0:00:51.390
never really looked into it for myself

0:00:47.239,0:00:54.030
to do today excited I also don’t know

0:00:51.390,0:00:59.010
all the details you know yeah all the

0:00:54.030,0:01:00.719
juicy details yeah so just start out

0:00:59.010,0:01:03.260
we’re actually going to talk about the

0:01:00.719,0:01:08.010
history of abuse to the lgbtq+ community

0:01:03.260,0:01:09.869
because a lot of people they still get a

0:01:08.010,0:01:12.570
lot of abuse today and a lot of the

0:01:09.869,0:01:14.909
reason for the rioting was because of

0:01:12.570,0:01:16.890
just getting tired of the abuse and

0:01:14.909,0:01:18.600
taking a stand for themselves so a lot

0:01:16.890,0:01:20.250
of members of the queer community in

0:01:18.600,0:01:22.320
addition to just having straight-up

0:01:20.250,0:01:24.840
bullying and hey were also victims of

0:01:22.320,0:01:27.390
discriminatory laws so for a while it

0:01:24.840,0:01:29.310
was legal to deny the sale of alcohol or

0:01:27.390,0:01:31.560
service to them they were also banned

0:01:29.310,0:01:35.520
from working certain jobs especially

0:01:31.560,0:01:37.590
those who were transgender homosexuality

0:01:35.520,0:01:40.320
used to be called a mental disorder they

0:01:37.590,0:01:42.899
were called sick and there are also bans

0:01:40.320,0:01:44.729
on queers entering the army and they

0:01:42.899,0:01:47.670
were allowed to be discriminated against

0:01:44.729,0:01:49.770
by their sexual orientation so all of

0:01:47.670,0:01:52.229
this and there’s also terrible things

0:01:49.770,0:01:56.790
with conversion therapy and like

0:01:52.229,0:02:00.420
electric shock therapy that was legal to

0:01:56.790,0:02:01.079
perform on anyone who identified as gay

0:02:00.420,0:02:05.969
or queer

0:02:01.079,0:02:07.290
that’s awful yeah so now we’re gonna go

0:02:05.969,0:02:09.929
into the gay rights movement in America

0:02:07.290,0:02:12.060
so the first documented u.s. gay rights

0:02:09.929,0:02:13.180
organization it was actually the Society

0:02:12.060,0:02:17.430
for Human Rights

0:02:13.180,0:02:21.489
now I was founded in Chicago in 1924

0:02:17.430,0:02:24.340
yeah and unfortunately they were police

0:02:21.489,0:02:28.829
raids on me organizations so they ended

0:02:24.340,0:02:33.700
up disbanding within a year in 1925 Wow

0:02:28.829,0:02:36.790
yeah short-lived so after this time we

0:02:33.700,0:02:39.400
don’t really see a ton of gay rights

0:02:36.790,0:02:40.989
movement groups if they are they’re

0:02:39.400,0:02:44.170
really secretive I guess they’re not

0:02:40.989,0:02:46.959
documented but in the 60s of the USA

0:02:44.170,0:02:49.060
there was a lot of movements for civil

0:02:46.959,0:02:50.440
rights so there is the african-american

0:02:49.060,0:02:51.700
civil rights movement we talked about

0:02:50.440,0:02:53.920
the Native American civil rights

0:02:51.700,0:02:56.079
movement there’s the birth of feminism

0:02:53.920,0:02:58.180
which is women’s rights and then there’s

0:02:56.079,0:03:01.359
also a huge turning point for the gay

0:02:58.180,0:03:03.129
rights movement so right now in the

0:03:01.359,0:03:05.319
states it’s still illegal for you to

0:03:03.129,0:03:07.299
publicly display homosexuality so you

0:03:05.319,0:03:09.579
can’t engage in any gay behavior in

0:03:07.299,0:03:11.109
public like holding hands kissing or

0:03:09.579,0:03:16.329
dancing with someone of the same sex

0:03:11.109,0:03:16.870
it’s still illegal and because yeah no

0:03:16.329,0:03:19.299
you’re good

0:03:16.870,0:03:21.669
do you know what the penalty is like do

0:03:19.299,0:03:26.019
you just have to pay a fine like or do

0:03:21.669,0:03:28.569
you have to go to jail yeah I think it’s

0:03:26.019,0:03:31.239
you can get arrested and then you would

0:03:28.569,0:03:33.480
maybe be tried I’m sure there was a fine

0:03:31.239,0:03:38.199
for it as well

0:03:33.480,0:03:40.030
record and then that yeah and it’s your

0:03:38.199,0:03:42.519
daily life to it that’s on your record

0:03:40.030,0:03:44.560
right probably like I’m thinking like

0:03:42.519,0:03:48.069
speeding tickets just because I just got

0:03:44.560,0:03:50.049
one Oh like and you know how you like

0:03:48.069,0:03:52.449
you can you go to court and then you get

0:03:50.049,0:03:54.909
tried and you will pay a fine or if you

0:03:52.449,0:03:56.769
don’t pay that fine than you can like

0:03:54.909,0:03:59.139
get a larger fine or something like that

0:03:56.769,0:04:01.000
I’m hoping it’s something like that and

0:03:59.139,0:04:06.340
not that you actually like are placed in

0:04:01.000,0:04:09.159
jail for like years yeah okay mmhmm yeah

0:04:06.340,0:04:11.530
um yeah it’s my speeding ticket sir

0:04:09.159,0:04:15.250
reminding me still I gotta pay that one

0:04:11.530,0:04:16.840
um because of this because they can’t

0:04:15.250,0:04:19.539
display you know their love for each

0:04:16.840,0:04:23.169
other a lot of people in the lgbtq+

0:04:19.539,0:04:25.300
community in to flock to gay bars and

0:04:23.169,0:04:27.070
clubs which are places of refuge where

0:04:25.300,0:04:29.320
they can express themselves open

0:04:27.070,0:04:32.920
and socialize without worry you’re

0:04:29.320,0:04:34.990
probably wondering as I did Oh like well

0:04:32.920,0:04:38.260
if it’s illegal then how are there gay

0:04:34.990,0:04:40.090
bars so do you have a guess as to why

0:04:38.260,0:04:41.280
they’re still gay bars if it’s illegal

0:04:40.090,0:04:51.220
in the States

0:04:41.280,0:04:53.350
okay so I actually hadn’t have heard

0:04:51.220,0:04:56.290
that I would have said like oh like it

0:04:53.350,0:04:58.570
was just like a front like technically

0:04:56.290,0:05:00.430
the owners would say it’s just a regular

0:04:58.570,0:05:03.940
straight bar but it’s like kind of

0:05:00.430,0:05:07.630
secretly on the on the down-low kind of

0:05:03.940,0:05:09.610
mmhmm yeah that’s that’s right

0:05:07.630,0:05:11.620
that’s right you also know that it’s run

0:05:09.610,0:05:13.600
by the Mafia which we have another

0:05:11.620,0:05:15.760
episode about which you guys should

0:05:13.600,0:05:17.500
check out it’s called how much money did

0:05:15.760,0:05:18.190
the Mafia make so you can listen to that

0:05:17.500,0:05:21.310
after this

0:05:18.190,0:05:23.440
but yeah the Mafia had so much money in

0:05:21.310,0:05:25.030
power in the United States that they

0:05:23.440,0:05:26.890
would just pay off the police or

0:05:25.030,0:05:29.830
politicians to look the other way and

0:05:26.890,0:05:32.140
not raid the bars so that would create a

0:05:29.830,0:05:35.320
safe space for LGBT and I know that’s

0:05:32.140,0:05:38.170
like oh the Mafia so nice so open know

0:05:35.320,0:05:41.670
like it’s very much about money for the

0:05:38.170,0:05:45.430
Mafia they would still like overcharge

0:05:41.670,0:05:48.040
the goers by go right was it like

0:05:45.430,0:05:49.870
attendees yeah yeah they would charge

0:05:48.040,0:05:51.850
them with like watered-down drinks the

0:05:49.870,0:05:54.610
drinks were terrible the conditions of

0:05:51.850,0:05:55.750
the club were unsafe like no fire exit

0:05:54.610,0:05:57.100
because there was bribing the police

0:05:55.750,0:05:59.760
anyway so they just got away with

0:05:57.100,0:06:03.400
cutting costs like everywhere they could

0:05:59.760,0:06:06.700
yeah and they also yeah they also would

0:06:03.400,0:06:08.950
um blackmail the really wealthy patrons

0:06:06.700,0:06:10.480
who like came so if you’re wealthy and

0:06:08.950,0:06:12.280
you’re hiding the fact that you’re gay

0:06:10.480,0:06:14.770
they wouldn’t blackmail you a lot and

0:06:12.280,0:06:19.030
get more money so we stopped them like

0:06:14.770,0:06:22.120
the Mafia okay that was that was

0:06:19.030,0:06:23.770
something that they did so then one of

0:06:22.120,0:06:25.360
the gay bars and we’re in New York City

0:06:23.770,0:06:27.520
by the way this is all taking place in

0:06:25.360,0:06:28.780
New York well I’ll be illegal stuff is

0:06:27.520,0:06:31.960
like everywhere in the states but for

0:06:28.780,0:06:34.630
this specifically there’s a particular

0:06:31.960,0:06:36.030
gay bar called the Stonewall Inn so this

0:06:34.630,0:06:39.550
is located in the Greenwich Village

0:06:36.030,0:06:40.400
neighborhood of New York City and it was

0:06:39.550,0:06:47.150
run by

0:06:40.400,0:06:50.570
the Genovese family of the Mafia yeah

0:06:47.150,0:06:54.350
and either way even though they’re

0:06:50.570,0:06:56.180
ripping off a lot of people it was still

0:06:54.350,0:06:58.160
relatively cheap to enter and it

0:06:56.180,0:06:59.479
welcomed drag queens and it was a

0:06:58.160,0:07:03.110
nightly home for many Runaways and

0:06:59.479,0:07:04.910
homeless gay youths so it was also one

0:07:03.110,0:07:07.240
of the Stonewall in was also one of the

0:07:04.910,0:07:12.919
only gay bars left that allowed dancing

0:07:07.240,0:07:19.130
so oh but it some gay bars even within

0:07:12.919,0:07:22.539
those areas like the owners perhaps yeah

0:07:19.130,0:07:25.130
this is just like my notes from it but

0:07:22.539,0:07:30.169
yeah I don’t know I don’t know but I’m

0:07:25.130,0:07:35.600
sure like take it for granted being able

0:07:30.169,0:07:38.090
today definitely so then one of the

0:07:35.600,0:07:41.539
early morning morning’s on June 28th

0:07:38.090,0:07:44.990
1969 though apparently the Mafia didn’t

0:07:41.539,0:07:46.610
pay off the police in time or something

0:07:44.990,0:07:49.250
this is what’s rumored to have happened

0:07:46.610,0:07:51.020
even though there’s also articles that

0:07:49.250,0:07:52.760
I’ve read that say that even if you do

0:07:51.020,0:07:55.700
pay off the police sometimes they still

0:07:52.760,0:07:58.280
will raid the bars anyways so regardless

0:07:55.700,0:08:01.780
during this morning the police came in

0:07:58.280,0:08:04.760
with a warrant and raided the bar and

0:08:01.780,0:08:07.340
they started to rough up the patrons

0:08:04.760,0:08:10.520
which is a lot of articles that say they

0:08:07.340,0:08:12.650
the police roughed up patrons but and

0:08:10.520,0:08:14.270
that makes it sound lighter than what it

0:08:12.650,0:08:16.250
actually was they were like physically

0:08:14.270,0:08:17.810
beating them up like physically hitting

0:08:16.250,0:08:20.270
them with batons that’s what rough up

0:08:17.810,0:08:21.889
means which was like it’s weird that

0:08:20.270,0:08:23.960
they like always try to put like a nicer

0:08:21.889,0:08:25.639
phrase to describe it I know they were

0:08:23.960,0:08:28.130
aggressively like pushing them around

0:08:25.639,0:08:30.349
they’re really heating them up hitting

0:08:28.130,0:08:32.390
them with batons just arresting them

0:08:30.349,0:08:34.849
slumping them up against walls and

0:08:32.390,0:08:36.680
inspecting their gender and there was

0:08:34.849,0:08:38.510
something called a 3-piece clothing rule

0:08:36.680,0:08:40.940
which is what they would arrest people

0:08:38.510,0:08:43.400
based on so the three-piece clothing

0:08:40.940,0:08:45.050
rule wasn’t actually a law we’re gonna

0:08:43.400,0:08:47.060
go into that too it’s just kind of like

0:08:45.050,0:08:48.860
a rule of thumb but it was that you

0:08:47.060,0:08:51.079
needed to wear three pieces of clothing

0:08:48.860,0:08:52.880
deemed by them as appropriate to your

0:08:51.079,0:08:57.230
gender and if you weren’t

0:08:52.880,0:08:58.820
you would then be arrested so yeah and

0:08:57.230,0:09:01.640
the reason why this isn’t actually a law

0:08:58.820,0:09:03.500
is because the actual state law of the

0:09:01.640,0:09:06.110
three-piece clothing law was intended to

0:09:03.500,0:09:08.060
punish rural farmers who had taken a

0:09:06.110,0:09:11.180
dressing like Native Americans to fight

0:09:08.060,0:09:15.500
off tax collectors Wow

0:09:11.180,0:09:17.120
yes that’s insane yeah it’s wild so a

0:09:15.500,0:09:18.500
lot of rural farmers used to pretend to

0:09:17.120,0:09:21.620
be Native Americans so they wouldn’t

0:09:18.500,0:09:23.150
have to pay certain taxes and so that

0:09:21.620,0:09:25.160
law was created like the 3-piece

0:09:23.150,0:09:27.560
clothing law but a lot of the times

0:09:25.160,0:09:29.750
police and law enforcement would take

0:09:27.560,0:09:32.090
that law and twist it in a way that

0:09:29.750,0:09:34.220
would help them make their arrest so

0:09:32.090,0:09:36.800
they applied it to this situation they

0:09:34.220,0:09:40.760
also applied it to one of the protests

0:09:36.800,0:09:43.450
when in like 2011 or 2008 when we had

0:09:40.760,0:09:45.860
the recession like the recent recession

0:09:43.450,0:09:47.570
there I think there was a protest where

0:09:45.860,0:09:49.250
people went to Wall Street and were

0:09:47.570,0:09:52.130
protesting like the bad mortgages and

0:09:49.250,0:09:53.510
they would wear masks maybe like to hide

0:09:52.130,0:09:55.160
their identity and then they would get

0:09:53.510,0:09:57.110
arrested on the three-piece clothing law

0:09:55.160,0:09:58.040
just not a real law and not really

0:09:57.110,0:10:00.020
intended for that

0:09:58.040,0:10:02.030
Wow so it’s still like even though it’s

0:10:00.020,0:10:07.040
not even a real lot so kind of exists

0:10:02.030,0:10:11.240
today mm-hmm yeah that was what they’re

0:10:07.040,0:10:13.850
getting arrested for and eventually okay

0:10:11.240,0:10:15.500
so the biggest part of stonewalled is

0:10:13.850,0:10:18.710
how did the riots start right like it’s

0:10:15.500,0:10:20.450
just a police raid and a raids happen

0:10:18.710,0:10:24.290
all the time people are getting arrested

0:10:20.450,0:10:27.800
so why in particular did this time turn

0:10:24.290,0:10:30.910
into a big riot which sparked the start

0:10:27.800,0:10:33.590
of the civil the gay rights movement and

0:10:30.910,0:10:36.410
that big question from that night is who

0:10:33.590,0:10:38.270
threw the first brick because the brick

0:10:36.410,0:10:40.160
is symbolizing some apparently someone

0:10:38.270,0:10:42.020
threw a brick and that’s when everything

0:10:40.160,0:10:45.230
got violent and people started to rise

0:10:42.020,0:10:47.060
up so that’s still actually debated as

0:10:45.230,0:10:49.490
to how that got started and escalated

0:10:47.060,0:10:52.460
and it’s not confirmed whether a brick

0:10:49.490,0:10:55.130
was actually thrown or who actually

0:10:52.460,0:10:58.490
threw it so that’s still no one really

0:10:55.130,0:11:00.440
knows but a lot of people did throw

0:10:58.490,0:11:01.820
stones that’s confirmed like there’s a

0:11:00.440,0:11:04.160
lot of accounts of people there who were

0:11:01.820,0:11:05.430
like yeah we threw stones there were

0:11:04.160,0:11:07.260
bricks nearby

0:11:05.430,0:11:10.740
know if anyone threw a brick I don’t

0:11:07.260,0:11:12.540
remember what the phrase is so who threw

0:11:10.740,0:11:14.490
the first brick and there are three

0:11:12.540,0:11:16.649
important women who are debated to have

0:11:14.490,0:11:18.480
started the excavation but none of them

0:11:16.649,0:11:21.600
have been confirmed and we’re going to

0:11:18.480,0:11:24.839
talk about them right now the first of

0:11:21.600,0:11:26.310
which is Marsha P Johnson which we’ve

0:11:24.839,0:11:28.320
been hearing a lot about recently in the

0:11:26.310,0:11:29.910
news for all of her service to both the

0:11:28.320,0:11:35.010
black community and the gay community

0:11:29.910,0:11:36.300
and Marsha P Johnson was an American gay

0:11:35.010,0:11:38.610
liberation activist and a

0:11:36.300,0:11:41.760
self-identified drag queen she was also

0:11:38.610,0:11:44.430
African American Sylvia Rivera was a

0:11:41.760,0:11:45.930
Latina American and she was part of the

0:11:44.430,0:11:48.600
gay liberation and transgender rights

0:11:45.930,0:11:51.570
activism and she also identified as a

0:11:48.600,0:11:53.520
drag queen she claims she threw the

0:11:51.570,0:11:56.940
second shot glass but she didn’t throw

0:11:53.520,0:12:00.149
the first and then the last person that

0:11:56.940,0:12:03.630
uh is debated to have thrown the first

0:12:00.149,0:12:05.279
brick is storming dallara VA and she was

0:12:03.630,0:12:07.950
a gay rights activist who was described

0:12:05.279,0:12:10.529
as a butch lesbian and was working as a

0:12:07.950,0:12:12.810
bouncer at the bar that night and the

0:12:10.529,0:12:15.089
reason I actually feel like stormy could

0:12:12.810,0:12:17.370
have been the one who started it even

0:12:15.089,0:12:21.320
though I think she claimed that she was

0:12:17.370,0:12:24.900
in or maybe pushed off that all the like

0:12:21.320,0:12:26.580
praise for her was there actually four

0:12:24.900,0:12:28.290
accounts and several Testaments from

0:12:26.580,0:12:29.910
people who were there that night of a

0:12:28.290,0:12:31.830
butch woman who was getting roughed up

0:12:29.910,0:12:33.870
by the police and started to really

0:12:31.830,0:12:36.240
fight back so she was getting beat up

0:12:33.870,0:12:38.010
and everything and then she screamed out

0:12:36.240,0:12:39.300
to the crowd what are you doing are you

0:12:38.010,0:12:43.470
just standing there why don’t you do

0:12:39.300,0:12:45.570
something and there isn’t really any

0:12:43.470,0:12:47.700
conclusive proof that it was her but

0:12:45.570,0:12:51.029
sometimes she claims that sometimes she

0:12:47.700,0:12:52.920
denies it and it’s attributed to like

0:12:51.029,0:12:55.620
many many accounts attributed to this

0:12:52.920,0:12:57.930
lady who really kind of got by standards

0:12:55.620,0:12:59.190
and people of the bar who had been

0:12:57.930,0:13:01.980
started to get arrested

0:12:59.190,0:13:06.060
really angry and starting to fight back

0:13:01.980,0:13:07.829
so either way since we don’t know out of

0:13:06.060,0:13:09.510
the three or even maybe there’s someone

0:13:07.829,0:13:11.520
else who’s not even in these three who

0:13:09.510,0:13:13.200
threw the first brick we still celebrate

0:13:11.520,0:13:15.209
them as important figures in the gay

0:13:13.200,0:13:16.140
rights movement and it doesn’t really

0:13:15.209,0:13:18.270
matter who

0:13:16.140,0:13:19.740
first brick or stone it just matters

0:13:18.270,0:13:23.270
more that someone stood up and fought

0:13:19.740,0:13:26.220
back yeah I know and after you know

0:13:23.270,0:13:28.320
exactly it just takes i think the good

0:13:26.220,0:13:30.540
lesson is like you it just takes one

0:13:28.320,0:13:32.190
person to stand up and i think the first

0:13:30.540,0:13:33.810
two people are the most important

0:13:32.190,0:13:35.430
because the first person does it and

0:13:33.810,0:13:38.160
then when someone else follows that like

0:13:35.430,0:13:41.220
it just creates a ripple effect of yeah

0:13:38.160,0:13:43.590
i’m wanting to participate and it’s

0:13:41.220,0:13:46.020
funny because who threw the first brick

0:13:43.590,0:13:49.290
has become a bit of a meme to celebrate

0:13:46.020,0:13:51.570
a gay icons so i don’t know if you have

0:13:49.290,0:13:56.190
been keeping up with some of the more

0:13:51.570,0:13:58.170
like pop culture news but apparently JK

0:13:56.190,0:14:00.930
Rowling tweeted something that was

0:13:58.170,0:14:02.550
deemed like anti trans and Daniel

0:14:00.930,0:14:05.310
Radcliffe recently spoke up about

0:14:02.550,0:14:07.710
transgender rights in response to it so

0:14:05.310,0:14:10.970
people couldn’t say Daniel Radcliffe

0:14:07.710,0:14:13.260
threw the first brick at Stonewall

0:14:10.970,0:14:15.600
unfortunately he did not actually do

0:14:13.260,0:14:17.940
that but it’s a way to kind of say that

0:14:15.600,0:14:22.560
this person is standing up for LGBTQ up

0:14:17.940,0:14:26.640
against I against discrimination exactly

0:14:22.560,0:14:28.550
after the first brick is thrown then and

0:14:26.640,0:14:31.590
the officers are roughing up this

0:14:28.550,0:14:33.450
lesbian that everyone’s claimed that

0:14:31.590,0:14:35.640
seening and she shouts onto the

0:14:33.450,0:14:37.170
onlookers they start to act and they

0:14:35.640,0:14:38.970
start to throw pennies bottles

0:14:37.170,0:14:41.940
cobblestone and other objects at the

0:14:38.970,0:14:43.680
police so they were starting to get so

0:14:41.940,0:14:45.690
fed up with the constant police

0:14:43.680,0:14:47.760
harassment and social discrimination and

0:14:45.690,0:14:50.940
abuse that they start to fight back they

0:14:47.760,0:14:53.010
start slashing tires and a mob starts to

0:14:50.940,0:14:54.720
grow and it’s not just again the patrons

0:14:53.010,0:14:56.340
it’s other people passing by who are

0:14:54.720,0:15:00.930
really upset with the handling of this

0:14:56.340,0:15:03.810
situation and it gets so violent where

0:15:00.930,0:15:06.870
they’re using parking meters to like

0:15:03.810,0:15:08.850
bang on the doors and they’re making

0:15:06.870,0:15:11.100
like impromptu fire bombs and throwing

0:15:08.850,0:15:13.410
them around the Newark Police Department

0:15:11.100,0:15:15.630
officers actually retreat into the

0:15:13.410,0:15:17.880
Stonewall to barricade themselves so now

0:15:15.630,0:15:19.410
it’s just the police are inside and

0:15:17.880,0:15:23.460
everyone else outside so this is why

0:15:19.410,0:15:25.010
they start trying to light the Stonewall

0:15:23.460,0:15:27.750
Inn on fire I don’t know if it actually

0:15:25.010,0:15:30.770
got lit on fire but they were throwing

0:15:27.750,0:15:33.960
like matches and fireball

0:15:30.770,0:15:37.710
and then and they’re trying to breach

0:15:33.960,0:15:43.260
the doors to to get to the officers

0:15:37.710,0:15:45.180
so eventually though the fire department

0:15:43.260,0:15:47.670
comes and the police get out and then

0:15:45.180,0:15:48.780
they form and this was like several

0:15:47.670,0:15:50.820
accounts from people who are actually

0:15:48.780,0:15:52.980
there said that they actually formed

0:15:50.820,0:15:55.740
Rockette style kick lines against the

0:15:52.980,0:15:58.260
police and started singing which sounds

0:15:55.740,0:16:00.060
like it’s yeah it sounds like it’s a

0:15:58.260,0:16:03.920
movie but they really just like formed

0:16:00.060,0:16:12.930
many kick lines and then just like did

0:16:03.920,0:16:14.670
so much the technology existed so yeah

0:16:12.930,0:16:18.150
they did it so there’s actually a

0:16:14.670,0:16:19.470
Stonewall movie that came out I feel

0:16:18.150,0:16:21.000
like everything we talk about there’s

0:16:19.470,0:16:24.050
always a movie that has been released

0:16:21.000,0:16:28.050
but they try they did like a scene um

0:16:24.050,0:16:31.020
representing this as well around 4:00

0:16:28.050,0:16:34.380
a.m. that night or that day I guess um

0:16:31.020,0:16:36.600
they were continuing to riot but then it

0:16:34.380,0:16:38.490
got dispersed at 4:00 a.m. and they

0:16:36.600,0:16:40.740
riots continued and the protest

0:16:38.490,0:16:43.050
continued for several days after and so

0:16:40.740,0:16:47.790
all of those riots each night ended up

0:16:43.050,0:16:51.180
lasting till July 3rd ah mono still in

0:16:47.790,0:16:56.970
1969 and after those current kind of

0:16:51.180,0:16:59.310
settled down it started the well these

0:16:56.970,0:17:01.470
protests are credited for the force that

0:16:59.310,0:17:03.540
formed the Gay Liberation Front which

0:17:01.470,0:17:05.970
was an organization and a collection of

0:17:03.540,0:17:08.689
gay lesbian and bisexual civil rights

0:17:05.970,0:17:11.100
organizations that were fighting for

0:17:08.689,0:17:14.160
LGBTQ rights so that formed immediately

0:17:11.100,0:17:15.930
after the Stonewall riots and then the

0:17:14.160,0:17:19.290
next year on the anniversary of

0:17:15.930,0:17:21.569
Stonewall on June 28th 1970 the gay

0:17:19.290,0:17:24.060
liberation movement organized a march in

0:17:21.569,0:17:26.490
memory of the protests and that has been

0:17:24.060,0:17:27.900
held every single year since then and

0:17:26.490,0:17:32.040
that’s what we know today is pride

0:17:27.900,0:17:35.160
parades oh yeah and this is the 50th

0:17:32.040,0:17:37.920
year anniversary so really exciting

0:17:35.160,0:17:41.310
times and the official chant of the

0:17:37.920,0:17:43.440
parade was say it loud gay is proud this

0:17:41.310,0:17:45.480
is really cute because

0:17:43.440,0:17:48.409
I think when they’re coming up with the

0:17:45.480,0:17:51.029
phrase they said something like

0:17:48.409,0:17:53.340
something about gay people didn’t have

0:17:51.029,0:17:55.350
rights but they something they could

0:17:53.340,0:17:57.389
have was like pride they could be proud

0:17:55.350,0:17:59.519
of who they were so say allowing gays

0:17:57.389,0:18:02.429
crowd was there like you’re forced to

0:17:59.519,0:18:05.250
hide your identity and hide your

0:18:02.429,0:18:07.470
sexuality and you can’t be like you’re

0:18:05.250,0:18:10.860
in danger you know if you share that

0:18:07.470,0:18:14.879
with the public yeah that’s how is

0:18:10.860,0:18:17.009
everyone you privately right and that

0:18:14.879,0:18:19.250
was I guess like most a lot of the abuse

0:18:17.009,0:18:21.720
was really just like shame like

0:18:19.250,0:18:23.879
consistent shame from family from

0:18:21.720,0:18:25.230
friends from society just telling you

0:18:23.879,0:18:27.720
that like something was wrong with you

0:18:25.230,0:18:29.429
because of who you were and how you felt

0:18:27.720,0:18:31.860
like your feelings were wrong and you

0:18:29.429,0:18:36.570
just had problems so they’re reclaiming

0:18:31.860,0:18:39.029
their pride yeah and Jun was later

0:18:36.570,0:18:40.799
designated as LGBT Pride Month to

0:18:39.029,0:18:44.039
commemorate the uprising it was

0:18:40.799,0:18:46.169
acknowledged by Bill Clinton and the

0:18:44.039,0:18:48.960
Obama administration that June was prime

0:18:46.169,0:18:50.730
month and later on in the during the

0:18:48.960,0:18:52.470
Obama administration the Stonewall Inn

0:18:50.730,0:18:55.259
was declared a national monument and

0:18:52.470,0:18:57.240
then 2019 the New York Police Department

0:18:55.259,0:18:59.940
issued an apology for the police’s

0:18:57.240,0:19:01.529
treatment of the LGBTQ community and the

0:18:59.940,0:19:03.269
years of enforcement of discriminatory

0:19:01.529,0:19:06.600
laws on them

0:19:03.269,0:19:08.460
so overall the Stonewall riots were a

0:19:06.600,0:19:10.620
catalyst for the gay rights movement and

0:19:08.460,0:19:17.519
not just in the USA but around the

0:19:10.620,0:19:20.279
entire world oh happy Pride happy Pride

0:19:17.519,0:19:22.649
Month I know it’s sad because we can’t

0:19:20.279,0:19:24.330
really have pride parades this year but

0:19:22.649,0:19:27.720
I’ve seen a lot of people are doing like

0:19:24.330,0:19:29.450
virtual like five caves and or an honor

0:19:27.720,0:19:33.240
of Pride Month and my online

0:19:29.450,0:19:37.590
celebrations and fundraisers you can

0:19:33.240,0:19:40.220
still celebrate oh yeah oh oh my gosh

0:19:37.590,0:19:42.330
yeah thank you so much for sharing that

0:19:40.220,0:19:44.840
of course

0:19:42.330,0:19:49.610
toasting and yeah thanks everyone for

0:19:44.840,0:19:52.409
listening don’t forget to yeah like

0:19:49.610,0:19:56.129
don’t forget to share this with your

0:19:52.409,0:19:57.130
friends and leave us a review and check

0:19:56.129,0:20:00.960
out all those other

0:19:57.130,0:20:00.960
you mentioned yes

0:20:01.540,0:20:10.490
[Music]

When Did Slaves ACTUALLY Become Free?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

On June 19th, 1865, Texas became the last state in the country to emancipate its slaves, nearly two and a half years after President Lincolnā€™s Emancipation Proclamation. Why did it take so long for Texas to abolish slavery, and how come we let them get away with it? On its 155th anniversary, Nat explains the history behind the holiday of Juneteenth and the emancipation of slaves in America.

Sources:

Transcript

0:00:00.060,0:00:05.009
okay all right hello everyone and

0:00:03.360,0:00:07.259
welcome back to another episode of how

0:00:05.009,0:00:10.830
did we not know that my name is Jack and

0:00:07.259,0:00:13.820
I’m that and today and that is going to

0:00:10.830,0:00:16.650
be presenting on a topic of her choosing

0:00:13.820,0:00:21.630
yeah today I’m going to be talking about

0:00:16.650,0:00:25.439
the holiday of Juneteenth yeah so sounds

0:00:21.630,0:00:28.769
festive so actually okay so when this

0:00:25.439,0:00:32.550
episode is uploaded it will be June 19th

0:00:28.769,0:00:34.530
um so yeah I’m gonna talk about the

0:00:32.550,0:00:37.770
holiday of Duty’s and I’m actually super

0:00:34.530,0:00:41.100
embarrassed to admit but I had not heard

0:00:37.770,0:00:43.710
of Juneteenth until this year I don’t

0:00:41.100,0:00:45.660
know if Jack Jack have you know I did

0:00:43.710,0:00:47.579
not know what it was till you told me

0:00:45.660,0:00:50.610
you were choosing this as your topic who

0:00:47.579,0:00:53.250
hit me podcast until I texted you yeah

0:00:50.610,0:00:55.469
it was actually my little sister who was

0:00:53.250,0:00:58.170
talking about jinking so shout out to

0:00:55.469,0:01:02.340
her so okay I’m just gonna dive right

0:00:58.170,0:01:06.810
into it so to set the scene it’s June

0:01:02.340,0:01:09.380
19th and 1865 and so Union soldiers led

0:01:06.810,0:01:12.210
by General Gordon Granger arrived in

0:01:09.380,0:01:14.640
Galveston Texas with news that the Civil

0:01:12.210,0:01:18.990
War has officially ended and that

0:01:14.640,0:01:21.780
enslaved people are now free so it’s

0:01:18.990,0:01:23.700
huge news but this announcement is

0:01:21.780,0:01:25.890
actually two and a half years after

0:01:23.700,0:01:28.890
President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation

