We inspired Nazi Germany? | History of Forced Sterilization in the United States

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Show Notes

What’s the most insidious way to stop the continuation of the human race? Forced sterilization would be our guess. It may seem like a thing of the past but you’ll be terrified to know that practices of force sterilization and the eugenics movement lasted well into the 70’s for the United States. In our FIRST Guest episode EVER, our friend Indeep takes us on a journey through the history of forced sterilization, who it targeted, the resistance, and how long it lasted.

Sources:

https://www.panoramas.pitt.edu/health-and-society/dark-history-forced-sterilization-latina-women

Transcript

0:00:00.320,0:00:04.720
hello everybody and welcome to another

0:00:02.560,0:00:08.240
episode of how did we not know that

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i’m nat i’m jack and i’m in deep

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yay yay

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hey everyone welcome we are really

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excited we have our first guest ever

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today

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she was our very good friend in deep in

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deep and i actually met while we were

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studying abroad in senegal

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so she’s going to present today on a

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topic of her choosing

0:00:27.199,0:00:32.960
take it away indeed okay so

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a fun thing is that neither jack nor nat

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know my topic

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so i’m really curious to see how they

0:00:35.040,0:00:39.200
react um so

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to open i have a question what is your

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guys’s worst nightmare

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if i had to give like blood repeatedly

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like over and over and over okay okay

0:00:49.600,0:00:56.399
and that i’m really scared

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of like open spaces like the ocean i’m

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really scared of the ocean actually

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that’s interesting yeah so mine

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we’re gonna use it against us

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can you imagine um i feel like you’re

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not on topic at all

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go ahead mine would

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probably be having unanesthetized

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gynecological surgery

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without my consent

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okay so the title of my presentation

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is going to was going to be i was

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between reproductive politics

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or how women’s bodies were the original

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battlegrounds of how men

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especially american colonizers and slave

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owners gain and kept their power and

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influence

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wow that’s heavy girl

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you guys i don’t come here to play i

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come here to let you know

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you know to spill the pee and the tea is

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going to be spilled

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this is a rabbit hole and i’m sorry

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you’re not going gonna be the same once

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you come

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out and i hope that’s okay oh my gosh

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yes i feel like american history just

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like the more i study it the more i’m

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like yikes

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um and i also think it’s funny that like

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they’re just these little holes there’s

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these little things that are just like

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oh we never even thought about that

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and it’s actually like this huge problem

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that still affects people

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um but something i also want to

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highlight before i kind of get like into

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the um stick of

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the presentation is um how

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the resistance to these is sometimes

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documented and i really want to like

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highlight it as we go through

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because i don’t want to like erase the

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stories of the victims and dehumanize

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them

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um and so i want to kind of highlight

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that

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these are people who exercise their will

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when they could and they often did so

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like against really scary odds and

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really powerful institutions and forces

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so as we’re like going through this

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we’re gonna just

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highlight the resistance and highlight

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the fact that these were people you know

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it all starts with our guy

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james marion sims aka

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the father of modern gynecology and i

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feel like we all just feel weird about

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there

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being someone with the title the father

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of modern gynecology right

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that’s upsetting since practice medicine

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at a time when treating women was

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considered

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distasteful and rarely done and you know

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no one surprised

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and he invented the vaginal speculum

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which is a tool used for dilation and

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examination

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and are all thinking oh okay cool cool

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um and

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he also pioneered a surgical technique

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to repair

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vesico vaginal fistula which is a common

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19th century complication of childbirth

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in which okay get ready a tear happens

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between the uterus and the bladder and

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that causes

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constant pain and urine leakage and so

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this still happens today in developing

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countries and it’s really avoidable

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and it literally happens when a baby is

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stuck

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for too long and they like wear a hole

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next to your vagina and it can happen

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like next to your bladder or next to

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your

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literal anus and it causes like leaking

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and

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i don’t know about this gonna happen but

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when it happens it happens and it’s a

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really big problem like in developing

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countries because people who have this

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problem

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are often like um first of all the baby

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usually suffocates and dies

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um i know because they’re in there for

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days like that’s how long it takes right

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and um also like they’re often

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um what’s the word when you’re like

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excommunicated like thrown out of the

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tribe thrown out of the

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village and i know they can’t have a

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baby

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because it’s stuck because their baby

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died and because they smell

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bad because after this happens they like

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it’s just really gross

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you know and they like have because it’s

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leaking okay

0:04:49.199,0:04:52.639
exactly and so i think they think of it

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as like a curse

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or sometimes it’s just like kind of

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distasteful to have around and they’re

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just kind of like

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banished the woman and this is like

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really first of all this is really

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easily repaired by surgery just some

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stitches you know

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and okay i don’t want to reduce that i

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don’t know how it’s prepared i’m

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assuming it’s just

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bitches but

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also um it’s really preventable like if

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you just have something kind of take the

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baby out

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you could do a c-section like there’s a

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lot of ways to like get the baby to come

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out now

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but you know if you just don’t have any

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resources sorry what year is this that

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he’s

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inventing this do you know so he’s

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inventing this he was born in 1813

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so i think he was inventing this in the

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1830s

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1840s maybe cool wait question

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sorry he’s american so the father of

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gynecology

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is american yeah okay and he was born in

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lancaster county south carolina

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in 1813 um and he entered the medical

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profession when doctors didn’t undergo

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the same rigorous coursework and

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training they do today

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after interning with a doctor and taking

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a three-month course

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and studying for a year at jefferson

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medical college

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he began his practice he later relocated

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to montgomery county

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alabama seeking a fresh start after the

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death

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of his first two patients

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no the third time’s a charm right just

0:06:16.240,0:06:20.319
gotta move to alabama so they don’t have

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that third try

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no the father of the father of modern

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gynecology

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so it was in montgomery that sims built

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his reputation among rich white

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plantation owners by treating their

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human property

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article does not play um according to

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vanessa gamble

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university professor of medical

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humanities at gw george washington

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university

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since this practice was deeply rooted in

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the slave trade

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and while most healthcare took place in

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the plantation some stubborn cases were

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brought to physicians like sims

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who patched up enslaved workers so they

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could produce and reproduce for their

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masters again

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otherwise they were useless to their

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owners and this kind of brings up this

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concept of soundness

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um being a sound a meant that you could

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produce and reproduce so men could

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produce and women could reproduce for

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women having fistula made them less

0:07:10.800,0:07:13.039
sound because they couldn’t really

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reproduce as much

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it goes into the whole slavery and child

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bearing which i’m going to get into

0:07:18.240,0:07:21.919
but just to finish on our guy james

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marion sims

0:07:21.919,0:07:24.639
there’s a lot more on him if you’re

0:07:23.199,0:07:25.919
interested he started like the first

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women’s hospital

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killed a bunch of people saved some

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people you know

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and he had i think three statues of him

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that are starting to come down so

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there was one of his statues was

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literally in central park

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opposite the new york academy of

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medicine in new york city

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and this was removed on april 17 2018

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and its current plaque

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will be replaced by one that educates

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the public on the origins of the

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monument

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and the controversial non-consensual

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medical experiments he

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used on women of color mostly enslaved

0:07:58.720,0:08:01.919
black women

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the names and histories of three known

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women whose bodies were used in the name

0:08:03.520,0:08:07.520
of medical and scientific advancement

0:08:05.440,0:08:09.120
by the doctor their names are lucy

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anarca and betsy will take their

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rightful

0:08:09.840,0:08:15.680
place on the new plaque and i will also

0:08:11.919,0:08:18.160
mention he did his experiments on slaves

0:08:15.680,0:08:19.520
without anesthesia because it wasn’t

0:08:18.160,0:08:24.639
invented at the time

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and also because i know and also because

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they didn’t think that black bodies felt

0:08:27.360,0:08:30.879
pain the same way that white bodies did

0:08:29.120,0:08:32.880
which is still a myth that happens to

0:08:30.879,0:08:35.919
this day like to this day black people

0:08:32.880,0:08:37.760
are um given less anesthesia

0:08:35.919,0:08:39.680
on average than like their white

0:08:37.760,0:08:40.000
counterparts because they believe that

0:08:39.680,0:08:42.959
black

0:08:40.000,0:08:45.839
people somehow feel less pain and that’s

0:08:42.959,0:08:48.720
james marion sims

0:08:45.839,0:08:49.279
jeez oh my god that’s so upsetting that

0:08:48.720,0:08:52.800
like

0:08:49.279,0:08:54.399
not only is he this awful person

0:08:52.800,0:08:55.839
he killed all these women and like none

0:08:54.399,0:08:58.160
of his surgeries were really consensual

0:08:55.839,0:08:59.760
but how did he get all these statues

0:08:58.160,0:09:02.399
like

0:08:59.760,0:09:03.279
i have no idea what i do know is that i

0:09:02.399,0:09:04.959
don’t know like he

0:09:03.279,0:09:06.399
started doing surgeries on white women

0:09:04.959,0:09:08.240
and he did make a lot of advancements

0:09:06.399,0:09:10.959
because before nobody would even

0:09:08.240,0:09:12.959
like delve into women’s reproductive

0:09:10.959,0:09:14.160
like they were like growth you know

0:09:12.959,0:09:16.000
and then he started doing surgeries on

0:09:14.160,0:09:17.839
white women with anesthesia

0:09:16.000,0:09:19.839
because you know handily it was invented

0:09:17.839,0:09:23.440
and also you know white women feel pain

0:09:19.839,0:09:25.680
apparently um who knew so

0:09:23.440,0:09:27.279
not me that white side of me doesn’t

0:09:25.680,0:09:29.839
feel pain so i don’t know what you’re

0:09:27.279,0:09:29.839
talking about

0:09:30.640,0:09:34.480
so i can just delve into slavery and

0:09:33.600,0:09:36.640
child bearing

0:09:34.480,0:09:38.640
because you know this is all this

0:09:36.640,0:09:40.880
research was just a hole that i just dug

0:09:38.640,0:09:42.640
deeper and deeper into it just doesn’t

0:09:40.880,0:09:43.839
end everything that i’m going to say is

0:09:42.640,0:09:46.640
accepted

0:09:43.839,0:09:48.640
from birthing a slave motherhood and

0:09:46.640,0:09:49.440
medicine in the antebellum south by

0:09:48.640,0:09:52.240
murray

0:09:49.440,0:09:53.279
marie jenkins schwartz so here’s like a

0:09:52.240,0:09:55.760
little bit of background

0:09:53.279,0:09:57.279
um as of 1808 congress ended the

0:09:55.760,0:09:58.720
nation’s participation in the

0:09:57.279,0:10:00.240
international slave trade

0:09:58.720,0:10:01.920
so that means that the only practical

0:10:00.240,0:10:03.120
way of increasing the number of slave

0:10:01.920,0:10:06.240
laborers was through

0:10:03.120,0:10:08.320
new births so if enslaved mothers did

0:10:06.240,0:10:10.079
not bear sufficient numbers of children

0:10:08.320,0:10:11.680
to take the place of aged and dying

0:10:10.079,0:10:12.800
workers the south couldn’t continue as a

0:10:11.680,0:10:15.040
slave society

0:10:12.800,0:10:16.560
and as we know slavery lasted a lot

0:10:15.040,0:10:20.079
longer than 1808

0:10:16.560,0:10:22.640
right so they really made it work

0:10:20.079,0:10:23.360
slave trade ends in 1808 yeah the slave

0:10:22.640,0:10:25.600
like trade

0:10:23.360,0:10:26.560
like the international slave trade ended

0:10:25.600,0:10:29.360
in 1808

0:10:26.560,0:10:30.560
like within we had like 60 yeah 60 years

0:10:29.360,0:10:33.680
and they’re just like

0:10:30.560,0:10:35.839
breeding more slaves now breeding is a

0:10:33.680,0:10:37.680
terrible i’m sorry i even use that word

0:10:35.839,0:10:39.519
like no but that’s a word that’s used

0:10:37.680,0:10:40.160
because it’s like you know it’s not

0:10:39.519,0:10:43.519
humane

0:10:40.160,0:10:45.279
like the way that this is right um

0:10:43.519,0:10:47.519
literally looking at it is like numbers

0:10:45.279,0:10:49.600
like they’re not looking them at

0:10:47.519,0:10:51.440
looking at it as like human beings yeah

0:10:49.600,0:10:54.640
they’re looking at them like livestock

0:10:51.440,0:10:55.120
it’s like literally literally first

0:10:54.640,0:10:57.600
thing

0:10:55.120,0:11:00.240
oh my god but rewards for motherhood

0:10:57.600,0:11:02.880
follow the birth of children for um like

0:11:00.240,0:11:04.480
female slaves to give birth right so

0:11:02.880,0:11:07.040
these included extra clothing

0:11:04.480,0:11:07.680
exemption from harsh punishment and even

0:11:07.040,0:11:10.880
rarely

0:11:07.680,0:11:12.800
rarely rarely freedom um some women were

0:11:10.880,0:11:15.040
able to avoid field or other arduous

0:11:12.800,0:11:16.720
labor as a result of bearing children

0:11:15.040,0:11:18.079
a breeder so these women were called

0:11:16.720,0:11:19.839
breeders

0:11:18.079,0:11:22.560
always fared better than the majority of

0:11:19.839,0:11:24.800
female slaves

0:11:22.560,0:11:25.680
and there were repercussions for

0:11:24.800,0:11:28.079
barrenness

0:11:25.680,0:11:29.040
so young woman who had not demonstrated

0:11:28.079,0:11:31.440
fertility

0:11:29.040,0:11:32.160
faced the possibility of separation from

0:11:31.440,0:11:35.680
family

0:11:32.160,0:11:37.040
as well as additional labor if a married

0:11:35.680,0:11:38.480
couple lived together for long without

0:11:37.040,0:11:41.440
having a baby

0:11:38.480,0:11:44.160
you they could owners would force

0:11:41.440,0:11:47.200
husband and wife to choose new partners

0:11:44.160,0:11:49.200
and um it’s also

0:11:47.200,0:11:51.120
like a former slave his name is henry

0:11:49.200,0:11:53.360
bobbitt maintained that many marriages

0:11:51.120,0:11:55.040
did not last longer than five years

0:11:53.360,0:11:56.639
because if no children were born within

0:11:55.040,0:11:58.800
five years husbands and wives were

0:11:56.639,0:12:01.519
expected to find other spouses

0:11:58.800,0:12:03.440
so from the standpoint of enslaved women

0:12:01.519,0:12:05.440
the slave owners fluoride into the

0:12:03.440,0:12:07.920
scientific management of their bodies

0:12:05.440,0:12:09.120
aka just like interest in their

0:12:07.920,0:12:11.519
reproductive systems

0:12:09.120,0:12:12.959
represented something beyond benevolence

0:12:11.519,0:12:16.079
i think not of a third

0:12:12.959,0:12:17.279
surprise um it was an effort to decrease

0:12:16.079,0:12:19.360
the importance of

0:12:17.279,0:12:21.279
women’s community and to substitute the

0:12:19.360,0:12:22.480
ways of white men for those of black

0:12:21.279,0:12:23.920
women and i found that like really

0:12:22.480,0:12:24.399
interesting just the way that was worded

0:12:23.920,0:12:26.079
it’s like

0:12:24.399,0:12:27.920
that’s literally what’s happening but

0:12:26.079,0:12:29.200
white men trying to control

0:12:27.920,0:12:31.040
trying to make like black women’s

0:12:29.200,0:12:32.560
reproductive systems work for them the

0:12:31.040,0:12:33.440
women struggle to assert their own

0:12:32.560,0:12:35.920
customs so

0:12:33.440,0:12:37.440
rather than acquiescing and slaveholders

0:12:35.920,0:12:38.480
demands that they bear as many children

0:12:37.440,0:12:40.320
as possible

0:12:38.480,0:12:42.240
enslaved women attempted to regulate

0:12:40.320,0:12:43.760
child bearing to accord with their own

0:12:42.240,0:12:45.360
notions of the proper timing and

0:12:43.760,0:12:47.200
frequency of motherhood

0:12:45.360,0:12:49.040
in resisting the dominion of white men

0:12:47.200,0:12:50.480
in this regard black women cast

0:12:49.040,0:12:51.680
themselves essential actors in the

0:12:50.480,0:12:53.760
unfolding drama

0:12:51.680,0:12:55.519
that constituted slave life and culture

0:12:53.760,0:12:57.279
in the antebellum south so essentially

0:12:55.519,0:12:59.040
like the fact that these women like

0:12:57.279,0:13:00.959
wouldn’t always have children whenever

0:12:59.040,0:13:03.279
it was demanded really really shaped the

0:13:00.959,0:13:05.200
narrative of like how slavery continued

0:13:03.279,0:13:06.639
because as we know like it is only

0:13:05.200,0:13:07.440
through these women that slavery could

0:13:06.639,0:13:09.680
continue

0:13:07.440,0:13:11.200
i’m like speechless just because like oh

0:13:09.680,0:13:12.800
my god like you’re literally like

0:13:11.200,0:13:15.519
manipulating

0:13:12.800,0:13:16.560
and like forcing yourself like on every

0:13:15.519,0:13:18.880
aspect of

0:13:16.560,0:13:20.720
like slaves like on their bodies and

0:13:18.880,0:13:24.079
like women especially like that’s so

0:13:20.720,0:13:25.440
violating and like dehumanizing and like

0:13:24.079,0:13:28.720
i just can’t even

0:13:25.440,0:13:32.399
i can’t even like imagine

0:13:28.720,0:13:32.959
how like painful and just how horrifying

0:13:32.399,0:13:35.519
and

0:13:32.959,0:13:37.440
disgusting that is like it’s really

0:13:35.519,0:13:40.000
upsetting to hear but i don’t know

0:13:37.440,0:13:41.839
like yeah and like just the pain of

0:13:40.000,0:13:42.800
child birth and child bearing and

0:13:41.839,0:13:44.800
everything you have to go through with

0:13:42.800,0:13:46.959
that and then the bond that like

0:13:44.800,0:13:48.160
a mothers feel with like their children

0:13:46.959,0:13:49.440
and then your child

0:13:48.160,0:13:51.279
is literally just being treated as

0:13:49.440,0:13:52.480
livestock i know i’m sure like

0:13:51.279,0:13:54.480
i’ve read things where they get

0:13:52.480,0:13:56.240
separated at birth and like the child

0:13:54.480,0:13:56.639
gets sold maybe to another slave owner

0:13:56.240,0:14:00.079
it’s

0:13:56.639,0:14:01.600
like horrific yeah it is crazy

0:14:00.079,0:14:03.120
it’s crazy to think about like whatever

0:14:01.600,0:14:05.600
children you have like you’re not going

0:14:03.120,0:14:07.839
to have any rights to them

0:14:05.600,0:14:09.440
yeah and literally like just being

0:14:07.839,0:14:12.079
thought of as like

0:14:09.440,0:14:13.920
an experiment and like something like a

0:14:12.079,0:14:15.920
test subject like oh that’s so

0:14:13.920,0:14:17.600
disgusting and that’s so scary like i’m

0:14:15.920,0:14:19.920
just like even like giving

0:14:17.600,0:14:22.320
birth to child like like any woman in

0:14:19.920,0:14:24.160
this time i know

0:14:22.320,0:14:26.240
absolutely horrifying like i can’t even

0:14:24.160,0:14:27.920
imagine i’m like so scared

0:14:26.240,0:14:30.240
like i would be so scared either way and

0:14:27.920,0:14:32.000
then in this setting especially like

0:14:30.240,0:14:33.920
oh my gosh i wonder how many like are

0:14:32.000,0:14:36.240
there any statistics and like how many

0:14:33.920,0:14:37.600
like fatalities like how many women died

0:14:36.240,0:14:39.839
because of this although i guess this

0:14:37.600,0:14:40.240
probably wasn’t documented it’s hard to

0:14:39.839,0:14:42.880
tell

0:14:40.240,0:14:44.959
because i don’t know how much they would

0:14:42.880,0:14:46.959
have like actually documented

0:14:44.959,0:14:48.480
you know other than like to suit their

0:14:46.959,0:14:50.800
own needs you know

0:14:48.480,0:14:51.600
yeah no history is like documented by

0:14:50.800,0:14:53.760
the winners

0:14:51.600,0:14:55.360
as they say and like especially they’re

0:14:53.760,0:14:56.560
not teaching slaves how to read and

0:14:55.360,0:14:58.000
write it’s hard to find any

0:14:56.560,0:14:59.680
documentation at all i’m actually

0:14:58.000,0:15:01.279
impressed that there’s at least

0:14:59.680,0:15:03.360
documentation

0:15:01.279,0:15:05.120
on this so we know about it i know it’s

0:15:03.360,0:15:07.600
crazy i think that a lot of it also

0:15:05.120,0:15:08.320
honestly came from like the descendants

0:15:07.600,0:15:10.720
of like

0:15:08.320,0:15:12.560
slaves because a lot of this was like

0:15:10.720,0:15:13.120
told through stories and i think it’s

0:15:12.560,0:15:14.880
just like

0:15:13.120,0:15:16.320
i don’t know even we’re gonna go like

0:15:14.880,0:15:18.160
through a few more subjects but even

0:15:16.320,0:15:20.160
just like the way that like

0:15:18.160,0:15:21.680
people are researching these things and

0:15:20.160,0:15:23.040
it’s so important to research it makes

0:15:21.680,0:15:24.800
me have such respect because i feel like

0:15:23.040,0:15:26.399
this is so traumatizing to research

0:15:24.800,0:15:27.680
about like write about every day you

0:15:26.399,0:15:29.680
know

0:15:27.680,0:15:31.920
and very painful for them to like relive

0:15:29.680,0:15:34.639
those experiences to share the story

0:15:31.920,0:15:35.519
to that for that to be documented yeah

0:15:34.639,0:15:37.680
that’s so true

0:15:35.519,0:15:38.959
on to the next phase and so we don’t

0:15:37.680,0:15:41.200
have another question for you

0:15:38.959,0:15:43.040
you two lovely young humans

0:15:41.200,0:15:44.880
[Laughter]