0:01:25.890,0:01:33.000
Proclamation which had become official

0:01:28.890,0:01:35.759
on January 1st 1963 so by the time

0:01:33.000,0:01:38.070
general Granger shared the news in Texas

0:01:35.759,0:01:40.740
the Confederate capital in Richmond

0:01:38.070,0:01:42.960
Virginia had already fallen President

0:01:40.740,0:01:46.560
Lincoln was already dead because he was

0:01:42.960,0:01:49.049
assassinated on April 15 1865 and the

0:01:46.560,0:01:50.790
13th amendment abolishing slavery was

0:01:49.049,0:01:54.390
already well on its way to being

0:01:50.790,0:01:58.229
ratified so the question is why did it

0:01:54.390,0:02:01.350
take two and a half years for Texas to

0:01:58.229,0:02:05.070
realize that slavery is now illegal

0:02:01.350,0:02:10.619
where this is just Texas Durst Texas

0:02:05.070,0:02:13.860
yeah um and so when the Emancipation

0:02:10.619,0:02:16.470
Proclamation was issued in 1863

0:02:13.860,0:02:19.470
me the Civil War technically had not

0:02:16.470,0:02:24.360
ended yet so side note the civil war

0:02:19.470,0:02:27.210
lasts from 1861 to 1865 and so therefore

0:02:24.360,0:02:29.340
like President Lincoln had very limited

0:02:27.210,0:02:31.680
control over the Confederate states so

0:02:29.340,0:02:33.810
even though he declares okay we’re

0:02:31.680,0:02:35.790
abolishing slavery and enslaved people

0:02:33.810,0:02:38.490
are now free I think they’re still at

0:02:35.790,0:02:39.870
war with the Confederacy so the

0:02:38.490,0:02:43.170
Confederate states are kind of just like

0:02:39.870,0:02:46.500
um okay we’re not gonna we’re not really

0:02:43.170,0:02:48.690
listening to you and basically there

0:02:46.500,0:02:52.590
weren’t enough Union troops to fight

0:02:48.690,0:02:54.660
resistance in the region and so it

0:02:52.590,0:02:59.130
really has no effect on those states

0:02:54.660,0:03:02.310
however when in general robert e lee he

0:02:59.130,0:03:05.670
is the man leading the confederate army

0:03:02.310,0:03:08.580
so he surrenders to the Union Army in

0:03:05.670,0:03:11.459
April 1865 and the Civil War is

0:03:08.580,0:03:14.400
officially over and so because of that

0:03:11.459,0:03:18.180
general Granger is able to bring troops

0:03:14.400,0:03:21.239
to Texas and overcome any resistance but

0:03:18.180,0:03:23.549
there are several theories as to why it

0:03:21.239,0:03:26.570
took so long for the Emancipation

0:03:23.549,0:03:28.980
Proclamation to be enforced in Texas so

0:03:26.570,0:03:31.440
basically there’s a story of a messenger

0:03:28.980,0:03:33.930
sent to deliver the news being shot on

0:03:31.440,0:03:37.680
his way to Texas and so the message

0:03:33.930,0:03:40.440
never makes it to Texas others believe

0:03:37.680,0:03:42.750
that the news was deliberately withheld

0:03:40.440,0:03:45.920
by the enslavers in order to keep their

0:03:42.750,0:03:50.640
own labor force on their plantations

0:03:45.920,0:03:53.040
yeah and others believe that federal

0:03:50.640,0:03:55.769
troops had actually waited for slave

0:03:53.040,0:03:58.380
owners to reap the profits of one last

0:03:55.769,0:04:01.310
cotton harvest before going to Texas and

0:03:58.380,0:04:05.459
enforcing the Emancipation Proclamation

0:04:01.310,0:04:08.730
so it could either be a combination of

0:04:05.459,0:04:11.610
all these reasons or it could be none of

0:04:08.730,0:04:13.980
them at all but regardless of the

0:04:11.610,0:04:17.040
reasons for the delay the fact is that

0:04:13.980,0:04:20.989
slaves in Texas remained enslaved long

0:04:17.040,0:04:25.860
after it was declared illegal and

0:04:20.989,0:04:27.360
historians estimate that around 500,000

0:04:25.860,0:04:30.479
slaves out of a toll

0:04:27.360,0:04:33.389
of 3.9 million slaves living in the US

0:04:30.479,0:04:37.169
had liberated themselves by escaping to

0:04:33.389,0:04:39.930
Union lines between the Emancipation

0:04:37.169,0:04:43.710
Proclamation in 1863 and the end of the

0:04:39.930,0:04:46.919
Civil War and so even though technically

0:04:43.710,0:04:50.330
slavery was illegal during that short

0:04:46.919,0:04:53.219
time period most of the slaves were

0:04:50.330,0:04:56.879
still like we’re they were still

0:04:53.219,0:05:00.960
remained enslaved so yeah I had to risk

0:04:56.879,0:05:03.539
their lives to yeah I don’t see a lot of

0:05:00.960,0:05:07.199
slave owners suddenly being like well we

0:05:03.539,0:05:10.949
lost you guys it was great working with

0:05:07.199,0:05:17.099
you I just don’t see that happening yeah

0:05:10.949,0:05:17.759
I think that would be highly I like it’s

0:05:17.099,0:05:21.389
the law

0:05:17.759,0:05:27.029
now we must follow the law exactly

0:05:21.389,0:05:29.580
exactly yeah and so actually in 1862 so

0:05:27.029,0:05:32.339
while the Civil War was still going on

0:05:29.580,0:05:35.669
so Union troops had captured New Orleans

0:05:32.339,0:05:38.520
and so slave owners in Mississippi and

0:05:35.669,0:05:42.270
Louisiana fled to Texas in order to

0:05:38.520,0:05:44.279
escape Union soldiers yeah yeah we

0:05:42.270,0:05:47.879
escaped Union soldiers or Confederate

0:05:44.279,0:05:50.430
soldiers there is the slave owners are

0:05:47.879,0:05:55.740
oh oh I see okay

0:05:50.430,0:06:01.860
yeah and so yes they want to keep their

0:05:55.740,0:06:04.650
lifestyle and yeah and so sorry yeah so

0:06:01.860,0:06:09.259
they basically bring more than a hundred

0:06:04.650,0:06:12.180
fifty thousand slaves with them to Texas

0:06:09.259,0:06:14.370
therefore at the time of general

0:06:12.180,0:06:17.219
Grainger speech it’s estimated that

0:06:14.370,0:06:20.370
there were approximately 250 thousand

0:06:17.219,0:06:24.680
slaves in Texas that’s a huge amount of

0:06:20.370,0:06:27.960
people who for two and a half years were

0:06:24.680,0:06:31.889
enslaved when they really shouldn’t have

0:06:27.960,0:06:33.539
right it was illegal yeah yeah yeah they

0:06:31.889,0:06:35.310
should have been insane in the first

0:06:33.539,0:06:38.880
place but yeah it was technically

0:06:35.310,0:06:41.100
illegal oh my gosh yeah it’s really

0:06:38.880,0:06:46.900
really upsetting and really fresh

0:06:41.100,0:06:50.470
yeah and so grant general Granger he he

0:06:46.900,0:06:53.230
makes it to Galveston Texas and he

0:06:50.470,0:06:56.380
stands in front of the townspeople and

0:06:53.230,0:06:59.110
he reads general order number three to

0:06:56.380,0:07:01.150
the people of Texas and so I’m just

0:06:59.110,0:07:04.570
going to read a short blurb of what he

0:07:01.150,0:07:06.820
said the people of Texas are informed

0:07:04.570,0:07:08.860
that in accordance with a proclamation

0:07:06.820,0:07:11.950
from the executive of the United States

0:07:08.860,0:07:14.050
all slaves are free this involves an

0:07:11.950,0:07:16.150
absolute equality of rights and rights

0:07:14.050,0:07:17.800
of property between former masters and

0:07:16.150,0:07:20.950
slaves and the connection heretofore

0:07:17.800,0:07:23.380
existing between them becomes that

0:07:20.950,0:07:25.960
between employer and hire laborers the

0:07:23.380,0:07:27.790
freedmen are advised to remain quietly

0:07:25.960,0:07:30.940
at their present homes and work for

0:07:27.790,0:07:32.650
rages wages they are informed that they

0:07:30.940,0:07:34.840
will not be allowed to collect at

0:07:32.650,0:07:36.910
military posts and that they will not be

0:07:34.840,0:07:42.190
supported in idleness either there or

0:07:36.910,0:07:44.740
elsewhere unquote yeah so basically he’s

0:07:42.190,0:07:49.600
like hey you’re free tea but also you’re

0:07:44.740,0:07:53.550
on your own the government isn’t really

0:07:49.600,0:07:58.090
helping you so yeah obviously this is

0:07:53.550,0:08:00.820
monumental news and the reactions of

0:07:58.090,0:08:04.210
enslaved people range from pure shock to

0:08:00.820,0:08:05.860
immediate celebration many slaves would

0:08:04.210,0:08:09.280
remain on the farms and plantations

0:08:05.860,0:08:11.790
where they work as a paid employee while

0:08:09.280,0:08:14.170
a lot of others just left immediately

0:08:11.790,0:08:17.350
because even though they really had

0:08:14.170,0:08:19.210
nowhere to go the many former slaves

0:08:17.350,0:08:21.550
felt that leaving the plantation would

0:08:19.210,0:08:25.120
be their first grasp at freedom yeah

0:08:21.550,0:08:27.190
that’s like you cuz you know a lot of

0:08:25.120,0:08:30.040
slave owners refused to teach them how

0:08:27.190,0:08:31.840
to read and write and now that you’re

0:08:30.040,0:08:34.240
free that’s another thing like how do

0:08:31.840,0:08:36.520
you support yourself now when you aren’t

0:08:34.240,0:08:39.190
like this whole society has been built

0:08:36.520,0:08:41.890
without jobs for you and you haven’t had

0:08:39.190,0:08:45.160
the education to participate in it

0:08:41.890,0:08:47.840
either yeah the whole system was built

0:08:45.160,0:08:52.070
to oppress

0:08:47.840,0:08:54.770
slaves and they had no access to

0:08:52.070,0:08:57.890
education it was illegal for them to

0:08:54.770,0:09:03.470
learn how to read and write and so yeah

0:08:57.890,0:09:05.660
it’s really upsetting and so many slaves

0:09:03.470,0:09:08.300
ended up going north because it

0:09:05.660,0:09:10.640
represented true freedom while others

0:09:08.300,0:09:13.040
went to reunite with family members in

0:09:10.640,0:09:16.640
neighboring states such as Louisiana or

0:09:13.040,0:09:19.370
Arkansas and Oklahoma so kind of we

0:09:16.640,0:09:21.680
already mentioned this but not everyone

0:09:19.370,0:09:23.690
was happy to hear the big news and

0:09:21.680,0:09:25.910
former slave owners and white

0:09:23.690,0:09:28.820
supremacists in the area would react

0:09:25.910,0:09:32.360
with extreme hate and violence and so

0:09:28.820,0:09:34.910
sadly many former slaves were lynched by

0:09:32.360,0:09:37.610
angry whites while others were still

0:09:34.910,0:09:39.890
forcefully held as slaves so a lot of

0:09:37.610,0:09:42.680
people just said either with how the

0:09:39.890,0:09:47.600
information or force them from leaving

0:09:42.680,0:09:48.950
and like after slavery and settling into

0:09:47.600,0:09:51.800
these new areas around the country

0:09:48.950,0:09:54.430
brought in new realities for former

0:09:51.800,0:09:56.450
slaves as well as many challenges of

0:09:54.430,0:09:58.940
establishing what used to be a

0:09:56.450,0:10:01.940
non-existent status for black people in

0:09:58.940,0:10:04.220
America so yeah basically like we

0:10:01.940,0:10:07.400
mentioned you literally have to start

0:10:04.220,0:10:09.530
from Ground Zero you know it’s not even

0:10:07.400,0:10:11.360
Ground Zero it’s like ground negative

0:10:09.530,0:10:14.210
right like ground zero is like you’re

0:10:11.360,0:10:16.190
born like and you have equal

0:10:14.210,0:10:18.890
opportunities right you’re born white in

0:10:16.190,0:10:20.840
a white society and you can have access

0:10:18.890,0:10:22.970
to education and learn how to read it’s

0:10:20.840,0:10:25.430
like negative that it’s like people are

0:10:22.970,0:10:27.230
trying to keep you from your

0:10:25.430,0:10:32.380
opportunities they’re going on in

0:10:27.230,0:10:35.540
linking you exactly exactly and so

0:10:32.380,0:10:38.420
overcoming the confusion and delay of

0:10:35.540,0:10:40.670
the Emancipation Proclamation as well as

0:10:38.420,0:10:43.370
terror and violence that haunted their

0:10:40.670,0:10:45.530
everyday lives newly freed black men and

0:10:43.370,0:10:48.110
women in Texas chose to celebrate the

0:10:45.530,0:10:51.680
news of their freedom every year on the

0:10:48.110,0:10:54.770
day June 19th and so Juneteenth

0:10:51.680,0:10:57.700
which is short for it’s a mix of June 19

0:10:54.770,0:10:57.700
June 2

0:10:58.120,0:11:03.300
that amazing day in history and

0:11:01.200,0:11:05.640
also serve as motivation as well as

0:11:03.300,0:11:08.400
release from the growing pressures that

0:11:05.640,0:11:13.650
quickly accumulated in their new lives

0:11:08.400,0:11:16.530
and these celebrations and festivals of

0:11:13.650,0:11:19.710
Juneteenth was a time for reassuring

0:11:16.530,0:11:22.560
each other and for gathering remaining

0:11:19.710,0:11:24.990
family members that had kind of

0:11:22.560,0:11:27.690
relocated across the country and also

0:11:24.990,0:11:29.670
for praying together and in the decades

0:11:27.690,0:11:31.380
to follow many former slaves and

0:11:29.670,0:11:34.770
descendants of slaves would make the

0:11:31.380,0:11:39.660
annual pilgrimage to Galveston Texas on

0:11:34.770,0:11:44.090
June 19th and yeah so you might be

0:11:39.660,0:11:48.560
wondering how is Juneteenth celebrated

0:11:44.090,0:11:48.560
that’s exactly I was just about to ask

0:11:52.160,0:11:58.740
the focus of duty is family and being

0:11:56.220,0:12:01.260
together as a community and prayer

0:11:58.740,0:12:03.360
services were a major part of the

0:12:01.260,0:12:05.670
celebrations and oftentimes of

0:12:03.360,0:12:08.610
festivities would be held at churches

0:12:05.670,0:12:12.120
there were readings of the Emancipation

0:12:08.610,0:12:14.580
Proclamation and I think it’s really

0:12:12.120,0:12:18.350
important to note that it also focused

0:12:14.580,0:12:21.450
on education and self-improvement and so

0:12:18.350,0:12:24.360
guest speakers were often brought in and

0:12:21.450,0:12:27.270
the elders of the community were asked

0:12:24.360,0:12:29.760
to recount the events of the past so

0:12:27.270,0:12:33.240
it’s a big focus on educating yourself

0:12:29.760,0:12:36.570
through storytelling and through

0:12:33.240,0:12:40.500
people’s lived experiences firsthand

0:12:36.570,0:12:44.760
yeah and it was also just a way to have

0:12:40.500,0:12:48.960
fun together ha ha so we see of people

0:12:44.760,0:12:53.760
celebrating with rodeos fishing baseball

0:12:48.960,0:12:56.160
and one of I guess the key elements of

0:12:53.760,0:12:59.490
Juneteenth celebrations are huge

0:12:56.160,0:13:01.650
barbeque pits where it’s just giant yeah

0:12:59.490,0:13:04.770
fires and everyone’s like eating really

0:13:01.650,0:13:06.930
good meat eat together ok so as

0:13:04.770,0:13:09.780
technology progresses there would also

0:13:06.930,0:13:14.930
be stock car races and also overhead

0:13:09.780,0:13:18.140
flights and air shows so a super-fun

0:13:14.930,0:13:20.360
and specific foods became popular during

0:13:18.140,0:13:22.910
these celebrations and some are actually

0:13:20.360,0:13:25.690
almost synonymous with Juneteenth and

0:13:22.910,0:13:28.580
these include strawberry soda and

0:13:25.690,0:13:30.620
barbecued meat and so everyone would

0:13:28.580,0:13:33.320
come to the celebrations and they would

0:13:30.620,0:13:36.080
bring a special dish to share and there

0:13:33.320,0:13:39.170
would be beef lamb and pork which were

0:13:36.080,0:13:41.680
not usually available every day but they

0:13:39.170,0:13:44.750
were eaten on this special occasion and

0:13:41.680,0:13:46.940
dress was also a very important factor

0:13:44.750,0:13:50.450
and it’s still taken really seriously

0:13:46.940,0:13:53.390
today because during slavery there were

0:13:50.450,0:13:57.440
laws in many areas that prohibited or

0:13:53.390,0:13:59.540
limited the dressing of slaves and there

0:13:57.440,0:14:02.180
are accounts that during the first few

0:13:59.540,0:14:04.910
days of the Emancipation celebrations

0:14:02.180,0:14:08.029
former slaves through their ragged and

0:14:04.910,0:14:10.610
old clothing into creeks and rivers and

0:14:08.029,0:14:12.649
instead were clothing taken from the

0:14:10.610,0:14:16.399
plantations belonging to their former

0:14:12.649,0:14:19.220
masters and because of that yeah people

0:14:16.399,0:14:22.010
dress up really nicely and like I don’t

0:14:19.220,0:14:23.480
know I never would have considered I

0:14:22.010,0:14:25.610
don’t know you really take something as

0:14:23.480,0:14:27.560
simple as being able to choose your own

0:14:25.610,0:14:34.220
clothing and we’re nice clothing for

0:14:27.560,0:14:36.830
granted so really yeah yeah yeah and in

0:14:34.220,0:14:38.750
early years there was very little

0:14:36.830,0:14:40.820
interest in the celebrations of

0:14:38.750,0:14:44.000
Juneteenth outside of the African

0:14:40.820,0:14:47.180
American community especially in Jim

0:14:44.000,0:14:50.150
Crow Texas White’s rallied around their

0:14:47.180,0:14:54.470
own version of history in an effort to I

0:14:50.150,0:14:57.410
guess glorify and whitewash past

0:14:54.470,0:15:01.160
cruelties and defeats and acts of

0:14:57.410,0:15:04.400
violence and there are accounts on june

0:15:01.160,0:15:07.700
teeth there sorry there are accounts of

0:15:04.400,0:15:10.250
duty celebrations being interrupted and

0:15:07.700,0:15:12.829
stopped by white landowners that were

0:15:10.250,0:15:15.380
demanding that their laborers return to

0:15:12.829,0:15:17.839
work and many whites would demonstrate

0:15:15.380,0:15:20.570
their resistance by banning the use of

0:15:17.839,0:15:24.110
public property for jinking festivities

0:15:20.570,0:15:27.500
and so because of this celebrations were

0:15:24.110,0:15:28.780
often held in rural areas next to rivers

0:15:27.500,0:15:30.640
and creeks

0:15:28.780,0:15:36.100
because it technically wasn’t public

0:15:30.640,0:15:39.220
land mm-hmm however as african-americans

0:15:36.100,0:15:42.220
eventually became land owners land would

0:15:39.220,0:15:44.020
be donated to these festivities so one

0:15:42.220,0:15:46.300
of the earliest documented land

0:15:44.020,0:15:49.000
purchases for Juneteenth was organized

0:15:46.300,0:15:52.660
by Reverend Jack Yates and his

0:15:49.000,0:15:55.840
fundraising effort raised $1,000 which

0:15:52.660,0:15:58.590
in today’s money is twenty thousand

0:15:55.840,0:16:02.499
dollars and it led to the purchase of

0:15:58.590,0:16:09.869
Emancipation Park in Houston Texas

0:16:02.499,0:16:12.579
awesome also in Mexia Texas Mexia yeah

0:16:09.869,0:16:14.919
it makes you a Texas the local

0:16:12.579,0:16:17.139
Juneteenth organization purchased Booker

0:16:14.919,0:16:19.599
T Washington Park which became the