0:15:43.040,0:15:46.639
when you think of the 1970s what do you

0:15:44.880,0:15:49.759
think of i think of like the hip

0:15:46.639,0:15:50.480
hippies and like i think of the vietnam

0:15:49.759,0:15:53.279
war

0:15:50.480,0:15:54.560
and like there’s a lot of like unrest

0:15:53.279,0:15:57.120
and people are

0:15:54.560,0:15:59.120
upset i think of like the start of the

0:15:57.120,0:16:01.120
end of like social darwinism

0:15:59.120,0:16:02.399
and like the end of the eugenics

0:16:01.120,0:16:05.839
practices well

0:16:02.399,0:16:09.759
so we so we believe yeah jack is ready

0:16:05.839,0:16:11.279
she knows how this goes

0:16:09.759,0:16:12.880
it’s because i’m studying the gilded age

0:16:11.279,0:16:14.240
right now so i’m like learning about

0:16:12.880,0:16:15.120
everything that was put in place and

0:16:14.240,0:16:16.880
then it’s like

0:16:15.120,0:16:19.120
ending in the 70s so i just want to

0:16:16.880,0:16:21.360
request you guys on roe v wade happened

0:16:19.120,0:16:23.360
in 1973

0:16:21.360,0:16:25.440
and it was a landmark decision of the us

0:16:23.360,0:16:27.440
supreme court in which the court ruled

0:16:25.440,0:16:29.120
that the constitution of the united

0:16:27.440,0:16:29.920
states protects a pregnant woman’s

0:16:29.120,0:16:32.320
liberty to

0:16:29.920,0:16:35.199
choose to have an abortion without

0:16:32.320,0:16:37.839
excessive government restrictions

0:16:35.199,0:16:39.360
some hot tea and so we can get into some

0:16:37.839,0:16:40.240
like in the background there was this

0:16:39.360,0:16:43.360
woman

0:16:40.240,0:16:45.120
um and her pseudonym was jane roe and

0:16:43.360,0:16:46.800
she became pregnant with her third child

0:16:45.120,0:16:49.120
and she won an abortion

0:16:46.800,0:16:51.199
um but she lived in texas where abortion

0:16:49.120,0:16:54.959
was illegal and so

0:16:51.199,0:16:57.120
she filed the lawsuit um on her behalf

0:16:54.959,0:17:00.560
in the u.s federal court against henry

0:16:57.120,0:17:02.959
wade who was her local district attorney

0:17:00.560,0:17:04.640
and so basically they heard the case

0:17:02.959,0:17:05.520
they ruled in her favor and then texted

0:17:04.640,0:17:07.199
appeal to

0:17:05.520,0:17:08.640
the u.s supreme court which agreed to

0:17:07.199,0:17:12.160
hear the case and

0:17:08.640,0:17:13.120
they appeal or they ruled in her favor

0:17:12.160,0:17:15.760
which meant that

0:17:13.120,0:17:17.760
federally abortion is legal abortion in

0:17:15.760,0:17:20.160
the united states is legal

0:17:17.760,0:17:21.919
nationally but abortion laws are also

0:17:20.160,0:17:23.600
like under state jurisdiction

0:17:21.919,0:17:25.039
but technically like it has to be

0:17:23.600,0:17:27.679
illegal in all states but it’s

0:17:25.039,0:17:29.200
regulated by the states yeah so i kind

0:17:27.679,0:17:29.840
of wanted to highlight this because i

0:17:29.200,0:17:32.240
felt like

0:17:29.840,0:17:33.760
um this is like the struggle that we

0:17:32.240,0:17:34.480
hear about but this is a struggle of

0:17:33.760,0:17:36.160
white women

0:17:34.480,0:17:38.000
as i’m gonna kind of like go into more

0:17:36.160,0:17:41.120
like the struggle was different for

0:17:38.000,0:17:43.200
different populations of women of color

0:17:41.120,0:17:44.720
and it’s kind of crazy how different the

0:17:43.200,0:17:45.679
struggles like they were just not even

0:17:44.720,0:17:47.679
the same

0:17:45.679,0:17:49.840
like not even the same issue and we’re

0:17:47.679,0:17:51.520
going to start with indigenous women

0:17:49.840,0:17:53.919
i’m going to start with with a fun

0:17:51.520,0:17:56.799
statistic in the 1970s

0:17:53.919,0:17:57.039
doctors in the united states sterilized

0:17:56.799,0:18:00.080
an

0:17:57.039,0:18:02.240
estimated 25 to 42 percent

0:18:00.080,0:18:04.480
of native american women of childbearing

0:18:02.240,0:18:08.400
age some as young as 15.

0:18:04.480,0:18:10.320
that number is insane crazy

0:18:08.400,0:18:12.799
i don’t even how was did you find out

0:18:10.320,0:18:15.200
anything like on the process was it like

0:18:12.799,0:18:17.280
were they using like armed forces to

0:18:15.200,0:18:18.000
like pull women from their homes what

0:18:17.280,0:18:19.919
was it

0:18:18.000,0:18:21.679
so what they would do is like they would

0:18:19.919,0:18:24.240
women would go in

0:18:21.679,0:18:25.679
for you know maybe like a procedure

0:18:24.240,0:18:27.600
maybe like a checkup often

0:18:25.679,0:18:28.960
just like giving birth and then while

0:18:27.600,0:18:29.760
they were giving birth it would be a

0:18:28.960,0:18:33.600
quick

0:18:29.760,0:18:36.880
procedure that was yeah and also

0:18:33.600,0:18:37.600
without their consent consent even

0:18:36.880,0:18:38.960
knowing

0:18:37.600,0:18:40.880
sometimes it would happen like

0:18:38.960,0:18:42.400
technically with their consent but it

0:18:40.880,0:18:43.600
was like they didn’t know like they were

0:18:42.400,0:18:45.360
just told it was birth control they

0:18:43.600,0:18:46.720
didn’t know that it was permanent they

0:18:45.360,0:18:48.720
didn’t know what it really meant

0:18:46.720,0:18:51.440
you know although the practice is

0:18:48.720,0:18:54.240
primarily associated with nazi germany

0:18:51.440,0:18:55.360
north korea and other oppressive regimes

0:18:54.240,0:18:57.200
the us has had its

0:18:55.360,0:18:58.880
share of four sterilization laws that

0:18:57.200,0:18:59.360
fit with the eugenic culture of the

0:18:58.880,0:19:01.280
early

0:18:59.360,0:19:03.360
20th century and i wanted to find

0:19:01.280,0:19:05.039
eugenics real quick it’s a science that

0:19:03.360,0:19:07.440
tries to improve

0:19:05.039,0:19:09.039
the human race by controlling which

0:19:07.440,0:19:10.880
people become parents

0:19:09.039,0:19:12.480
which is a great law if i’ve ever heard

0:19:10.880,0:19:17.120
one

0:19:12.480,0:19:18.960
um you do not want a voice bit of you

0:19:17.120,0:19:20.320
saying

0:19:18.960,0:19:22.320
it’s gonna come back when you have a

0:19:20.320,0:19:22.880
campaign one day i need to be more

0:19:22.320,0:19:25.919
careful

0:19:22.880,0:19:29.200
but also i’m like literally sweating

0:19:25.919,0:19:30.960
so funny how crazy that is okay

0:19:29.200,0:19:34.000
so here’s the timeline of some of the

0:19:30.960,0:19:35.919
more notable events from 1849 and to the

0:19:34.000,0:19:39.919
last sterilization performed in

0:19:35.919,0:19:44.559
jared for 1981. 1981

0:19:39.919,0:19:47.760
so uh recent great reason

0:19:44.559,0:19:49.840
so in 1849 gordon

0:19:47.760,0:19:51.760
lindscum so he was a famed texas

0:19:49.840,0:19:53.520
biologist and physician

0:19:51.760,0:19:55.280
and he proposed a bill mandating the

0:19:53.520,0:19:57.120
eugenic sterilization of the mentally

0:19:55.280,0:19:58.880
handicapped and others whose genes he

0:19:57.120,0:20:01.039
deemed undesirable so although the

0:19:58.880,0:20:02.720
legislation was never sponsored or

0:20:01.039,0:20:04.559
brought up for a vote it was the first

0:20:02.720,0:20:06.240
serious attempt in u.s history to use

0:20:04.559,0:20:06.880
forced sterilization for eugenic

0:20:06.240,0:20:09.039
purposes

0:20:06.880,0:20:10.480
between now and 1907 there were a few

0:20:09.039,0:20:12.000
other attempts at passing a forced

0:20:10.480,0:20:13.840
sterilization law but none of them

0:20:12.000,0:20:16.799
passed um and then 1907

0:20:13.840,0:20:18.960
indiana um ohio’s neighbor for you you

0:20:16.799,0:20:20.000
who do not know ohio state university

0:20:18.960,0:20:22.640
where we all

0:20:20.000,0:20:23.679
go and went you know right next to

0:20:22.640,0:20:26.080
indiana

0:20:23.679,0:20:27.760
in 1907 indiana became the first state

0:20:26.080,0:20:29.919
in the country to successfully pass a

0:20:27.760,0:20:33.200
mandatory force sterilization law

0:20:29.919,0:20:35.039
impacting the feeble-minded a term used

0:20:33.200,0:20:35.919
at the time to refer to the mentally

0:20:35.039,0:20:37.679
handicapped

0:20:35.919,0:20:39.120
okay i really did not realize like

0:20:37.679,0:20:40.640
because i have like looked into

0:20:39.120,0:20:42.159
for sterilization a little bit but like

0:20:40.640,0:20:42.960
i didn’t realize it like there were laws

0:20:42.159,0:20:44.000
being passed about

0:20:42.960,0:20:47.039
i always thought it was just kind of

0:20:44.000,0:20:49.200
like shady like yeah like on the dl

0:20:47.039,0:20:50.240
yeah that’s literally that’s horrifying

0:20:49.200,0:20:53.200
that there was a

0:20:50.240,0:20:54.400
literal law so in 1909 california and

0:20:53.200,0:20:56.640
washington both

0:20:54.400,0:20:58.960
passed mandatory sterilization laws in

0:20:56.640,0:21:01.919
1927 the u.s supreme court

0:20:58.960,0:21:03.600
ruled in bucks rebel that laws mandating

0:21:01.919,0:21:05.280
the sterilization of the mentally

0:21:03.600,0:21:06.720
handicapped did not violate the

0:21:05.280,0:21:10.000
constitution

0:21:06.720,0:21:12.159
and just as oliver wendell holmes

0:21:10.000,0:21:13.360
made an explicitly eugenic argument in

0:21:12.159,0:21:15.440
writing for the majority

0:21:13.360,0:21:17.840
it is better for all the world if

0:21:15.440,0:21:19.600
instead of waiting to execute degenerate

0:21:17.840,0:21:21.360
offspring for crime

0:21:19.600,0:21:22.640
or to let them starve for their

0:21:21.360,0:21:24.799
imbecility

0:21:22.640,0:21:26.159
society can prevent those who are

0:21:24.799,0:21:30.080
manifestly unfit

0:21:26.159,0:21:32.240
from continuing their kind oh my god

0:21:30.080,0:21:33.520
straight out of sparta where they used

0:21:32.240,0:21:36.720
to leave like

0:21:33.520,0:21:37.760
handicapped out to die by themselves or

0:21:36.720,0:21:39.280
like the sick

0:21:37.760,0:21:41.679
literally that’s insane and we’ve talked

0:21:39.280,0:21:44.159
about justice oliver wendell holmes

0:21:41.679,0:21:45.200
in our is it free speech or espionage

0:21:44.159,0:21:47.200
episode and like

0:21:45.200,0:21:48.640
when i was doing research like none of

0:21:47.200,0:21:49.280
this came up like you they were just

0:21:48.640,0:21:51.760
like oh

0:21:49.280,0:21:53.120
he’s a really influential judge like

0:21:51.760,0:21:56.720
yeah probably because he

0:21:53.120,0:21:59.280
literally like said that oh my god like

0:21:56.720,0:22:00.000
you’re crazy okay so this this next fact

0:21:59.280,0:22:03.039
is fun

0:22:00.000,0:22:05.200
in 1936 nazi propaganda

0:22:03.039,0:22:06.159
defended germany’s force sterilization

0:22:05.200,0:22:08.400
program

0:22:06.159,0:22:10.320
by citing the us as an ally in the

0:22:08.400,0:22:12.240
eugenic movement

0:22:10.320,0:22:13.679
um world war ii and the atrocities

0:22:12.240,0:22:14.240
committed by the nazi government would

0:22:13.679,0:22:16.240
rapidly

0:22:14.240,0:22:18.159
rapidly change u.s attitudes towards

0:22:16.240,0:22:19.919
eugenics i guess that’s what it takes i

0:22:18.159,0:22:22.720
don’t know

0:22:19.919,0:22:24.159
okay t um actually nazi germany took a

0:22:22.720,0:22:26.799
lot of our practices

0:22:24.159,0:22:28.000
as an inspiration for their practices i

0:22:26.799,0:22:30.720
don’t know if you guys know like the

0:22:28.000,0:22:32.000
gasoline baths at the border between

0:22:30.720,0:22:34.159
mexico

0:22:32.000,0:22:35.120
yeah at the border between mexico they

0:22:34.159,0:22:37.440
would like bathe

0:22:35.120,0:22:39.120
um mexican immigrants who were waiting

0:22:37.440,0:22:40.880
to like get citizenship

0:22:39.120,0:22:42.400
they’d bathe them in gasoline to clean

0:22:40.880,0:22:44.240
them those cleaning chambers were

0:22:42.400,0:22:45.600
inspiration for the gas chambers in nazi

0:22:44.240,0:22:46.559
germany that’s a whole i’m probably

0:22:45.600,0:22:48.320
gonna have to cut this out because

0:22:46.559,0:22:50.080
that’s a whole another episode and can

0:22:48.320,0:22:51.360
of worms but yeah that stuff happened oh

0:22:50.080,0:22:54.559
my god

0:22:51.360,0:22:58.559
that’s crazy i had no idea

0:22:54.559,0:23:01.760
yeah continue please

0:22:58.559,0:23:03.919
um so the nixon administration um

0:23:01.760,0:23:06.799
dramatically increased medicaid-funded

0:23:03.919,0:23:09.840
sterilization of low-income americans

0:23:06.799,0:23:11.679
primarily those of color um while these

0:23:09.840,0:23:14.080
sterilizations were

0:23:11.679,0:23:16.080
voluntary as a matter of policy

0:23:14.080,0:23:17.919
anecdotal evidence later suggested that

0:23:16.080,0:23:18.640
they were often involuntary as a matter

0:23:17.919,0:23:20.720
of practice

0:23:18.640,0:23:22.000
patients were frequently misinformed or

0:23:20.720,0:23:23.280
left uninformed regarding

0:23:22.000,0:23:25.120
the nature of the proceedings that

0:23:23.280,0:23:27.200
they’d agreed to undergo none of us are

0:23:25.120,0:23:29.440
surprised so in 1979

0:23:27.200,0:23:31.360
a survey conducted by family planning

0:23:29.440,0:23:33.840
perspectives found that approximately

0:23:31.360,0:23:36.000
70 percent of american hospitals failed

0:23:33.840,0:23:38.000
to adequately follow the us department

0:23:36.000,0:23:39.760
of health and human services guidelines

0:23:38.000,0:23:40.880
regarding informed consent in cases of

0:23:39.760,0:23:42.320
sterilization

0:23:40.880,0:23:44.720
i think the only thing that’s surprising

0:23:42.320,0:23:45.840
to us is that there was guidelines on

0:23:44.720,0:23:47.520
sterilization

0:23:45.840,0:23:50.240
i think we’re like this just doesn’t

0:23:47.520,0:23:52.080
make sense and then in 1981 oregon

0:23:50.240,0:23:53.760
performed the last week of fourth

0:23:52.080,0:23:55.360
sterilization in u.s history

0:23:53.760,0:23:56.880
crazy that it was oregon and like

0:23:55.360,0:23:57.440
california and washington who like

0:23:56.880,0:24:00.080
really

0:23:57.440,0:24:03.279
stand out it’s also america we all got

0:24:00.080,0:24:07.279
we’re all in it together like

0:24:03.279,0:24:08.799
she’s right okay so that was a brief

0:24:07.279,0:24:10.720
history of the

0:24:08.799,0:24:12.400
a brief overview of the history of force

0:24:10.720,0:24:13.440
sterilization in the u.s and now let’s

0:24:12.400,0:24:15.840
go back to

0:24:13.440,0:24:17.919
indigenous americans in the 1970s

0:24:15.840,0:24:18.640
doctors in the united states sterilized

0:24:17.919,0:24:21.279
and estimated

0:24:18.640,0:24:23.600
25 to 42 percent native american women

0:24:21.279,0:24:25.120
of childbearing age some as young as 15.

0:24:23.600,0:24:26.799
so the sterilizations

0:24:25.120,0:24:28.559
subsidized by federal government and

0:24:26.799,0:24:29.919
often undertaken without the consent are

0:24:28.559,0:24:31.760
under great direct

0:24:29.919,0:24:33.200
marks the culmination of a long history

0:24:31.760,0:24:34.960
of efforts by

0:24:33.200,0:24:36.480
federal and local authorities to manage

0:24:34.960,0:24:37.360
the reproductive lives of native

0:24:36.480,0:24:38.960
families

0:24:37.360,0:24:40.880
and this is explained by brianna

0:24:38.960,0:24:42.400
theobald and she’s an assistant

0:24:40.880,0:24:44.080
professor of history at the university

0:24:42.400,0:24:45.919
of rochester

0:24:44.080,0:24:47.440
and her new book reproduction on the

0:24:45.919,0:24:49.360
reservation pregnancy

0:24:47.440,0:24:50.640
childbirth and colonialism in the long

0:24:49.360,0:24:52.640
20th century

0:24:50.640,0:24:54.400
she says the federal government and

0:24:52.640,0:24:56.240
local authorities have long tried to

0:24:54.400,0:24:58.240
control indigenous families and women’s

0:24:56.240,0:25:00.080
reproduction using tactics such as

0:24:58.240,0:25:01.600
coercive sterilization and the removal

0:25:00.080,0:25:03.840
of indigenous children

0:25:01.600,0:25:06.159
into the white foster care system there

0:25:03.840,0:25:07.360
was this mindset this really fun slogan

0:25:06.159,0:25:09.200
that i feel like

0:25:07.360,0:25:11.440
you guys might have heard um kill the

0:25:09.200,0:25:13.600
indian in him and save the man

0:25:11.440,0:25:15.360
and that’s the mindset um under which

0:25:13.600,0:25:17.200
the us government forced tens of

0:25:15.360,0:25:19.039
thousands of native american children to

0:25:17.200,0:25:20.720
attend assimilation boarding schools in

0:25:19.039,0:25:22.480
the late 19th century

0:25:20.720,0:25:23.520
and it’s like the boring schools we’ve

0:25:22.480,0:25:24.559
heard of and i think it’s interesting

0:25:23.520,0:25:26.400
why have we heard of the boarding

0:25:24.559,0:25:27.440
schools and not like forced civilization

0:25:26.400,0:25:29.360
like i don’t know

0:25:27.440,0:25:30.799
yeah or the adoption yeah and deep

0:25:29.360,0:25:32.480
you’re really hitting like all the good

0:25:30.799,0:25:34.400
topics i feel like every

0:25:32.480,0:25:36.559
little bit you say we could literally

0:25:34.400,0:25:38.559
make into a whole another episode and we

0:25:36.559,0:25:40.240
will because it deserves to be spoken

0:25:38.559,0:25:42.240
about more but yeah the the whole

0:25:40.240,0:25:42.720
adoption era with native americans is

0:25:42.240,0:25:44.960
like

0:25:42.720,0:25:46.880
horrific and then the boarding schools

0:25:44.960,0:25:48.559
lasted do you have like the date of how

0:25:46.880,0:25:49.120
long they lasted but they lasted a very

0:25:48.559,0:25:50.559
long time

0:25:49.120,0:25:53.039
i don’t even think that they were

0:25:50.559,0:25:54.159
completely shut down like by the 70s i

0:25:53.039,0:25:55.679
don’t even know if they’re still shut

0:25:54.159,0:25:57.919
down who knows

0:25:55.679,0:25:59.919
yeah well yeah and like these boarding

0:25:57.919,0:26:01.360
schools are like awful like well first

0:25:59.919,0:26:02.720
of all because like they’re separated

0:26:01.360,0:26:05.600
from their family so that

0:26:02.720,0:26:06.559
in itself is awful but then additionally

0:26:05.600,0:26:08.400
like they’re

0:26:06.559,0:26:09.919
forced to i guess convert to

0:26:08.400,0:26:11.679
christianity and like they’re not

0:26:09.919,0:26:13.440
allowed to speak their native language

0:26:11.679,0:26:15.440
they’re like forced to speak in english

0:26:13.440,0:26:16.159
only so you’re wiping out like people’s

0:26:15.440,0:26:18.400
culture

0:26:16.159,0:26:19.600
and yeah when they return like sometimes

0:26:18.400,0:26:20.960
they can’t even communicate to their

0:26:19.600,0:26:21.440
parents anymore because they don’t

0:26:20.960,0:26:22.799
remember

0:26:21.440,0:26:24.640
they were taken away so young so they

0:26:22.799,0:26:25.120
don’t even remember their like native

0:26:24.640,0:26:27.200
tongue

0:26:25.120,0:26:28.559
and they’re lazy third and a lot of them

0:26:27.200,0:26:29.520
like died in the boarding school just

0:26:28.559,0:26:31.440
because of

0:26:29.520,0:26:33.120
proper care also like i don’t know if

0:26:31.440,0:26:35.039
you’re gonna touch on this later

0:26:33.120,0:26:36.400
but like a lot of what’s happening like

0:26:35.039,0:26:38.559
these boarding schools and the four

0:26:36.400,0:26:41.360
sterilization of indigenous women

0:26:38.559,0:26:42.799
also happened at the same time period in

0:26:41.360,0:26:45.039
canada as well

0:26:42.799,0:26:47.039
i didn’t know that this was actually the

0:26:45.039,0:26:48.799
first time i’d ever heard the term

0:26:47.039,0:26:50.400
force sterilization before was when i

0:26:48.799,0:26:52.640
was in canada like

0:26:50.400,0:26:53.600
working there and the canadian

0:26:52.640,0:26:55.279
parliament were

0:26:53.600,0:26:57.120
drawing up a lot of reports and doing a

0:26:55.279,0:26:59.279
lot of research on the history

0:26:57.120,0:27:01.120
of foreign sterilization of indigenous

0:26:59.279,0:27:01.799
women and there’s a lot of efforts

0:27:01.120,0:27:04.240
towards

0:27:01.799,0:27:06.320
reconciliation about the boarding

0:27:04.240,0:27:09.440
schools and there’s four sterilization

0:27:06.320,0:27:10.320
and like bias of police towards like

0:27:09.440,0:27:13.120
against

0:27:10.320,0:27:14.640
indigenous people of canada and so like

0:27:13.120,0:27:17.039
i remember like when i heard the term

0:27:14.640,0:27:18.559
forces for sterilization for the first

0:27:17.039,0:27:20.720
time like this is like two years ago too

0:27:18.559,0:27:22.480
i was like i never even knew this was a

0:27:20.720,0:27:23.600
thing and then i was like doing all this

0:27:22.480,0:27:25.360
research on it and they’re like oh yeah

0:27:23.600,0:27:27.520
this happened in the u.s too of course

0:27:25.360,0:27:29.279
i’m like this happens up until 1981 so

0:27:27.520,0:27:30.240
it’s not even like oh it was just so

0:27:29.279,0:27:32.320
long ago

0:27:30.240,0:27:34.559
like we thought yeah i just wanted to

0:27:32.320,0:27:36.880
know too that like this is so widespread

0:27:34.559,0:27:38.399
um yeah so yeah and i think that’s

0:27:36.880,0:27:40.240
important to know because i feel like

0:27:38.399,0:27:41.520
a lot of us don’t like i don’t you know

0:27:40.240,0:27:43.360
have even like

0:27:41.520,0:27:44.799
a frame of reference you know like this

0:27:43.360,0:27:46.559
is so new

0:27:44.799,0:27:48.080
just like the concepts that we’re cut

0:27:46.559,0:27:48.960
that we’re covering oh jax was something

0:27:48.080,0:27:52.480
that i wanted to

0:27:48.960,0:27:53.520
touch on oh oh um she said okay so jack

0:27:52.480,0:27:55.600
mentioned how

0:27:53.520,0:27:57.840
this podcast like this episode is

0:27:55.600,0:27:59.520
touching on like a lot of other things

0:27:57.840,0:28:01.360
and i think that kind of speaks to how

0:27:59.520,0:28:02.480
like women were like and women’s like

0:28:01.360,0:28:04.799
reproductive

0:28:02.480,0:28:06.720
like freedoms and reproductive just like

0:28:04.799,0:28:08.880
the control of their reproduction

0:28:06.720,0:28:10.000
was like an underlying factor in a lot

0:28:08.880,0:28:11.600
of other things

0:28:10.000,0:28:13.279
but it was never really spoken about

0:28:11.600,0:28:14.720
right like this is like this underlying

0:28:13.279,0:28:16.000
current this underlying theme that

0:28:14.720,0:28:18.080
happened in like a lot

0:28:16.000,0:28:19.440
of different like periods of us history

0:28:18.080,0:28:20.880
and a lot of different oppressions

0:28:19.440,0:28:22.320
it’s just something that like has never

0:28:20.880,0:28:23.919
been spoken about so when you’re just

0:28:22.320,0:28:24.480
focusing on this you kind of see that it

0:28:23.919,0:28:26.080
threads

0:28:24.480,0:28:27.600
throughout like us history which i think

0:28:26.080,0:28:29.279
is like really interesting and also

0:28:27.600,0:28:30.559
crazy but unsurprising that it’s not

0:28:29.279,0:28:32.240
talked about because it combines

0:28:30.559,0:28:33.279
misogyny like no one likes talking about

0:28:32.240,0:28:35.600
women’s reproduction

0:28:33.279,0:28:37.520
like it’s just i mean no one i love it

0:28:35.600,0:28:38.960
but like

0:28:37.520,0:28:40.640
men have historically been a little

0:28:38.960,0:28:42.000
uncomfortable around it you know

0:28:40.640,0:28:44.080
and it speaks about like other

0:28:42.000,0:28:45.840
marginalized identities being

0:28:44.080,0:28:47.760
different race people of color and

0:28:45.840,0:28:49.279
slaves so i think it’s just like so

0:28:47.760,0:28:51.279
interesting how all of these kind of

0:28:49.279,0:28:53.039
become this really like this

0:28:51.279,0:28:55.600
underpinning oppressive

0:28:53.039,0:28:56.480
ruling like this oppressive policy you

0:28:55.600,0:28:58.480
know

0:28:56.480,0:29:00.720
yeah and i think just like to add on to

0:28:58.480,0:29:02.159
that it shows how history because

0:29:00.720,0:29:04.240
we all have said this before but like

0:29:02.159,0:29:06.399
history is a rabbit hole and

0:29:04.240,0:29:07.919
you cannot like history does affect

0:29:06.399,0:29:09.200
multiple things throughout time and

0:29:07.919,0:29:10.159
that’s why it’s important to study

0:29:09.200,0:29:11.919
history because

0:29:10.159,0:29:14.000
it’s not like these events happen in

0:29:11.919,0:29:15.440
like little pockets one event will like

0:29:14.000,0:29:16.640
lead to another event which leads to

0:29:15.440,0:29:18.480
another event and they

0:29:16.640,0:29:19.840
all throughout generations are going to

0:29:18.480,0:29:22.640
affect future

0:29:19.840,0:29:24.399
people and i kind of want to talk about

0:29:22.640,0:29:26.080
the resistance of native american women

0:29:24.399,0:29:28.000
because we want to always humanize

0:29:26.080,0:29:30.240
people and also just like not take away

0:29:28.000,0:29:34.080
their agency even in the retelling

0:29:30.240,0:29:36.080
so until mid-century mid-1900s there was

0:29:34.080,0:29:37.200
a tremendous resistance in some areas to

0:29:36.080,0:29:39.679
the acceptance of

0:29:37.200,0:29:40.640
government physicians the women might

0:29:39.679,0:29:42.080
tell the field nurse

0:29:40.640,0:29:43.600
yes i’ll come to the hospital and then

0:29:42.080,0:29:45.120
wouldn’t it’s actually quite funny to

0:29:43.600,0:29:46.559
read the documentary record

0:29:45.120,0:29:48.880
these field nurses would write in their

0:29:46.559,0:29:50.240
reports and that they were frustrated

0:29:48.880,0:29:51.919
that women who were basically pregnant

0:29:50.240,0:29:56.880
would just lie to their faces and say

0:29:51.919,0:29:56.880
no i’m not i found that so funny

0:29:57.279,0:30:01.279
in an effort to maintain reproductive

0:29:59.080,0:30:02.720
self-determination to keep reproduction

0:30:01.279,0:30:04.159
in these gendered and

0:30:02.720,0:30:06.799
generational networks where they

0:30:04.159,0:30:08.880
believed it belonged in the 1930s

0:30:06.799,0:30:11.039
susie yellowtail a crow woman took up

0:30:08.880,0:30:12.640
midwifery because of her dissatisfaction

0:30:11.039,0:30:13.840
with her own birthing experience at a

0:30:12.640,0:30:15.200
government hospital

0:30:13.840,0:30:16.880
and another example was the

0:30:15.200,0:30:18.159
establishment of the american indian

0:30:16.880,0:30:20.880
movement or aim

0:30:18.159,0:30:22.799
in 1968 in minneapolis this was an

0:30:20.880,0:30:24.480
inter-tribal group oh you guys have

0:30:22.799,0:30:25.840
you guys know about this yeah nat

0:30:24.480,0:30:27.760
covered aim in the

0:30:25.840,0:30:30.399
um there’s a native american civil

0:30:27.760,0:30:32.080
rights movement episode

0:30:30.399,0:30:34.000
please continue and you so you guys

0:30:32.080,0:30:35.360
already covered it and it’s just one of

0:30:34.000,0:30:36.000
several militant groups that became

0:30:35.360,0:30:37.360
associated

0:30:36.000,0:30:39.440
with what’s called the red power

0:30:37.360,0:30:41.120
movement and in the 1970s native

0:30:39.440,0:30:41.679
activism and resistance became very

0:30:41.120,0:30:43.360
visible

0:30:41.679,0:30:44.640
more widespread and ultimately

0:30:43.360,0:30:45.600
coordinated nationally and

0:30:44.640,0:30:46.960
internationally

0:30:45.600,0:30:48.640
and that’s when native women really

0:30:46.960,0:30:50.559
started to organize independently

0:30:48.640,0:30:52.320
they formed women of all red nations

0:30:50.559,0:30:54.000
warren the group that especially took on

0:30:52.320,0:30:55.600
these sterilization abuses

0:30:54.000,0:30:57.679
under pressure the us government

0:30:55.600,0:31:00.240
accountability office investigated the

0:30:57.679,0:31:02.000
issue in 1976. they released a report

0:31:00.240,0:31:03.360
which actually stopped short of saying

0:31:02.000,0:31:06.399
that government divisions

0:31:03.360,0:31:08.320
performed sterilizations coercively but

0:31:06.399,0:31:10.559
it did raise a number of concerns

0:31:08.320,0:31:12.080
regarding the consent process and in the

0:31:10.559,0:31:14.320
aftermath of this report

0:31:12.080,0:31:16.159
amidst native activism and also activism

0:31:14.320,0:31:18.080
by african-american and latino women

0:31:16.159,0:31:20.000
women who were like most poignantly

0:31:18.080,0:31:21.679
affected the department of health

0:31:20.000,0:31:23.360
education and welfare adopted new

0:31:21.679,0:31:24.559
regulations that offered some tangible

0:31:23.360,0:31:27.440
protections for women

0:31:24.559,0:31:27.919
which went into effect in 1979. that’s

0:31:27.440,0:31:30.000
the t

0:31:27.919,0:31:31.519
about their resistance oh so the last

0:31:30.000,0:31:36.240
topic for

0:31:31.519,0:31:39.679
today um is latino women

0:31:36.240,0:31:42.080
and between the 1930s and the 1970s

0:31:39.679,0:31:45.840
approximately wait for it one-third of

0:31:42.080,0:31:47.120
the female population of puerto rico was

0:31:45.840,0:31:48.960
making it the highest rate of

0:31:47.120,0:31:51.760
sterilization in the world

0:31:48.960,0:31:52.880
yeah like i can’t yeah now do you know

0:31:51.760,0:31:55.200
about this

0:31:52.880,0:31:56.559
yeah i just okay so i just read this

0:31:55.200,0:31:58.480
book called how to hide an

0:31:56.559,0:32:00.000
empire i plugged it in one of my mini

0:31:58.480,0:32:03.039
cells but like literally like they

0:32:00.000,0:32:04.159
go over the all the four sterilization

0:32:03.039,0:32:05.600
and like other

0:32:04.159,0:32:08.080
i guess like medical experiments

0:32:05.600,0:32:08.640
conducted on puerto ricans at the time

0:32:08.080,0:32:11.760
and like

0:32:08.640,0:32:14.960
but like just a third of the population

0:32:11.760,0:32:19.200
like that’s so hard to comprehend and

0:32:14.960,0:32:21.840
like yeah is it okay also

0:32:19.200,0:32:22.720
can only women be forcefully sterilized

0:32:21.840,0:32:24.240
we don’t have to keep this in the

0:32:22.720,0:32:27.120
episode i’m just like very

0:32:24.240,0:32:28.320
no that’s a great question yeah um men

0:32:27.120,0:32:30.640
can too

0:32:28.320,0:32:31.600
but for sterilization usually apply to

0:32:30.640,0:32:34.240
women

0:32:31.600,0:32:34.960
um and i think it’s kind of for obvious

0:32:34.240,0:32:37.600
reasons

0:32:34.960,0:32:39.120
um i feel like birth control usually is

0:32:37.600,0:32:42.240
like the women’s

0:32:39.120,0:32:44.240
burden you know um and also i feel like

0:32:42.240,0:32:45.519
if a woman is giving birth it’s easy

0:32:44.240,0:32:46.000
while you’re already in there it’s kind

0:32:45.519,0:32:48.640
of like

0:32:46.000,0:32:50.080
have another operation that’s true if i

0:32:48.640,0:32:52.000
had to guess i would guess that

0:32:50.080,0:32:53.279
men were also forcibly sterilized you

0:32:52.000,0:32:56.000
know especially like

0:32:53.279,0:32:58.000
ones who had disability like kind of we

0:32:56.000,0:32:58.720
said earlier feeble-mindedness was

0:32:58.000,0:33:01.200
considered

0:32:58.720,0:33:02.240
okay yeah i was curious so some argue

0:33:01.200,0:33:04.159
that the pressure to increase

0:33:02.240,0:33:06.000
sterilization procedures in puerto rico

0:33:04.159,0:33:08.080
was a targeted practice to decrease a

0:33:06.000,0:33:09.279
high level of poverty and unemployment

0:33:08.080,0:33:11.120
because the government blamed these

0:33:09.279,0:33:12.960
issues on overpopulation the

0:33:11.120,0:33:14.880
legalization of contraception in puerto

0:33:12.960,0:33:17.840
rico and the puerto rican government

0:33:14.880,0:33:20.080
passage of a law allowing sterilization

0:33:17.840,0:33:23.679
to be conducted at the discretion of a

0:33:20.080,0:33:25.840
eugenics board both occurred in 1937

0:33:23.679,0:33:25.840
i know

0:33:26.720,0:33:29.760
soon after the legal change a program

0:33:28.720,0:33:32.799
endorsed by

0:33:29.760,0:33:34.320
the u.s government um began sending

0:33:32.799,0:33:35.440
health department officials to rural

0:33:34.320,0:33:38.799
parts of the island

0:33:35.440,0:33:40.880
advocating for sterilization and by 1946

0:33:38.799,0:33:42.320
postpartum sterilizations happened

0:33:40.880,0:33:43.120
frequently in various puerto rican

0:33:42.320,0:33:45.360
hospitals

0:33:43.120,0:33:46.480
however a year later a study found that

0:33:45.360,0:33:48.559
a quarter of the women who had been

0:33:46.480,0:33:50.640
sterilized regretted the decisions

0:33:48.559,0:33:52.159
if a quarter reported that they regret

0:33:50.640,0:33:53.360
it like i just i’m thinking like how

0:33:52.159,0:33:56.320
many women are missing

0:33:53.360,0:33:57.440
in this um yeah how many were surveyed

0:33:56.320,0:34:00.640
even

0:33:57.440,0:34:03.919
might accurately reflect the

0:34:00.640,0:34:06.880
like the true feeling of women right

0:34:03.919,0:34:08.399
um but even i don’t know even if it was

0:34:06.880,0:34:08.960
just a quarter a quarter stole a lot of

0:34:08.399,0:34:10.960
people

0:34:08.960,0:34:12.240
a lot of people and catholics and

0:34:10.960,0:34:14.159
nationalists fought against

0:34:12.240,0:34:16.480
sterilizations in the 1950s

0:34:14.159,0:34:18.240
which eventually resulted in the law

0:34:16.480,0:34:19.520
being repealed in 1960

0:34:18.240,0:34:21.359
and also i thought this was really

0:34:19.520,0:34:22.639
interesting in puerto rico family

0:34:21.359,0:34:24.240
planning clinics could be found in

0:34:22.639,0:34:25.359
factories that provided free

0:34:24.240,0:34:28.800
sterilization

0:34:25.359,0:34:32.399
thanks to a usaid grant which is

0:34:28.800,0:34:35.919
wow what’s an aid grant what’s that

0:34:32.399,0:34:38.079
usaid like usaid yeah

0:34:35.919,0:34:39.440
it’s the for the listeners who don’t

0:34:38.079,0:34:41.280
know i guess because it’s not a very

0:34:39.440,0:34:44.480
well-known government agency

0:34:41.280,0:34:45.520
um it’s a federal agency that um is kind

0:34:44.480,0:34:48.079
of in charge of like

0:34:45.520,0:34:48.960
international aid i interned with them a

0:34:48.079,0:34:51.280
few months ago

0:34:48.960,0:34:52.320
and it’s just not a good look it’s not a

0:34:51.280,0:34:55.599
good look

0:34:52.320,0:34:59.440
they don’t do this anymore but you know

0:34:55.599,0:35:01.119
i was like ow through this program

0:34:59.440,0:35:02.960
puerto rican women became the guinea

0:35:01.119,0:35:04.320
pigs for u.s pharmaceutical companies

0:35:02.960,0:35:06.240
who were developing the modern birth

0:35:04.320,0:35:06.720
control pill once again mixed feelings

0:35:06.240,0:35:08.960
because it’s

0:35:06.720,0:35:10.560
not like birth control like modern birth

0:35:08.960,0:35:11.440
control and the pill like has helped a

0:35:10.560,0:35:13.280
lot of women

0:35:11.440,0:35:14.560
but like this history so dicey like at

0:35:13.280,0:35:16.400
the heart of it to remember

0:35:14.560,0:35:18.160
is that whether or not it’s good or bad

0:35:16.400,0:35:19.520
depends like the opinion of the woman

0:35:18.160,0:35:20.960
who’s like affected by it because it

0:35:19.520,0:35:23.040
gets so confusing because it’s like

0:35:20.960,0:35:24.480
birth control isn’t good or bad you know

0:35:23.040,0:35:26.480
and like sterilization

0:35:24.480,0:35:28.320
or whatever the procedure is called now

0:35:26.480,0:35:30.079