0:16:17.139,0:16:23.199
official Juneteenth celebration site in

0:16:19.599,0:16:25.659
the Year 1898 and for decades the

0:16:23.199,0:16:28.749
celebrations grew and they spread

0:16:25.659,0:16:33.729
further across the country with every

0:16:28.749,0:16:37.629
year however in the early 1900’s we see

0:16:33.729,0:16:40.749
a decline in the Juneteenth celebrations

0:16:37.629,0:16:44.109
because of economic and cultural forces

0:16:40.749,0:16:47.709
so the Great Depression which we got to

0:16:44.109,0:16:52.389
hear about in a former episode check it

0:16:47.709,0:16:54.489
out the Great Depression forced many

0:16:52.389,0:16:57.339
people to move from the farms in rural

0:16:54.489,0:17:00.909
areas into the cities in order to find

0:16:57.339,0:17:02.859
work and in the cities employers were a

0:17:00.909,0:17:05.289
lot less likely to give workers the day

0:17:02.859,0:17:08.889
off in order to celebrate Eugene and so

0:17:05.289,0:17:11.740
unless June 19th fell on a weekend or on

0:17:08.889,0:17:14.679
a federal observe holiday there were

0:17:11.740,0:17:15.669
very few participants available to

0:17:14.679,0:17:20.439
celebrate together

0:17:15.669,0:17:23.289
and additionally July 4th was already an

0:17:20.439,0:17:25.990
established u.s. holiday that celebrated

0:17:23.289,0:17:28.539
independence and arise and patriotism

0:17:25.990,0:17:32.169
would lead to a bigger focus on this

0:17:28.539,0:17:34.539
holiday instead of Juneteenth I guess

0:17:32.169,0:17:35.980
some people thought okay if you want to

0:17:34.539,0:17:37.869
celebrate your freedom you should

0:17:35.980,0:17:42.000
celebrate it on July 4th our

0:17:37.869,0:17:44.889
Independence Day and I think a very very

0:17:42.000,0:17:47.289
important thing to know is there was

0:17:44.889,0:17:49.389
also a shift in education from

0:17:47.289,0:17:51.850
traditional home and Family Talk

0:17:49.389,0:17:55.210
practices to more structured classroom

0:17:51.850,0:17:59.230
and textbook education and because of

0:17:55.210,0:18:01.720
less emphasis and less detail on the

0:17:59.230,0:18:04.480
history of former slaves kids became

0:18:01.720,0:18:07.269
less interested and ultimately less

0:18:04.480,0:18:11.289
educated on the reasons for celebrating

0:18:07.269,0:18:14.049
Juneteenth and like to be a slave in the

0:18:11.289,0:18:16.860
u.s. Oh kids in the like black community

0:18:14.049,0:18:19.960
yeah

0:18:16.860,0:18:22.270
who are in the classroom and so for

0:18:19.960,0:18:23.950
example classroom textbooks proclaim

0:18:22.270,0:18:28.840
that President Lincoln’s Emancipation

0:18:23.950,0:18:30.910
Proclamation issued in 1863 was the date

0:18:28.840,0:18:33.130
signaling the end of slavery but they

0:18:30.910,0:18:35.500
don’t even mention you know the delay

0:18:33.130,0:18:37.750
the huge two and a half year delay in

0:18:35.500,0:18:40.600
Texas and they don’t talk about general

0:18:37.750,0:18:43.300
Rangel speech On June 19th and I had

0:18:40.600,0:18:45.820
also I mean to this day I think the same

0:18:43.300,0:18:48.040
issue exists I had no idea that there

0:18:45.820,0:18:49.930
was such a huge light you just think

0:18:48.040,0:18:54.370
Emancipation Proclamation and

0:18:49.930,0:18:57.070
everything’s good now but yeah I felt it

0:18:54.370,0:19:00.160
in my heart that they definitely did not

0:18:57.070,0:19:03.070
there’s gonna be a delay with the ending

0:19:00.160,0:19:05.650
of slavery but yeah at least we have

0:19:03.070,0:19:07.810
some documentation in history that

0:19:05.650,0:19:10.000
actually shows you okay this is actually

0:19:07.810,0:19:13.450
what was going on for the two years and

0:19:10.000,0:19:17.260
where everyone was migrating to exactly

0:19:13.450,0:19:20.290
yeah and I guess to go off of that I

0:19:17.260,0:19:24.010
will so one of my sources is this PBS

0:19:20.290,0:19:26.290
article and there was a really amazing

0:19:24.010,0:19:28.180
quote that kind of sums it up very well

0:19:26.290,0:19:31.420
so I’m just gonna read the direct quote

0:19:28.180,0:19:34.120
so despite local committees best efforts

0:19:31.420,0:19:36.160
with each new site with each new

0:19:34.120,0:19:38.680
segregation law with each new textbook

0:19:36.160,0:19:40.510
whitewashing and brutal lynching in the

0:19:38.680,0:19:42.280
South African Americans felt

0:19:40.510,0:19:44.500
increasingly disconnected from their

0:19:42.280,0:19:46.660
history so that by the time World War

0:19:44.500,0:19:48.970
two shook the nation they could no

0:19:46.660,0:19:50.320
longer faithfully celebrate freedom in a

0:19:48.970,0:19:52.930
land that still rendered them

0:19:50.320,0:19:54.880
second-class citizens worth of dying for

0:19:52.930,0:19:57.040
their country but not worthy of being

0:19:54.880,0:20:03.550
honored or treated equally for it

0:19:57.040,0:20:07.140
unquote yeah very powerful quote yeah

0:20:03.550,0:20:07.140
that’s a really amazing quote

0:20:07.540,0:20:12.220
but then flash-forward to the civil

0:20:10.120,0:20:15.700
rights movement in the 1950s and the

0:20:12.220,0:20:18.400
1960s so we see a resurgence in

0:20:15.700,0:20:22.090
discussing Juneteenth and more people

0:20:18.400,0:20:23.890
begin to celebrate it again so basically

0:20:22.090,0:20:25.930
the civil rights movement had both

0:20:23.890,0:20:29.370
positive and negative impacts on

0:20:25.930,0:20:32.110
Juneteenth celebrations because while

0:20:29.370,0:20:34.390
african-american youth were a little bit

0:20:32.110,0:20:37.270
too busy to celebrate because they were

0:20:34.390,0:20:38.650
protesting and demonstrating they would

0:20:37.270,0:20:41.530
still show their pride for the

0:20:38.650,0:20:44.170
celebrations in other ways and so in the

0:20:41.530,0:20:46.330
early 1960s a lot of student

0:20:44.170,0:20:49.090
demonstrators for the Atlanta Civil

0:20:46.330,0:20:53.380
Rights Campaign wore Juneteenth Freedom

0:20:49.090,0:20:56.680
buttons and most significantly in 1968

0:20:53.380,0:20:58.870
there was another strong resurgence in

0:20:56.680,0:21:02.460
remembering June 19th because of the

0:20:58.870,0:21:07.240
poor people’s March to Washington DC and

0:21:02.460,0:21:10.180
I don’t I don’t remember learning about

0:21:07.240,0:21:13.570
this specific March so I’m gonna give a

0:21:10.180,0:21:16.600
brief summary but basically Reverend

0:21:13.570,0:21:19.510
Ralph Abernathy called for people of all

0:21:16.600,0:21:22.330
races beliefs economic levels and

0:21:19.510,0:21:24.820
professions to come to Washington DC in

0:21:22.330,0:21:27.460
order to show support for the poor in

0:21:24.820,0:21:30.400
America and because of this March I

0:21:27.460,0:21:32.500
guess people started sharing stories and

0:21:30.400,0:21:37.750
they started talking more about

0:21:32.500,0:21:40.000
Juneteenth again and as a result many of

0:21:37.750,0:21:42.790
the attendees would return home and

0:21:40.000,0:21:45.790
start ginseng celebrations in their home

0:21:42.790,0:21:48.550
areas that maybe didn’t have any

0:21:45.790,0:21:50.680
celebrations before that and two of the

0:21:48.550,0:21:53.260
largest Juneteenth celebrations were

0:21:50.680,0:21:56.440
founded after this March and they’re now

0:21:53.260,0:22:03.420
held today in Milwaukee and Minneapolis

0:21:56.440,0:22:07.060
and yeah and so finally on January 1st

0:22:03.420,0:22:10.090
1980 Juneteenth became an official state

0:22:07.060,0:22:13.150
holiday in Texas through the efforts of

0:22:10.090,0:22:16.330
Al Edwards an african-american state

0:22:13.150,0:22:18.490
legislator and this marked the first

0:22:16.330,0:22:21.090
emancipation celebration that was

0:22:18.490,0:22:23.580
granted official state recognition

0:22:21.090,0:22:26.070
and after the passing of this bill

0:22:23.580,0:22:28.890
Edwards sought to spread the observance

0:22:26.070,0:22:32.880
all across America not just amongst the

0:22:28.890,0:22:35.540
state of Texas and since then 41 other

0:22:32.880,0:22:39.270
states including the District of

0:22:35.540,0:22:42.530
Columbia have recognized Juneteenth as a

0:22:39.270,0:22:49.050
state holiday or holiday observance oh

0:22:42.530,0:22:53.300
yay yeah still got some work to go yeah

0:22:49.050,0:22:57.750
and so the large majority of states

0:22:53.300,0:23:00.510
observe the holiday um I do want to just

0:22:57.750,0:23:03.000
include another side note after the

0:23:00.510,0:23:05.730
passing of Edwards bill in Texas the

0:23:03.000,0:23:08.220
state of Texas would also reaffirm its

0:23:05.730,0:23:12.660
commitment to observing January 19th as

0:23:08.220,0:23:16.110
Confederate heroes date so we see both

0:23:12.660,0:23:19.560
sides to okay progress that needs to be

0:23:16.110,0:23:22.970
made but yeah talk about Juneteenth

0:23:19.560,0:23:25.230
today so there are number of

0:23:22.970,0:23:28.140
celebrations are growing within

0:23:25.230,0:23:31.140
communities and organizations throughout

0:23:28.140,0:23:33.030
the country and in recent years several

0:23:31.140,0:23:35.070
local and national Juneteenth

0:23:33.030,0:23:37.440
organizations have been created in order

0:23:35.070,0:23:39.960
to promote and cultivate knowledge and

0:23:37.440,0:23:43.230
appreciation of african-american history

0:23:39.960,0:23:45.150
and culture and the national Juneteenth

0:23:43.230,0:23:48.240
observance foundation founded by

0:23:45.150,0:23:49.740
reverend ronald myers is committed to

0:23:48.240,0:23:52.950
making Juneteenth a federal holiday

0:23:49.740,0:23:56.190
because at the moment it’s just a few

0:23:52.950,0:23:59.190
states that are doing it yeah but it’s

0:23:56.190,0:24:02.250
not a federal holiday yet mm-hmm to

0:23:59.190,0:24:04.590
clarify just cuz I want to make sure

0:24:02.250,0:24:10.500
like I have this right so Juneteenth

0:24:04.590,0:24:12.720
June 19th like how did that like

0:24:10.500,0:24:17.130
actually make a difference that specific

0:24:12.720,0:24:19.110
day on like the slave status like was it

0:24:17.130,0:24:20.700
completely outlawed from Texas because I

0:24:19.110,0:24:22.170
would assume that the slave owners would

0:24:20.700,0:24:24.480
still keep doing the same things that

0:24:22.170,0:24:28.260
they were doing regardless so what made

0:24:24.480,0:24:31.620
you 19th like significant special yeah

0:24:28.260,0:24:34.500
so basically general Granger came in

0:24:31.620,0:24:35.200
with the Union soldiers and so he came

0:24:34.500,0:24:38.500
with

0:24:35.200,0:24:41.460
like a big army and so they were there

0:24:38.500,0:24:44.950
too specifically to fight any resistance

0:24:41.460,0:24:47.049
that would be yeah any resistance

0:24:44.950,0:24:50.950
against the American Emancipation

0:24:47.049,0:24:53.710
Proclamation and I guess the reason why

0:24:50.950,0:24:56.139
Juneteenth was kind of chosen as the day

0:24:53.710,0:25:00.659
to celebrate emancipation in America is

0:24:56.139,0:25:03.639
because it was you know one of the last

0:25:00.659,0:25:08.490
yeah it was because Texas was the last

0:25:03.639,0:25:12.730
state to be officially emancipated and

0:25:08.490,0:25:14.320
so I guess uh previously people had

0:25:12.730,0:25:16.299
debated which data are we going to

0:25:14.320,0:25:19.240
choose are we going to choose January

0:25:16.299,0:25:22.029
1st which is the date that the

0:25:19.240,0:25:23.769
Emancipation Proclamation was issued

0:25:22.029,0:25:26.440
however it’s like New Year’s Day and

0:25:23.769,0:25:30.010
many other laws are passed on January

0:25:26.440,0:25:32.440
1st and people were also like well okay

0:25:30.010,0:25:34.960
it was issued on January 1st but there

0:25:32.440,0:25:37.360
were still slaves in the US for two and

0:25:34.960,0:25:41.590
a half years so let’s choose the last

0:25:37.360,0:25:45.100
date the last emancipation date and so I

0:25:41.590,0:25:49.600
do 19th was chosen to celebrate the

0:25:45.100,0:25:52.480
abolishment of slavery okay yeah so then

0:25:49.600,0:25:54.700
yeah cuz it just Texas as big right so

0:25:52.480,0:25:57.179
even with the Union soldiers coming in

0:25:54.700,0:26:00.730
I’m sure that wasn’t an overnight thing

0:25:57.179,0:26:02.380
start and it’s not like okay yeah like

0:26:00.730,0:26:05.860
we were saying it’s not like okay

0:26:02.380,0:26:08.409
everything is all peachy now you go

0:26:05.860,0:26:13.620
about your own life like the

0:26:08.409,0:26:16.899
Reconstruction period I guess it was

0:26:13.620,0:26:18.639
extremely challenging for African

0:26:16.899,0:26:21.480
Americans in the u.s. I can’t even

0:26:18.639,0:26:26.679
imagine how difficult it would be and so

0:26:21.480,0:26:28.539
it takes decades for people to be able

0:26:26.679,0:26:31.539
to establish a life and it affects not

0:26:28.539,0:26:33.039
only former slaves and direct

0:26:31.539,0:26:35.710
descendants of sleep but you know

0:26:33.039,0:26:39.519
generations and generations to come in

0:26:35.710,0:26:42.309
the future and yeah yeah it’s it’s not

0:26:39.519,0:26:45.120
like so while we do celebrate June 19th

0:26:42.309,0:26:47.470
as the day to celebrate emancipation I

0:26:45.120,0:26:50.010
think yeah it’s important to remember

0:26:47.470,0:26:55.169
that there’s

0:26:50.010,0:27:00.429
lasting effects to the stave and yeah

0:26:55.169,0:27:02.799
and institutions such as the Smithsonian

0:27:00.429,0:27:04.570
and the Henry Ford Museum have begun

0:27:02.799,0:27:08.080
sponsoring Juneteenth centered

0:27:04.570,0:27:10.000
activities and actually in the past few

0:27:08.080,0:27:12.159
days I guess when I was doing my

0:27:10.000,0:27:14.070
research I saw a lot of news articles

0:27:12.159,0:27:17.649
being written about Juneteenth because

0:27:14.070,0:27:19.750
yeah it’s coming up companies such as

0:27:17.649,0:27:21.399
Nike and Twitter have announced that

0:27:19.750,0:27:24.809
they’re making Juneteenth of paid

0:27:21.399,0:27:28.539
corporate holiday yay that’s awesome

0:27:24.809,0:27:32.620
yeah right because even in even in state

0:27:28.539,0:27:35.380
holidays it’s not a paid leave holiday

0:27:32.620,0:27:36.639
you know it’s observed but yeah I

0:27:35.380,0:27:38.880
thought that was really amazing that

0:27:36.639,0:27:40.990
those companies did that mm-hmm and

0:27:38.880,0:27:43.630
today Juneteenth

0:27:40.990,0:27:45.880
celebrates african-american freedom and

0:27:43.630,0:27:47.919
achievement while encouraging continuous

0:27:45.880,0:27:50.799
self-development and respect for all

0:27:47.919,0:27:54.399
cultures and I guess to kind of wrap up

0:27:50.799,0:27:56.889
my brief summary of duties I wanted to

0:27:54.399,0:28:00.039
again read another quote this time from

0:27:56.889,0:28:04.000
Juneteenth comm which was founded in

0:28:00.039,0:28:09.639
1997 by Clifford Robertson and it has a

0:28:04.000,0:28:12.429
really great I guess library of the

0:28:09.639,0:28:14.649
history of Juneteenth and what life was

0:28:12.429,0:28:16.500
like as a save in the u.s. so you should

0:28:14.649,0:28:20.320
all check it out but okay so the coat so

0:28:16.500,0:28:22.539
as it takes on a more national symbolic

0:28:20.320,0:28:25.960
and even global perspective the events

0:28:22.539,0:28:27.639
of 1865 in Texas are not forgotten for

0:28:25.960,0:28:29.710
all of the roots tie back to this

0:28:27.639,0:28:33.039
fertile soil from which a national day

0:28:29.710,0:28:35.440
of pride is growing I thought that was

0:28:33.039,0:28:39.610
really sweet and really an amazing quote

0:28:35.440,0:28:42.279
and yeah that basically sums up what the

0:28:39.610,0:28:46.779
holiday of Juneteenth is why we

0:28:42.279,0:28:46.990
celebrate it and I yeah yeah no I love

0:28:46.779,0:28:49.419
it

0:28:46.990,0:28:53.440
thank you I this is literally the first

0:28:49.419,0:28:55.360
time of me hearing about this I yeah

0:28:53.440,0:28:57.700
it’s never brought up in my school so I

0:28:55.360,0:28:59.860
appreciate you and shout out your little

0:28:57.700,0:29:03.130
sister we’re bringing it up so that we

0:28:59.860,0:29:05.050
could cover it yeah I was so

0:29:03.130,0:29:10.210
surprised I had never even heard of this

0:29:05.050,0:29:12.340
holiday and yeah I think we should yeah

0:29:10.210,0:29:15.730
educate ourselves about it and spread

0:29:12.340,0:29:18.400
more awareness of the holiday and yeah

0:29:15.730,0:29:21.220
yeah something to be celebrated but we

0:29:18.400,0:29:23.790
still have work to be done so that’s an

0:29:21.220,0:29:27.130
important note yeah

0:29:23.790,0:29:30.400
but thank you this was a heavy topic but

0:29:27.130,0:29:36.370
I’m glad we discussed it yeah well

0:29:30.400,0:29:38.350
thanks for hi oh thanks for letting me

0:29:36.370,0:29:41.560
talk about it and I had a lot of fun

0:29:38.350,0:29:44.950
researching it and yeah thanks everyone

0:29:41.560,0:29:46.210
for listening to us talk about ginseng

0:29:44.950,0:29:50.410
thanks for listening to another episode

0:29:46.210,0:29:52.420
and I guess don’t forget to leave us a

0:29:50.410,0:29:56.140
review don’t forget to hit that

0:29:52.420,0:29:58.390
subscribe button send us an email if

0:29:56.140,0:30:01.420
you’d like and how did we not know that

0:29:58.390,0:30:04.150
at gmail.com we’re just waiting for you

0:30:01.420,0:30:06.340
guys yeah and check out our Great

0:30:04.150,0:30:07.540
Depression episode as well while you’re

0:30:06.340,0:30:10.360
at it we’ll put the link in the

0:30:07.540,0:30:12.220
description shout out to that cheer this

0:30:10.360,0:30:15.190
episode with your friends who might not

0:30:12.220,0:30:16.770
know about juicing and yeah thanks for

0:30:15.190,0:30:40.910
listening yeah

0:30:16.770,0:30:40.910
[Music]

There Was A Native American Civil Rights Movement?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

The Native American civil rights movement is considered to be one of the most radical social movements of the era, but it is largely overlooked in the context of our countryā€™s history and often forgotten by most Americans. In this episode, Nat gives a brief overview of Native American social activism during the 1960s & 70s, focusing on the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973.