it’s not like good or bad

0:35:28.320,0:35:31.680
depending on like whether you want it or

0:35:30.079,0:35:33.280
you don’t and that’s it you know

0:35:31.680,0:35:35.200
that’s true right so i think it’s an

0:35:33.280,0:35:38.640
important distinction maybe to treat

0:35:35.200,0:35:41.280
women as humans i don’t know maybe

0:35:38.640,0:35:42.079
i thought i don’t know in deep that’s

0:35:41.280,0:35:45.920
pretty

0:35:42.079,0:35:48.960
rad and it’s controversial it is radical

0:35:45.920,0:35:51.200
so for sterilization was also common in

0:35:48.960,0:35:52.400
california so there was this one case

0:35:51.200,0:35:55.280
magical versus

0:35:52.400,0:35:56.960
quilligan in 1975 there was a federal

0:35:55.280,0:35:57.520
class action lawsuit in which these

0:35:56.960,0:35:59.119
women

0:35:57.520,0:36:01.520
fought back after being sterilized

0:35:59.119,0:36:02.079
without informed consent or under duress

0:36:01.520,0:36:04.400
and so

0:36:02.079,0:36:06.400
these women kind of refer to latino

0:36:04.400,0:36:07.040
women latinx women there was dolores

0:36:06.400,0:36:08.800
madrigal

0:36:07.040,0:36:10.320
who was one of the 10 plaintiffs in the

0:36:08.800,0:36:12.160
case and she was told that her

0:36:10.320,0:36:14.640
sterilization could easily be reversed

0:36:12.160,0:36:16.480
which i can’t hovita rivera and georgina

0:36:14.640,0:36:16.960
hernandez said that they were pressured

0:36:16.480,0:36:19.040
into

0:36:16.960,0:36:20.880
agreeing to the procedure after being

0:36:19.040,0:36:22.480
intensely criticized by doctors and

0:36:20.880,0:36:23.040
nurses for being poor and having

0:36:22.480,0:36:24.560
children

0:36:23.040,0:36:26.560
these are haunting stories but

0:36:24.560,0:36:28.240
especially the one of ladina hernandez

0:36:26.560,0:36:29.359
who she didn’t even find out that she’d

0:36:28.240,0:36:31.680
been sterilized

0:36:29.359,0:36:33.119
until years after her son was born at

0:36:31.680,0:36:34.800
the heart of the case was a question of

0:36:33.119,0:36:36.800
whether women were coerced into being

0:36:34.800,0:36:38.640
sterilized and if so if latinos were

0:36:36.800,0:36:40.000
targeted and at the end of the trial

0:36:38.640,0:36:42.160
1978 the judge

0:36:40.000,0:36:43.359
ruled that get ready for it neither of

0:36:42.160,0:36:45.760
the charges were true

0:36:43.359,0:36:48.079
citing misunderstandings due to the fact

0:36:45.760,0:36:48.800
that the women primarily spoke spanish

0:36:48.079,0:36:50.720
the judge

0:36:48.800,0:36:52.079
blamed their distress from the procedure

0:36:50.720,0:36:53.839
on cultural background

0:36:52.079,0:36:55.440
that made these women believe that their

0:36:53.839,0:36:56.160
worth was in their ability to have

0:36:55.440,0:36:58.640
children

0:36:56.160,0:36:59.440
so basically he was like nah they

0:36:58.640,0:37:01.520
weren’t coerced

0:36:59.440,0:37:03.119
now latinos weren’t targeted because i

0:37:01.520,0:37:04.800
don’t know they spoke spanish and they

0:37:03.119,0:37:06.079
also felt that their worth was in their

0:37:04.800,0:37:08.160
ability to have children

0:37:06.079,0:37:09.240
that’s so messed up what year is that

0:37:08.160,0:37:12.240
again

0:37:09.240,0:37:16.480

  1. oh my god

0:37:12.240,0:37:18.320
oh my god another cause of this decision

0:37:16.480,0:37:19.760
was that voluntary informed consent was

0:37:18.320,0:37:22.960
not a legal requirement

0:37:19.760,0:37:24.880
which is crazy until 1974 after the case

0:37:22.960,0:37:26.000
was decided although the latino women

0:37:24.880,0:37:28.720
did not win the case

0:37:26.000,0:37:30.960
magical changed state laws and helped to

0:37:28.720,0:37:31.839
solidify the careers of various latino

0:37:30.960,0:37:34.880
politicians

0:37:31.839,0:37:36.960
so you know not nothing okay so

0:37:34.880,0:37:39.359
and that’s kind of all the history that

0:37:36.960,0:37:41.760
i have i just kind of wanted to

0:37:39.359,0:37:43.920
chat a little bit about the effects of

0:37:41.760,0:37:46.480
these like how they still last today

0:37:43.920,0:37:47.920
and how i don’t know i feel like for me

0:37:46.480,0:37:48.240
there’s like a lot of things that kind

0:37:47.920,0:37:50.240
of

0:37:48.240,0:37:51.680
affect us personally that you know maybe

0:37:50.240,0:37:53.839
we should be thinking about

0:37:51.680,0:37:55.200
that we haven’t really liked that aren’t

0:37:53.839,0:37:57.040
really conversations that are

0:37:55.200,0:37:58.320
had and so these questions are like what

0:37:57.040,0:38:00.640
it means to be a woman

0:37:58.320,0:38:01.440
and how being a woman is inherently

0:38:00.640,0:38:03.760
political

0:38:01.440,0:38:05.760
and that’s true because you know women

0:38:03.760,0:38:08.560
are like marginalized

0:38:05.760,0:38:09.599
um there’s the pay gap there’s a lot of

0:38:08.560,0:38:12.720
policies that

0:38:09.599,0:38:13.359
kind of like um kind of hurt women’s

0:38:12.720,0:38:16.480
ability

0:38:13.359,0:38:17.520
to be equal members of society and also

0:38:16.480,0:38:19.520
a woman of color

0:38:17.520,0:38:21.200
and what it means to be able to control

0:38:19.520,0:38:22.640
one’s own reproductive future because i

0:38:21.200,0:38:24.240
feel like we talked about before like

0:38:22.640,0:38:25.440
it’s even scared like even just having

0:38:24.240,0:38:27.440
children

0:38:25.440,0:38:29.280
is terrifying you know and even just

0:38:27.440,0:38:31.280
like the responsibility of that

0:38:29.280,0:38:32.640
is terrifying but the fact that like

0:38:31.280,0:38:33.599
we’re able to control that on an

0:38:32.640,0:38:35.440
individual level

0:38:33.599,0:38:36.960
and how powerful and privileged even

0:38:35.440,0:38:39.040
those concerns are is like

0:38:36.960,0:38:41.040
really crazy to think about you know

0:38:39.040,0:38:41.760
yeah so i don’t know let’s talk about

0:38:41.040,0:38:42.800
those things

0:38:41.760,0:38:44.880
i feel like do you guys have any

0:38:42.800,0:38:46.400
thoughts on those

0:38:44.880,0:38:48.160
that’s a really good that’s a really

0:38:46.400,0:38:51.040
good question

0:38:48.160,0:38:52.320
i guess yeah i mean like you can’t

0:38:51.040,0:38:54.079
ignore

0:38:52.320,0:38:56.000
the ways in which women especially that

0:38:54.079,0:38:57.359
layer of color the ways in which people

0:38:56.000,0:38:59.119
of different color have been treated

0:38:57.359,0:39:01.599
historically and the way

0:38:59.119,0:39:02.880
that your gender will affect like what

0:39:01.599,0:39:04.880
jobs you can take

0:39:02.880,0:39:06.560
what and that this is like societal

0:39:04.880,0:39:07.119
pressure but also there are actual laws

0:39:06.560,0:39:08.640
in place

0:39:07.119,0:39:09.839
that like keep you from having the vote

0:39:08.640,0:39:10.800
they keep you from having government

0:39:09.839,0:39:12.400
representation

0:39:10.800,0:39:14.079
they keep you from getting to study

0:39:12.400,0:39:15.839
certain subjects in school yeah there’s

0:39:14.079,0:39:17.760
just like so many layers and i

0:39:15.839,0:39:19.040
when you’re talking about um all the

0:39:17.760,0:39:21.200
ways in which there’s been like

0:39:19.040,0:39:23.839
sterilization of different colored women

0:39:21.200,0:39:25.200
i also want to add to i know like asian

0:39:23.839,0:39:26.000
women are not super part of this

0:39:25.200,0:39:28.160
narrative

0:39:26.000,0:39:29.920
and reason that could be is because with

0:39:28.160,0:39:31.200
the chinese exclusion act like asian

0:39:29.920,0:39:31.680
women were not allowed to enter the

0:39:31.200,0:39:34.880
country

0:39:31.680,0:39:36.400
during this time up until the 1950s so

0:39:34.880,0:39:38.079
you know there’s so many other layers

0:39:36.400,0:39:39.359
and asian women are not excused from

0:39:38.079,0:39:41.040
this there are lots of things that were

0:39:39.359,0:39:42.640
happening over in east asia and

0:39:41.040,0:39:44.560
southeast asia too and

0:39:42.640,0:39:46.160
this is something that affects everyone

0:39:44.560,0:39:47.920
globally and

0:39:46.160,0:39:49.440
melinda gates and like michelle obama

0:39:47.920,0:39:51.040
all do a lot of work with like girl

0:39:49.440,0:39:53.520
empowerment around the world

0:39:51.040,0:39:54.720
and it’s proven time and time again yes

0:39:53.520,0:39:56.640
with statistics that

0:39:54.720,0:39:58.240
whoever suffers the most like in our

0:39:56.640,0:39:59.200
global sphere is going to be like a

0:39:58.240,0:40:01.359
colored woman

0:39:59.200,0:40:03.040
yeah i guess like to add on to like

0:40:01.359,0:40:05.920
intersectionality of like

0:40:03.040,0:40:06.880
gender and race like this does not

0:40:05.920,0:40:09.839
surprise me

0:40:06.880,0:40:10.400
that i have not heard of a lot of this

0:40:09.839,0:40:12.400
before

0:40:10.400,0:40:13.520
because like i feel like the feminist

0:40:12.400,0:40:16.960
movement in general

0:40:13.520,0:40:20.000
and like women’s history in the us is so

0:40:16.960,0:40:22.480
whitewashed and like we only learn about

0:40:20.000,0:40:23.920
white women in the us i just can’t get

0:40:22.480,0:40:24.640
over the fact that this is happening

0:40:23.920,0:40:26.640
until

0:40:24.640,0:40:27.760
the 80s no one’s talking about it

0:40:26.640,0:40:29.200
especially like

0:40:27.760,0:40:30.880
coming from canada where like they’re

0:40:29.200,0:40:32.800
doing so much research and so much

0:40:30.880,0:40:34.800
reconciliation efforts and like just

0:40:32.800,0:40:37.200
trying to bring awareness to the issue

0:40:34.800,0:40:39.280
and like educating the people on this

0:40:37.200,0:40:41.359
topic the efforts are a lot

0:40:39.280,0:40:43.119
weaker here compared to what i’ve seen

0:40:41.359,0:40:44.480
in canada at least that i’m aware of

0:40:43.119,0:40:46.640
going off your point nat

0:40:44.480,0:40:47.599
in deep i want to ask did you discover

0:40:46.640,0:40:50.560
any like

0:40:47.599,0:40:51.119
reparations that have been made to make

0:40:50.560,0:40:52.960
right

0:40:51.119,0:40:55.280
these wrongs that have happened yeah i

0:40:52.960,0:40:58.400
think that there has been an effort

0:40:55.280,0:41:00.319
towards reparations i’m not sure exactly

0:40:58.400,0:41:01.520
which population i do remember there was

0:41:00.319,0:41:03.359
a mentioning about how

0:41:01.520,0:41:04.880
some families who were affected by four

0:41:03.359,0:41:06.480
sterilization i think it might have been

0:41:04.880,0:41:09.040
indigenous families where

0:41:06.480,0:41:10.000
they tried to give them reparations but

0:41:09.040,0:41:11.520
at the same time i

0:41:10.000,0:41:14.079
think that there was also talk about

0:41:11.520,0:41:15.520
like how it isn’t entirely successful

0:41:14.079,0:41:17.359
implies like you can’t make up for that

0:41:15.520,0:41:19.359
you know there is a consensus

0:41:17.359,0:41:20.480
like the reparations are not ideal but i

0:41:19.359,0:41:23.520
think that reparations

0:41:20.480,0:41:24.720
were like attempted by the united states

0:41:23.520,0:41:26.079
i don’t know how can you repent like i

0:41:24.720,0:41:27.760
just feel like it’s impossible because

0:41:26.079,0:41:29.200
right history builds on itself so how

0:41:27.760,0:41:31.920
can you repair

0:41:29.200,0:41:33.599
like breaking down a whole civilization

0:41:31.920,0:41:34.880
just this current state of the united

0:41:33.599,0:41:36.160
states would be entirely different like

0:41:34.880,0:41:38.480
there’s nothing you can do

0:41:36.160,0:41:39.200
to fix that bring that back or like make

0:41:38.480,0:41:41.599
it okay

0:41:39.200,0:41:43.520
you know right there’s value too though

0:41:41.599,0:41:45.119
and that attempt should still be made i

0:41:43.520,0:41:46.319
think like a lot of people will use that

0:41:45.119,0:41:48.319
argument and they’ll

0:41:46.319,0:41:49.760
be like we know each generation should

0:41:48.319,0:41:51.040
start fresh and

0:41:49.760,0:41:53.440
there’s nothing we can do it’s in the

0:41:51.040,0:41:55.200
past no each generation is not starting

0:41:53.440,0:41:57.280
fresh though because of the past so

0:41:55.200,0:41:59.839
there should be a continuous effort to

0:41:57.280,0:42:01.920
make those reparations and okay i just

0:41:59.839,0:42:04.400
like a little because i was watching a

0:42:01.920,0:42:06.160
finance video as you guys know i love

0:42:04.400,0:42:07.359
and we’re talking about the economics of

0:42:06.160,0:42:08.240
what it’s like to graduate in a

0:42:07.359,0:42:10.480
recession

0:42:08.240,0:42:12.160
and so think about the 2008 financial

0:42:10.480,0:42:12.960
crisis all those people graduating the

0:42:12.160,0:42:15.040
recession

0:42:12.960,0:42:16.800
and now it’s projected these are

0:42:15.040,0:42:17.280
statistics not my opinion they have

0:42:16.800,0:42:19.520
lower

0:42:17.280,0:42:21.040
earnings they have less probability to

0:42:19.520,0:42:22.960
start a family less probability

0:42:21.040,0:42:24.720
to buy a house because they were like

0:42:22.960,0:42:26.640
slammed with these loans and

0:42:24.720,0:42:28.240
lower pay wages because you’re

0:42:26.640,0:42:29.920
graduating in a bad job market

0:42:28.240,0:42:31.760
less opportunities they’re not in the

0:42:29.920,0:42:34.000
same places as their parents were

0:42:31.760,0:42:35.839
for building wealth for their families

0:42:34.000,0:42:37.599
and that’s nothing that they did

0:42:35.839,0:42:39.119
i think we all can agree economically

0:42:37.599,0:42:40.560
you got dealt a bad hand

0:42:39.119,0:42:42.560
and it’s not anything that you did you

0:42:40.560,0:42:44.640
went to school you did the right things

0:42:42.560,0:42:46.640
and if you can think about that and then

0:42:44.640,0:42:48.160
you can shift your mind to understand

0:42:46.640,0:42:49.680
that that’s exactly what happens

0:42:48.160,0:42:51.920
to people of color it’s nothing that

0:42:49.680,0:42:53.280
they’re doing wrong or anyone in any

0:42:51.920,0:42:54.160
oppressive i want to like i’m from

0:42:53.280,0:42:56.319
appalachia

0:42:54.160,0:42:57.920
appalachian is white working class there

0:42:56.319,0:42:58.560
have been problems with that group as

0:42:57.920,0:43:00.160
well they’re

0:42:58.560,0:43:02.480
white immigrants as well who have dealt

0:43:00.160,0:43:03.119
with things but the point is that like

0:43:02.480,0:43:05.040
sometimes

0:43:03.119,0:43:06.800
things are not within your control that

0:43:05.040,0:43:08.560
have happened to you and now you’re

0:43:06.800,0:43:10.160
dealing with all the repercussions of

0:43:08.560,0:43:12.000
that throughout generations

0:43:10.160,0:43:13.599
and that’s nothing that you did wrong

0:43:12.000,0:43:15.520
and that that’s up to us

0:43:13.599,0:43:16.960
who are in positions of power and

0:43:15.520,0:43:18.640
privilege to help

0:43:16.960,0:43:20.319
in any way that we can if that makes

0:43:18.640,0:43:23.440
sense that’s how i see it

0:43:20.319,0:43:25.119
as some hot tea i 100 agree i do realize

0:43:23.440,0:43:26.480
that that argument is an argument and

0:43:25.119,0:43:28.000
not making reparations

0:43:26.480,0:43:29.680
i think it was just being a little bit

0:43:28.000,0:43:31.520
like how could you ever you know i

0:43:29.680,0:43:33.119
understand

0:43:31.520,0:43:34.720
you know but that is a good point and i

0:43:33.119,0:43:36.480
think that i should be like a little

0:43:34.720,0:43:38.640
more mindful of the way that i

0:43:36.480,0:43:40.160
kind of say like oh but you can’t even

0:43:38.640,0:43:42.000
do it you know because that is a good

0:43:40.160,0:43:44.720
point it’s not possible to

0:43:42.000,0:43:46.000
completely make up for what’s been done

0:43:44.720,0:43:46.400
but if there’s no effort then like

0:43:46.000,0:43:47.680
you’re

0:43:46.400,0:43:49.280
you’re just still doing it well it’s

0:43:47.680,0:43:50.400
like population control is something

0:43:49.280,0:43:52.319
that’s so permanent

0:43:50.400,0:43:54.000
yeah like you said like how like how can

0:43:52.319,0:43:56.480
you make up for it but at the very least

0:43:54.000,0:43:57.839
we could at least educate ourselves and

0:43:56.480,0:44:00.480
like promote awareness

0:43:57.839,0:44:02.319
how are we supposed to come up with not

0:44:00.480,0:44:04.720
a solution necessarily but like how are

0:44:02.319,0:44:06.720
we supposed to respond to this and like

0:44:04.720,0:44:08.319
help promote change if like no one knows

0:44:06.720,0:44:10.160
about it you know yeah

0:44:08.319,0:44:11.599
so really touching this but i also

0:44:10.160,0:44:13.599
wanted to think about how some of these

0:44:11.599,0:44:15.040
practices and problems may be ongoing

0:44:13.599,0:44:16.720
and the repercussions of them are

0:44:15.040,0:44:18.240
definitely ongoing in the us

0:44:16.720,0:44:19.359
this is obvious that these policies were

0:44:18.240,0:44:20.800
not written by the people who were

0:44:19.359,0:44:22.000
affected the fact that i’m still

0:44:20.800,0:44:23.920
surprised when i see women

0:44:22.000,0:44:25.359
of color in congress tells us that like

0:44:23.920,0:44:26.720
we’re not at the point where

0:44:25.359,0:44:28.720
the communities that are affected by

0:44:26.720,0:44:30.400
policy are an equal representation of

0:44:28.720,0:44:33.280
the ones making the policy

0:44:30.400,0:44:35.359
i guess those are my remarks and uh how

0:44:33.280,0:44:37.440
are you

0:44:35.359,0:44:39.440
to guys on to that but i recently read

0:44:37.440,0:44:40.000
an article by the new york times talking

0:44:39.440,0:44:43.040
about

0:44:40.000,0:44:45.040
healthcare bias towards black women in

0:44:43.040,0:44:47.440
like the healthcare sector and how

0:44:45.040,0:44:49.040
more women of color died during

0:44:47.440,0:44:50.160
childbirth because

0:44:49.040,0:44:52.240
kind of like you mentioned earlier

0:44:50.160,0:44:54.560
perception of pain there’s a bias

0:44:52.240,0:44:56.400
that people of color women of color

0:44:54.560,0:44:58.000
don’t feel as much pain so if women

0:44:56.400,0:44:59.440
say they’re in pain or there’s something

0:44:58.000,0:45:01.200
wrong they’re not going to be

0:44:59.440,0:45:02.960
believed as much so like that’s another

0:45:01.200,0:45:05.119
thing that’s like oh there’s still

0:45:02.960,0:45:06.960
a lot of issues ongoing today thank you

0:45:05.119,0:45:09.359
so much indeed like that was

0:45:06.960,0:45:10.319
incredible and like so comprehensive and

0:45:09.359,0:45:12.160
like i literally

0:45:10.319,0:45:13.680
i learned so much and there’s so many

0:45:12.160,0:45:15.359
topics that you brought up that

0:45:13.680,0:45:17.359
i want to look into maybe we could do in

0:45:15.359,0:45:19.280
future episodes like everyone

0:45:17.359,0:45:21.280
encourage you to do like individual

0:45:19.280,0:45:23.599
research too like we mentioned

0:45:21.280,0:45:25.280
there’s still ongoing violations of

0:45:23.599,0:45:28.960
women of color’s bodies so

0:45:25.280,0:45:30.240
don’t forget don’t forget and also it

0:45:28.960,0:45:33.280
was my pleasure

0:45:30.240,0:45:35.040
thank you indeed thanks guys it was my i

0:45:33.280,0:45:37.920
can talk about women’s reproductive

0:45:35.040,0:45:39.520
health and intersectionality and old i

0:45:37.920,0:45:41.440
can literally talk about it all day

0:45:39.520,0:45:43.200
like we found my passion yeah we’re

0:45:41.440,0:45:44.319
bringing you back for another episode

0:45:43.200,0:45:46.650
you know it

0:45:44.319,0:45:57.469
you know i would love it

0:45:46.650,0:45:57.469
[Music]

There Was A Native American Civil Rights Movement?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! 🎙 The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com 📦 ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnkt  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
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Show Notes

The Native American civil rights movement is considered to be one of the most radical social movements of the era, but it is largely overlooked in the context of our country’s history and often forgotten by most Americans. In this episode, Nat gives a brief overview of Native American social activism during the 1960s & 70s, focusing on the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973.

Sources:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1rUccHlEAqagzdCS4YUKHYWBB62Xlw5lAx0j42lVdsXI/edit?usp=sharing

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:04.020
hi everybody welcome to another episode