Sources:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1rUccHlEAqagzdCS4YUKHYWBB62Xlw5lAx0j42lVdsXI/edit?usp=sharing

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:04.020
hi everybody welcome to another episode

0:00:01.829,0:00:08.460
of how did we not know that my name is

0:00:04.020,0:00:11.240
Jack and I’m Matt and today that is

0:00:08.460,0:00:13.830
going to present a topic of her choosing

0:00:11.240,0:00:15.839
yeah today I’m going to be talking about

0:00:13.830,0:00:18.810
the Native American civil rights

0:00:15.839,0:00:23.250
movement in the 1960s and seventies

0:00:18.810,0:00:26.430
okay do tell so yeah actually I’m super

0:00:23.250,0:00:30.090
excited to talk about this I feel like I

0:00:26.430,0:00:33.420
really did not know anything about this

0:00:30.090,0:00:35.670
movement um so yeah I have a lot to talk

0:00:33.420,0:00:37.710
about I’m going to talk about quite a

0:00:35.670,0:00:40.559
few different demonstrations and

0:00:37.710,0:00:42.809
activist groups and so just before to

0:00:40.559,0:00:46.289
get into all that I kind of want to set

0:00:42.809,0:00:49.170
the stage of as to what the u.s. looks

0:00:46.289,0:00:52.910
like during the 1960’s so basically

0:00:49.170,0:00:56.280
during this time we see a huge surge in

0:00:52.910,0:00:59.399
social activism and many different civil

0:00:56.280,0:01:01.890
rights movements the most I guess the

0:00:59.399,0:01:04.260
most notable one is the African American

0:01:01.890,0:01:07.260
civil rights movement and so the Civil

0:01:04.260,0:01:09.810
Rights Act is actually passed in 1964 as

0:01:07.260,0:01:13.290
we all know and that was a huge landmark

0:01:09.810,0:01:17.580
for minorities in the u.s. um

0:01:13.290,0:01:20.850
and so with this in mind we also see a

0:01:17.580,0:01:24.750
lot of social activism in regards to

0:01:20.850,0:01:28.200
Native American rights in the US and so

0:01:24.750,0:01:31.979
before you go I have a question so with

0:01:28.200,0:01:34.770
the Native American Civil Rights Act how

0:01:31.979,0:01:36.930
did it look for Native Americans in the

0:01:34.770,0:01:39.450
country during the 1960’s what because

0:01:36.930,0:01:41.189
there’s we see like segregation between

0:01:39.450,0:01:43.049
blacks and whites but I actually don’t

0:01:41.189,0:01:44.970
know what that looked like for Asians or

0:01:43.049,0:01:48.000
Hispanics or Native American so did you

0:01:44.970,0:01:49.680
do like research on that yeah so this is

0:01:48.000,0:01:52.290
actually just like the general Civil

0:01:49.680,0:01:55.530
Rights Act in 1964 that was passed in

0:01:52.290,0:01:59.430
regards like segregation in general but

0:01:55.530,0:02:02.729
so Native Americans at this time I would

0:01:59.430,0:02:04.740
say a lot of the main concerns on in

0:02:02.729,0:02:09.149
regards to their protest is about land

0:02:04.740,0:02:13.410
claim and life on the reservations and

0:02:09.149,0:02:16.590
treaties that had been ignored by the

0:02:13.410,0:02:21.390
and so a lot of it is has a more legal

0:02:16.590,0:02:24.960
focus um compared to other I guess other

0:02:21.390,0:02:29.850
minority groups and so yeah yeah yeah

0:02:24.960,0:02:32.520
it’s just a lot of like land claim right

0:02:29.850,0:02:35.820
if that makes sense yeah that doesn’t

0:02:32.520,0:02:39.570
make sense yeah and so Native Americans

0:02:35.820,0:02:41.760
were also facing a lot of racism and we

0:02:39.570,0:02:44.960
see like harassment from police and

0:02:41.760,0:02:49.550
profiling as well at this time too and

0:02:44.960,0:02:51.720
and struggles between you know

0:02:49.550,0:02:55.200
encouragement of Native Americans to

0:02:51.720,0:02:58.800
assimilate to standard American white

0:02:55.200,0:03:02.930
culture and at this sign there’s yeah

0:02:58.800,0:03:07.200
there’s mostly a lot of anger about a

0:03:02.930,0:03:10.680
reclaiming land I hadn’t stolen in the

0:03:07.200,0:03:13.230
past so we also see like protests

0:03:10.680,0:03:15.780
against the holiday of Columbus Day a

0:03:13.230,0:03:18.870
lot of people are to this day are so

0:03:15.780,0:03:21.810
very angry that it is a u.s. holiday um

0:03:18.870,0:03:25.890
oh wow they were protesting that in the

0:03:21.810,0:03:28.770
60s yeah it’s you dude I got literally I

0:03:25.890,0:03:30.570
got taught about Columbus Day like as a

0:03:28.770,0:03:32.580
good thing when I was in second grade

0:03:30.570,0:03:36.750
and there it already it was already

0:03:32.580,0:03:39.870
controversial ya know I I was really

0:03:36.750,0:03:42.330
surprised to see that – I I also thought

0:03:39.870,0:03:44.430
it was like a more recent issue but no

0:03:42.330,0:03:48.989
this has been literally being protest

0:03:44.430,0:03:50.970
against since the 60s but yet so we see

0:03:48.989,0:03:53.820
protests against that holiday and then

0:03:50.970,0:03:56.430
we also see a lot of lobbying um of

0:03:53.820,0:03:58.320
history textbook companies to include

0:03:56.430,0:04:01.550
more respectful accounts of needham

0:03:58.320,0:04:04.950
Native American culture in history and

0:04:01.550,0:04:07.500
so obviously this is episode of how did

0:04:04.950,0:04:09.360
we not know that so I still think

0:04:07.500,0:04:11.760
there’s a lot of progress that needs to

0:04:09.360,0:04:13.860
be made in regards to the American

0:04:11.760,0:04:18.060
education system and how it teaches

0:04:13.860,0:04:20.190
Native American history um but I mean

0:04:18.060,0:04:22.260
compared to how it was in the 1960s I

0:04:20.190,0:04:25.910
think a lot there has been like

0:04:22.260,0:04:28.730
significant changes that have been made

0:04:25.910,0:04:30.890
with like the Internet I think now you

0:04:28.730,0:04:32.510
can actually like hear the other side’s

0:04:30.890,0:04:34.190
opinions instead of just getting a

0:04:32.510,0:04:36.590
textbook and having to rely on that

0:04:34.190,0:04:40.940
exactly exactly I think that’s the most

0:04:36.590,0:04:43.130
important way to understand how Native

0:04:40.940,0:04:44.600
American held it with the contemporary

0:04:43.130,0:04:46.460
situation is like and then also

0:04:44.600,0:04:49.400
accessories from Native Americans and

0:04:46.460,0:04:55.010
indigenous peoples directly so yeah

0:04:49.400,0:04:57.350
internet um so I guess to go into a

0:04:55.010,0:05:00.440
little bit more about the act as a

0:04:57.350,0:05:01.370
movement we also see organized organized

0:05:00.440,0:05:03.500
fishin’s

0:05:01.370,0:05:05.540
where Native Americans would fish in

0:05:03.500,0:05:07.730
rivers that white residents wanted

0:05:05.540,0:05:09.650
exclusively for themselves and so these

0:05:07.730,0:05:14.870
were more like peaceful demonstrations

0:05:09.650,0:05:20.600
um also like uh fighting for their land

0:05:14.870,0:05:22.550
claims and in 1961 so 500 Indian leaders

0:05:20.600,0:05:24.860
from all across the country meet in

0:05:22.550,0:05:28.070
Chicago to form the National Indian

0:05:24.860,0:05:30.380
Youth Council and so as a result of the

0:05:28.070,0:05:32.360
organization begins to petition the

0:05:30.380,0:05:34.280
federal government to address hundreds

0:05:32.360,0:05:36.880
of Indian treaties that the government

0:05:34.280,0:05:40.270
had broken over the last 400 years and

0:05:36.880,0:05:42.980
so like I guess this is one of the

0:05:40.270,0:05:44.720
what’s the word for it like this is one

0:05:42.980,0:05:46.370
of the more like notable features of the

0:05:44.720,0:05:49.240
movement at this time is that we start

0:05:46.370,0:05:52.640
seeing groups we there had always been

0:05:49.240,0:05:55.370
activists and people who wanted to make

0:05:52.640,0:05:57.980
a change but now we see more organized

0:05:55.370,0:06:00.530
groups coming together to make

0:05:57.980,0:06:03.080
substantial legislative change and so

0:06:00.530,0:06:06.620
for example when the federal government

0:06:03.080,0:06:08.840
wanted to build a dam on Seneca land the

0:06:06.620,0:06:10.520
Native Americans cited treaties that had

0:06:08.840,0:06:12.560
been signed during George Washington’s

0:06:10.520,0:06:14.270
administration saying that the US

0:06:12.560,0:06:16.880
wouldn’t build on Seneca land and so

0:06:14.270,0:06:20.690
that project got cancelled and so you

0:06:16.880,0:06:22.400
can see like um yeah like a lot of

0:06:20.690,0:06:25.520
progress is being made

0:06:22.400,0:06:27.850
um and then actually Native Americans

0:06:25.520,0:06:31.220
were at the center of the anti-vietnam

0:06:27.850,0:06:34.700
protests and so I thought this was

0:06:31.220,0:06:36.350
really interesting and really honorable

0:06:34.700,0:06:38.390
because they were not only fighting for

0:06:36.350,0:06:39.650
their own rights but also against like

0:06:38.390,0:06:43.970
the aggression of the

0:06:39.650,0:06:45.710
US government as as a whole and the

0:06:43.970,0:06:47.930
government’s like brutality to its own

0:06:45.710,0:06:50.300
people and the people of Vietnam because

0:06:47.930,0:06:52.580
actually many Native Americans who have

0:06:50.300,0:06:55.160
served in the war found a lot of

0:06:52.580,0:06:58.070
similarities between American soldiers

0:06:55.160,0:07:00.770
treatment of Vietnamese peasants and

0:06:58.070,0:07:06.680
then past soldiers treatment of Indians

0:07:00.770,0:07:08.300
so I thought that was like yeah um and I

0:07:06.680,0:07:11.530
don’t think that gets mentioned a lot

0:07:08.300,0:07:13.669
yeah honestly we don’t talk enough about

0:07:11.530,0:07:16.970
Vietnam war either that should be

0:07:13.669,0:07:18.620
another episode and like I don’t know if

0:07:16.970,0:07:20.570
I told you when I actually went to

0:07:18.620,0:07:24.199
Vietnam and just like spent a day in the

0:07:20.570,0:07:26.539
museums and like every American should

0:07:24.199,0:07:29.900
probably take a trip to Vietnam and just

0:07:26.539,0:07:32.000
do that too because the way that we

0:07:29.900,0:07:34.010
treated them like a lot of American

0:07:32.000,0:07:36.080
soldiers is ridiculous and it’s not just

0:07:34.010,0:07:38.150
like finding and soldiers it’s just like

0:07:36.080,0:07:41.180
innocent civilians and kids and the way

0:07:38.150,0:07:44.630
that we came in there yeah literally

0:07:41.180,0:07:48.800
just so many innocent lives were lost

0:07:44.630,0:07:50.389
and it was really brutal yeah they’d

0:07:48.800,0:07:52.910
killed and harmed them

0:07:50.389,0:07:55.070
and I honestly like tortured to it

0:07:52.910,0:07:58.880
wasn’t even like the images are really

0:07:55.070,0:07:59.450
disturbing anyways that’s another topic

0:07:58.880,0:08:01.190
for anything

0:07:59.450,0:08:02.450
I think that’s like one of the reasons

0:08:01.190,0:08:05.180
why we don’t talk about it is because

0:08:02.450,0:08:07.810
it’s really hard to remember but we have

0:08:05.180,0:08:11.720
to remember it so we don’t repeat that

0:08:07.810,0:08:12.949
in the future but yeah yeah yeah that’s

0:08:11.720,0:08:15.410
maybe that’s something we can talk about

0:08:12.949,0:08:17.690
in another episode tube because

0:08:15.410,0:08:19.550
conveniently and I feel like in all my

0:08:17.690,0:08:21.710
history classes we only made it up to

0:08:19.550,0:08:26.530
World War two we never got to that era

0:08:21.710,0:08:29.900
but anyway so one of the UH one of the

0:08:26.530,0:08:31.610
events during this time to support the

0:08:29.900,0:08:33.740
movement that caught some of the most

0:08:31.610,0:08:37.250
media attention was the occupation of

0:08:33.740,0:08:41.450
Alcatraz Island so I really had no idea

0:08:37.250,0:08:44.180
of this but a Native American activist

0:08:41.450,0:08:46.190
had actually a like they went to the

0:08:44.180,0:08:48.589
island and occupied it for a very

0:08:46.190,0:08:52.010
significant time and so the prison had

0:08:48.589,0:08:52.910
actually closed in 1963 and so after

0:08:52.010,0:08:55.190
that native

0:08:52.910,0:08:57.350
Americans in San Francisco and the Bay

0:08:55.190,0:08:59.690
Area were started lobbying the

0:08:57.350,0:09:02.240
government to have it redeveloped as an

0:08:59.690,0:09:05.510
Indian cultural center in school but

0:09:02.240,0:09:07.370
like they the government basically I was

0:09:05.510,0:09:10.550
like oh no sorry

0:09:07.370,0:09:12.110
and that’s all so how do you get when

0:09:10.550,0:09:15.980
you have to take like a bow every day to

0:09:12.110,0:09:17.720
get to Alcatraz yeah yeah I think yeah

0:09:15.980,0:09:19.760
you would have to take a bow I don’t

0:09:17.720,0:09:23.450
know maybe like water taxis or something

0:09:19.760,0:09:25.730
okay I’ve never been to Alcatraz I don’t

0:09:23.450,0:09:31.910
know how far away it is from I think you

0:09:25.730,0:09:33.680
can possibly swim not really though you

0:09:31.910,0:09:36.470
can really in shape you good swim

0:09:33.680,0:09:37.880
no like there were like prisoners who

0:09:36.470,0:09:39.770
escaped from Alcatraz and the whole

0:09:37.880,0:09:42.380
thing it’s like there’s actually only

0:09:39.770,0:09:44.510
like three prisoners who escaped and

0:09:42.380,0:09:47.360
that was like a big conspiracy theory

0:09:44.510,0:09:49.850
because the bodies were never found but

0:09:47.360,0:09:51.800
then I don’t know I looked into it for a

0:09:49.850,0:09:53.930
little bit they do have like a triathlon

0:09:51.800,0:09:55.070
called the Escape from Alcatraz but I

0:09:53.930,0:09:57.290
don’t think you’re actually leaving

0:09:55.070,0:10:00.140
Alcatraz I think you’re on a boat out

0:09:57.290,0:10:05.900
there and then you swim in I see okay

0:10:00.140,0:10:09.320
yeah they’re mad like go be free but so

0:10:05.900,0:10:10.430
yeah okay so in October 1969 a fire

0:10:09.320,0:10:12.440
burns down

0:10:10.430,0:10:14.990
san Francisco’s American Indian Center

0:10:12.440,0:10:16.640
and so the state of Americans are even

0:10:14.990,0:10:18.740
more adamant like hey now we really

0:10:16.640,0:10:22.430
don’t have anything like can we please

0:10:18.740,0:10:25.100
please build an Native American cultural

0:10:22.430,0:10:27.110
center on this island and again the

0:10:25.100,0:10:31.010
government says no and so in Nova

0:10:27.110,0:10:32.960
November 19 1969 a handful of protesters

0:10:31.010,0:10:36.020
belonging to an activist group known as

0:10:32.960,0:10:38.720
Indians of all tribes occupy Alcatraz

0:10:36.020,0:10:41.990
and so they are led by a mohawk leader

0:10:38.720,0:10:44.990
and Professor Richard Oakes and Richard

0:10:41.990,0:10:46.880
Oakes he basically argues that the

0:10:44.990,0:10:49.460
protesters had the right to occupy the

0:10:46.880,0:10:53.180
island under a treaty provision that

0:10:49.460,0:10:56.420
granted Native Americans on used federal

0:10:53.180,0:10:58.580
land and he also said what quite

0:10:56.420,0:11:00.860
sarcastically that alphatron should be

0:10:58.580,0:11:03.470
an Indian Reservation because it was

0:11:00.860,0:11:08.290
isolated in Rocky it had no running

0:11:03.470,0:11:08.290
water and it house prisoners so

0:11:11.570,0:11:17.270
like oh my gosh you everyone should look

0:11:14.670,0:11:25.110
up Richard Oaks and all of his

0:11:17.270,0:11:27.840
interviews because he like oh my god and

0:11:25.110,0:11:30.620
so these professors on the end up saying

0:11:27.840,0:11:35.880
for one night before they’re removed by

0:11:30.620,0:11:38.520
authorities and so Oaks he comes back in

0:11:35.880,0:11:40.890
new states that if a one day occupation

0:11:38.520,0:11:43.320
by white men on Indian land years ago

0:11:40.890,0:11:45.090
establish squatter’s rights then the one

0:11:43.320,0:11:46.890
day occupation of Alcatraz should

0:11:45.090,0:11:49.740
establish Indian rights to the island

0:11:46.890,0:11:53.910
but he was like really this and like I

0:11:49.740,0:11:57.090
love it but uh oh and so on November

0:11:53.910,0:11:59.130
20th 1969 the Indians of all tribes

0:11:57.090,0:12:02.010
activist groups they try one more time

0:11:59.130,0:12:05.160
to occupy the island and this time they

0:12:02.010,0:12:07.980
come with 89 men women and children and

0:12:05.160,0:12:10.380
so a bunch of people coming this time

0:12:07.980,0:12:12.900
and they all move into the old wardens

0:12:10.380,0:12:14.970
house and the guards quarters and they

0:12:12.900,0:12:16.800
address the public and they say their

0:12:14.970,0:12:19.200
intentions to use the island for an

0:12:16.800,0:12:22.230
Indian School cultural center and museum

0:12:19.200,0:12:25.950
and so it’s like it’s pretty innocent

0:12:22.230,0:12:27.420
you know innocent request like you it’s

0:12:25.950,0:12:30.840
not they’re not really asking for much

0:12:27.420,0:12:33.810
and so Richard Nixon is president at the

0:12:30.840,0:12:36.360
time and his administration was pretty

0:12:33.810,0:12:40.320
hesitant at first to forcefully remove

0:12:36.360,0:12:41.850
protesters so the government decides to

0:12:40.320,0:12:44.130
leave them alone as long as they’re

0:12:41.850,0:12:46.380
peaceful and there are actually many

0:12:44.130,0:12:47.940
attempts by the government to settle a

0:12:46.380,0:12:50.760
compromise with the protesters

0:12:47.940,0:12:53.130
diplomatically but the activists are

0:12:50.760,0:12:55.860
very adamant that they won’t settle for

0:12:53.130,0:12:58.050
anything other than land rights and so

0:12:55.860,0:13:00.360
more and more protesters come to the

0:12:58.050,0:13:02.490
island because this demonstration is

0:13:00.360,0:13:04.380
gaining so much media attention and so

0:13:02.490,0:13:07.650
pretty soon there are actually more than

0:13:04.380,0:13:10.110
600 occupants on the island and so they

0:13:07.650,0:13:12.780
form a Governing Council they create a

0:13:10.110,0:13:14.850
clinic a kitchen public relations

0:13:12.780,0:13:16.980
department and even a nursery in a grade

0:13:14.850,0:13:19.320
school for their children and so it’s

0:13:16.980,0:13:21.870
like literally like it’s their own self

0:13:19.320,0:13:24.870
yeah dude have Biggie’s Alcatraz I did

0:13:21.870,0:13:27.510
not think it was that big I guess they

0:13:24.870,0:13:29.130
have like the prison itself can hold a

0:13:27.510,0:13:30.420
lot of people but I don’t think the

0:13:29.130,0:13:32.070
island like I don’t think there’s much

0:13:30.420,0:13:34.470
free sink it’s tiny

0:13:32.070,0:13:37.770
I’ll go sometime and let you know I

0:13:34.470,0:13:40.020
don’t think it’s that big no it does not

0:13:37.770,0:13:42.060
sound like it’s a fun place to live but

0:13:40.020,0:13:47.370
they were very passionate about the

0:13:42.060,0:13:49.470
cause um so however by early 1970 many

0:13:47.370,0:13:51.630
of the islands college students had to

0:13:49.470,0:13:53.580
return to school and they ended up

0:13:51.630,0:13:56.250
leaving the island and they were

0:13:53.580,0:13:58.380
actually student replaced by people who

0:13:56.250,0:14:02.480
are more worried about living rent-free

0:13:58.380,0:14:05.340
than the actual cause and yeah and so

0:14:02.480,0:14:07.380
wait but like weren’t they were they

0:14:05.340,0:14:08.790
also Native American or was it people

0:14:07.380,0:14:11.550
who weren’t even Native American who

0:14:08.790,0:14:15.540
just came there are some Native American

0:14:11.550,0:14:16.860
some non Native Americans because it’s

0:14:15.540,0:14:18.840
getting a lot of media attention and

0:14:16.860,0:14:20.130
people are coming out and yeah I think

0:14:18.840,0:14:23.520
there are some people who are taking

0:14:20.130,0:14:26.520
advantage of the situation and weren’t

0:14:23.520,0:14:29.580
really there to like fight for the land

0:14:26.520,0:14:31.740
rights oh yeah and so unfortunately

0:14:29.580,0:14:34.050
drugs and alcohol although they were

0:14:31.740,0:14:36.390
originally banned it becomes a pretty

0:14:34.050,0:14:40.680
prominent issue on the island as these

0:14:36.390,0:14:43.380
newcomers join the settlement and this

0:14:40.680,0:14:46.320
is really sad but in January 1970

0:14:43.380,0:14:48.510
Oakes’s young stepdaughter she falls to

0:14:46.320,0:14:51.270
her death from one of the stairwells and

0:14:48.510,0:14:54.150
so because of this folks and his wife

0:14:51.270,0:14:55.680
leave the island soon after and so this

0:14:54.150,0:14:57.330
kind of leaves all these different

0:14:55.680,0:15:00.720
groups to fight over control of the

0:14:57.330,0:15:03.030
island and so the government the federal

0:15:00.720,0:15:04.890
government sees this and they decide

0:15:03.030,0:15:07.620
that there’s really no longer much hope

0:15:04.890,0:15:10.260
for a diplomatic resolution and so they

0:15:07.620,0:15:12.180
decide to cut off all the power in an

0:15:10.260,0:15:15.960
effort to like force the activist out

0:15:12.180,0:15:18.000
and they’re all these actors are so

0:15:15.960,0:15:19.980
passionate that they decide to say and a

0:15:18.000,0:15:23.430
few weeks later a fire breaks out and

0:15:19.980,0:15:26.030
burns down several buildings and so this

0:15:23.430,0:15:29.310
yeah it’s really sad and so despite

0:15:26.030,0:15:31.110
these awful living conditions and then

0:15:29.310,0:15:33.030
there’s also diminishing outside groups

0:15:31.110,0:15:35.580
support because it’s

0:15:33.030,0:15:37.460
what’s going on so long and the media is

0:15:35.580,0:15:39.720
happening as much attention to it so

0:15:37.460,0:15:41.730
despite all this there are still a few

0:15:39.720,0:15:45.060
activists that continue to live on the

0:15:41.730,0:15:47.000
island for a whole another year it isn’t

0:15:45.060,0:15:50.550
like this lasts forever and so

0:15:47.000,0:15:54.480
unfortunately it well okay yeah On June

0:15:50.550,0:15:56.490
11 1971 armed federal marshals descend

0:15:54.480,0:15:59.190
on the island because they’re like hey

0:15:56.490,0:16:01.320
we need to restore the island foghorn

0:15:59.190,0:16:04.470
and lighthouse like we’ve lit we waited

0:16:01.320,0:16:05.610
for over a year and so sorry but you

0:16:04.470,0:16:07.980
guys all have to leave and so they

0:16:05.610,0:16:10.950
removed the last of the activists and so

0:16:07.980,0:16:14.280
by the end the remaining protestors

0:16:10.950,0:16:17.730
included six men five women and four

0:16:14.280,0:16:21.120
children and so the occupation lasted 19

0:16:17.730,0:16:23.370
months and it basically inspires many

0:16:21.120,0:16:25.830
other occupations and protests all

0:16:23.370,0:16:28.050
across the country and because of this

0:16:25.830,0:16:30.090
federal officials begin to listen more

0:16:28.050,0:16:32.970
to issues regarding Native American

0:16:30.090,0:16:35.010
self-determination and later on the US

0:16:32.970,0:16:37.890
government would return millions of

0:16:35.010,0:16:39.720
acres of ancestral Indian land and they

0:16:37.890,0:16:42.630
would pass more than fifty legislative

0:16:39.720,0:16:44.490
proposals supporting tribal self-rule so

0:16:42.630,0:16:50.280
there was a lot that came out of this

0:16:44.490,0:16:52.650
okay yeah yeah and so the social

0:16:50.280,0:16:54.630
movement so the Native American civil

0:16:52.650,0:16:56.970
rights movement can be seen as one of

0:16:54.630,0:17:00.450
the most radical social movements of the

0:16:56.970,0:17:04.439
era because unlike many other I guess

0:17:00.450,0:17:06.720
more populist causes at the time the

0:17:04.439,0:17:08.730
Native American rights movement attacked

0:17:06.720,0:17:10.980
people’s fundamental right to their own

0:17:08.730,0:17:13.140
property by argument arguing that

0:17:10.980,0:17:17.730
American society was built on the theft

0:17:13.140,0:17:20.699
of Indian land so it’s like yeah they’re

0:17:17.730,0:17:22.860
basically yeah see that’s funny they’d

0:17:20.699,0:17:25.110
be like it’s like the more radical but I

0:17:22.860,0:17:28.439
was like no makes sense like but yeah I

0:17:25.110,0:17:30.030
guess like that is a radical no I

0:17:28.439,0:17:31.410
actually don’t I have a hard time

0:17:30.030,0:17:34.410
feeling like that’s right cool

0:17:31.410,0:17:37.080
no but I guess yeah I guess it just it’s

0:17:34.410,0:17:39.570
not as populist or I cannot miss a

0:17:37.080,0:17:42.510
correct word but it basically is

0:17:39.570,0:17:45.510
attacking like every non-native American

0:17:42.510,0:17:46.350
oh so any landowner basically like

0:17:45.510,0:17:50.639
you’re in

0:17:46.350,0:17:53.519
okay but like I can you see where

0:17:50.639,0:17:55.289
they’re coming from and yeah it’s also

0:17:53.519,0:17:57.779
like it’s also really interesting to

0:17:55.289,0:18:00.090
note that these Native Americans are

0:17:57.779,0:18:01.860
protesting against the US government by

0:18:00.090,0:18:04.169
using their own treaties

0:18:01.860,0:18:06.090
against it and this kind of ultimately

0:18:04.169,0:18:09.509
exposes the government as a dishonest

0:18:06.090,0:18:12.179
institution so that’s why I think the

0:18:09.509,0:18:13.679
Native American civil rights movement is

0:18:12.179,0:18:17.070
really different compared to other

0:18:13.679,0:18:20.269
social activist movements because it’s

0:18:17.070,0:18:23.159
focus its focus is like mainly legal and

0:18:20.269,0:18:25.980
that’s kind of how they fight things out

0:18:23.159,0:18:28.169
is through the courts and I thought that

0:18:25.980,0:18:30.809
was really interesting that is I think

0:18:28.169,0:18:33.210
that’s also very impressive to me is

0:18:30.809,0:18:36.029
like you basically just like you made

0:18:33.210,0:18:39.029
this contract yes and I think that’s

0:18:36.029,0:18:41.279
really clever and well and there are so

0:18:39.029,0:18:44.009
many treaties that had been signed – so

0:18:41.279,0:18:45.570
you have to have such a wide knowledge

0:18:44.009,0:18:48.240
of all these different treaties that

0:18:45.570,0:18:51.570
have been made like years and years like

0:18:48.240,0:18:54.659
hundreds of years ago and that could be

0:18:51.570,0:18:56.940
well to be honest if like you’re getting

0:18:54.659,0:18:58.830
taken advantage of for years and years

0:18:56.940,0:19:01.950
and years I’d be reading my treaties –

0:18:58.830,0:19:03.690
like what did I sign up for that’s so

0:19:01.950,0:19:09.539
true you know how many times I read my

0:19:03.690,0:19:12.000
Li statement like messing around no

0:19:09.539,0:19:15.720
that’s so true yeah you’re you would

0:19:12.000,0:19:19.769
definitely be way more I guess yeah way

0:19:15.720,0:19:21.779
more knowledgeable and so yeah also at

0:19:19.769,0:19:24.090
this time we see all these different

0:19:21.779,0:19:27.419
organizations that are being created

0:19:24.090,0:19:31.379
because they’re I guess before this it

0:19:27.419,0:19:34.440
was mostly inner tribe activism and so

0:19:31.379,0:19:36.629
you kind of mostly worked with your own

0:19:34.440,0:19:39.840
tribe to fight for your land rights in

0:19:36.629,0:19:42.210
your area in your reservation but then

0:19:39.840,0:19:43.950
now we see a lot of organizations where

0:19:42.210,0:19:45.330
we’re getting Native American leaders

0:19:43.950,0:19:47.669
from all across the country to come

0:19:45.330,0:19:50.519
together and support the movement as a

0:19:47.669,0:19:53.220
whole and so one of these organizations

0:19:50.519,0:19:56.639
is the American Indian Movement also

0:19:53.220,0:19:59.680
known as aim and so it’s founded in 1968

0:19:56.639,0:20:01.570
by Russell Means Dennis banks and

0:19:59.680,0:20:03.930
other native leaders as a militant

0:20:01.570,0:20:06.700
political and civil rights organization

0:20:03.930,0:20:08.830
and it was actually one of the reasons

0:20:06.700,0:20:12.880
they decided to create this organization

0:20:08.830,0:20:14.380
is to stop police harassment of Native

0:20:12.880,0:20:18.250
Americans in the Minneapolis area

0:20:14.380,0:20:24.310
because I had been a really big issue at

0:20:18.250,0:20:26.320
the time Minneapolis Minnesota yeah so I

0:20:24.310,0:20:28.030
guess that was an issue all the way in

0:20:26.320,0:20:32.320
the nineteen fifties so I’ll leave it at

0:20:28.030,0:20:33.790
that but um so now this brings me to I

0:20:32.320,0:20:37.000
guess what I want to talk about for the

0:20:33.790,0:20:40.930
remainder of the episode which is the

0:20:37.000,0:20:45.030
occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973 which