0:00:01.829,0:00:08.460
of how did we not know that my name is

0:00:04.020,0:00:11.240
Jack and I’m Matt and today that is

0:00:08.460,0:00:13.830
going to present a topic of her choosing

0:00:11.240,0:00:15.839
yeah today I’m going to be talking about

0:00:13.830,0:00:18.810
the Native American civil rights

0:00:15.839,0:00:23.250
movement in the 1960s and seventies

0:00:18.810,0:00:26.430
okay do tell so yeah actually I’m super

0:00:23.250,0:00:30.090
excited to talk about this I feel like I

0:00:26.430,0:00:33.420
really did not know anything about this

0:00:30.090,0:00:35.670
movement um so yeah I have a lot to talk

0:00:33.420,0:00:37.710
about I’m going to talk about quite a

0:00:35.670,0:00:40.559
few different demonstrations and

0:00:37.710,0:00:42.809
activist groups and so just before to

0:00:40.559,0:00:46.289
get into all that I kind of want to set

0:00:42.809,0:00:49.170
the stage of as to what the u.s. looks

0:00:46.289,0:00:52.910
like during the 1960’s so basically

0:00:49.170,0:00:56.280
during this time we see a huge surge in

0:00:52.910,0:00:59.399
social activism and many different civil

0:00:56.280,0:01:01.890
rights movements the most I guess the

0:00:59.399,0:01:04.260
most notable one is the African American

0:01:01.890,0:01:07.260
civil rights movement and so the Civil

0:01:04.260,0:01:09.810
Rights Act is actually passed in 1964 as

0:01:07.260,0:01:13.290
we all know and that was a huge landmark

0:01:09.810,0:01:17.580
for minorities in the u.s. um

0:01:13.290,0:01:20.850
and so with this in mind we also see a

0:01:17.580,0:01:24.750
lot of social activism in regards to

0:01:20.850,0:01:28.200
Native American rights in the US and so

0:01:24.750,0:01:31.979
before you go I have a question so with

0:01:28.200,0:01:34.770
the Native American Civil Rights Act how

0:01:31.979,0:01:36.930
did it look for Native Americans in the

0:01:34.770,0:01:39.450
country during the 1960’s what because

0:01:36.930,0:01:41.189
there’s we see like segregation between

0:01:39.450,0:01:43.049
blacks and whites but I actually don’t

0:01:41.189,0:01:44.970
know what that looked like for Asians or

0:01:43.049,0:01:48.000
Hispanics or Native American so did you

0:01:44.970,0:01:49.680
do like research on that yeah so this is

0:01:48.000,0:01:52.290
actually just like the general Civil

0:01:49.680,0:01:55.530
Rights Act in 1964 that was passed in

0:01:52.290,0:01:59.430
regards like segregation in general but

0:01:55.530,0:02:02.729
so Native Americans at this time I would

0:01:59.430,0:02:04.740
say a lot of the main concerns on in

0:02:02.729,0:02:09.149
regards to their protest is about land

0:02:04.740,0:02:13.410
claim and life on the reservations and

0:02:09.149,0:02:16.590
treaties that had been ignored by the

0:02:13.410,0:02:21.390
and so a lot of it is has a more legal

0:02:16.590,0:02:24.960
focus um compared to other I guess other

0:02:21.390,0:02:29.850
minority groups and so yeah yeah yeah

0:02:24.960,0:02:32.520
it’s just a lot of like land claim right

0:02:29.850,0:02:35.820
if that makes sense yeah that doesn’t

0:02:32.520,0:02:39.570
make sense yeah and so Native Americans

0:02:35.820,0:02:41.760
were also facing a lot of racism and we

0:02:39.570,0:02:44.960
see like harassment from police and

0:02:41.760,0:02:49.550
profiling as well at this time too and

0:02:44.960,0:02:51.720
and struggles between you know

0:02:49.550,0:02:55.200
encouragement of Native Americans to

0:02:51.720,0:02:58.800
assimilate to standard American white

0:02:55.200,0:03:02.930
culture and at this sign there’s yeah

0:02:58.800,0:03:07.200
there’s mostly a lot of anger about a

0:03:02.930,0:03:10.680
reclaiming land I hadn’t stolen in the

0:03:07.200,0:03:13.230
past so we also see like protests

0:03:10.680,0:03:15.780
against the holiday of Columbus Day a

0:03:13.230,0:03:18.870
lot of people are to this day are so

0:03:15.780,0:03:21.810
very angry that it is a u.s. holiday um

0:03:18.870,0:03:25.890
oh wow they were protesting that in the

0:03:21.810,0:03:28.770
60s yeah it’s you dude I got literally I

0:03:25.890,0:03:30.570
got taught about Columbus Day like as a

0:03:28.770,0:03:32.580
good thing when I was in second grade

0:03:30.570,0:03:36.750
and there it already it was already

0:03:32.580,0:03:39.870
controversial ya know I I was really

0:03:36.750,0:03:42.330
surprised to see that – I I also thought

0:03:39.870,0:03:44.430
it was like a more recent issue but no

0:03:42.330,0:03:48.989
this has been literally being protest

0:03:44.430,0:03:50.970
against since the 60s but yet so we see

0:03:48.989,0:03:53.820
protests against that holiday and then

0:03:50.970,0:03:56.430
we also see a lot of lobbying um of

0:03:53.820,0:03:58.320
history textbook companies to include

0:03:56.430,0:04:01.550
more respectful accounts of needham

0:03:58.320,0:04:04.950
Native American culture in history and

0:04:01.550,0:04:07.500
so obviously this is episode of how did

0:04:04.950,0:04:09.360
we not know that so I still think

0:04:07.500,0:04:11.760
there’s a lot of progress that needs to

0:04:09.360,0:04:13.860
be made in regards to the American

0:04:11.760,0:04:18.060
education system and how it teaches

0:04:13.860,0:04:20.190
Native American history um but I mean

0:04:18.060,0:04:22.260
compared to how it was in the 1960s I

0:04:20.190,0:04:25.910
think a lot there has been like

0:04:22.260,0:04:28.730
significant changes that have been made

0:04:25.910,0:04:30.890
with like the Internet I think now you

0:04:28.730,0:04:32.510
can actually like hear the other side’s

0:04:30.890,0:04:34.190
opinions instead of just getting a

0:04:32.510,0:04:36.590
textbook and having to rely on that

0:04:34.190,0:04:40.940
exactly exactly I think that’s the most

0:04:36.590,0:04:43.130
important way to understand how Native

0:04:40.940,0:04:44.600
American held it with the contemporary

0:04:43.130,0:04:46.460
situation is like and then also

0:04:44.600,0:04:49.400
accessories from Native Americans and

0:04:46.460,0:04:55.010
indigenous peoples directly so yeah

0:04:49.400,0:04:57.350
internet um so I guess to go into a

0:04:55.010,0:05:00.440
little bit more about the act as a

0:04:57.350,0:05:01.370
movement we also see organized organized

0:05:00.440,0:05:03.500
fishin’s

0:05:01.370,0:05:05.540
where Native Americans would fish in

0:05:03.500,0:05:07.730
rivers that white residents wanted

0:05:05.540,0:05:09.650
exclusively for themselves and so these

0:05:07.730,0:05:14.870
were more like peaceful demonstrations

0:05:09.650,0:05:20.600
um also like uh fighting for their land

0:05:14.870,0:05:22.550
claims and in 1961 so 500 Indian leaders

0:05:20.600,0:05:24.860
from all across the country meet in

0:05:22.550,0:05:28.070
Chicago to form the National Indian

0:05:24.860,0:05:30.380
Youth Council and so as a result of the

0:05:28.070,0:05:32.360
organization begins to petition the

0:05:30.380,0:05:34.280
federal government to address hundreds

0:05:32.360,0:05:36.880
of Indian treaties that the government

0:05:34.280,0:05:40.270
had broken over the last 400 years and

0:05:36.880,0:05:42.980
so like I guess this is one of the

0:05:40.270,0:05:44.720
what’s the word for it like this is one

0:05:42.980,0:05:46.370
of the more like notable features of the

0:05:44.720,0:05:49.240
movement at this time is that we start

0:05:46.370,0:05:52.640
seeing groups we there had always been

0:05:49.240,0:05:55.370
activists and people who wanted to make

0:05:52.640,0:05:57.980
a change but now we see more organized

0:05:55.370,0:06:00.530
groups coming together to make

0:05:57.980,0:06:03.080
substantial legislative change and so

0:06:00.530,0:06:06.620
for example when the federal government

0:06:03.080,0:06:08.840
wanted to build a dam on Seneca land the

0:06:06.620,0:06:10.520
Native Americans cited treaties that had

0:06:08.840,0:06:12.560
been signed during George Washington’s

0:06:10.520,0:06:14.270
administration saying that the US

0:06:12.560,0:06:16.880
wouldn’t build on Seneca land and so

0:06:14.270,0:06:20.690
that project got cancelled and so you

0:06:16.880,0:06:22.400
can see like um yeah like a lot of

0:06:20.690,0:06:25.520
progress is being made

0:06:22.400,0:06:27.850
um and then actually Native Americans

0:06:25.520,0:06:31.220
were at the center of the anti-vietnam

0:06:27.850,0:06:34.700
protests and so I thought this was

0:06:31.220,0:06:36.350
really interesting and really honorable

0:06:34.700,0:06:38.390
because they were not only fighting for

0:06:36.350,0:06:39.650
their own rights but also against like

0:06:38.390,0:06:43.970
the aggression of the

0:06:39.650,0:06:45.710
US government as as a whole and the

0:06:43.970,0:06:47.930
government’s like brutality to its own

0:06:45.710,0:06:50.300
people and the people of Vietnam because

0:06:47.930,0:06:52.580
actually many Native Americans who have

0:06:50.300,0:06:55.160
served in the war found a lot of

0:06:52.580,0:06:58.070
similarities between American soldiers

0:06:55.160,0:07:00.770
treatment of Vietnamese peasants and

0:06:58.070,0:07:06.680
then past soldiers treatment of Indians

0:07:00.770,0:07:08.300
so I thought that was like yeah um and I

0:07:06.680,0:07:11.530
don’t think that gets mentioned a lot

0:07:08.300,0:07:13.669
yeah honestly we don’t talk enough about

0:07:11.530,0:07:16.970
Vietnam war either that should be

0:07:13.669,0:07:18.620
another episode and like I don’t know if

0:07:16.970,0:07:20.570
I told you when I actually went to

0:07:18.620,0:07:24.199
Vietnam and just like spent a day in the

0:07:20.570,0:07:26.539
museums and like every American should

0:07:24.199,0:07:29.900
probably take a trip to Vietnam and just

0:07:26.539,0:07:32.000
do that too because the way that we

0:07:29.900,0:07:34.010
treated them like a lot of American

0:07:32.000,0:07:36.080
soldiers is ridiculous and it’s not just

0:07:34.010,0:07:38.150
like finding and soldiers it’s just like

0:07:36.080,0:07:41.180
innocent civilians and kids and the way

0:07:38.150,0:07:44.630
that we came in there yeah literally

0:07:41.180,0:07:48.800
just so many innocent lives were lost

0:07:44.630,0:07:50.389
and it was really brutal yeah they’d

0:07:48.800,0:07:52.910
killed and harmed them

0:07:50.389,0:07:55.070
and I honestly like tortured to it

0:07:52.910,0:07:58.880
wasn’t even like the images are really

0:07:55.070,0:07:59.450
disturbing anyways that’s another topic

0:07:58.880,0:08:01.190
for anything

0:07:59.450,0:08:02.450
I think that’s like one of the reasons

0:08:01.190,0:08:05.180
why we don’t talk about it is because

0:08:02.450,0:08:07.810
it’s really hard to remember but we have

0:08:05.180,0:08:11.720
to remember it so we don’t repeat that

0:08:07.810,0:08:12.949
in the future but yeah yeah yeah that’s

0:08:11.720,0:08:15.410
maybe that’s something we can talk about

0:08:12.949,0:08:17.690
in another episode tube because

0:08:15.410,0:08:19.550
conveniently and I feel like in all my

0:08:17.690,0:08:21.710
history classes we only made it up to

0:08:19.550,0:08:26.530
World War two we never got to that era

0:08:21.710,0:08:29.900
but anyway so one of the UH one of the

0:08:26.530,0:08:31.610
events during this time to support the

0:08:29.900,0:08:33.740
movement that caught some of the most

0:08:31.610,0:08:37.250
media attention was the occupation of

0:08:33.740,0:08:41.450
Alcatraz Island so I really had no idea

0:08:37.250,0:08:44.180
of this but a Native American activist

0:08:41.450,0:08:46.190
had actually a like they went to the

0:08:44.180,0:08:48.589
island and occupied it for a very

0:08:46.190,0:08:52.010
significant time and so the prison had

0:08:48.589,0:08:52.910
actually closed in 1963 and so after

0:08:52.010,0:08:55.190
that native

0:08:52.910,0:08:57.350
Americans in San Francisco and the Bay

0:08:55.190,0:08:59.690
Area were started lobbying the

0:08:57.350,0:09:02.240
government to have it redeveloped as an

0:08:59.690,0:09:05.510
Indian cultural center in school but

0:09:02.240,0:09:07.370
like they the government basically I was

0:09:05.510,0:09:10.550
like oh no sorry

0:09:07.370,0:09:12.110
and that’s all so how do you get when

0:09:10.550,0:09:15.980
you have to take like a bow every day to

0:09:12.110,0:09:17.720
get to Alcatraz yeah yeah I think yeah

0:09:15.980,0:09:19.760
you would have to take a bow I don’t

0:09:17.720,0:09:23.450
know maybe like water taxis or something

0:09:19.760,0:09:25.730
okay I’ve never been to Alcatraz I don’t

0:09:23.450,0:09:31.910
know how far away it is from I think you

0:09:25.730,0:09:33.680
can possibly swim not really though you

0:09:31.910,0:09:36.470
can really in shape you good swim

0:09:33.680,0:09:37.880
no like there were like prisoners who

0:09:36.470,0:09:39.770
escaped from Alcatraz and the whole

0:09:37.880,0:09:42.380
thing it’s like there’s actually only

0:09:39.770,0:09:44.510
like three prisoners who escaped and

0:09:42.380,0:09:47.360
that was like a big conspiracy theory

0:09:44.510,0:09:49.850
because the bodies were never found but

0:09:47.360,0:09:51.800
then I don’t know I looked into it for a

0:09:49.850,0:09:53.930
little bit they do have like a triathlon

0:09:51.800,0:09:55.070
called the Escape from Alcatraz but I

0:09:53.930,0:09:57.290
don’t think you’re actually leaving

0:09:55.070,0:10:00.140
Alcatraz I think you’re on a boat out

0:09:57.290,0:10:05.900
there and then you swim in I see okay

0:10:00.140,0:10:09.320
yeah they’re mad like go be free but so

0:10:05.900,0:10:10.430
yeah okay so in October 1969 a fire

0:10:09.320,0:10:12.440
burns down

0:10:10.430,0:10:14.990
san Francisco’s American Indian Center

0:10:12.440,0:10:16.640
and so the state of Americans are even

0:10:14.990,0:10:18.740
more adamant like hey now we really

0:10:16.640,0:10:22.430
don’t have anything like can we please

0:10:18.740,0:10:25.100
please build an Native American cultural

0:10:22.430,0:10:27.110
center on this island and again the

0:10:25.100,0:10:31.010
government says no and so in Nova

0:10:27.110,0:10:32.960
November 19 1969 a handful of protesters

0:10:31.010,0:10:36.020
belonging to an activist group known as

0:10:32.960,0:10:38.720
Indians of all tribes occupy Alcatraz

0:10:36.020,0:10:41.990
and so they are led by a mohawk leader

0:10:38.720,0:10:44.990
and Professor Richard Oakes and Richard

0:10:41.990,0:10:46.880
Oakes he basically argues that the

0:10:44.990,0:10:49.460
protesters had the right to occupy the

0:10:46.880,0:10:53.180
island under a treaty provision that

0:10:49.460,0:10:56.420
granted Native Americans on used federal

0:10:53.180,0:10:58.580
land and he also said what quite

0:10:56.420,0:11:00.860
sarcastically that alphatron should be

0:10:58.580,0:11:03.470
an Indian Reservation because it was

0:11:00.860,0:11:08.290
isolated in Rocky it had no running

0:11:03.470,0:11:08.290
water and it house prisoners so

0:11:11.570,0:11:17.270
like oh my gosh you everyone should look

0:11:14.670,0:11:25.110
up Richard Oaks and all of his

0:11:17.270,0:11:27.840
interviews because he like oh my god and

0:11:25.110,0:11:30.620
so these professors on the end up saying

0:11:27.840,0:11:35.880
for one night before they’re removed by

0:11:30.620,0:11:38.520
authorities and so Oaks he comes back in

0:11:35.880,0:11:40.890
new states that if a one day occupation

0:11:38.520,0:11:43.320
by white men on Indian land years ago

0:11:40.890,0:11:45.090
establish squatter’s rights then the one

0:11:43.320,0:11:46.890
day occupation of Alcatraz should

0:11:45.090,0:11:49.740
establish Indian rights to the island

0:11:46.890,0:11:53.910
but he was like really this and like I

0:11:49.740,0:11:57.090
love it but uh oh and so on November

0:11:53.910,0:11:59.130
20th 1969 the Indians of all tribes

0:11:57.090,0:12:02.010
activist groups they try one more time

0:11:59.130,0:12:05.160
to occupy the island and this time they

0:12:02.010,0:12:07.980
come with 89 men women and children and

0:12:05.160,0:12:10.380
so a bunch of people coming this time

0:12:07.980,0:12:12.900
and they all move into the old wardens

0:12:10.380,0:12:14.970
house and the guards quarters and they

0:12:12.900,0:12:16.800
address the public and they say their

0:12:14.970,0:12:19.200
intentions to use the island for an

0:12:16.800,0:12:22.230
Indian School cultural center and museum

0:12:19.200,0:12:25.950
and so it’s like it’s pretty innocent

0:12:22.230,0:12:27.420
you know innocent request like you it’s

0:12:25.950,0:12:30.840
not they’re not really asking for much

0:12:27.420,0:12:33.810
and so Richard Nixon is president at the

0:12:30.840,0:12:36.360
time and his administration was pretty

0:12:33.810,0:12:40.320
hesitant at first to forcefully remove

0:12:36.360,0:12:41.850
protesters so the government decides to

0:12:40.320,0:12:44.130
leave them alone as long as they’re

0:12:41.850,0:12:46.380
peaceful and there are actually many

0:12:44.130,0:12:47.940
attempts by the government to settle a

0:12:46.380,0:12:50.760
compromise with the protesters

0:12:47.940,0:12:53.130
diplomatically but the activists are

0:12:50.760,0:12:55.860
very adamant that they won’t settle for

0:12:53.130,0:12:58.050
anything other than land rights and so

0:12:55.860,0:13:00.360
more and more protesters come to the

0:12:58.050,0:13:02.490
island because this demonstration is

0:13:00.360,0:13:04.380
gaining so much media attention and so

0:13:02.490,0:13:07.650
pretty soon there are actually more than

0:13:04.380,0:13:10.110
600 occupants on the island and so they

0:13:07.650,0:13:12.780
form a Governing Council they create a

0:13:10.110,0:13:14.850
clinic a kitchen public relations

0:13:12.780,0:13:16.980
department and even a nursery in a grade

0:13:14.850,0:13:19.320
school for their children and so it’s

0:13:16.980,0:13:21.870
like literally like it’s their own self

0:13:19.320,0:13:24.870
yeah dude have Biggie’s Alcatraz I did

0:13:21.870,0:13:27.510
not think it was that big I guess they

0:13:24.870,0:13:29.130
have like the prison itself can hold a

0:13:27.510,0:13:30.420
lot of people but I don’t think the

0:13:29.130,0:13:32.070
island like I don’t think there’s much

0:13:30.420,0:13:34.470
free sink it’s tiny

0:13:32.070,0:13:37.770
I’ll go sometime and let you know I

0:13:34.470,0:13:40.020
don’t think it’s that big no it does not

0:13:37.770,0:13:42.060
sound like it’s a fun place to live but

0:13:40.020,0:13:47.370
they were very passionate about the

0:13:42.060,0:13:49.470
cause um so however by early 1970 many

0:13:47.370,0:13:51.630
of the islands college students had to

0:13:49.470,0:13:53.580
return to school and they ended up

0:13:51.630,0:13:56.250
leaving the island and they were

0:13:53.580,0:13:58.380
actually student replaced by people who

0:13:56.250,0:14:02.480
are more worried about living rent-free

0:13:58.380,0:14:05.340
than the actual cause and yeah and so

0:14:02.480,0:14:07.380
wait but like weren’t they were they

0:14:05.340,0:14:08.790
also Native American or was it people

0:14:07.380,0:14:11.550
who weren’t even Native American who

0:14:08.790,0:14:15.540
just came there are some Native American

0:14:11.550,0:14:16.860
some non Native Americans because it’s

0:14:15.540,0:14:18.840
getting a lot of media attention and

0:14:16.860,0:14:20.130
people are coming out and yeah I think

0:14:18.840,0:14:23.520
there are some people who are taking

0:14:20.130,0:14:26.520
advantage of the situation and weren’t

0:14:23.520,0:14:29.580
really there to like fight for the land

0:14:26.520,0:14:31.740
rights oh yeah and so unfortunately

0:14:29.580,0:14:34.050
drugs and alcohol although they were

0:14:31.740,0:14:36.390
originally banned it becomes a pretty

0:14:34.050,0:14:40.680
prominent issue on the island as these

0:14:36.390,0:14:43.380
newcomers join the settlement and this

0:14:40.680,0:14:46.320
is really sad but in January 1970

0:14:43.380,0:14:48.510
Oakes’s young stepdaughter she falls to

0:14:46.320,0:14:51.270
her death from one of the stairwells and

0:14:48.510,0:14:54.150
so because of this folks and his wife

0:14:51.270,0:14:55.680
leave the island soon after and so this

0:14:54.150,0:14:57.330
kind of leaves all these different

0:14:55.680,0:15:00.720
groups to fight over control of the

0:14:57.330,0:15:03.030
island and so the government the federal

0:15:00.720,0:15:04.890
government sees this and they decide

0:15:03.030,0:15:07.620
that there’s really no longer much hope

0:15:04.890,0:15:10.260
for a diplomatic resolution and so they

0:15:07.620,0:15:12.180
decide to cut off all the power in an

0:15:10.260,0:15:15.960
effort to like force the activist out

0:15:12.180,0:15:18.000
and they’re all these actors are so

0:15:15.960,0:15:19.980
passionate that they decide to say and a

0:15:18.000,0:15:23.430
few weeks later a fire breaks out and

0:15:19.980,0:15:26.030
burns down several buildings and so this

0:15:23.430,0:15:29.310
yeah it’s really sad and so despite

0:15:26.030,0:15:31.110
these awful living conditions and then

0:15:29.310,0:15:33.030
there’s also diminishing outside groups

0:15:31.110,0:15:35.580
support because it’s

0:15:33.030,0:15:37.460
what’s going on so long and the media is

0:15:35.580,0:15:39.720
happening as much attention to it so

0:15:37.460,0:15:41.730
despite all this there are still a few

0:15:39.720,0:15:45.060
activists that continue to live on the

0:15:41.730,0:15:47.000
island for a whole another year it isn’t

0:15:45.060,0:15:50.550
like this lasts forever and so

0:15:47.000,0:15:54.480
unfortunately it well okay yeah On June

0:15:50.550,0:15:56.490
11 1971 armed federal marshals descend

0:15:54.480,0:15:59.190
on the island because they’re like hey

0:15:56.490,0:16:01.320
we need to restore the island foghorn

0:15:59.190,0:16:04.470
and lighthouse like we’ve lit we waited

0:16:01.320,0:16:05.610
for over a year and so sorry but you

0:16:04.470,0:16:07.980
guys all have to leave and so they

0:16:05.610,0:16:10.950
removed the last of the activists and so

0:16:07.980,0:16:14.280
by the end the remaining protestors

0:16:10.950,0:16:17.730
included six men five women and four

0:16:14.280,0:16:21.120
children and so the occupation lasted 19

0:16:17.730,0:16:23.370
months and it basically inspires many

0:16:21.120,0:16:25.830
other occupations and protests all

0:16:23.370,0:16:28.050
across the country and because of this

0:16:25.830,0:16:30.090
federal officials begin to listen more

0:16:28.050,0:16:32.970
to issues regarding Native American

0:16:30.090,0:16:35.010
self-determination and later on the US

0:16:32.970,0:16:37.890
government would return millions of

0:16:35.010,0:16:39.720
acres of ancestral Indian land and they

0:16:37.890,0:16:42.630
would pass more than fifty legislative

0:16:39.720,0:16:44.490
proposals supporting tribal self-rule so

0:16:42.630,0:16:50.280
there was a lot that came out of this

0:16:44.490,0:16:52.650
okay yeah yeah and so the social

0:16:50.280,0:16:54.630
movement so the Native American civil

0:16:52.650,0:16:56.970
rights movement can be seen as one of

0:16:54.630,0:17:00.450
the most radical social movements of the

0:16:56.970,0:17:04.439
era because unlike many other I guess

0:17:00.450,0:17:06.720
more populist causes at the time the

0:17:04.439,0:17:08.730
Native American rights movement attacked

0:17:06.720,0:17:10.980
people’s fundamental right to their own

0:17:08.730,0:17:13.140
property by argument arguing that

0:17:10.980,0:17:17.730
American society was built on the theft

0:17:13.140,0:17:20.699
of Indian land so it’s like yeah they’re

0:17:17.730,0:17:22.860
basically yeah see that’s funny they’d

0:17:20.699,0:17:25.110
be like it’s like the more radical but I

0:17:22.860,0:17:28.439
was like no makes sense like but yeah I

0:17:25.110,0:17:30.030
guess like that is a radical no I

0:17:28.439,0:17:31.410
actually don’t I have a hard time

0:17:30.030,0:17:34.410
feeling like that’s right cool

0:17:31.410,0:17:37.080
no but I guess yeah I guess it just it’s

0:17:34.410,0:17:39.570
not as populist or I cannot miss a

0:17:37.080,0:17:42.510
correct word but it basically is

0:17:39.570,0:17:45.510
attacking like every non-native American

0:17:42.510,0:17:46.350
oh so any landowner basically like

0:17:45.510,0:17:50.639
you’re in

0:17:46.350,0:17:53.519
okay but like I can you see where

0:17:50.639,0:17:55.289
they’re coming from and yeah it’s also

0:17:53.519,0:17:57.779
like it’s also really interesting to

0:17:55.289,0:18:00.090
note that these Native Americans are

0:17:57.779,0:18:01.860
protesting against the US government by

0:18:00.090,0:18:04.169
using their own treaties

0:18:01.860,0:18:06.090
against it and this kind of ultimately

0:18:04.169,0:18:09.509
exposes the government as a dishonest

0:18:06.090,0:18:12.179
institution so that’s why I think the

0:18:09.509,0:18:13.679
Native American civil rights movement is

0:18:12.179,0:18:17.070
really different compared to other

0:18:13.679,0:18:20.269
social activist movements because it’s

0:18:17.070,0:18:23.159
focus its focus is like mainly legal and

0:18:20.269,0:18:25.980
that’s kind of how they fight things out

0:18:23.159,0:18:28.169
is through the courts and I thought that

0:18:25.980,0:18:30.809
was really interesting that is I think

0:18:28.169,0:18:33.210
that’s also very impressive to me is

0:18:30.809,0:18:36.029
like you basically just like you made

0:18:33.210,0:18:39.029
this contract yes and I think that’s

0:18:36.029,0:18:41.279
really clever and well and there are so

0:18:39.029,0:18:44.009
many treaties that had been signed – so

0:18:41.279,0:18:45.570
you have to have such a wide knowledge

0:18:44.009,0:18:48.240
of all these different treaties that

0:18:45.570,0:18:51.570
have been made like years and years like

0:18:48.240,0:18:54.659
hundreds of years ago and that could be

0:18:51.570,0:18:56.940
well to be honest if like you’re getting

0:18:54.659,0:18:58.830
taken advantage of for years and years

0:18:56.940,0:19:01.950
and years I’d be reading my treaties –

0:18:58.830,0:19:03.690
like what did I sign up for that’s so

0:19:01.950,0:19:09.539
true you know how many times I read my

0:19:03.690,0:19:12.000
Li statement like messing around no

0:19:09.539,0:19:15.720
that’s so true yeah you’re you would

0:19:12.000,0:19:19.769
definitely be way more I guess yeah way

0:19:15.720,0:19:21.779
more knowledgeable and so yeah also at

0:19:19.769,0:19:24.090
this time we see all these different

0:19:21.779,0:19:27.419
organizations that are being created

0:19:24.090,0:19:31.379
because they’re I guess before this it

0:19:27.419,0:19:34.440
was mostly inner tribe activism and so

0:19:31.379,0:19:36.629
you kind of mostly worked with your own

0:19:34.440,0:19:39.840
tribe to fight for your land rights in

0:19:36.629,0:19:42.210
your area in your reservation but then

0:19:39.840,0:19:43.950
now we see a lot of organizations where

0:19:42.210,0:19:45.330
we’re getting Native American leaders

0:19:43.950,0:19:47.669
from all across the country to come

0:19:45.330,0:19:50.519
together and support the movement as a

0:19:47.669,0:19:53.220
whole and so one of these organizations

0:19:50.519,0:19:56.639
is the American Indian Movement also

0:19:53.220,0:19:59.680
known as aim and so it’s founded in 1968

0:19:56.639,0:20:01.570
by Russell Means Dennis banks and

0:19:59.680,0:20:03.930
other native leaders as a militant

0:20:01.570,0:20:06.700
political and civil rights organization

0:20:03.930,0:20:08.830
and it was actually one of the reasons

0:20:06.700,0:20:12.880
they decided to create this organization

0:20:08.830,0:20:14.380
is to stop police harassment of Native

0:20:12.880,0:20:18.250
Americans in the Minneapolis area

0:20:14.380,0:20:24.310
because I had been a really big issue at

0:20:18.250,0:20:26.320
the time Minneapolis Minnesota yeah so I

0:20:24.310,0:20:28.030
guess that was an issue all the way in

0:20:26.320,0:20:32.320
the nineteen fifties so I’ll leave it at

0:20:28.030,0:20:33.790
that but um so now this brings me to I

0:20:32.320,0:20:37.000
guess what I want to talk about for the

0:20:33.790,0:20:40.930
remainder of the episode which is the

0:20:37.000,0:20:45.030
occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973 which