0:20:40.930,0:20:48.250
is one of the more like well-known

0:20:45.030,0:20:50.070
demonstrations during the Native

0:20:48.250,0:20:53.830
American civil rights movement and so

0:20:50.070,0:20:57.370
Wounded Knee is located in the Pine

0:20:53.830,0:21:01.780
Ridge Reservation in South Dakota and so

0:20:57.370,0:21:05.010
it’s a small town and it’s actually in

0:21:01.780,0:21:08.740
1890 it was the site of the massacre of

0:21:05.010,0:21:10.870
302 Native Americans by the seventh

0:21:08.740,0:21:13.540
Cavalry and so it holds a lot of

0:21:10.870,0:21:19.290
historical significance for Native

0:21:13.540,0:21:22.090
Americans in the area and in 1973 it

0:21:19.290,0:21:25.030
Wounded Knee is helped to the Oglala

0:21:22.090,0:21:27.640
Lakota tribe and it’s one of the poorest

0:21:25.030,0:21:29.500
communities in the u.s. and it has one

0:21:27.640,0:21:32.080
of the country’s lowest rates of life

0:21:29.500,0:21:35.490
expectancy along with the other towns

0:21:32.080,0:21:38.170
within the Pine Ridge Reservation and so

0:21:35.490,0:21:40.540
like it’s really sad it’s a really poor

0:21:38.170,0:21:44.080
community and on top of this the people

0:21:40.540,0:21:46.330
in Wounded Knee face racism not only

0:21:44.080,0:21:49.120
outside of the reservation but inside

0:21:46.330,0:21:51.550
their own reservation as well and this

0:21:49.120,0:21:56.140
is partly due to a very poorly managed

0:21:51.550,0:21:59.080
tribal government and so basically the

0:21:56.140,0:22:01.950
people of Wounded Knee really wanted to

0:21:59.080,0:22:04.390
remove the tribal chairman dick Wilson

0:22:01.950,0:22:07.320
because they thought he was very corrupt

0:22:04.390,0:22:10.600
and so people said he favored mixed-race

0:22:07.320,0:22:13.070
assimilated Lakota like himself and so

0:22:10.600,0:22:15.530
they tried and tried to impeach him but

0:22:13.070,0:22:18.650
at all all their efforts failed and so

0:22:15.530,0:22:21.890
the Ocala Lakota tribal leaders they

0:22:18.650,0:22:25.550
turn to aim for help with removing him

0:22:21.890,0:22:29.060
by force and so the contact a man aims

0:22:25.550,0:22:32.600
answer is to occupy the town of Wounded

0:22:29.060,0:22:34.400
Knee and so in early 1973 aim begins

0:22:32.600,0:22:38.000
their preparations for this occupation

0:22:34.400,0:22:40.580
and so aim believes that they needed to

0:22:38.000,0:22:43.310
use physical force in order to create

0:22:40.580,0:22:44.870
change in American society so that’s why

0:22:43.310,0:22:47.630
they choose to armed themselves with

0:22:44.870,0:22:49.850
guns and other weapons and they refused

0:22:47.630,0:22:52.370
to leave the town and they also argue

0:22:49.850,0:22:54.020
that they had to arm themselves the US

0:22:52.370,0:22:57.020
government had robbed them of their

0:22:54.020,0:23:00.010
lands with our worst acts of violence so

0:22:57.020,0:23:03.770
that is their minds that going into this

0:23:00.010,0:23:09.620
demonstration occupation and so on

0:23:03.770,0:23:12.620
February 27th 1973 around 202 Native

0:23:09.620,0:23:15.290
Americans led by members of aim occupied

0:23:12.620,0:23:18.050
the town of Wounded Knee and so they

0:23:15.290,0:23:21.140
basically what happens is they arrive in

0:23:18.050,0:23:22.640
town at night in a caravan of cars and

0:23:21.140,0:23:25.850
trucks and they take the town’s

0:23:22.640,0:23:29.150
residences hostage and so they declare

0:23:25.850,0:23:33.290
the town liberated from the US then they

0:23:29.150,0:23:36.470
cite a treaty from 1868 that allowed the

0:23:33.290,0:23:37.640
town to remain under Lakota control so

0:23:36.470,0:23:39.860
they have this treaty and they’re like

0:23:37.640,0:23:41.660
the government this is one of the many

0:23:39.860,0:23:43.940
treaties that the government has ignored

0:23:41.660,0:23:44.330
and actually this shouldn’t be American

0:23:43.940,0:23:49.040
soil

0:23:44.330,0:23:51.170
um and within hours police around the

0:23:49.040,0:23:53.420
town of Wounded Knee and so basically

0:23:51.170,0:23:56.270
this prevents protesters from leaving

0:23:53.420,0:23:59.380
and then sympathizers from entering and

0:23:56.270,0:24:02.720
so they basically besieged the town and

0:23:59.380,0:24:05.830
they order the occupants to disarm

0:24:02.720,0:24:08.690
themselves but that does not happen and

0:24:05.830,0:24:10.490
so dick Wilson and the tribal chairman

0:24:08.690,0:24:13.310
that people were complaining about

0:24:10.490,0:24:16.370
earlier he had actually heard about Ames

0:24:13.310,0:24:19.820
plans to occupy the town and remove him

0:24:16.370,0:24:22.070
and so he before this he retreats to

0:24:19.820,0:24:24.590
tribal headquarters where he is under

0:24:22.070,0:24:26.330
the protection of federal marshals and

0:24:24.590,0:24:29.630
then Bureau of Indian Affairs

0:24:26.330,0:24:31.730
police and so he’s like safe and out of

0:24:29.630,0:24:34.880
the picture even though that was kind of

0:24:31.730,0:24:38.540
one of the main reasons for infiltrating

0:24:34.880,0:24:41.510
or occupying the town until the

0:24:38.540,0:24:44.300
following day a members begin trading

0:24:41.510,0:24:46.460
gunfire with federal marshals that are

0:24:44.300,0:24:48.980
surrounding the town and then they also

0:24:46.460,0:24:52.040
fire at like automobiles that are

0:24:48.980,0:24:55.340
driving by and in low-flying planes that

0:24:52.040,0:24:58.130
yeah and so from then on they would

0:24:55.340,0:25:00.740
trade fire with federal authorities

0:24:58.130,0:25:03.370
almost every night and so I want to ask

0:25:00.740,0:25:06.770
you – like how long do you think this

0:25:03.370,0:25:09.130
siege lasts I literally was about to ask

0:25:06.770,0:25:12.290
you I was like how long did that last

0:25:09.130,0:25:15.650
um let me think can i I was thinking

0:25:12.290,0:25:17.480
like a week maybe okay of like ongoing

0:25:15.650,0:25:21.070
it’s just like them firing back at each

0:25:17.480,0:25:26.300
other every day yeah your final answer

0:25:21.070,0:25:32.150
yeah but I guess it’s wrong so it

0:25:26.300,0:25:35.750
actually lets 71 days know white for –

0:25:32.150,0:25:39.050
my mind was blown every single day every

0:25:35.750,0:25:40.910
single day they’re like trading fire

0:25:39.050,0:25:45.110
with federal authorities I cannot

0:25:40.910,0:25:48.110
imagine how stressful that living

0:25:45.110,0:25:50.330
situation could be like right fine they

0:25:48.110,0:25:53.420
also are they like did anyone get hurt

0:25:50.330,0:25:57.170
and also wet was the cost of like always

0:25:53.420,0:26:01.310
going to buy like weapons we’ll get into

0:25:57.170,0:26:04.880
that uh like after this but yeah it

0:26:01.310,0:26:06.650
lasts for a really long time and so

0:26:04.880,0:26:08.480
they’re basically trapped in the town

0:26:06.650,0:26:10.790
though you know because the authorities

0:26:08.480,0:26:13.750
are surrounding the town so their only

0:26:10.790,0:26:16.730
way out is like their surrender and so

0:26:13.750,0:26:19.430
in order to try and break the siege the

0:26:16.730,0:26:21.320
FBI cuts up all electricity and water to

0:26:19.430,0:26:23.330
the town and they attempt to prevent

0:26:21.320,0:26:25.310
food and ammunition from being passed to

0:26:23.330,0:26:27.410
the occupiers so this is like literally

0:26:25.310,0:26:29.660
horrible horrible living conditions and

0:26:27.410,0:26:32.510
so bill Zimmerman

0:26:29.660,0:26:34.940
he’s a sympathetic activist and a pilot

0:26:32.510,0:26:37.400
from Boston he basically agrees to

0:26:34.940,0:26:40.130
deliver 2,000 pounds of food and

0:26:37.400,0:26:42.910
supplies to the town like via a small

0:26:40.130,0:26:46.850
little playing and so he flies to

0:26:42.910,0:26:48.460
Wounded Knee and he’s like I don’t know

0:26:46.850,0:26:53.420
the mechanics which is like dropping

0:26:48.460,0:26:56.510
dropping the supplies and sadly or I

0:26:53.420,0:26:58.310
guess however when the occupiers run out

0:26:56.510,0:27:01.460
of the building where they were hiding

0:26:58.310,0:27:04.670
to grab the supplies the federal agents

0:27:01.460,0:27:06.560
opened fire on them and so yeah so

0:27:04.670,0:27:09.620
during the shootout the first member of

0:27:06.560,0:27:11.870
the occupation to die he’s a Cherokee

0:27:09.620,0:27:13.340
man that he was shot by a bullet that

0:27:11.870,0:27:18.260
had flown through the wall of a church

0:27:13.340,0:27:22.070
and so he’s the first person this

0:27:18.260,0:27:24.050
occupation question okay I’m just gonna

0:27:22.070,0:27:26.510
wrap my mind around like physically what

0:27:24.050,0:27:30.080
this looks like so there are very like

0:27:26.510,0:27:32.060
surrounding a town basically and is

0:27:30.080,0:27:34.010
there like a barricade at all or it’s

0:27:32.060,0:27:36.050
just like literally like I’m imagining

0:27:34.010,0:27:38.510
like tanks or something in a big circle

0:27:36.050,0:27:40.490
around it yeah when I was looking at

0:27:38.510,0:27:42.170
photos I like didn’t get an aerial I

0:27:40.490,0:27:44.210
didn’t see any aerial tap photos but

0:27:42.170,0:27:46.610
good photos they did there were tanks

0:27:44.210,0:27:49.390
and like like physical like wood

0:27:46.610,0:27:52.550
barricades that blacked off the roads

0:27:49.390,0:27:54.530
and also you have it like remember it’s

0:27:52.550,0:27:57.650
in South Dakota so it’s like open plains

0:27:54.530,0:28:00.770
and some really like there’s no trees

0:27:57.650,0:28:04.100
for people to hide yeah I’m imagining

0:28:00.770,0:28:06.950
it’s like pretty open open so just like

0:28:04.100,0:28:08.480
building so you can’t really like you

0:28:06.950,0:28:11.420
can’t run you can’t escape because

0:28:08.480,0:28:14.500
you’re out in the open and so and then

0:28:11.420,0:28:17.510
was this after the 71 days then like

0:28:14.500,0:28:21.050
versus during the 71 days then someone

0:28:17.510,0:28:23.860
dies okay this is I think I don’t I

0:28:21.050,0:28:26.540
think it’s about like halfway through

0:28:23.860,0:28:28.760
maybe closer towards the end but I

0:28:26.540,0:28:30.440
didn’t get a specific date on the bill

0:28:28.760,0:28:32.900
Zimmerman air drop I know he actually

0:28:30.440,0:28:34.970
wrote a book about the the pilot wrote a

0:28:32.900,0:28:40.130
book about this event and so you can

0:28:34.970,0:28:42.110
read that but yeah so there should their

0:28:40.130,0:28:45.230
training prior with federal agents every

0:28:42.110,0:28:47.270
night and then on April 26 tribe member

0:28:45.230,0:28:48.440
buddy Lamont is shot and killed

0:28:47.270,0:28:51.710
[Music]

0:28:48.440,0:28:53.960
by agents and morale drops severely

0:28:51.710,0:28:58.010
because this has also been going on for

0:28:53.960,0:29:00.080
so long and it’s really yeah it’s really

0:28:58.010,0:29:02.600
awful living situations and so aim

0:29:00.080,0:29:04.520
members they basically they really want

0:29:02.600,0:29:08.480
to continue the occupation but the

0:29:04.520,0:29:12.020
Oglala they overrule them and so after

0:29:08.480,0:29:15.260
this negotiations pretty much begin like

0:29:12.020,0:29:16.820
before there had been negotiators that

0:29:15.260,0:29:19.040
had been sent from the government to

0:29:16.820,0:29:22.010
talk to the protesters but they really

0:29:19.040,0:29:25.070
had no interest in what they were saying

0:29:22.010,0:29:27.770
but then after the second member is

0:29:25.070,0:29:30.530
killed then that’s when they really I

0:29:27.770,0:29:34.310
guess start putting more effort into the

0:29:30.530,0:29:36.440
negotiations and so Russell Means he was

0:29:34.310,0:29:38.660
one of the founders of aim so he leads

0:29:36.440,0:29:40.040
the negotiations for the release of the

0:29:38.660,0:29:41.690
hostages because you also have to

0:29:40.040,0:29:45.880
remember like they’re taking the people

0:29:41.690,0:29:48.860
in this town is hostage to um and so

0:29:45.880,0:29:51.590
Richard means he demanded that the US

0:29:48.860,0:29:54.140
Senate launched an investigation of the

0:29:51.590,0:29:56.180
Bureau of Indian Affairs and all two

0:29:54.140,0:29:59.750
reservations in the South Dakota in

0:29:56.180,0:30:02.150
South Dakota and he also wants the

0:29:59.750,0:30:04.220
Senate Foreign Relations Committee to

0:30:02.150,0:30:07.340
hold hearings on the several Indian

0:30:04.220,0:30:08.840
treaties broken by the US government and

0:30:07.340,0:30:12.590
so they have very like specific

0:30:08.840,0:30:17.570
legislative action that they want to be

0:30:12.590,0:30:19.070
passed on and so all rights right have

0:30:17.570,0:30:20.930
pretty much all pertaining to land

0:30:19.070,0:30:23.690
rights and then also there’s this Bureau

0:30:20.930,0:30:26.660
of Indian Affairs which exists today and

0:30:23.690,0:30:29.930
there they have a lot of complaints with

0:30:26.660,0:30:32.060
the Bureau as a whole and the way they

0:30:29.930,0:30:34.460
deal with Native Americans

0:30:32.060,0:30:38.090
um and so that like there would a m–

0:30:34.460,0:30:41.240
also ended up occupying the Bureau of

0:30:38.090,0:30:42.770
Indian Affairs building in DC later and

0:30:41.240,0:30:44.690
so there’s a lot of issues with this

0:30:42.770,0:30:47.000
specific department and so they want

0:30:44.690,0:30:49.370
like they want an investigation being

0:30:47.000,0:30:51.290
held on the department to make sure it’s

0:30:49.370,0:30:54.830
as effective in supportive as possible

0:30:51.290,0:30:58.190
for Native Americans um and yeah and

0:30:54.830,0:31:00.200
then also land claims and breaking

0:30:58.190,0:31:02.570
treaties like they want these treaties

0:31:00.200,0:31:05.510
to be reconciled and so

0:31:02.570,0:31:08.150
oh yes I didn’t yeah I was gonna ask so

0:31:05.510,0:31:10.640
this is this is the Wounded Knee it’s

0:31:08.150,0:31:13.760
not the Wounded Knee Massacre right yes

0:31:10.640,0:31:17.290
it is this is Wounded Knee 1973 there is

0:31:13.760,0:31:22.670
a Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890 and that

0:31:17.290,0:31:26.780
yeah where basically the US Army kind of

0:31:22.670,0:31:33.530
kills the massacre what did I say 300

0:31:26.780,0:31:36.740
1800s yeah in 1890 so yeah Wow Native

0:31:33.530,0:31:39.170
Americans are killed and so yeah that’s

0:31:36.740,0:31:41.780
one of the reasons why they choose

0:31:39.170,0:31:44.480
Wounded Knee I get maybe not one of the

0:31:41.780,0:31:47.390
reasons but it really holds a lot of

0:31:44.480,0:31:49.220
significance during their protests just

0:31:47.390,0:31:52.390
remembering like all the atrocities that

0:31:49.220,0:31:59.600
has been committed in this one town um

0:31:52.390,0:32:02.240
and yeah and so on may 8th 1973 aim

0:31:59.600,0:32:04.070
leaders and supporters surrender after

0:32:02.240,0:32:05.990
officials promised they’re going to

0:32:04.070,0:32:08.200
investigate their complaints so they’re

0:32:05.990,0:32:11.990
like okay we’ll meet your demands and

0:32:08.200,0:32:13.910
yeah but okay yeah well I guess we’ll

0:32:11.990,0:32:16.610
get into that later but um so throughout

0:32:13.910,0:32:18.590
the duration of the siege to Native

0:32:16.610,0:32:21.230
Americans were killed and a federal

0:32:18.590,0:32:24.320
marshal was permanently paralyzed by a

0:32:21.230,0:32:26.660
bullet wound and so some a members

0:32:24.320,0:32:29.360
actually managed to escape the town

0:32:26.660,0:32:32.020
before being arrested however they’re so

0:32:29.360,0:32:35.180
like hundreds of arrests that are made

0:32:32.020,0:32:37.940
and so Russell Means and Dennis banks

0:32:35.180,0:32:42.770
are among the activists that are

0:32:37.940,0:32:45.740
arrested but on September 16 1973 they

0:32:42.770,0:32:47.960
go to court right and the federal judge

0:32:45.740,0:32:50.420
actually dismisses the charges against

0:32:47.960,0:32:53.150
them because the US government had

0:32:50.420,0:32:55.760
unlawfully handled witnesses and

0:32:53.150,0:32:58.970
evidence so it kind of come out that the

0:32:55.760,0:33:00.650
FBI had manipulated key witnesses and so

0:32:58.970,0:33:03.590
the charges against them are drop and

0:33:00.650,0:33:09.560
they’re like free um

0:33:03.590,0:33:11.150
and so remember how one when they had

0:33:09.560,0:33:12.890
started to occupy the land they said

0:33:11.150,0:33:15.800
that there was this treaty from 1868

0:33:12.890,0:33:18.890
that allowed a little bit

0:33:15.800,0:33:21.770
olala Lakota to claim the land right and

0:33:18.890,0:33:25.400
so the government basically concludes

0:33:21.770,0:33:28.280
that this treaty was superseded by the

0:33:25.400,0:33:31.100
principle of eminent domain and so

0:33:28.280,0:33:34.130
eminent domain I like remember hearing

0:33:31.100,0:33:35.750
about it in like AP US government but I

0:33:34.130,0:33:38.230
had completely forgotten what it means

0:33:35.750,0:33:41.120
so just as a refresher for everyone

0:33:38.230,0:33:43.100
eminent domain is the power of the

0:33:41.120,0:33:45.679
government to seize the private property

0:33:43.100,0:33:48.470
of an individual or group for use by the

0:33:45.679,0:33:51.620
state if they provide just just

0:33:48.470,0:33:54.440
compensation to property owners so

0:33:51.620,0:33:56.090
basically they’re like oh okay I have

0:33:54.440,0:33:58.070
heard of this because isn’t it like

0:33:56.090,0:34:00.320
that’s when like the guy like if they

0:33:58.070,0:34:02.059
want to build a highway like they can

0:34:00.320,0:34:04.280
take your house yeah

0:34:02.059,0:34:05.690
as long as they like pay you yeah then

0:34:04.280,0:34:08.510
it’s fine and so basically they’re like

0:34:05.690,0:34:11.300
yeah so we paid you for this land and so

0:34:08.510,0:34:15.560
this treaty is invalid and it’s actually

0:34:11.300,0:34:18.230
American soil still yeah did they get

0:34:15.560,0:34:21.230
paid for the land oh and what were they

0:34:18.230,0:34:22.909
compensated with I could not have fine

0:34:21.230,0:34:24.590
that’s why I was that was my immediate

0:34:22.909,0:34:29.290
thought it’s like okay was it actually

0:34:24.590,0:34:32.090
just compensation because I guess maybe

0:34:29.290,0:34:33.560
yeah a long time ago when during

0:34:32.090,0:34:36.770
westward expansion and all that I guess

0:34:33.560,0:34:42.340
the land technically was purchased but I

0:34:36.770,0:34:45.350
could not find a lake yeah like what

0:34:42.340,0:34:48.429
because California’s expense a baby like

0:34:45.350,0:34:51.200
how much did you pay that you know like

0:34:48.429,0:34:54.909
very interested to see like how much

0:34:51.200,0:34:57.650
they paid the tribes for their land

0:34:54.909,0:35:00.830
mm-hmm but basically they’re like your

0:34:57.650,0:35:04.310
whole argument is invalid and so yeah

0:35:00.830,0:35:09.200
guys so people as you can imagine people

0:35:04.310,0:35:11.390
were very devastated yeah in terms of I

0:35:09.200,0:35:14.030
guess other ways this event is

0:35:11.390,0:35:17.600
remembered so according to the US

0:35:14.030,0:35:19.640
Marshal Service the occupation of

0:35:17.600,0:35:21.740
Wounded Knee was actually the longest

0:35:19.640,0:35:23.420
lasting civil disorder in two hundred

0:35:21.740,0:35:26.030
years of history so I think it’s also

0:35:23.420,0:35:28.790
important to note different ways this

0:35:26.030,0:35:29.480
event is remembered and kind of people

0:35:28.790,0:35:33.410
sentiment

0:35:29.480,0:35:35.990
what happened yeah oh yeah oh I was

0:35:33.410,0:35:39.109
gonna say I would love if we could like

0:35:35.990,0:35:42.350
find someone who’s like more connected

0:35:39.109,0:35:44.869
like maybe Native American and has like

0:35:42.350,0:35:46.100
gone through like history and like heard

0:35:44.869,0:35:47.990
stories from their family because I’m

0:35:46.100,0:35:50.300
curious as to the whole purchase

0:35:47.990,0:35:53.000
argument that they made like who do they

0:35:50.300,0:35:54.590
pay like who got the money who did they

0:35:53.000,0:35:56.240
make a deal with and why does that

0:35:54.590,0:35:59.390
invalidate like every single other

0:35:56.240,0:36:02.240
person who’s a part of the community now

0:35:59.390,0:36:03.470
I would really love to talk to someone

0:36:02.240,0:36:05.690
about that too because I have so many

0:36:03.470,0:36:06.790
questions I’m also like yeah who gets

0:36:05.690,0:36:11.600
the money

0:36:06.790,0:36:15.020
who decided like how much money is being

0:36:11.600,0:36:16.730
spent and then also I guess eminent

0:36:15.020,0:36:19.070
domain is kind of tricky because like

0:36:16.730,0:36:21.050
what is it justification what qualifies

0:36:19.070,0:36:23.150
when they use a word like just

0:36:21.050,0:36:26.420
compensation like what what makes it

0:36:23.150,0:36:31.340
like a repay it’s like who who gave the

0:36:26.420,0:36:33.140
appraisal on that like how can ya so I I

0:36:31.340,0:36:35.780
would really like to talk to someone

0:36:33.140,0:36:37.490
about that I guess I’ll uh there are a

0:36:35.780,0:36:39.980
lot of autobiographies that are written

0:36:37.490,0:36:42.050
about about this and these activities so

0:36:39.980,0:36:45.230
I’ll mention those a bit later but there

0:36:42.050,0:36:49.369
is a great PBS documentary tting a

0:36:45.230,0:36:52.340
special about the occupation in 1973 so

0:36:49.369,0:36:53.990
you could hear the people who were there

0:36:52.340,0:36:56.750
during this protests are being

0:36:53.990,0:36:59.810
interviewed so yeah I know a few people

0:36:56.750,0:37:01.550
who do there like descendants of Native

0:36:59.810,0:37:04.010
Americans and they do activist work in

0:37:01.550,0:37:05.720
the Native American community so maybe

0:37:04.010,0:37:08.060
we could reach out to them or if you’re

0:37:05.720,0:37:09.859
listening to this and you are Native

0:37:08.060,0:37:11.840
American or you know someone who is

0:37:09.859,0:37:14.630
Native American who is connected to that

0:37:11.840,0:37:17.600
history please email us how did we not

0:37:14.630,0:37:19.640
know that at gmail.com yes please do

0:37:17.600,0:37:22.460
because I would love to have I would

0:37:19.640,0:37:24.170
love to hear I guess what they would

0:37:22.460,0:37:26.780
have to say and yeah I have a question

0:37:24.170,0:37:30.619
so please reach out to us that would be

0:37:26.780,0:37:33.859
really exciting um yeah I’m sorry I

0:37:30.619,0:37:36.920
guess to talk a little bit more about

0:37:33.859,0:37:39.170
what happened after so surprised

0:37:36.920,0:37:42.810
surprised Congress took no steps to

0:37:39.170,0:37:46.190
honor the broken Indian treaties um

0:37:42.810,0:37:49.080
but actually in the courts some tribes

0:37:46.190,0:37:51.120
what would wane major settlements from

0:37:49.080,0:37:53.160
both state and federal governments in

0:37:51.120,0:37:55.860
cases regarding tribal land claims

0:37:53.160,0:37:59.340
so the judicial system is really

0:37:55.860,0:38:03.480
important especially when it comes down

0:37:59.340,0:38:06.330
to land claims so yeah and so dick

0:38:03.480,0:38:09.570
Wilson so he is actually not removed

0:38:06.330,0:38:11.790
from his position and the Oglala blamed

0:38:09.570,0:38:14.640
the federal government for failing to

0:38:11.790,0:38:16.080
remove him because that was like when

0:38:14.640,0:38:17.820
they were making negotiations or like

0:38:16.080,0:38:21.360
Katie can you like please get him out of

0:38:17.820,0:38:23.100
here and the government their response

0:38:21.360,0:38:25.080
is that it would be illegal for them to

0:38:23.100,0:38:27.350
do so because it would violate laws

0:38:25.080,0:38:31.170
regarding tribal self-determination

0:38:27.350,0:38:32.940
which is true a lot some people do argue

0:38:31.170,0:38:36.680
that that’s a bit shady because they had

0:38:32.940,0:38:41.550
not been so I guess respectful of these

0:38:36.680,0:38:44.910
laws in the past and so I’ll leave that

0:38:41.550,0:38:47.670
at that but um after this siege and it’s

0:38:44.910,0:38:50.610
basically a civil war between dick

0:38:47.670,0:38:52.860
Wilson and a pro aim faction of the

0:38:50.610,0:38:57.150
Oglala Lakota continues on the

0:38:52.860,0:38:59.550
reservation um but in 90th the 1974

0:38:57.150,0:39:02.280
Wilson is reelected to the tribal

0:38:59.550,0:39:02.790
presidency and he remains in his

0:39:02.280,0:39:07.890
position

0:39:02.790,0:39:09.840
um and so sadly violence continues on

0:39:07.890,0:39:12.750
the Pine Ridge Reservation throughout

0:39:09.840,0:39:14.550
the rest of the 1970s so this was this

0:39:12.750,0:39:16.050
really broke my heart and it really

0:39:14.550,0:39:19.080
shocked me in the three years following

0:39:16.050,0:39:20.820
the standoff Pine Ridge where Wounded

0:39:19.080,0:39:22.680
Knee is located it would have the

0:39:20.820,0:39:25.620
highest per-capita murder rate in the

0:39:22.680,0:39:27.930
whole country and so I had no idea but

0:39:25.620,0:39:30.980
this link it’s I mean if you think about

0:39:27.930,0:39:33.840
population to like it’s a really small

0:39:30.980,0:39:36.690
population in terms of I guess the US

0:39:33.840,0:39:39.210
population as a whole so a series of

0:39:36.690,0:39:42.540
beating shootings and murders left more

0:39:39.210,0:39:45.300
than 100 Native Americans dead and among

0:39:42.540,0:39:48.360
these incidents um is an incident that

0:39:45.300,0:39:51.360
occurs in 1975 where a native man and

0:39:48.360,0:39:54.240
two FBI agents were killed in a shootout

0:39:51.360,0:39:56.520
between federal agents and a members and

0:39:54.240,0:40:01.110
local residents and

0:39:56.520,0:40:05.450
so a member Leonard pet leer I hope I’m

0:40:01.110,0:40:07.680
pronouncing it right it’s PE TL IE our

0:40:05.450,0:40:10.200
buddy who was found guilty of

0:40:07.680,0:40:12.270
first-degree murder and he’s sentenced

0:40:10.200,0:40:16.010
to two consecutive life terms

0:40:12.270,0:40:22.590
um what two consecutive life terms

0:40:16.010,0:40:25.020
because had I killed – yeah well you

0:40:22.590,0:40:27.240
gonna die whines what is the point just

0:40:25.020,0:40:30.090
to spite you two consecutive life terms

0:40:27.240,0:40:31.140
that does one can get you can’t it’s

0:40:30.090,0:40:32.910
okay

0:40:31.140,0:40:34.560
thinkin also I think when it comes to

0:40:32.910,0:40:37.590
like sentencing it also has to do with

0:40:34.560,0:40:39.690
like what happens when you are eligible

0:40:37.590,0:40:41.580
for parole like I think the more like

0:40:39.690,0:40:43.530
terms you have sex okay

0:40:41.580,0:40:46.710
so I think that’s a significance of it

0:40:43.530,0:40:51.270
too but basically did it yeah does not

0:40:46.710,0:40:53.580
look good for him um and so today Pine

0:40:51.270,0:40:55.800
Ridge Reservation is the largest

0:40:53.580,0:40:59.550
community in what might be the poorest

0:40:55.800,0:41:02.190
County in the u.s. so in 2010 the per

0:40:59.550,0:41:04.230
capita income in Shannon County South

0:41:02.190,0:41:07.650
Dakota where Pine Ridge and Wounded Knee

0:41:04.230,0:41:12.120
are located it was lower than any other

0:41:07.650,0:41:14.280
yearĆ­s County and this also blew my mind

0:41:12.120,0:41:15.870
according to reports adult unemployment

0:41:14.280,0:41:19.190
rate on the reservation is somewhere

0:41:15.870,0:41:21.680
between 70% and 80%

0:41:19.190,0:41:25.819
I can’t even comprehend it like that’s

0:41:21.680,0:41:30.710
80% of adults are unemployed so like

0:41:25.819,0:41:32.450
wait how do you live then I I don’t even

0:41:30.710,0:41:36.470
know that like how do you live how do

0:41:32.450,0:41:38.930
you survive and I’m like your basic like

0:41:36.470,0:41:41.030
human death mask though do you know

0:41:38.930,0:41:43.160
where we’re like most of the reserves

0:41:41.030,0:41:45.770
are like I don’t even know where they’re

0:41:43.160,0:41:47.240
located a lot of it is like in the

0:41:45.770,0:41:51.650
plains a great plains so like South

0:41:47.240,0:41:53.869
Dakota Oklahoma things like my pan on

0:41:51.650,0:41:55.490
Wyoming like that area but that’s not

0:41:53.869,0:41:58.339
necessarily that doesn’t mean that

0:41:55.490,0:42:00.410
that’s where I guess I so before

0:41:58.339,0:42:02.660
Europeans came Native Americans or

0:42:00.410,0:42:05.990
indigenous people were like everywhere

0:42:02.660,0:42:07.579
but then because we have forced removal

0:42:05.990,0:42:09.380
of Indian groups and the whole Trail of

0:42:07.579,0:42:13.700
Tears and the Jackson administration

0:42:09.380,0:42:16.730
they’re all forced to move and they’re

0:42:13.700,0:42:18.640
all concentrated there so and then a

0:42:16.730,0:42:21.950
question on when you’re talking about

0:42:18.640,0:42:25.250
that like a lot of people were murdered

0:42:21.950,0:42:27.200
and stuff why was there so many like

0:42:25.250,0:42:29.390
shootouts again what because I felt like

0:42:27.200,0:42:34.040
this land right thing was settled and

0:42:29.390,0:42:38.420
they well but it like kind of like

0:42:34.040,0:42:42.140
settled but I there’s like a continuing

0:42:38.420,0:42:44.480
like feud yeah well yeah it was

0:42:42.140,0:42:47.329
basically very so the treaty they were

0:42:44.480,0:42:49.369
like oh the US government like eminent

0:42:47.329,0:42:51.319
domain supersedes the treaty and then

0:42:49.369,0:42:53.839
they said they would launch an

0:42:51.319,0:42:56.599
investigation like whether or not that

0:42:53.839,0:43:00.200
investigation was actually produced the

0:42:56.599,0:43:01.730
amount I guess research that they had

0:43:00.200,0:43:07.329
wanted maybe it wasn’t as satisfactory

0:43:01.730,0:43:10.190
as people had wanted um and yeah the

0:43:07.329,0:43:12.530
tribal chairman dick Wilson had not been

0:43:10.190,0:43:15.619
removed so they’re still like it was

0:43:12.530,0:43:17.780
resolved but it really yeah they’re

0:43:15.619,0:43:19.250
issues actually there was no resolution

0:43:17.780,0:43:22.670
to the issues it’s kind of like they put

0:43:19.250,0:43:27.500
a bandaid on the situation and so yeah

0:43:22.670,0:43:29.660
like a mean I there are so many like I

0:43:27.500,0:43:32.730
guess demonstrations in different

0:43:29.660,0:43:37.440
occupations that aim and other

0:43:32.730,0:43:39.420
need American activist groups would hold

0:43:37.440,0:43:40.950
like throughout the nineteen sixties and

0:43:39.420,0:43:42.600
seventies like you could it’s a whole

0:43:40.950,0:43:45.810
like rabbit hole there’s so many that

0:43:42.600,0:43:47.220
happen and because of this a lot of

0:43:45.810,0:43:48.600
these groups choose to arm themselves

0:43:47.220,0:43:51.060
and so that’s why there are a lot of

0:43:48.600,0:43:56.870
deaths and yeah

0:43:51.060,0:43:59.580
and yep so actually in 1978 a m–

0:43:56.870,0:44:02.940
disband due to the fact that several of

0:43:59.580,0:44:04.530
its members were imprisoned but local

0:44:02.940,0:44:07.730
aim groups continue to function

0:44:04.530,0:44:10.170
afterwards and like I mentioned earlier

0:44:07.730,0:44:12.090
there are a lot more demonstrations that

0:44:10.170,0:44:13.950
are held and in nineteen eighty-one one

0:44:12.090,0:44:16.590
of these groups occupies part of the

0:44:13.950,0:44:18.060
Black Hills in South Dakota so this is

0:44:16.590,0:44:22.350
not just like an isolated event it

0:44:18.060,0:44:25.560
occurs many times until Russell Means so

0:44:22.350,0:44:27.810
he was the founder of aim he was leading

0:44:25.560,0:44:30.000
the negotiations he continued to

0:44:27.810,0:44:32.250
advocate for Native American rights at

0:44:30.000,0:44:33.960
Pine Ridge and elsewhere and so in

0:44:32.250,0:44:35.850
nineteen eighty eighty-eight he runs for

0:44:33.960,0:44:44.760
president under the Libertarian Party

0:44:35.850,0:44:47.520
and 1992 he begins acting in several

0:44:44.760,0:44:49.110
films including last of the Mohicans and

0:44:47.520,0:44:52.910
he was also a guest star on Curb Your

0:44:49.110,0:44:56.100
Enthusiasm so he like I guess yeah he

0:44:52.910,0:44:59.670
promoted his he supported the movement

0:44:56.100,0:45:02.910
in Hollywood and in film um and then in

0:44:59.670,0:45:04.950
1997 he released an autobiography titled

0:45:02.910,0:45:08.130
where white men fear to tread

0:45:04.950,0:45:10.500
um I’m trying to find it the library I

0:45:08.130,0:45:11.700
really want to read it um so yeah I

0:45:10.500,0:45:13.680
encourage everyone to read it through

0:45:11.700,0:45:16.470
you could hear his accounts of why he

0:45:13.680,0:45:18.090
decided to create aim and struggles that

0:45:16.470,0:45:23.190
he faced growing up uh

0:45:18.090,0:45:25.380
and everything and so in 2001 he also

0:45:23.190,0:45:27.660
attempts to run for the governorship of

0:45:25.380,0:45:29.430
New Mexico but his candidacy was

0:45:27.660,0:45:30.780
disallowed because procedure had not

0:45:29.430,0:45:33.420
been followed so basically he doesn’t

0:45:30.780,0:45:36.330
qualify and so people can’t vote for him

0:45:33.420,0:45:41.370
but um and then sadly he passes away on

0:45:36.330,0:45:44.880
October 12 2012 at the age of 72 um and

0:45:41.370,0:45:47.510
Leonard pet Lear probably a I don’t know

0:45:44.880,0:45:47.510
the

0:45:47.660,0:45:51.860
he was on I mentioned earlier so he

0:45:49.850,0:45:54.410
actually remains in prison today

0:45:51.860,0:45:56.810
although there are continuing efforts to

0:45:54.410,0:45:59.150
win him pardon his next scheduled pardon

0:45:56.810,0:46:02.210
I’m sorry his next scheduled parole

0:45:59.150,0:46:07.970
hearing is in 2024 and he is currently

0:46:02.210,0:46:10.520
75 years old and so um in terms of how

0:46:07.970,0:46:13.220
Wounded Knee impacted the movement as a

0:46:10.520,0:46:15.410
whole so basically this event sparks a

0:46:13.220,0:46:18.140
bunch of international sympathy for

0:46:15.410,0:46:20.210
Native American activism and it inspires

0:46:18.140,0:46:23.060
indigenous people and left-wing

0:46:20.210,0:46:25.310
activists all across the country and a

0:46:23.060,0:46:29.630
lot of people would later remark that

0:46:25.310,0:46:33.140
the standoff in 1973 closely resembles

0:46:29.630,0:46:37.010
the actual Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890

0:46:33.140,0:46:41.270
because people refusing armed and

0:46:37.010,0:46:45.010
deceiving the town and some Vietnam

0:46:41.270,0:46:47.690
veterans who were occupying wooden knee

0:46:45.010,0:46:49.790
they actually said that the siege felt

0:46:47.690,0:46:51.950
like war and reminded them of Vietnam

0:46:49.790,0:46:53.869
because they’re just gunfire daily and

0:46:51.950,0:46:57.550
so it was a really traumatic experience

0:46:53.869,0:47:00.320
for everyone and I guess I kind of

0:46:57.550,0:47:02.450
wanted to mention that I guess perhaps

0:47:00.320,0:47:04.700
more than any other civil rights

0:47:02.450,0:47:07.040
movement it’s work remains unfinished

0:47:04.700,0:47:08.810
there’s still so much progress that

0:47:07.040,0:47:12.340
needs to be made in regards to the

0:47:08.810,0:47:15.440
Native American Rights um however I

0:47:12.340,0:47:18.410
don’t want to downplay like the amount

0:47:15.440,0:47:21.230
of activism that some remains today

0:47:18.410,0:47:23.840
there are saw the many activist groups

0:47:21.230,0:47:26.600
all across the country on hundreds of

0:47:23.840,0:47:31.210
hundreds of groups that are working to I

0:47:26.600,0:47:34.060
guess create positive change and create

0:47:31.210,0:47:36.560
obtain it oh gosh

0:47:34.060,0:47:39.950
there are hundreds of reasons that are

0:47:36.560,0:47:42.770
trying to create change in American

0:47:39.950,0:47:45.710
society so I just wanted to list off a

0:47:42.770,0:47:47.810
few of these groups and so we have the

0:47:45.710,0:47:49.600
American Indigenous business leaders

0:47:47.810,0:47:51.980
they’re a nonprofit organization

0:47:49.600,0:47:53.690
designed to support and promote the

0:47:51.980,0:47:55.400
education and development of future

0:47:53.690,0:47:57.290
Native American leaders while

0:47:55.400,0:47:58.890
maintaining and incorporating cultural

0:47:57.290,0:48:00.960
values there’s also

0:47:58.890,0:48:03.299
the American Indian Policy Center and

0:48:00.960,0:48:06.480
its mission is to provide government

0:48:03.299,0:48:08.579
leaders policymakers and the public with

0:48:06.480,0:48:10.890
accurate information about the legal and

0:48:08.579,0:48:13.230
political history of American Indian

0:48:10.890,0:48:17.059
nations and the contemporary situation

0:48:13.230,0:48:19.349
for American Indians we also have the

0:48:17.059,0:48:21.900
Native American Journalists Association

0:48:19.349,0:48:24.089
which serves and empowers Native

0:48:21.900,0:48:26.039
American journalists through programs

0:48:24.089,0:48:28.200
and actions designed to enrich

0:48:26.039,0:48:30.869
journalism and promote native cultures

0:48:28.200,0:48:33.269
and finally I wanted to I guess

0:48:30.869,0:48:36.900
highlight the women empowering women for

0:48:33.269,0:48:38.910
indigenous nations which exists to

0:48:36.900,0:48:41.119
provide Native women with the knowledge

0:48:38.910,0:48:44.519
support and resources necessary to

0:48:41.119,0:48:47.250
achieve success in their personal and

0:48:44.519,0:48:49.260
professional lives and they hold an

0:48:47.250,0:48:52.079
annual conference that serves as an

0:48:49.260,0:48:54.809
opportunity for Native women to engage

0:48:52.079,0:48:57.180
in professional renewal inspire others

0:48:54.809,0:48:58.950
and to network and so there are so many

0:48:57.180,0:49:03.779
other organizations that I would love to

0:48:58.950,0:49:06.509
talk about um I do not have the time but

0:49:03.779,0:49:09.240
I encourage people to look into local

0:49:06.509,0:49:11.789
activist groups national activist groups

0:49:09.240,0:49:15.380
and yeah I guess that kind of wraps up

0:49:11.789,0:49:17.609
it’s a very brief and short summary of

0:49:15.380,0:49:20.250
the Native American civil rights

0:49:17.609,0:49:23.880
movement in the 1960s and 70s there are

0:49:20.250,0:49:26.250
some significant events that deserve

0:49:23.880,0:49:28.619
recognition so I encourage people to do

0:49:26.250,0:49:30.690
further research right I honestly feel

0:49:28.619,0:49:33.180
like thank you for sharing firstly but I

0:49:30.690,0:49:34.950
honestly feel like this like the ISIS

0:49:33.180,0:49:39.420
deserves like a few more episodes

0:49:34.950,0:49:42.059
because I feel like just the the Wounded

0:49:39.420,0:49:43.740
Knee Massacre of 1890 how did we down

0:49:42.059,0:49:45.509
there that I have never heard of that

0:49:43.740,0:49:47.759
and then while you were talking I like

0:49:45.509,0:49:50.400
looked it up that’s like oh there were

0:49:47.759,0:49:52.920
two situations like this which the siege

0:49:50.400,0:49:54.900
which you presented on well this is like

0:49:52.920,0:49:56.279
a serious stuff like that’s a big deal I

0:49:54.900,0:49:59.910
don’t know why they didn’t bring that up

0:49:56.279,0:50:03.539
in history class yeah during high school

0:49:59.910,0:50:07.650
so yeah I feel like that alone could

0:50:03.539,0:50:10.079
have been one topic so I feel like we

0:50:07.650,0:50:12.880
can definitely bring up more on this in

0:50:10.079,0:50:14.680
the future yeah I think that’s really

0:50:12.880,0:50:17.920
cordoning yeah I would love to talk

0:50:14.680,0:50:19.569
about it more there’s some money defense

0:50:17.920,0:50:23.230
throughout history I think a lot of

0:50:19.569,0:50:25.839
Native American history is forgotten by

0:50:23.230,0:50:28.660
most Americans and it isn’t taught about

0:50:25.839,0:50:31.660
in the classroom and so we need to you

0:50:28.660,0:50:33.269
know I just encourage people to learn

0:50:31.660,0:50:36.009
about it on their own

0:50:33.269,0:50:37.660
permanently so make change within the

0:50:36.009,0:50:41.940
classroom and the education system as

0:50:37.660,0:50:45.450
well yeah well thank you for presenting

0:50:41.940,0:50:45.450
thank you for listening

0:50:45.520,0:51:05.260
[Music]

Who REALLY Won The Space Race?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

The race is off against the Soviet Union and the United States! In a time of rising tensions, science and technology paved our way into space. But WHO actually won the space race and what were we racing for? In honor of the recent SpaceX in partnership with NASA launch, Jac brings us on a journey through the first era of space exploration, the Space Race!