0:20:40.930,0:20:48.250
is one of the more like well-known

0:20:45.030,0:20:50.070
demonstrations during the Native

0:20:48.250,0:20:53.830
American civil rights movement and so

0:20:50.070,0:20:57.370
Wounded Knee is located in the Pine

0:20:53.830,0:21:01.780
Ridge Reservation in South Dakota and so

0:20:57.370,0:21:05.010
it’s a small town and it’s actually in

0:21:01.780,0:21:08.740
1890 it was the site of the massacre of

0:21:05.010,0:21:10.870
302 Native Americans by the seventh

0:21:08.740,0:21:13.540
Cavalry and so it holds a lot of

0:21:10.870,0:21:19.290
historical significance for Native

0:21:13.540,0:21:22.090
Americans in the area and in 1973 it

0:21:19.290,0:21:25.030
Wounded Knee is helped to the Oglala

0:21:22.090,0:21:27.640
Lakota tribe and it’s one of the poorest

0:21:25.030,0:21:29.500
communities in the u.s. and it has one

0:21:27.640,0:21:32.080
of the country’s lowest rates of life

0:21:29.500,0:21:35.490
expectancy along with the other towns

0:21:32.080,0:21:38.170
within the Pine Ridge Reservation and so

0:21:35.490,0:21:40.540
like it’s really sad it’s a really poor

0:21:38.170,0:21:44.080
community and on top of this the people

0:21:40.540,0:21:46.330
in Wounded Knee face racism not only

0:21:44.080,0:21:49.120
outside of the reservation but inside

0:21:46.330,0:21:51.550
their own reservation as well and this

0:21:49.120,0:21:56.140
is partly due to a very poorly managed

0:21:51.550,0:21:59.080
tribal government and so basically the

0:21:56.140,0:22:01.950
people of Wounded Knee really wanted to

0:21:59.080,0:22:04.390
remove the tribal chairman dick Wilson

0:22:01.950,0:22:07.320
because they thought he was very corrupt

0:22:04.390,0:22:10.600
and so people said he favored mixed-race

0:22:07.320,0:22:13.070
assimilated Lakota like himself and so

0:22:10.600,0:22:15.530
they tried and tried to impeach him but

0:22:13.070,0:22:18.650
at all all their efforts failed and so

0:22:15.530,0:22:21.890
the Ocala Lakota tribal leaders they

0:22:18.650,0:22:25.550
turn to aim for help with removing him

0:22:21.890,0:22:29.060
by force and so the contact a man aims

0:22:25.550,0:22:32.600
answer is to occupy the town of Wounded

0:22:29.060,0:22:34.400
Knee and so in early 1973 aim begins

0:22:32.600,0:22:38.000
their preparations for this occupation

0:22:34.400,0:22:40.580
and so aim believes that they needed to

0:22:38.000,0:22:43.310
use physical force in order to create

0:22:40.580,0:22:44.870
change in American society so that’s why

0:22:43.310,0:22:47.630
they choose to armed themselves with

0:22:44.870,0:22:49.850
guns and other weapons and they refused

0:22:47.630,0:22:52.370
to leave the town and they also argue

0:22:49.850,0:22:54.020
that they had to arm themselves the US

0:22:52.370,0:22:57.020
government had robbed them of their

0:22:54.020,0:23:00.010
lands with our worst acts of violence so

0:22:57.020,0:23:03.770
that is their minds that going into this

0:23:00.010,0:23:09.620
demonstration occupation and so on

0:23:03.770,0:23:12.620
February 27th 1973 around 202 Native

0:23:09.620,0:23:15.290
Americans led by members of aim occupied

0:23:12.620,0:23:18.050
the town of Wounded Knee and so they

0:23:15.290,0:23:21.140
basically what happens is they arrive in

0:23:18.050,0:23:22.640
town at night in a caravan of cars and

0:23:21.140,0:23:25.850
trucks and they take the town’s

0:23:22.640,0:23:29.150
residences hostage and so they declare

0:23:25.850,0:23:33.290
the town liberated from the US then they

0:23:29.150,0:23:36.470
cite a treaty from 1868 that allowed the

0:23:33.290,0:23:37.640
town to remain under Lakota control so

0:23:36.470,0:23:39.860
they have this treaty and they’re like

0:23:37.640,0:23:41.660
the government this is one of the many

0:23:39.860,0:23:43.940
treaties that the government has ignored

0:23:41.660,0:23:44.330
and actually this shouldn’t be American

0:23:43.940,0:23:49.040
soil

0:23:44.330,0:23:51.170
um and within hours police around the

0:23:49.040,0:23:53.420
town of Wounded Knee and so basically

0:23:51.170,0:23:56.270
this prevents protesters from leaving

0:23:53.420,0:23:59.380
and then sympathizers from entering and

0:23:56.270,0:24:02.720
so they basically besieged the town and

0:23:59.380,0:24:05.830
they order the occupants to disarm

0:24:02.720,0:24:08.690
themselves but that does not happen and

0:24:05.830,0:24:10.490
so dick Wilson and the tribal chairman

0:24:08.690,0:24:13.310
that people were complaining about

0:24:10.490,0:24:16.370
earlier he had actually heard about Ames

0:24:13.310,0:24:19.820
plans to occupy the town and remove him

0:24:16.370,0:24:22.070
and so he before this he retreats to

0:24:19.820,0:24:24.590
tribal headquarters where he is under

0:24:22.070,0:24:26.330
the protection of federal marshals and

0:24:24.590,0:24:29.630
then Bureau of Indian Affairs

0:24:26.330,0:24:31.730
police and so he’s like safe and out of

0:24:29.630,0:24:34.880
the picture even though that was kind of

0:24:31.730,0:24:38.540
one of the main reasons for infiltrating

0:24:34.880,0:24:41.510
or occupying the town until the

0:24:38.540,0:24:44.300
following day a members begin trading

0:24:41.510,0:24:46.460
gunfire with federal marshals that are

0:24:44.300,0:24:48.980
surrounding the town and then they also

0:24:46.460,0:24:52.040
fire at like automobiles that are

0:24:48.980,0:24:55.340
driving by and in low-flying planes that

0:24:52.040,0:24:58.130
yeah and so from then on they would

0:24:55.340,0:25:00.740
trade fire with federal authorities

0:24:58.130,0:25:03.370
almost every night and so I want to ask

0:25:00.740,0:25:06.770
you – like how long do you think this

0:25:03.370,0:25:09.130
siege lasts I literally was about to ask

0:25:06.770,0:25:12.290
you I was like how long did that last

0:25:09.130,0:25:15.650
um let me think can i I was thinking

0:25:12.290,0:25:17.480
like a week maybe okay of like ongoing

0:25:15.650,0:25:21.070
it’s just like them firing back at each

0:25:17.480,0:25:26.300
other every day yeah your final answer

0:25:21.070,0:25:32.150
yeah but I guess it’s wrong so it

0:25:26.300,0:25:35.750
actually lets 71 days know white for –

0:25:32.150,0:25:39.050
my mind was blown every single day every

0:25:35.750,0:25:40.910
single day they’re like trading fire

0:25:39.050,0:25:45.110
with federal authorities I cannot

0:25:40.910,0:25:48.110
imagine how stressful that living

0:25:45.110,0:25:50.330
situation could be like right fine they

0:25:48.110,0:25:53.420
also are they like did anyone get hurt

0:25:50.330,0:25:57.170
and also wet was the cost of like always

0:25:53.420,0:26:01.310
going to buy like weapons we’ll get into

0:25:57.170,0:26:04.880
that uh like after this but yeah it

0:26:01.310,0:26:06.650
lasts for a really long time and so

0:26:04.880,0:26:08.480
they’re basically trapped in the town

0:26:06.650,0:26:10.790
though you know because the authorities

0:26:08.480,0:26:13.750
are surrounding the town so their only

0:26:10.790,0:26:16.730
way out is like their surrender and so

0:26:13.750,0:26:19.430
in order to try and break the siege the

0:26:16.730,0:26:21.320
FBI cuts up all electricity and water to

0:26:19.430,0:26:23.330
the town and they attempt to prevent

0:26:21.320,0:26:25.310
food and ammunition from being passed to

0:26:23.330,0:26:27.410
the occupiers so this is like literally

0:26:25.310,0:26:29.660
horrible horrible living conditions and

0:26:27.410,0:26:32.510
so bill Zimmerman

0:26:29.660,0:26:34.940
he’s a sympathetic activist and a pilot

0:26:32.510,0:26:37.400
from Boston he basically agrees to

0:26:34.940,0:26:40.130
deliver 2,000 pounds of food and

0:26:37.400,0:26:42.910
supplies to the town like via a small

0:26:40.130,0:26:46.850
little playing and so he flies to

0:26:42.910,0:26:48.460
Wounded Knee and he’s like I don’t know

0:26:46.850,0:26:53.420
the mechanics which is like dropping

0:26:48.460,0:26:56.510
dropping the supplies and sadly or I

0:26:53.420,0:26:58.310
guess however when the occupiers run out

0:26:56.510,0:27:01.460
of the building where they were hiding

0:26:58.310,0:27:04.670
to grab the supplies the federal agents

0:27:01.460,0:27:06.560
opened fire on them and so yeah so

0:27:04.670,0:27:09.620
during the shootout the first member of

0:27:06.560,0:27:11.870
the occupation to die he’s a Cherokee

0:27:09.620,0:27:13.340
man that he was shot by a bullet that

0:27:11.870,0:27:18.260
had flown through the wall of a church

0:27:13.340,0:27:22.070
and so he’s the first person this

0:27:18.260,0:27:24.050
occupation question okay I’m just gonna

0:27:22.070,0:27:26.510
wrap my mind around like physically what

0:27:24.050,0:27:30.080
this looks like so there are very like

0:27:26.510,0:27:32.060
surrounding a town basically and is

0:27:30.080,0:27:34.010
there like a barricade at all or it’s

0:27:32.060,0:27:36.050
just like literally like I’m imagining

0:27:34.010,0:27:38.510
like tanks or something in a big circle

0:27:36.050,0:27:40.490
around it yeah when I was looking at

0:27:38.510,0:27:42.170
photos I like didn’t get an aerial I

0:27:40.490,0:27:44.210
didn’t see any aerial tap photos but

0:27:42.170,0:27:46.610
good photos they did there were tanks

0:27:44.210,0:27:49.390
and like like physical like wood

0:27:46.610,0:27:52.550
barricades that blacked off the roads

0:27:49.390,0:27:54.530
and also you have it like remember it’s

0:27:52.550,0:27:57.650
in South Dakota so it’s like open plains

0:27:54.530,0:28:00.770
and some really like there’s no trees

0:27:57.650,0:28:04.100
for people to hide yeah I’m imagining

0:28:00.770,0:28:06.950
it’s like pretty open open so just like

0:28:04.100,0:28:08.480
building so you can’t really like you

0:28:06.950,0:28:11.420
can’t run you can’t escape because

0:28:08.480,0:28:14.500
you’re out in the open and so and then

0:28:11.420,0:28:17.510
was this after the 71 days then like

0:28:14.500,0:28:21.050
versus during the 71 days then someone

0:28:17.510,0:28:23.860
dies okay this is I think I don’t I

0:28:21.050,0:28:26.540
think it’s about like halfway through

0:28:23.860,0:28:28.760
maybe closer towards the end but I

0:28:26.540,0:28:30.440
didn’t get a specific date on the bill

0:28:28.760,0:28:32.900
Zimmerman air drop I know he actually

0:28:30.440,0:28:34.970
wrote a book about the the pilot wrote a

0:28:32.900,0:28:40.130
book about this event and so you can

0:28:34.970,0:28:42.110
read that but yeah so there should their

0:28:40.130,0:28:45.230
training prior with federal agents every

0:28:42.110,0:28:47.270
night and then on April 26 tribe member

0:28:45.230,0:28:48.440
buddy Lamont is shot and killed

0:28:47.270,0:28:51.710
[Music]

0:28:48.440,0:28:53.960
by agents and morale drops severely

0:28:51.710,0:28:58.010
because this has also been going on for

0:28:53.960,0:29:00.080
so long and it’s really yeah it’s really

0:28:58.010,0:29:02.600
awful living situations and so aim

0:29:00.080,0:29:04.520
members they basically they really want

0:29:02.600,0:29:08.480
to continue the occupation but the

0:29:04.520,0:29:12.020
Oglala they overrule them and so after

0:29:08.480,0:29:15.260
this negotiations pretty much begin like

0:29:12.020,0:29:16.820
before there had been negotiators that

0:29:15.260,0:29:19.040
had been sent from the government to

0:29:16.820,0:29:22.010
talk to the protesters but they really

0:29:19.040,0:29:25.070
had no interest in what they were saying

0:29:22.010,0:29:27.770
but then after the second member is

0:29:25.070,0:29:30.530
killed then that’s when they really I

0:29:27.770,0:29:34.310
guess start putting more effort into the

0:29:30.530,0:29:36.440
negotiations and so Russell Means he was

0:29:34.310,0:29:38.660
one of the founders of aim so he leads

0:29:36.440,0:29:40.040
the negotiations for the release of the

0:29:38.660,0:29:41.690
hostages because you also have to

0:29:40.040,0:29:45.880
remember like they’re taking the people

0:29:41.690,0:29:48.860
in this town is hostage to um and so

0:29:45.880,0:29:51.590
Richard means he demanded that the US

0:29:48.860,0:29:54.140
Senate launched an investigation of the

0:29:51.590,0:29:56.180
Bureau of Indian Affairs and all two

0:29:54.140,0:29:59.750
reservations in the South Dakota in

0:29:56.180,0:30:02.150
South Dakota and he also wants the

0:29:59.750,0:30:04.220
Senate Foreign Relations Committee to

0:30:02.150,0:30:07.340
hold hearings on the several Indian

0:30:04.220,0:30:08.840
treaties broken by the US government and

0:30:07.340,0:30:12.590
so they have very like specific

0:30:08.840,0:30:17.570
legislative action that they want to be

0:30:12.590,0:30:19.070
passed on and so all rights right have

0:30:17.570,0:30:20.930
pretty much all pertaining to land

0:30:19.070,0:30:23.690
rights and then also there’s this Bureau

0:30:20.930,0:30:26.660
of Indian Affairs which exists today and

0:30:23.690,0:30:29.930
there they have a lot of complaints with

0:30:26.660,0:30:32.060
the Bureau as a whole and the way they

0:30:29.930,0:30:34.460
deal with Native Americans

0:30:32.060,0:30:38.090
um and so that like there would a m–

0:30:34.460,0:30:41.240
also ended up occupying the Bureau of

0:30:38.090,0:30:42.770
Indian Affairs building in DC later and

0:30:41.240,0:30:44.690
so there’s a lot of issues with this

0:30:42.770,0:30:47.000
specific department and so they want

0:30:44.690,0:30:49.370
like they want an investigation being

0:30:47.000,0:30:51.290
held on the department to make sure it’s

0:30:49.370,0:30:54.830
as effective in supportive as possible

0:30:51.290,0:30:58.190
for Native Americans um and yeah and

0:30:54.830,0:31:00.200
then also land claims and breaking

0:30:58.190,0:31:02.570
treaties like they want these treaties

0:31:00.200,0:31:05.510
to be reconciled and so

0:31:02.570,0:31:08.150
oh yes I didn’t yeah I was gonna ask so

0:31:05.510,0:31:10.640
this is this is the Wounded Knee it’s

0:31:08.150,0:31:13.760
not the Wounded Knee Massacre right yes

0:31:10.640,0:31:17.290
it is this is Wounded Knee 1973 there is

0:31:13.760,0:31:22.670
a Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890 and that