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/space-race

https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/space-race

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/moon-space-race/

https://history.state.gov/milestones/1937-1945/us-soviet

https://www.rmg.co.uk/discover/explore/space-race-timeline

Transcript

0:00:00.030,0:00:03.810
hello everyone and welcome back to

0:00:02.159,0:00:07.970
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:03.810,0:00:11.280
that my name is Matt my name is Jack and

0:00:07.970,0:00:13.049
today Jack has a lot of interesting

0:00:11.280,0:00:17.070
stuff to talk about

0:00:13.049,0:00:20.670
yes I do so in honor of the SpaceX

0:00:17.070,0:00:25.560
launch this weekend we’re filming on

0:00:20.670,0:00:28.820
June 1st and the launch was on Sunday no

0:00:25.560,0:00:32.399
it was Saturday it was May

0:00:28.820,0:00:35.489
what was it 30th May 30th May 30th

0:00:32.399,0:00:37.620
yeah I’m May 30th 2020 it’s delayed

0:00:35.489,0:00:39.390
because of rain yeah I was supposed to

0:00:37.620,0:00:44.399
be I’m like a Thursday or something or

0:00:39.390,0:00:46.230
Friday or Wednesday watch party but then

0:00:44.399,0:00:49.140
it got canceled anyways

0:00:46.230,0:00:51.110
SpaceX if you haven’t been reading up on

0:00:49.140,0:00:54.750
the news regarding space

0:00:51.110,0:00:59.160
SpaceX partnered with NASA just launched

0:00:54.750,0:01:02.430
a rocket into space for the first time

0:00:59.160,0:01:03.870
from American soil in like ten years so

0:01:02.430,0:01:08.010
a lot of people are really excited

0:01:03.870,0:01:10.890
because it symbolizes the start of a new

0:01:08.010,0:01:14.220
Space Age in a more space exploration

0:01:10.890,0:01:19.680
which is really exciting so today we’re

0:01:14.220,0:01:23.610
going to talk about B first age of space

0:01:19.680,0:01:28.799
exploration okay it’s like the original

0:01:23.610,0:01:30.900
the original like space the og well

0:01:28.799,0:01:38.130
space war is like cool that’s heavy

0:01:30.900,0:01:41.939
it’s the space race award like maybe one

0:01:38.130,0:01:43.530
day um but okay so let’s start at the

0:01:41.939,0:01:46.009
first space race here we got let’s reel

0:01:43.530,0:01:49.860
it back it’s the end of World War two in

0:01:46.009,0:01:51.899
1945 so actually tell me what you know

0:01:49.860,0:01:56.399
about the space race like do you know in

0:01:51.899,0:01:58.829
a nutshell who was against who basically

0:01:56.399,0:02:01.590
the u.s. is racing against the Soviet

0:01:58.829,0:02:05.310
Union to try to be the first man in

0:02:01.590,0:02:07.200
space and so it’s also like during the

0:02:05.310,0:02:11.430
Cold War so this is kind of just like

0:02:07.200,0:02:16.560
hey we’re gonna beat you yes

0:02:11.430,0:02:18.930
No meet you here and in space everything

0:02:16.560,0:02:24.689
we’re gonna cover it all all dimensions

0:02:18.930,0:02:26.209
everywhere I said meet me at Mars I will

0:02:24.689,0:02:29.689
fight you on Mars

0:02:26.209,0:02:33.900
he’s gonna fight me it oh we’re good

0:02:29.689,0:02:36.030
yeah oh go ahead

0:02:33.900,0:02:38.299
that’s like a summary yeah no you’re

0:02:36.030,0:02:40.980
basically right you basically handled it

0:02:38.299,0:02:45.900
but yeah it was that in a World War two

0:02:40.980,0:02:48.629
so there’s the the US and the Soviet

0:02:45.900,0:02:50.069
Union which just to clarify can I

0:02:48.629,0:02:52.530
discover this one I through my research

0:02:50.069,0:02:54.420
that the Soviet Union is dominated by

0:02:52.530,0:02:58.489
Russia but it’s not actually just Russia

0:02:54.420,0:03:01.890
it’s like the yeah there’s like a lot of

0:02:58.489,0:03:04.319
countries what we know like today it’s

0:03:01.890,0:03:11.670
like the former Soviet bloc countries so

0:03:04.319,0:03:14.790
it’s like Ukraine well we don’t even

0:03:11.670,0:03:17.910
need to prove that you already know no

0:03:14.790,0:03:20.340
but there’s something huge and after it

0:03:17.910,0:03:21.450
collapsed then now we like Russia is the

0:03:20.340,0:03:23.609
biggest country and then we have all

0:03:21.450,0:03:25.019
these things Eastern European countries

0:03:23.609,0:03:28.470
it used to be part of the Soviet Union

0:03:25.019,0:03:33.989
exactly exactly and the USS R stands for

0:03:28.470,0:03:36.120
the United States of Soviet Russia no

0:03:33.989,0:03:38.849
that’s a good guess though it’s the

0:03:36.120,0:03:40.019
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics I

0:03:38.849,0:03:42.239
just want to throw that in there because

0:03:40.019,0:03:45.060
I was talking to a friend and I was like

0:03:42.239,0:03:47.609
what does USSR stand for and she also

0:03:45.060,0:03:49.440
did not know so fun fact seriously

0:03:47.609,0:03:51.989
because I’ve taken so many classes and

0:03:49.440,0:03:53.669
the USSR in the Soviet Union but never

0:03:51.989,0:03:58.760
once have I thought to myself what does

0:03:53.669,0:04:03.810
a US as far as to educate you today I

0:03:58.760,0:04:06.239
was gonna call it USSR so anyways so the

0:04:03.810,0:04:08.730
US and the Soviet Union are against each

0:04:06.239,0:04:11.459
other mainly because of the debate

0:04:08.730,0:04:12.870
between democracy versus communism even

0:04:11.459,0:04:15.120
though it’s the Union of Soviet

0:04:12.870,0:04:17.130
Socialist Republics it’s more of a

0:04:15.120,0:04:20.250
communist regime compared to like

0:04:17.130,0:04:23.729
capitalist and democratic ideas that we

0:04:20.250,0:04:25.949
have in the United States but during

0:04:23.729,0:04:30.000
this time because World War two we were

0:04:25.949,0:04:31.590
fighting against Nazi Germany we even

0:04:30.000,0:04:34.770
though we had a strained relationship

0:04:31.590,0:04:36.300
with them FDR who was president at the

0:04:34.770,0:04:40.620
time acknowledged that the threat of

0:04:36.300,0:04:43.380
Nazi Germany was greater than the threat

0:04:40.620,0:04:45.510
of communism at that time so they teamed

0:04:43.380,0:04:47.040
up together and took down Nazi Germany

0:04:45.510,0:04:48.810
so

0:04:47.040,0:04:51.450
end of the world war happens and both

0:04:48.810,0:04:54.450
sides end up taking rockets from Germany

0:04:51.450,0:04:58.440
after the war specifically this v2

0:04:54.450,0:05:00.270
rocket technology which was like very

0:04:58.440,0:05:03.480
very that was like one of the most

0:05:00.270,0:05:05.760
powerful rockets and that would be very

0:05:03.480,0:05:07.460
scary if the Germans actually were able

0:05:05.760,0:05:10.010
to use that because that was like

0:05:07.460,0:05:13.080
powerful enough to help like send

0:05:10.010,0:05:15.870
nuclear missiles very far around the

0:05:13.080,0:05:17.700
world easily so the Germans had really

0:05:15.870,0:05:21.020
great rocket technology so in addition

0:05:17.700,0:05:24.810
to taking there like long-range missiles

0:05:21.020,0:05:28.170
they also took some German scientists

0:05:24.810,0:05:30.840
like each country took like one watch

0:05:28.170,0:05:34.230
one brilliant rocket scientists from

0:05:30.840,0:05:38.070
like yeah so each side chooses one and

0:05:34.230,0:05:39.720
then I know fun fact I have their names

0:05:38.070,0:05:43.800
but I actually took them out of my notes

0:05:39.720,0:05:46.380
so anyways those two Germans that one

0:05:43.800,0:05:48.090
ends up joining the USSR one joins us

0:05:46.380,0:05:51.380
comes a US citizen they actually both

0:05:48.090,0:05:54.450
are heading like the space race

0:05:51.380,0:05:56.790
initiatives in both countries so because

0:05:54.450,0:05:59.940
a lot of it Rockets came from like the

0:05:56.790,0:06:03.450
v2 space rockets came from like the v2

0:05:59.940,0:06:05.850
rocket technology so to clarify so

0:06:03.450,0:06:07.500
neither East countries neither the US or

0:06:05.850,0:06:09.630
Soviet Union they actually started from

0:06:07.500,0:06:13.280
scratch in the space race they kind of

0:06:09.630,0:06:16.610
just like took Germany’s like head start

0:06:13.280,0:06:19.950
yeah they took Germany’s like very great

0:06:16.610,0:06:22.110
technology and smart people who had

0:06:19.950,0:06:25.980
built that technology which was smart

0:06:22.110,0:06:27.390
but bad very bad and yeah and then they

0:06:25.980,0:06:30.270
turned it into space

0:06:27.390,0:06:35.010
I didn’t no idea I know ready fun fact

0:06:30.270,0:06:37.080
okay so in 1947 the start of the Cold

0:06:35.010,0:06:39.510
War begins because now that the war has

0:06:37.080,0:06:42.120
ended now like tensions resumed and we

0:06:39.510,0:06:50.700
are now focused on splashing down

0:06:42.120,0:06:52.980
communist regimes and yeah I had like

0:06:50.700,0:06:56.070
facts in here about what USSR was but

0:06:52.980,0:06:57.990
you already knew so the nineteen fifties

0:06:56.070,0:06:59.940
are bustling time in the USA we have a

0:06:57.990,0:07:00.330
lot going on it’s the cold war it’s a

0:06:59.940,0:07:02.370
silver

0:07:00.330,0:07:03.509
movement we also have the post-world War

0:07:02.370,0:07:05.669
two boom

0:07:03.509,0:07:08.099
so economy is doing a lot better and

0:07:05.669,0:07:11.669
there’s a lot of growth in technology

0:07:08.099,0:07:13.860
and the tension between the USSR and the

0:07:11.669,0:07:17.580
US starts to grow over technological

0:07:13.860,0:07:19.680
innovation as well so in 1955 which

0:07:17.580,0:07:21.539
signifies like the actual this is the

0:07:19.680,0:07:23.639
year when the space race started both

0:07:21.539,0:07:25.400
countries announced that they intend to

0:07:23.639,0:07:30.409
launch the first artificial satellite

0:07:25.400,0:07:36.030
into space so the race begins

0:07:30.409,0:07:39.870
and then the USSR beats us they win the

0:07:36.030,0:07:42.360
first I think that they launched their

0:07:39.870,0:07:45.150
first satellite called Sputnik 1 which

0:07:42.360,0:07:47.819
Sputnik just means satellite in Russian

0:07:45.150,0:07:52.229
and they launched that in 1957 on

0:07:47.819,0:07:54.479
October 4th so yeah that’s the first

0:07:52.229,0:07:56.969
Earth orbiting satellite in history it’s

0:07:54.479,0:07:59.490
this tiny little silver ball it’s like 2

0:07:56.969,0:08:02.280
feet in diameter I think or maybe the

0:07:59.490,0:08:05.520
size of a basketball and the news of

0:08:02.280,0:08:07.289
this broadcasted a crowd like around the

0:08:05.520,0:08:09.060
world whoever had television so a lot of

0:08:07.289,0:08:11.789
American family is there like sitting

0:08:09.060,0:08:15.529
and watching this in like terror because

0:08:11.789,0:08:17.430
it symbolizes like the USSR was like

0:08:15.529,0:08:22.289
scientifically doing a little better

0:08:17.430,0:08:24.539
than us so technology and so they’re

0:08:22.289,0:08:26.340
gonna use the technology for exactly

0:08:24.539,0:08:29.099
exactly and you bring up a good point

0:08:26.340,0:08:31.969
that the fear wasn’t necessarily just

0:08:29.099,0:08:34.860
that like this small tiny ball was now

0:08:31.969,0:08:36.930
the orbit it was more just like that

0:08:34.860,0:08:39.870
rocket technology that they were capable

0:08:36.930,0:08:42.479
of now they had that and we did not have

0:08:39.870,0:08:46.560
that yet so if there was a war like they

0:08:42.479,0:08:48.390
got the one up and then less than a

0:08:46.560,0:08:50.100
month later they launched their second

0:08:48.390,0:08:51.990
satellite so they already launched their

0:08:50.100,0:08:56.279
first they launched Sputnik 2 that’s a

0:08:51.990,0:08:59.130
success less than a month later and yeah

0:08:56.279,0:09:02.449
in addition to that Sputnik 2 this one’s

0:08:59.130,0:09:05.790
carrying a dog named Laika into space so

0:09:02.449,0:09:09.270
for then yeah and unfortunately like a

0:09:05.790,0:09:11.160
does pass away in the cabin because the

0:09:09.270,0:09:13.470
cabin overheats on like the fourth orbit

0:09:11.160,0:09:16.800
around the Earth so like it doesn’t

0:09:13.470,0:09:19.590
make it back but this does mark the

0:09:16.800,0:09:22.230
first time a living organism has also

0:09:19.590,0:09:25.950
been sent into space so Russia gets that

0:09:22.230,0:09:29.220
one as well so at this point we’re like

0:09:25.950,0:09:31.290
a little nervous and now her president

0:09:29.220,0:09:34.320
at the time Dwight D Eisenhower is like

0:09:31.290,0:09:36.210
speed it up like let’s go so he orders

0:09:34.320,0:09:38.700
the Navy to speed up the project and

0:09:36.210,0:09:41.310
launch a satellite as soon as possible

0:09:38.700,0:09:44.340
and I also need to note that our space

0:09:41.310,0:09:46.830
program at this time at least consisted

0:09:44.340,0:09:48.630
of two different like organizations that

0:09:46.830,0:09:51.180
were working on space technology one was

0:09:48.630,0:09:53.190
the military and then one which hasn’t

0:09:51.180,0:09:55.320
been actually properly formed yet is

0:09:53.190,0:09:59.970
going to be NASA and that’s like more

0:09:55.320,0:10:02.970
publicly displayed race the military

0:09:59.970,0:10:05.390
stuff is more secretive but he’s like he

0:10:02.970,0:10:09.750
orders the military to speed it up so

0:10:05.390,0:10:13.770
December 6 1957 there’s a live broadcast

0:10:09.750,0:10:16.020
of Vanguard TV three test vehicle 3

0:10:13.770,0:10:19.380
which the fact that this is the third

0:10:16.020,0:10:21.510
satellite like TV 3 but I don’t know

0:10:19.380,0:10:23.700
what happened the first two anyways this

0:10:21.510,0:10:25.980
is their satellite but they’re gonna

0:10:23.700,0:10:30.150
launch it’s like this is it so they

0:10:25.980,0:10:32.490
broadcast it live and the satellite like

0:10:30.150,0:10:35.190
launches and then it crashes to the

0:10:32.490,0:10:36.720
ground within like two seconds and you

0:10:35.190,0:10:38.730
should watch the video I have it linked

0:10:36.720,0:10:41.880
in my notes if you take a look it’s the

0:10:38.730,0:10:44.130
most terrifying sad and simultaneously a

0:10:41.880,0:10:45.480
little funny it’s funny now because we

0:10:44.130,0:10:48.960
could laugh about it at the time that

0:10:45.480,0:10:50.640
must have been terrifying yeah it’s like

0:10:48.960,0:10:56.790
the biggest explosion you’ve ever seen

0:10:50.640,0:10:58.500
you really yeah anyway oh sorry yeah no

0:10:56.790,0:11:03.990
we can link it in the show notes as well

0:10:58.500,0:11:06.720
I will post editor at literally how do

0:11:03.990,0:11:11.490
you feel about 2020 like vanguard TV

0:11:06.720,0:11:13.380
thing basically but that was like a huge

0:11:11.490,0:11:15.840
embarrassment and there are news

0:11:13.380,0:11:17.460
articles in Russia that would just like

0:11:15.840,0:11:22.260
poke fun of it and they referred to it

0:11:17.460,0:11:24.570
as slotnick or kaputnik of that oh my

0:11:22.260,0:11:28.430
god it’s beautiful right a little bit of

0:11:24.570,0:11:32.520
friendly banter so they

0:11:28.430,0:11:36.240
some time passes and we finally do get

0:11:32.520,0:11:39.600
the Explorer one project to become a

0:11:36.240,0:11:42.300
success so in 1958 on January 31st we

0:11:39.600,0:11:44.520
finally successfully launched the first

0:11:42.300,0:11:48.300
u.s. satellite into orbit and that was

0:11:44.520,0:11:53.940
Explorer 1 so we finally got one um and

0:11:48.300,0:11:55.920
then we also formed NASA on October 1st

0:11:53.940,0:12:01.320
1958 so asked several months after

0:11:55.920,0:12:03.750
Explorer 1 the public space the public

0:12:01.320,0:12:05.970
space initiative program was actually

0:12:03.750,0:12:07.830
formally known as the National Advisory

0:12:05.970,0:12:11.880
Committee on aeronautics

0:12:07.830,0:12:13.740
so that was NACA and they do like a

0:12:11.880,0:12:15.830
rebrand and it’s now National

0:12:13.740,0:12:18.660
Aeronautics and Space Administration so

0:12:15.830,0:12:24.000
modernly known as NASA so that gets

0:12:18.660,0:12:25.500
formed in 1958 and now a lot more money

0:12:24.000,0:12:28.230
is getting poured into the space program

0:12:25.500,0:12:31.830
because we’re clearly behind and then

0:12:28.230,0:12:34.110
there’s actually so many events so I did

0:12:31.830,0:12:37.020
a quicker summary I’m just gonna quickly

0:12:34.110,0:12:42.150
tell you about some of the things that

0:12:37.020,0:12:44.850
happen from 1958 to 1961 so the u.s.

0:12:42.150,0:12:47.100
launches a communication satellite and a

0:12:44.850,0:12:49.020
weather satellite so they were like okay

0:12:47.100,0:12:51.240
we got the satellite going let’s go just

0:12:49.020,0:12:56.060
like more satellites so like they’re the

0:12:51.240,0:12:58.800
first ones to do like a sound broadcast

0:12:56.060,0:13:00.480
they’re the first maybe not the first

0:12:58.800,0:13:04.490
ones to do a weather satellite but they

0:13:00.480,0:13:07.950
launch that and then the USSR actually

0:13:04.490,0:13:09.960
is doing a lot more stuff with the moon

0:13:07.950,0:13:13.260
so they have their first spacecraft to

0:13:09.960,0:13:15.510
orbit around the moon that was Luna 3

0:13:13.260,0:13:17.910
and then also take photos of the dark

0:13:15.510,0:13:19.920
side of the moon so they’re just like on

0:13:17.910,0:13:24.330
it like getting all these like never

0:13:19.920,0:13:27.900
before see things like yeah yeah it’s

0:13:24.330,0:13:30.540
like oh ok in history class I was taught

0:13:27.900,0:13:32.820
that we want it and I was like I don’t

0:13:30.540,0:13:38.850
know whose opinion that was cuz I don’t

0:13:32.820,0:13:40.200
think I don’t think we’re doing – hi how

0:13:38.850,0:13:41.940
do you decide who wins

0:13:40.200,0:13:44.459
yeah that’s what I was thinking – I’m

0:13:41.940,0:13:46.740
like wait when are we gonna finally get

0:13:44.459,0:13:50.940
the man on the moon because I had not

0:13:46.740,0:13:53.579
heard about like oh yeah why do you man

0:13:50.940,0:13:56.339
but like they literally beat us at

0:13:53.579,0:14:00.260
everything I’ll get into it too at the

0:13:56.339,0:14:02.190
end just to like explain kind of

0:14:00.260,0:14:05.070
actually I’m just gonna say it now so

0:14:02.190,0:14:07.560
basically it was foil alert like um the

0:14:05.070,0:14:10.199
u.s. is like yo like we’re gonna make it

0:14:07.560,0:14:12.779
to the moon first and that will be like

0:14:10.199,0:14:16.980
us winning but this there’s not really

0:14:12.779,0:14:18.870
any proof that like the Soviet Union was

0:14:16.980,0:14:22.709
trying to make like put a man on the

0:14:18.870,0:14:24.630
moon but then that was like the term

0:14:22.709,0:14:26.519
does like whoever gets a man to the moon

0:14:24.630,0:14:31.350
is first but that was determined by who

0:14:26.519,0:14:33.750
like it was determined by us who’s even

0:14:31.350,0:14:36.060
establishing like the race course we

0:14:33.750,0:14:39.510
don’t even know there’s like it we’re

0:14:36.060,0:14:41.430
not clear yeah and I was like um I

0:14:39.510,0:14:43.800
actually have a few friends who are

0:14:41.430,0:14:45.360
Russian so I ping them and I was like

0:14:43.800,0:14:46.920
hey listen like what did you teach you

0:14:45.360,0:14:49.079
about the space race cuz I just want to

0:14:46.920,0:14:51.720
know like do you guys think you won or

0:14:49.079,0:14:54.529
is it like is it agreed that we won

0:14:51.720,0:15:00.660
because I think you guys want as well

0:14:54.529,0:15:02.459
anyways um we did so um one of them went

0:15:00.660,0:15:04.290
to international school so he was like I

0:15:02.459,0:15:06.899
don’t know if I can comment on this but

0:15:04.290,0:15:09.089
when he he’s gonna ask some of his like

0:15:06.899,0:15:11.760
local Russian Russian friends and then

0:15:09.089,0:15:13.500
yeah let me know and then my other

0:15:11.760,0:15:14.730
friend has not responded yet

0:15:13.500,0:15:17.310
but when they do I’ll let you guys know

0:15:14.730,0:15:19.589
if we get the soundbite if I they

0:15:17.310,0:15:21.980
respond like before we post this episode

0:15:19.589,0:15:25.050
I’ll like come in and comment

0:15:21.980,0:15:26.670
I don’t even honestly after I did the

0:15:25.050,0:15:29.160
research I was like you know what I need

0:15:26.670,0:15:31.230
to know like um I think you guys are

0:15:29.160,0:15:35.550
just gonna tell me you think that’s fine

0:15:31.230,0:15:38.310
yeah so yeah anyways let’s go Rach so

0:15:35.550,0:15:41.790
there during the moon stuff 1960 the

0:15:38.310,0:15:44.579
USSR also sent two more dogs and a range

0:15:41.790,0:15:48.000
of plants and they’re the first ones to

0:15:44.579,0:15:51.449
send living organisms that arrived back

0:15:48.000,0:15:53.860
onto earth Oh safely so they go into

0:15:51.449,0:15:58.660
space and they come back alive

0:15:53.860,0:16:03.520
oh oh sorry I also like sent a chimp up

0:15:58.660,0:16:04.570
there money ha oh so 1961 a year later a

0:16:03.520,0:16:06.490
year later

0:16:04.570,0:16:09.400
let me just read that Saul year after

0:16:06.490,0:16:12.430
them they launched the United States

0:16:09.400,0:16:15.940
launches a chimpanzee named ham I don’t

0:16:12.430,0:16:19.990
know why they named him ham oh and he is

0:16:15.940,0:16:23.230
the first great ape in space to survive

0:16:19.990,0:16:24.580
the landing and like when I read that I

0:16:23.230,0:16:26.560
was like okay you guys are just like

0:16:24.580,0:16:28.270
trying to one-up them like they sent an

0:16:26.560,0:16:31.870
animal and you’re like this animal is

0:16:28.270,0:16:34.330
more similar to Isis ooh that’s like ice

0:16:31.870,0:16:38.800
one up in you but it was also like a

0:16:34.330,0:16:44.550
year late so anyways they did that in

0:16:38.800,0:16:48.610
1961 and then on April 12th of 1961

0:16:44.550,0:16:51.010
this is after the great Soviet Union’s

0:16:48.610,0:16:53.530
or ham sorry this is after ham goes to

0:16:51.010,0:16:59.350
space the chimpanzee then the Soviet

0:16:53.530,0:17:01.510
Union sends Yuri Gagarin into space and

0:16:59.350,0:17:03.700
he makes a single orbit around the Earth

0:17:01.510,0:17:08.080
before landing back in West Russia on

0:17:03.700,0:17:10.870
Bostock one so Yuri is the first human

0:17:08.080,0:17:15.220
in space and he’s also the first human

0:17:10.870,0:17:20.410
to orbit the Earth by 1961 so at this

0:17:15.220,0:17:23.770
point the USSR is clearly winning I did

0:17:20.410,0:17:27.190
not I thought but I thought we were the

0:17:23.770,0:17:31.240
first people is we win I look to the

0:17:27.190,0:17:36.430
moon Wow yeah no we literally lost

0:17:31.240,0:17:41.770
everything but like for like one right

0:17:36.430,0:17:43.600
oh okay giannis like okay I looked at

0:17:41.770,0:17:46.030
some Smithsonian stuff and they claimed

0:17:43.600,0:17:49.120
that they found documents that prove

0:17:46.030,0:17:51.130
that the Soviet Union was competing to

0:17:49.120,0:17:53.410
make it to the moon and so they’re like

0:17:51.130,0:17:55.570
that’s why we’ve won but I was like okay

0:17:53.410,0:17:58.330
this is the liquor United States Museum

0:17:55.570,0:18:02.470
that’s telling me this and I just like

0:17:58.330,0:18:04.270
them doing so well I don’t know if they

0:18:02.470,0:18:05.590
really were trying to make it to the

0:18:04.270,0:18:07.290
moon because the Soviet Union claimed

0:18:05.590,0:18:09.540
that like we weren’t trying to put them

0:18:07.290,0:18:13.140
on the moon and I know you guys worry

0:18:09.540,0:18:15.120
like we found some notes I don’t know

0:18:13.140,0:18:18.000
but I’m just saying I do have faith that

0:18:15.120,0:18:21.240
if they had wanted to be dude to do that

0:18:18.000,0:18:24.870
they probably would have most likely

0:18:21.240,0:18:27.330
most likely and like also like I mean if

0:18:24.870,0:18:29.460
you’re just making Italian like Soviet

0:18:27.330,0:18:32.070
Union is like miles and miles ahead of

0:18:29.460,0:18:39.360
us so they yeah that’s very interesting

0:18:32.070,0:18:41.670
I always won the space race yeah also

0:18:39.360,0:18:43.950
too just like the only reason I think

0:18:41.670,0:18:46.680
that maybe they would not have put a man

0:18:43.950,0:18:48.480
on the moon that I think like maybe that

0:18:46.680,0:18:50.490
would have been like USSR was like we

0:18:48.480,0:18:52.680
can’t do it is because that does take a

0:18:50.490,0:18:54.990
lot of fuel because you have to overcome

0:18:52.680,0:18:56.460
like the gravitational pull of the moon

0:18:54.990,0:18:59.610
and you have to have enough fuel to come

0:18:56.460,0:19:03.030
back and like accomplishing that takes a

0:18:59.610,0:19:06.180
lot of energy on like your rockets as

0:19:03.030,0:19:08.430
well so I was like since Soviet Union

0:19:06.180,0:19:11.460
was considered a second world country

0:19:08.430,0:19:14.280
they did not have as much economic like

0:19:11.460,0:19:16.290
growth and production as we did so

0:19:14.280,0:19:19.530
America during this time was way

0:19:16.290,0:19:22.410
wealthier than like almost every country

0:19:19.530,0:19:24.240
in the world so that’s the only yeah I

0:19:22.410,0:19:26.610
was like okay maybe like they caught up

0:19:24.240,0:19:28.800
during that and also it sounds like

0:19:26.610,0:19:31.020
they’re focusing more and like orbiting

0:19:28.800,0:19:33.410
and reaching other parts of the world

0:19:31.020,0:19:35.790
rather than like I don’t know it doesn’t

0:19:33.410,0:19:38.010
maybe they’re like what’s the point of

0:19:35.790,0:19:39.930
going to like yeah it was my thought too

0:19:38.010,0:19:44.460
I was like maybe they didn’t see a lot

0:19:39.930,0:19:47.100
of value yeah I don’t know but okay so

0:19:44.460,0:19:50.010
after Yuri Gagarin comes back President

0:19:47.100,0:19:52.350
Kennedy is elected in 1960 so Yuri

0:19:50.010,0:19:54.450
Gagarin comes back in 1961 and

0:19:52.350,0:19:57.120
immediately after he comes back

0:19:54.450,0:20:02.010
President Kennedy wants to know what can

0:19:57.120,0:20:03.270
we do to get ahead in this race so his

0:20:02.010,0:20:05.880
vice president who at the time was

0:20:03.270,0:20:07.890
lyndon b johnson takes like a poll with

0:20:05.880,0:20:10.710
like nasa in different industries and

0:20:07.890,0:20:14.880
they decide that with a very strong

0:20:10.710,0:20:17.340
effort the US could conceivably beat the

0:20:14.880,0:20:19.470
Soviets at sending a man around the moon

0:20:17.340,0:20:22.020
or landing a man

0:20:19.470,0:20:23.580
the moon so that’s when they’re like

0:20:22.020,0:20:27.929
alright that’s our goal like this is

0:20:23.580,0:20:29.520
gonna be like the finish line um so the

0:20:27.929,0:20:33.210
reason why that hadn’t been done either

0:20:29.520,0:20:35.429
by the 19th by like 1961 is because

0:20:33.210,0:20:37.260
neither country at the time had

0:20:35.429,0:20:39.330
developed the rocket that would be

0:20:37.260,0:20:41.309
powerful enough for that mission because

0:20:39.330,0:20:45.690
again gravitational poles if you have to

0:20:41.309,0:20:47.669
overcome them so they’re like job that’s

0:20:45.690,0:20:49.770
gonna be the goal so May 25th 1961

0:20:47.669,0:20:52.590
President Kennedy gives his speech about

0:20:49.770,0:20:54.929
them choosing to go to the moon and this

0:20:52.590,0:20:57.330
is his famous like moonshot speech and

0:20:54.929,0:20:59.039
I’m gonna tell you like the quote from

0:20:57.330,0:21:02.070
it that everyone knows that this is my

0:20:59.039,0:21:04.320
absolute favorite quote from JFK and he

0:21:02.070,0:21:06.510
says we choose to go to the moon in this

0:21:04.320,0:21:08.460
decade and do other things not because

0:21:06.510,0:21:11.429
they are easy but because they are hard

0:21:08.460,0:21:15.690
and I just like really love that and

0:21:11.429,0:21:17.159
even if we were losing a lot of space I

0:21:15.690,0:21:19.950
think that’s really beautiful when it’s

0:21:17.159,0:21:22.350
like a good sentiment to like why we

0:21:19.950,0:21:24.809
pursue technology and exploration and

0:21:22.350,0:21:27.659
why that’s important it’s like purely

0:21:24.809,0:21:29.820
because we can it’s like it’s difficult

0:21:27.659,0:21:31.890
and that also got me through my computer

0:21:29.820,0:21:34.260
science degree because well it’s not

0:21:31.890,0:21:41.940
easy and so I would always like look at

0:21:34.260,0:21:43.710
that quote yeah ok so he gives us super

0:21:41.940,0:21:46.710
inspiring speech and then we started to

0:21:43.710,0:21:49.620
do a little better so we end up sending

0:21:46.710,0:21:51.539
Alan Shepard into space so he’s our

0:21:49.620,0:21:54.600
first American in space but he doesn’t

0:21:51.539,0:21:58.200
orbit this is done a 1961 katidis comes

0:21:54.600,0:22:02.460
up into space and comes back down so but

0:21:58.200,0:22:04.260
like hey we’re catching up yeah pretty

0:22:02.460,0:22:07.799
cool right

0:22:04.260,0:22:12.470
and then our man John Glenn represent go

0:22:07.799,0:22:16.080
box so John Glenn ends up being the

0:22:12.470,0:22:18.960
first American to go orbit the earth and

0:22:16.080,0:22:23.340
that’s on February 20th of 1962 on the

0:22:18.960,0:22:28.470
friendship 7 mission yeah love John

0:22:23.340,0:22:31.409
Glenn and then in 1963 though USSR sends

0:22:28.470,0:22:32.669
the first woman into space and she also

0:22:31.409,0:22:37.679
orbits the earth

0:22:32.669,0:22:40.679
and her name was valentina Tereshkova

0:22:37.679,0:22:45.600
and she actually orbits the earth 48

0:22:40.679,0:22:49.230
times in his face Vostok 6 yeah so John

0:22:45.600,0:22:50.460
Glenn did I get like three orbits and

0:22:49.230,0:22:53.220
then I think there was like a faulty

0:22:50.460,0:22:57.629
light switch and he had to come back so

0:22:53.220,0:22:59.220
she did it 48 times Hurdle at that point

0:22:57.629,0:23:01.109
it’s just like a rubber you get it right

0:22:59.220,0:23:05.279
there literally was like literally

0:23:01.109,0:23:10.739
running laps around us oh my god

0:23:05.279,0:23:16.049
yeah and then in 1965 on March 18th the

0:23:10.739,0:23:19.499
USSR essence aleksey leonov in his face

0:23:16.049,0:23:22.739
in this like specialized spacesuit in

0:23:19.499,0:23:25.529
the spacecraft bush for two and he does

0:23:22.739,0:23:27.299
the first-ever spacewalk so that’s where

0:23:25.529,0:23:29.279
you like to leave the spacecraft and

0:23:27.299,0:23:31.739
like just walk in outer space and you’re

0:23:29.279,0:23:35.190
like spacesuit and he did that for 12

0:23:31.739,0:23:36.779
minutes little wild like we were the

0:23:35.190,0:23:40.499
first to the moon we weren’t even the

0:23:36.779,0:23:43.919
first like to actually like walk in

0:23:40.499,0:23:49.649
space that’s so did yeah so USSR wind

0:23:43.919,0:23:51.690
that too so yeah at this point the USSR

0:23:49.649,0:23:53.909
is killing it and they’re sending a lot

0:23:51.690,0:23:56.669
of cosmonauts into space which cosmonaut

0:23:53.909,0:23:58.409
is just like a Russian astronaut so we

0:23:56.669,0:24:01.559
call them astronauts but they call them

0:23:58.409,0:24:04.139
cosmonauts and the u.s. is still pretty

0:24:01.559,0:24:08.190
far behind we did send a satellite to

0:24:04.139,0:24:09.869
Mars which is cool awesome but I mean

0:24:08.190,0:24:11.629
it’s just like satellites right like

0:24:09.869,0:24:15.419
what they’re doing a lot of satellites

0:24:11.629,0:24:18.749
it’s not as impressive right and I want

0:24:15.419,0:24:20.460
to talk about at this time like I’m sure

0:24:18.749,0:24:22.830
this is very stressful for a lot of

0:24:20.460,0:24:24.749
Americans because it’s not just a space

0:24:22.830,0:24:28.559
race to them it symbolizes the fight

0:24:24.749,0:24:31.350
between democracy and communism and the

0:24:28.559,0:24:33.359
Cold War is during this time and later

0:24:31.350,0:24:36.720
on like Cuban Missile Crisis happens and

0:24:33.359,0:24:38.580
everything so the tension is really just

0:24:36.720,0:24:40.440
over like proving and pushing themselves

0:24:38.580,0:24:44.159
if they’re smarter than the other side

0:24:40.440,0:24:46.050
and like let’s kick my god just must be

0:24:44.159,0:24:47.790
so embarrassing

0:24:46.050,0:24:49.290
amazing and super nerve-wracking because

0:24:47.790,0:24:51.720
you’re here saying like America’s great

0:24:49.290,0:24:53.310
and like we’re like we got democracy and

0:24:51.720,0:24:55.770
capitalism all this is really good but

0:24:53.310,0:24:57.390
then this other countries like with

0:24:55.770,0:25:00.960
everything that we’re fighting against

0:24:57.390,0:25:02.640
is actually doing really well yeah at

0:25:00.960,0:25:04.290
least in the space race I don’t know

0:25:02.640,0:25:07.950
with how the country was doing

0:25:04.290,0:25:10.920
economically yeah so later though in

0:25:07.950,0:25:13.860
1967 actually both countries start to

0:25:10.920,0:25:15.720
struggle a little bit with the space

0:25:13.860,0:25:18.150
race there actually someone fortunate

0:25:15.720,0:25:20.670
deaths we had we lost like three

0:25:18.150,0:25:24.780
astronauts because they were on I think

0:25:20.670,0:25:27.420
was Apollo 7 and a fire broke out like

0:25:24.780,0:25:29.460
in the aircraft or in the spacecraft and

0:25:27.420,0:25:31.440
the doors had been sealed so they

0:25:29.460,0:25:34.200
actually died from a fire inside there

0:25:31.440,0:25:36.210
the spacecraft that was really important

0:25:34.200,0:25:38.850
yeah but then the Russian the Russians

0:25:36.210,0:25:40.800
the Soviet Union also left lost an

0:25:38.850,0:25:44.460
astronaut because his parachute

0:25:40.800,0:25:47.670
malfunction upon landing oh my gosh

0:25:44.460,0:25:49.700
that’s horrifying to me go hold it’s

0:25:47.670,0:25:52.200
awful you make it all the way back and

0:25:49.700,0:25:54.540
that’s like yeah the parachute was the

0:25:52.200,0:26:00.350
issue so that was a bad year for both of

0:25:54.540,0:26:03.750
them but then in 1968 the US aircraft

0:26:00.350,0:26:05.850
Apollo a is the first human crewed

0:26:03.750,0:26:08.490
spacecraft to reach the moon and orbit

0:26:05.850,0:26:11.660
it and then return to Earth so they

0:26:08.490,0:26:13.950
start doing a little better also um the

0:26:11.660,0:26:15.930
USSR didn’t have like a ton of stuff

0:26:13.950,0:26:18.120
that I was seeing during this era so I

0:26:15.930,0:26:19.590
would be interested to know what was

0:26:18.120,0:26:21.390
going on because I feel like there must

0:26:19.590,0:26:25.220
have been something else economically

0:26:21.390,0:26:29.430
preventing them from like good this is

0:26:25.220,0:26:31.740
1968 so like 1967 they’re starting to

0:26:29.430,0:26:35.130
have some space trouble it’s 1968 we

0:26:31.740,0:26:39.090
don’t hear like anything really from the

0:26:35.130,0:26:43.200
USSR and then like the u.s. actually

0:26:39.090,0:26:45.030
starts to do a little more with like

0:26:43.200,0:26:47.760
orbiting the moon and like sending

0:26:45.030,0:26:51.840
people into space and then we finally

0:26:47.760,0:26:56.720
get to 1969 where we have Neil Armstrong

0:26:51.840,0:26:59.180
and Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin

0:26:56.720,0:27:03.050
Aldrin well there is it

0:26:59.180,0:27:05.080
yeah so those three are on the Apollo 11

0:27:03.050,0:27:07.850
and I feel really bad because I did not

0:27:05.080,0:27:11.110
realize Michael calling this was part of

0:27:07.850,0:27:15.380
the crew everyone just remembers yeah

0:27:11.110,0:27:17.630
hmm yeah I know who is because Michael

0:27:15.380,0:27:20.360
Collins actually didn’t walk on the moon

0:27:17.630,0:27:22.520
so Neil Armstrong and Buzz become the

0:27:20.360,0:27:24.200
first men to walk on the moon but their

0:27:22.520,0:27:27.230
crew mate Michael Collins is the one

0:27:24.200,0:27:30.830
that’s orbiting the moon aboard the

0:27:27.230,0:27:32.510
Apollo 11 so he’s like driving it he’s

0:27:30.830,0:27:34.640
just like but doesn’t even check over I

0:27:32.510,0:27:36.140
guess wait there’s a movie

0:27:34.640,0:27:37.790
okay I’m gonna sound really dumb but I

0:27:36.140,0:27:39.020
swear there’s a movie about this and

0:27:37.790,0:27:40.310
it’s probably like really popular but I

0:27:39.020,0:27:46.180
swear I watch it when I was little and

0:27:40.310,0:27:48.920
it really shows really sad about it oh

0:27:46.180,0:27:52.700
I’m a little upset actually like I would

0:27:48.920,0:27:54.920
want to be walking on the moon too you

0:27:52.700,0:27:59.660
just the driver did you guys have fun

0:27:54.920,0:28:03.200
yeah how was it like what was it like we

0:27:59.660,0:28:04.940
don’t even know it’s super sad so a big

0:28:03.200,0:28:07.250
shout out to Michael Collins thank you

0:28:04.940,0:28:09.230
for your service to America and

0:28:07.250,0:28:14.870
everything you did we really appreciate

0:28:09.230,0:28:17.480
you but yeah this is they televised the

0:28:14.870,0:28:20.180
moon landing and that was witnessed

0:28:17.480,0:28:24.590
around the world by 723 million people

0:28:20.180,0:28:26.660
and it was claimed to secure a victory

0:28:24.590,0:28:29.360
for America in the space race but also

0:28:26.660,0:28:30.830
people at least Americans we like to say

0:28:29.360,0:28:35.840
that that was the end of the space race

0:28:30.830,0:28:37.640
and I’ll say Neil Armstrong’s famous

0:28:35.840,0:28:40.370
quote when he took his first step he

0:28:37.640,0:28:42.940
said that’s one small step for man one

0:28:40.370,0:28:45.620
giant leap for mankind

0:28:42.940,0:28:52.610
mmm-hmm those fantastic you know you

0:28:45.620,0:28:55.790
rehearse that yeah I got to come up with

0:28:52.610,0:28:58.700
something good it was like I feel like

0:28:55.790,0:29:00.050
Neil and Buzz probably like rode down

0:28:58.700,0:29:01.880
what they wanted to say and then took a

0:29:00.050,0:29:07.760
vote I’m like you had the better quote

0:29:01.880,0:29:11.240
I’m like drafting together I love that

0:29:07.760,0:29:12.020
yeah okay so after that that’s like a

0:29:11.240,0:29:15.350
huge deal

0:29:12.020,0:29:18.140
awesome time then we do some more moon

0:29:15.350,0:29:21.380
stuff with like throughout the years

0:29:18.140,0:29:25.190
after that the USSR actually launches

0:29:21.380,0:29:26.930
the first space station which is becomes

0:29:25.190,0:29:28.580
like core segments for the International

0:29:26.930,0:29:31.580
Space Station when that gets built in

0:29:28.580,0:29:34.220
the 2000s so I was like maybe the USSR

0:29:31.580,0:29:36.740
is more focused on spacecraft and just

0:29:34.220,0:29:38.570
like getting like things up into space

0:29:36.740,0:29:42.440
that you could like continually go back

0:29:38.570,0:29:45.050
and forth Jim while the u.s. seemed to

0:29:42.440,0:29:48.410
be more focused on the moon but anyways

0:29:45.050,0:29:51.080
by 1975 that’s the end of the space race

0:29:48.410,0:29:53.300
so like 1969 is another landing a little

0:29:51.080,0:29:56.150
bit stuff goes on but then 1975 is the

0:29:53.300,0:29:57.440
official end and that was really result

0:29:56.150,0:29:59.840
because the relations between the

0:29:57.440,0:30:04.030
countries started to improve and were

0:29:59.840,0:30:08.090
negotiated by the Soviet liyan Leonid

0:30:04.030,0:30:10.910
Brezhnev I hope probably not and US

0:30:08.090,0:30:13.100
President Nixon so they start to move

0:30:10.910,0:30:15.410
forward into cooperation over

0:30:13.100,0:30:19.130
competition with space exploration I

0:30:15.410,0:30:22.730
think it’s beautiful the beautiful thing

0:30:19.130,0:30:25.130
that happened to ADA yeah it’s like a

0:30:22.730,0:30:28.340
happy ending so the mission started to

0:30:25.130,0:30:31.820
die down and the I guess the final

0:30:28.340,0:30:35.510
mission is in 1975 us-soviet relations

0:30:31.820,0:30:37.520
improved and they created a joint

0:30:35.510,0:30:41.650
program between the two powers called

0:30:37.520,0:30:46.580
Apollo Soyuz Sawyer’s mission

0:30:41.650,0:30:49.370
apollo-soyuz mission and that basically

0:30:46.580,0:30:51.410
was they would send three US astronauts

0:30:49.370,0:30:54.500
aboard an Apollo spacecraft and dock it

0:30:51.410,0:30:57.890
in orbit with the Soviet Soyuz vehicle

0:30:54.500,0:30:59.300
so they had like a spacecraft already in

0:30:57.890,0:31:02.210
space so we’re gonna send three

0:30:59.300,0:31:05.300
Americans to that spacecraft and when

0:31:02.210,0:31:07.370
they got to the spacecraft they shook

0:31:05.300,0:31:10.190
hands and I was like the first handshake

0:31:07.370,0:31:13.790
between nations and space and exchanged

0:31:10.190,0:31:17.090
gifts and like celebrated so that was

0:31:13.790,0:31:20.330
really really cool to read about then

0:31:17.090,0:31:22.010
that’s like the message if you want to

0:31:20.330,0:31:24.590
advance technology we got to work

0:31:22.010,0:31:25.890
together we should write being right

0:31:24.590,0:31:28.260
hey it’s all

0:31:25.890,0:31:31.650
like let’s just explore together let’s

0:31:28.260,0:31:34.220
be collaborative but yeah that

0:31:31.650,0:31:37.620
symbolizes the final into the space race

0:31:34.220,0:31:39.690
okay and like they’re saying lots of

0:31:37.620,0:31:41.880
benefits happen from the space race I

0:31:39.690,0:31:44.130
think that the greatest benefit where

0:31:41.880,0:31:46.950
was like the funding and research and

0:31:44.130,0:31:49.440
education and the general improved

0:31:46.950,0:31:52.200
interest in like science and technology

0:31:49.440,0:31:53.640
and engineering and math like imagine

0:31:52.200,0:31:55.290
seeing like you know how much we

0:31:53.640,0:31:56.400
glamorize like celebrities and

0:31:55.290,0:31:58.830
everyone’s like I really want to be a

0:31:56.400,0:32:00.840
singer but at the time like astronauts

0:31:58.830,0:32:03.240
for the coolest thing and so everyone

0:32:00.840,0:32:05.460
wanted to go into like stem and be a

0:32:03.240,0:32:08.100
part of that and everyone want to be

0:32:05.460,0:32:11.700
like astronauts and stuff so that was

0:32:08.100,0:32:14.429
really cool and I’m excited that we are

0:32:11.700,0:32:16.830
starting a new Space Age because it’s

0:32:14.429,0:32:18.960
gonna inspire a lot of new scientists

0:32:16.830,0:32:19.320
and engineers and that’s really good for

0:32:18.960,0:32:21.750
us

0:32:19.320,0:32:23.280
ya know that’s super exciting this

0:32:21.750,0:32:25.470
weekend who was really exciting I didn’t

0:32:23.280,0:32:28.830
realize it had been so long since we had

0:32:25.470,0:32:32.790
sent like an American open to space I’ve

0:32:28.830,0:32:34.890
been really thinking about it’s not

0:32:32.790,0:32:36.660
something that we would invest in either

0:32:34.890,0:32:39.990
because it is really like space

0:32:36.660,0:32:41.340
exploration ain’t cheap and we’re

0:32:39.990,0:32:44.820
literally doing it because we were

0:32:41.340,0:32:46.890
terrified of like a nuclear war so yeah

0:32:44.820,0:32:51.960
yeah it’s good that I pushed us forward

0:32:46.890,0:32:54.330
but yeah I do want to add one thing I

0:32:51.960,0:32:56.730
might sound stupid saying this I want to

0:32:54.330,0:32:59.820
publicly state like I am NOT a fake

0:32:56.730,0:33:00.360
moonkin spirit like slamming conspiracy

0:32:59.820,0:33:03.390
theorists

0:33:00.360,0:33:07.230
however like while you’re talking about

0:33:03.390,0:33:10.169
like how far behind me were and like we

0:33:07.230,0:33:14.280
were just really lagging I’m like hmm I

0:33:10.169,0:33:16.140
could kind of see why the government

0:33:14.280,0:33:20.630
would want to say that not saying they

0:33:16.140,0:33:23.070
did no that’s all I’m gonna say I

0:33:20.630,0:33:24.809
promise I’m not I believe the moon

0:33:23.070,0:33:27.419
landing was real but I just didn’t

0:33:24.809,0:33:29.940
realize how far we were and I’m there

0:33:27.419,0:33:34.169
must have been so much pressure and all

0:33:29.940,0:33:37.500
of these like American like uh oh my

0:33:34.169,0:33:40.650
gosh whistle we’re just scientists yeah

0:33:37.500,0:33:42.690
and astronauts like thank you so much

0:33:40.650,0:33:45.390
all the people all the Americans who

0:33:42.690,0:33:47.250
worked to help us get to the moon

0:33:45.390,0:33:50.220
because they must have been under so

0:33:47.250,0:33:52.530
much pressure right it’s definitely very

0:33:50.220,0:33:54.420
stressful very admirable I’m just like I

0:33:52.530,0:33:56.940
don’t even know where I would start like

0:33:54.420,0:34:00.890
I studied stem and I’m like if you told

0:33:56.940,0:34:00.890
me just good man to the moon I’d be like

0:34:02.450,0:34:09.690
huge huge gains we also from it had a

0:34:06.900,0:34:11.370
lot of innovations in technology because

0:34:09.690,0:34:13.980
of like our quest for space so like

0:34:11.370,0:34:16.860
freeze-dried foods memory foam

0:34:13.980,0:34:19.919
mattresses cancer treatments satellites

0:34:16.860,0:34:21.419
that we use for gps’s and like our

0:34:19.919,0:34:24.679
phones a call because of the space race

0:34:21.419,0:34:27.179
like Oh a lights are really useful

0:34:24.679,0:34:29.129
that’s really interesting I also have a

0:34:27.179,0:34:32.100
question for you I don’t know you know

0:34:29.129,0:34:36.840
this but so I guess like our next big

0:34:32.100,0:34:40.230
goal is to colonize Mars to get to Mars

0:34:36.840,0:34:43.620
right is that like so it’s pretty much

0:34:40.230,0:34:47.100
headed by SpaceX right right it’s like

0:34:43.620,0:34:49.679
NASA in partnership with SpaceX and so

0:34:47.100,0:34:53.280
is it an international effort or is it

0:34:49.679,0:34:55.679
mostly American I don’t know let me

0:34:53.280,0:35:00.210
check it out actually because I’d be

0:34:55.679,0:35:03.270
really interested because I feel like

0:35:00.210,0:35:05.070
that’s kind of the new era or at least

0:35:03.270,0:35:09.260
one of the aspects of the new era we’re

0:35:05.070,0:35:11.210
entering yeah I would

0:35:09.260,0:35:13.610
I feel it could be more collaborative

0:35:11.210,0:35:16.220
but honestly the most I hear from which

0:35:13.610,0:35:18.880
is I mean where are Americans so like

0:35:16.220,0:35:23.240
most of our news is like skewed with

0:35:18.880,0:35:25.310
American news but I like here the most

0:35:23.240,0:35:30.610
of it from like Elon Musk so I don’t

0:35:25.310,0:35:34.700
know so congratulations on your new son

0:35:30.610,0:35:38.230
he just just have a baby like that’s a

0:35:34.700,0:35:43.310
big month for him yeah why is it was

0:35:38.230,0:35:46.040
celebratory time right yeah that’s also

0:35:43.310,0:35:48.470
I wanted to say yeah I kinda I don’t

0:35:46.040,0:35:50.720
think they staged the moon landing like

0:35:48.470,0:35:54.980
I watched a conspiracy on it and I was

0:35:50.720,0:35:57.410
like no I don’t think so um but you’re

0:35:54.980,0:35:59.720
right they were really far behind and I

0:35:57.410,0:36:01.430
also just kind of feel like the u.s. was

0:35:59.720,0:36:02.810
like you know like when you’re in

0:36:01.430,0:36:04.160
elementary school and there’s like that

0:36:02.810,0:36:06.050
kid on the playground he’s like do you

0:36:04.160,0:36:08.540
want to race with me and you’re like

0:36:06.050,0:36:10.490
sure we can race and they’re like okay

0:36:08.540,0:36:12.230
like first went to the tree wins and

0:36:10.490,0:36:13.700
then they’ll be like you’ll like start

0:36:12.230,0:36:15.590
running and they’ll be like no I didn’t

0:36:13.700,0:36:16.880
say go yet and then they’ll view like

0:36:15.590,0:36:18.920
way I said you have to cross the finish

0:36:16.880,0:36:20.660
line like hopping on one foot so it

0:36:18.920,0:36:22.460
doesn’t count so I would like I just

0:36:20.660,0:36:25.250
feel like the u.s. is like that kid on

0:36:22.460,0:36:27.680
the playground it’s so true or – if

0:36:25.250,0:36:41.180
you’re playing like rock-paper-scissors

0:36:27.680,0:36:44.360
it’s like oh no that’s out of three love

0:36:41.180,0:36:47.570
being American but y’all we were not I

0:36:44.360,0:36:50.630
don’t think we won that yeah I think

0:36:47.570,0:36:54.620
it’s important to know like about the

0:36:50.630,0:36:56.090
space race as a whole and maybe we

0:36:54.620,0:36:58.780
should still be I’m so really proud of

0:36:56.090,0:37:01.910
all the achievements we made but yeah

0:36:58.780,0:37:04.550
important to recognize it and it made us

0:37:01.910,0:37:06.980
better right like we really focused more

0:37:04.550,0:37:09.320
on technology because of it so I think

0:37:06.980,0:37:11.360
overall it’s like a good thing to have

0:37:09.320,0:37:11.600
two countries pushing each other like

0:37:11.360,0:37:14.150
that

0:37:11.600,0:37:16.910
yes because without that we would

0:37:14.150,0:37:17.330
probably be a lot farther behind than we

0:37:16.910,0:37:19.010
are today

0:37:17.330,0:37:20.140
we would not have been as motivated to

0:37:19.010,0:37:26.320
spend all that

0:37:20.140,0:37:29.910
and time yay well thank you so much jack

0:37:26.320,0:37:29.910
for saying that that was really fun

0:37:30.230,0:37:51.300
[Music]