0:31:17.290,0:31:26.780
yeah where basically the US Army kind of

0:31:22.670,0:31:33.530
kills the massacre what did I say 300

0:31:26.780,0:31:36.740
1800s yeah in 1890 so yeah Wow Native

0:31:33.530,0:31:39.170
Americans are killed and so yeah that’s

0:31:36.740,0:31:41.780
one of the reasons why they choose

0:31:39.170,0:31:44.480
Wounded Knee I get maybe not one of the

0:31:41.780,0:31:47.390
reasons but it really holds a lot of

0:31:44.480,0:31:49.220
significance during their protests just

0:31:47.390,0:31:52.390
remembering like all the atrocities that

0:31:49.220,0:31:59.600
has been committed in this one town um

0:31:52.390,0:32:02.240
and yeah and so on may 8th 1973 aim

0:31:59.600,0:32:04.070
leaders and supporters surrender after

0:32:02.240,0:32:05.990
officials promised they’re going to

0:32:04.070,0:32:08.200
investigate their complaints so they’re

0:32:05.990,0:32:11.990
like okay we’ll meet your demands and

0:32:08.200,0:32:13.910
yeah but okay yeah well I guess we’ll

0:32:11.990,0:32:16.610
get into that later but um so throughout

0:32:13.910,0:32:18.590
the duration of the siege to Native

0:32:16.610,0:32:21.230
Americans were killed and a federal

0:32:18.590,0:32:24.320
marshal was permanently paralyzed by a

0:32:21.230,0:32:26.660
bullet wound and so some a members

0:32:24.320,0:32:29.360
actually managed to escape the town

0:32:26.660,0:32:32.020
before being arrested however they’re so

0:32:29.360,0:32:35.180
like hundreds of arrests that are made

0:32:32.020,0:32:37.940
and so Russell Means and Dennis banks

0:32:35.180,0:32:42.770
are among the activists that are

0:32:37.940,0:32:45.740
arrested but on September 16 1973 they

0:32:42.770,0:32:47.960
go to court right and the federal judge

0:32:45.740,0:32:50.420
actually dismisses the charges against

0:32:47.960,0:32:53.150
them because the US government had

0:32:50.420,0:32:55.760
unlawfully handled witnesses and

0:32:53.150,0:32:58.970
evidence so it kind of come out that the

0:32:55.760,0:33:00.650
FBI had manipulated key witnesses and so

0:32:58.970,0:33:03.590
the charges against them are drop and

0:33:00.650,0:33:09.560
they’re like free um

0:33:03.590,0:33:11.150
and so remember how one when they had

0:33:09.560,0:33:12.890
started to occupy the land they said

0:33:11.150,0:33:15.800
that there was this treaty from 1868

0:33:12.890,0:33:18.890
that allowed a little bit

0:33:15.800,0:33:21.770
olala Lakota to claim the land right and

0:33:18.890,0:33:25.400
so the government basically concludes

0:33:21.770,0:33:28.280
that this treaty was superseded by the

0:33:25.400,0:33:31.100
principle of eminent domain and so

0:33:28.280,0:33:34.130
eminent domain I like remember hearing

0:33:31.100,0:33:35.750
about it in like AP US government but I

0:33:34.130,0:33:38.230
had completely forgotten what it means

0:33:35.750,0:33:41.120
so just as a refresher for everyone

0:33:38.230,0:33:43.100
eminent domain is the power of the

0:33:41.120,0:33:45.679
government to seize the private property

0:33:43.100,0:33:48.470
of an individual or group for use by the

0:33:45.679,0:33:51.620
state if they provide just just

0:33:48.470,0:33:54.440
compensation to property owners so

0:33:51.620,0:33:56.090
basically they’re like oh okay I have

0:33:54.440,0:33:58.070
heard of this because isn’t it like

0:33:56.090,0:34:00.320
that’s when like the guy like if they

0:33:58.070,0:34:02.059
want to build a highway like they can

0:34:00.320,0:34:04.280
take your house yeah

0:34:02.059,0:34:05.690
as long as they like pay you yeah then

0:34:04.280,0:34:08.510
it’s fine and so basically they’re like

0:34:05.690,0:34:11.300
yeah so we paid you for this land and so

0:34:08.510,0:34:15.560
this treaty is invalid and it’s actually

0:34:11.300,0:34:18.230
American soil still yeah did they get

0:34:15.560,0:34:21.230
paid for the land oh and what were they

0:34:18.230,0:34:22.909
compensated with I could not have fine

0:34:21.230,0:34:24.590
that’s why I was that was my immediate

0:34:22.909,0:34:29.290
thought it’s like okay was it actually

0:34:24.590,0:34:32.090
just compensation because I guess maybe

0:34:29.290,0:34:33.560
yeah a long time ago when during

0:34:32.090,0:34:36.770
westward expansion and all that I guess

0:34:33.560,0:34:42.340
the land technically was purchased but I

0:34:36.770,0:34:45.350
could not find a lake yeah like what

0:34:42.340,0:34:48.429
because California’s expense a baby like

0:34:45.350,0:34:51.200
how much did you pay that you know like

0:34:48.429,0:34:54.909
very interested to see like how much

0:34:51.200,0:34:57.650
they paid the tribes for their land

0:34:54.909,0:35:00.830
mm-hmm but basically they’re like your

0:34:57.650,0:35:04.310
whole argument is invalid and so yeah

0:35:00.830,0:35:09.200
guys so people as you can imagine people

0:35:04.310,0:35:11.390
were very devastated yeah in terms of I

0:35:09.200,0:35:14.030
guess other ways this event is

0:35:11.390,0:35:17.600
remembered so according to the US

0:35:14.030,0:35:19.640
Marshal Service the occupation of

0:35:17.600,0:35:21.740
Wounded Knee was actually the longest

0:35:19.640,0:35:23.420
lasting civil disorder in two hundred

0:35:21.740,0:35:26.030
years of history so I think it’s also

0:35:23.420,0:35:28.790
important to note different ways this

0:35:26.030,0:35:29.480
event is remembered and kind of people

0:35:28.790,0:35:33.410
sentiment

0:35:29.480,0:35:35.990
what happened yeah oh yeah oh I was

0:35:33.410,0:35:39.109
gonna say I would love if we could like

0:35:35.990,0:35:42.350
find someone who’s like more connected

0:35:39.109,0:35:44.869
like maybe Native American and has like

0:35:42.350,0:35:46.100
gone through like history and like heard

0:35:44.869,0:35:47.990
stories from their family because I’m

0:35:46.100,0:35:50.300
curious as to the whole purchase

0:35:47.990,0:35:53.000
argument that they made like who do they

0:35:50.300,0:35:54.590
pay like who got the money who did they

0:35:53.000,0:35:56.240
make a deal with and why does that

0:35:54.590,0:35:59.390
invalidate like every single other

0:35:56.240,0:36:02.240
person who’s a part of the community now

0:35:59.390,0:36:03.470
I would really love to talk to someone

0:36:02.240,0:36:05.690
about that too because I have so many

0:36:03.470,0:36:06.790
questions I’m also like yeah who gets

0:36:05.690,0:36:11.600
the money

0:36:06.790,0:36:15.020
who decided like how much money is being

0:36:11.600,0:36:16.730
spent and then also I guess eminent

0:36:15.020,0:36:19.070
domain is kind of tricky because like

0:36:16.730,0:36:21.050
what is it justification what qualifies

0:36:19.070,0:36:23.150
when they use a word like just

0:36:21.050,0:36:26.420
compensation like what what makes it

0:36:23.150,0:36:31.340
like a repay it’s like who who gave the

0:36:26.420,0:36:33.140
appraisal on that like how can ya so I I

0:36:31.340,0:36:35.780
would really like to talk to someone

0:36:33.140,0:36:37.490
about that I guess I’ll uh there are a

0:36:35.780,0:36:39.980
lot of autobiographies that are written

0:36:37.490,0:36:42.050
about about this and these activities so

0:36:39.980,0:36:45.230
I’ll mention those a bit later but there

0:36:42.050,0:36:49.369
is a great PBS documentary tting a

0:36:45.230,0:36:52.340
special about the occupation in 1973 so

0:36:49.369,0:36:53.990
you could hear the people who were there

0:36:52.340,0:36:56.750
during this protests are being

0:36:53.990,0:36:59.810
interviewed so yeah I know a few people

0:36:56.750,0:37:01.550
who do there like descendants of Native

0:36:59.810,0:37:04.010
Americans and they do activist work in

0:37:01.550,0:37:05.720
the Native American community so maybe

0:37:04.010,0:37:08.060
we could reach out to them or if you’re

0:37:05.720,0:37:09.859
listening to this and you are Native

0:37:08.060,0:37:11.840
American or you know someone who is

0:37:09.859,0:37:14.630
Native American who is connected to that

0:37:11.840,0:37:17.600
history please email us how did we not

0:37:14.630,0:37:19.640
know that at gmail.com yes please do

0:37:17.600,0:37:22.460
because I would love to have I would

0:37:19.640,0:37:24.170
love to hear I guess what they would

0:37:22.460,0:37:26.780
have to say and yeah I have a question

0:37:24.170,0:37:30.619
so please reach out to us that would be

0:37:26.780,0:37:33.859
really exciting um yeah I’m sorry I

0:37:30.619,0:37:36.920
guess to talk a little bit more about

0:37:33.859,0:37:39.170
what happened after so surprised

0:37:36.920,0:37:42.810
surprised Congress took no steps to

0:37:39.170,0:37:46.190
honor the broken Indian treaties um

0:37:42.810,0:37:49.080
but actually in the courts some tribes

0:37:46.190,0:37:51.120
what would wane major settlements from

0:37:49.080,0:37:53.160
both state and federal governments in

0:37:51.120,0:37:55.860
cases regarding tribal land claims

0:37:53.160,0:37:59.340
so the judicial system is really

0:37:55.860,0:38:03.480
important especially when it comes down

0:37:59.340,0:38:06.330
to land claims so yeah and so dick

0:38:03.480,0:38:09.570
Wilson so he is actually not removed

0:38:06.330,0:38:11.790
from his position and the Oglala blamed

0:38:09.570,0:38:14.640
the federal government for failing to

0:38:11.790,0:38:16.080
remove him because that was like when

0:38:14.640,0:38:17.820
they were making negotiations or like

0:38:16.080,0:38:21.360
Katie can you like please get him out of

0:38:17.820,0:38:23.100
here and the government their response

0:38:21.360,0:38:25.080
is that it would be illegal for them to

0:38:23.100,0:38:27.350
do so because it would violate laws

0:38:25.080,0:38:31.170
regarding tribal self-determination

0:38:27.350,0:38:32.940
which is true a lot some people do argue

0:38:31.170,0:38:36.680
that that’s a bit shady because they had

0:38:32.940,0:38:41.550
not been so I guess respectful of these

0:38:36.680,0:38:44.910
laws in the past and so I’ll leave that

0:38:41.550,0:38:47.670
at that but um after this siege and it’s

0:38:44.910,0:38:50.610
basically a civil war between dick

0:38:47.670,0:38:52.860
Wilson and a pro aim faction of the

0:38:50.610,0:38:57.150
Oglala Lakota continues on the

0:38:52.860,0:38:59.550
reservation um but in 90th the 1974

0:38:57.150,0:39:02.280
Wilson is reelected to the tribal

0:38:59.550,0:39:02.790
presidency and he remains in his

0:39:02.280,0:39:07.890
position

0:39:02.790,0:39:09.840
um and so sadly violence continues on

0:39:07.890,0:39:12.750
the Pine Ridge Reservation throughout

0:39:09.840,0:39:14.550
the rest of the 1970s so this was this

0:39:12.750,0:39:16.050
really broke my heart and it really

0:39:14.550,0:39:19.080
shocked me in the three years following

0:39:16.050,0:39:20.820
the standoff Pine Ridge where Wounded

0:39:19.080,0:39:22.680
Knee is located it would have the

0:39:20.820,0:39:25.620
highest per-capita murder rate in the

0:39:22.680,0:39:27.930
whole country and so I had no idea but

0:39:25.620,0:39:30.980
this link it’s I mean if you think about

0:39:27.930,0:39:33.840
population to like it’s a really small

0:39:30.980,0:39:36.690
population in terms of I guess the US

0:39:33.840,0:39:39.210
population as a whole so a series of

0:39:36.690,0:39:42.540
beating shootings and murders left more

0:39:39.210,0:39:45.300
than 100 Native Americans dead and among

0:39:42.540,0:39:48.360
these incidents um is an incident that

0:39:45.300,0:39:51.360
occurs in 1975 where a native man and

0:39:48.360,0:39:54.240
two FBI agents were killed in a shootout

0:39:51.360,0:39:56.520
between federal agents and a members and

0:39:54.240,0:40:01.110
local residents and

0:39:56.520,0:40:05.450
so a member Leonard pet leer I hope I’m

0:40:01.110,0:40:07.680
pronouncing it right it’s PE TL IE our

0:40:05.450,0:40:10.200
buddy who was found guilty of

0:40:07.680,0:40:12.270
first-degree murder and he’s sentenced

0:40:10.200,0:40:16.010
to two consecutive life terms

0:40:12.270,0:40:22.590
um what two consecutive life terms

0:40:16.010,0:40:25.020
because had I killed – yeah well you

0:40:22.590,0:40:27.240
gonna die whines what is the point just

0:40:25.020,0:40:30.090
to spite you two consecutive life terms

0:40:27.240,0:40:31.140
that does one can get you can’t it’s

0:40:30.090,0:40:32.910
okay

0:40:31.140,0:40:34.560
thinkin also I think when it comes to

0:40:32.910,0:40:37.590
like sentencing it also has to do with

0:40:34.560,0:40:39.690
like what happens when you are eligible

0:40:37.590,0:40:41.580
for parole like I think the more like

0:40:39.690,0:40:43.530
terms you have sex okay

0:40:41.580,0:40:46.710
so I think that’s a significance of it

0:40:43.530,0:40:51.270
too but basically did it yeah does not

0:40:46.710,0:40:53.580
look good for him um and so today Pine

0:40:51.270,0:40:55.800
Ridge Reservation is the largest

0:40:53.580,0:40:59.550
community in what might be the poorest

0:40:55.800,0:41:02.190
County in the u.s. so in 2010 the per

0:40:59.550,0:41:04.230
capita income in Shannon County South

0:41:02.190,0:41:07.650
Dakota where Pine Ridge and Wounded Knee

0:41:04.230,0:41:12.120
are located it was lower than any other

0:41:07.650,0:41:14.280
yearĂ­s County and this also blew my mind

0:41:12.120,0:41:15.870
according to reports adult unemployment

0:41:14.280,0:41:19.190
rate on the reservation is somewhere

0:41:15.870,0:41:21.680
between 70% and 80%

0:41:19.190,0:41:25.819
I can’t even comprehend it like that’s

0:41:21.680,0:41:30.710
80% of adults are unemployed so like

0:41:25.819,0:41:32.450
wait how do you live then I I don’t even

0:41:30.710,0:41:36.470
know that like how do you live how do

0:41:32.450,0:41:38.930
you survive and I’m like your basic like

0:41:36.470,0:41:41.030
human death mask though do you know

0:41:38.930,0:41:43.160
where we’re like most of the reserves

0:41:41.030,0:41:45.770
are like I don’t even know where they’re

0:41:43.160,0:41:47.240
located a lot of it is like in the

0:41:45.770,0:41:51.650
plains a great plains so like South

0:41:47.240,0:41:53.869
Dakota Oklahoma things like my pan on

0:41:51.650,0:41:55.490
Wyoming like that area but that’s not

0:41:53.869,0:41:58.339
necessarily that doesn’t mean that

0:41:55.490,0:42:00.410
that’s where I guess I so before

0:41:58.339,0:42:02.660
Europeans came Native Americans or

0:42:00.410,0:42:05.990
indigenous people were like everywhere

0:42:02.660,0:42:07.579
but then because we have forced removal

0:42:05.990,0:42:09.380
of Indian groups and the whole Trail of

0:42:07.579,0:42:13.700
Tears and the Jackson administration

0:42:09.380,0:42:16.730
they’re all forced to move and they’re

0:42:13.700,0:42:18.640
all concentrated there so and then a

0:42:16.730,0:42:21.950
question on when you’re talking about

0:42:18.640,0:42:25.250
that like a lot of people were murdered

0:42:21.950,0:42:27.200
and stuff why was there so many like

0:42:25.250,0:42:29.390
shootouts again what because I felt like

0:42:27.200,0:42:34.040
this land right thing was settled and

0:42:29.390,0:42:38.420
they well but it like kind of like

0:42:34.040,0:42:42.140
settled but I there’s like a continuing

0:42:38.420,0:42:44.480
like feud yeah well yeah it was

0:42:42.140,0:42:47.329
basically very so the treaty they were

0:42:44.480,0:42:49.369
like oh the US government like eminent

0:42:47.329,0:42:51.319
domain supersedes the treaty and then

0:42:49.369,0:42:53.839
they said they would launch an

0:42:51.319,0:42:56.599
investigation like whether or not that

0:42:53.839,0:43:00.200
investigation was actually produced the

0:42:56.599,0:43:01.730
amount I guess research that they had

0:43:00.200,0:43:07.329
wanted maybe it wasn’t as satisfactory

0:43:01.730,0:43:10.190
as people had wanted um and yeah the

0:43:07.329,0:43:12.530
tribal chairman dick Wilson had not been

0:43:10.190,0:43:15.619
removed so they’re still like it was

0:43:12.530,0:43:17.780
resolved but it really yeah they’re

0:43:15.619,0:43:19.250
issues actually there was no resolution

0:43:17.780,0:43:22.670
to the issues it’s kind of like they put

0:43:19.250,0:43:27.500
a bandaid on the situation and so yeah

0:43:22.670,0:43:29.660
like a mean I there are so many like I

0:43:27.500,0:43:32.730
guess demonstrations in different

0:43:29.660,0:43:37.440
occupations that aim and other

0:43:32.730,0:43:39.420
need American activist groups would hold

0:43:37.440,0:43:40.950
like throughout the nineteen sixties and

0:43:39.420,0:43:42.600
seventies like you could it’s a whole

0:43:40.950,0:43:45.810
like rabbit hole there’s so many that

0:43:42.600,0:43:47.220
happen and because of this a lot of

0:43:45.810,0:43:48.600
these groups choose to arm themselves

0:43:47.220,0:43:51.060
and so that’s why there are a lot of

0:43:48.600,0:43:56.870
deaths and yeah

0:43:51.060,0:43:59.580
and yep so actually in 1978 a m–

0:43:56.870,0:44:02.940
disband due to the fact that several of

0:43:59.580,0:44:04.530
its members were imprisoned but local

0:44:02.940,0:44:07.730
aim groups continue to function

0:44:04.530,0:44:10.170
afterwards and like I mentioned earlier

0:44:07.730,0:44:12.090
there are a lot more demonstrations that

0:44:10.170,0:44:13.950
are held and in nineteen eighty-one one

0:44:12.090,0:44:16.590
of these groups occupies part of the

0:44:13.950,0:44:18.060
Black Hills in South Dakota so this is

0:44:16.590,0:44:22.350
not just like an isolated event it

0:44:18.060,0:44:25.560
occurs many times until Russell Means so

0:44:22.350,0:44:27.810
he was the founder of aim he was leading

0:44:25.560,0:44:30.000
the negotiations he continued to

0:44:27.810,0:44:32.250
advocate for Native American rights at

0:44:30.000,0:44:33.960
Pine Ridge and elsewhere and so in

0:44:32.250,0:44:35.850
nineteen eighty eighty-eight he runs for

0:44:33.960,0:44:44.760
president under the Libertarian Party

0:44:35.850,0:44:47.520
and 1992 he begins acting in several

0:44:44.760,0:44:49.110
films including last of the Mohicans and

0:44:47.520,0:44:52.910
he was also a guest star on Curb Your

0:44:49.110,0:44:56.100
Enthusiasm so he like I guess yeah he

0:44:52.910,0:44:59.670
promoted his he supported the movement

0:44:56.100,0:45:02.910
in Hollywood and in film um and then in

0:44:59.670,0:45:04.950
1997 he released an autobiography titled

0:45:02.910,0:45:08.130
where white men fear to tread

0:45:04.950,0:45:10.500
um I’m trying to find it the library I

0:45:08.130,0:45:11.700
really want to read it um so yeah I

0:45:10.500,0:45:13.680
encourage everyone to read it through

0:45:11.700,0:45:16.470
you could hear his accounts of why he

0:45:13.680,0:45:18.090
decided to create aim and struggles that

0:45:16.470,0:45:23.190
he faced growing up uh

0:45:18.090,0:45:25.380
and everything and so in 2001 he also

0:45:23.190,0:45:27.660
attempts to run for the governorship of

0:45:25.380,0:45:29.430
New Mexico but his candidacy was

0:45:27.660,0:45:30.780
disallowed because procedure had not

0:45:29.430,0:45:33.420
been followed so basically he doesn’t

0:45:30.780,0:45:36.330
qualify and so people can’t vote for him

0:45:33.420,0:45:41.370
but um and then sadly he passes away on

0:45:36.330,0:45:44.880
October 12 2012 at the age of 72 um and

0:45:41.370,0:45:47.510
Leonard pet Lear probably a I don’t know

0:45:44.880,0:45:47.510
the

0:45:47.660,0:45:51.860
he was on I mentioned earlier so he

0:45:49.850,0:45:54.410
actually remains in prison today

0:45:51.860,0:45:56.810
although there are continuing efforts to

0:45:54.410,0:45:59.150
win him pardon his next scheduled pardon

0:45:56.810,0:46:02.210
I’m sorry his next scheduled parole

0:45:59.150,0:46:07.970
hearing is in 2024 and he is currently

0:46:02.210,0:46:10.520
75 years old and so um in terms of how

0:46:07.970,0:46:13.220
Wounded Knee impacted the movement as a

0:46:10.520,0:46:15.410
whole so basically this event sparks a

0:46:13.220,0:46:18.140
bunch of international sympathy for

0:46:15.410,0:46:20.210
Native American activism and it inspires

0:46:18.140,0:46:23.060
indigenous people and left-wing

0:46:20.210,0:46:25.310
activists all across the country and a

0:46:23.060,0:46:29.630
lot of people would later remark that

0:46:25.310,0:46:33.140
the standoff in 1973 closely resembles

0:46:29.630,0:46:37.010
the actual Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890

0:46:33.140,0:46:41.270
because people refusing armed and

0:46:37.010,0:46:45.010
deceiving the town and some Vietnam

0:46:41.270,0:46:47.690
veterans who were occupying wooden knee

0:46:45.010,0:46:49.790
they actually said that the siege felt

0:46:47.690,0:46:51.950
like war and reminded them of Vietnam

0:46:49.790,0:46:53.869
because they’re just gunfire daily and

0:46:51.950,0:46:57.550
so it was a really traumatic experience

0:46:53.869,0:47:00.320
for everyone and I guess I kind of

0:46:57.550,0:47:02.450
wanted to mention that I guess perhaps

0:47:00.320,0:47:04.700
more than any other civil rights

0:47:02.450,0:47:07.040
movement it’s work remains unfinished

0:47:04.700,0:47:08.810
there’s still so much progress that

0:47:07.040,0:47:12.340
needs to be made in regards to the

0:47:08.810,0:47:15.440
Native American Rights um however I

0:47:12.340,0:47:18.410
don’t want to downplay like the amount

0:47:15.440,0:47:21.230
of activism that some remains today

0:47:18.410,0:47:23.840
there are saw the many activist groups

0:47:21.230,0:47:26.600
all across the country on hundreds of

0:47:23.840,0:47:31.210
hundreds of groups that are working to I

0:47:26.600,0:47:34.060
guess create positive change and create

0:47:31.210,0:47:36.560
obtain it oh gosh

0:47:34.060,0:47:39.950
there are hundreds of reasons that are

0:47:36.560,0:47:42.770
trying to create change in American

0:47:39.950,0:47:45.710
society so I just wanted to list off a

0:47:42.770,0:47:47.810
few of these groups and so we have the

0:47:45.710,0:47:49.600
American Indigenous business leaders

0:47:47.810,0:47:51.980
they’re a nonprofit organization

0:47:49.600,0:47:53.690
designed to support and promote the

0:47:51.980,0:47:55.400
education and development of future

0:47:53.690,0:47:57.290
Native American leaders while

0:47:55.400,0:47:58.890
maintaining and incorporating cultural

0:47:57.290,0:48:00.960
values there’s also

0:47:58.890,0:48:03.299
the American Indian Policy Center and

0:48:00.960,0:48:06.480
its mission is to provide government

0:48:03.299,0:48:08.579
leaders policymakers and the public with

0:48:06.480,0:48:10.890
accurate information about the legal and

0:48:08.579,0:48:13.230
political history of American Indian

0:48:10.890,0:48:17.059
nations and the contemporary situation

0:48:13.230,0:48:19.349
for American Indians we also have the

0:48:17.059,0:48:21.900
Native American Journalists Association

0:48:19.349,0:48:24.089
which serves and empowers Native

0:48:21.900,0:48:26.039
American journalists through programs

0:48:24.089,0:48:28.200
and actions designed to enrich

0:48:26.039,0:48:30.869
journalism and promote native cultures

0:48:28.200,0:48:33.269
and finally I wanted to I guess

0:48:30.869,0:48:36.900
highlight the women empowering women for

0:48:33.269,0:48:38.910
indigenous nations which exists to

0:48:36.900,0:48:41.119
provide Native women with the knowledge

0:48:38.910,0:48:44.519
support and resources necessary to

0:48:41.119,0:48:47.250
achieve success in their personal and

0:48:44.519,0:48:49.260
professional lives and they hold an

0:48:47.250,0:48:52.079
annual conference that serves as an

0:48:49.260,0:48:54.809
opportunity for Native women to engage

0:48:52.079,0:48:57.180
in professional renewal inspire others

0:48:54.809,0:48:58.950
and to network and so there are so many

0:48:57.180,0:49:03.779
other organizations that I would love to

0:48:58.950,0:49:06.509
talk about um I do not have the time but

0:49:03.779,0:49:09.240
I encourage people to look into local

0:49:06.509,0:49:11.789
activist groups national activist groups

0:49:09.240,0:49:15.380
and yeah I guess that kind of wraps up

0:49:11.789,0:49:17.609
it’s a very brief and short summary of

0:49:15.380,0:49:20.250
the Native American civil rights

0:49:17.609,0:49:23.880
movement in the 1960s and 70s there are

0:49:20.250,0:49:26.250
some significant events that deserve

0:49:23.880,0:49:28.619
recognition so I encourage people to do

0:49:26.250,0:49:30.690
further research right I honestly feel

0:49:28.619,0:49:33.180
like thank you for sharing firstly but I

0:49:30.690,0:49:34.950
honestly feel like this like the ISIS

0:49:33.180,0:49:39.420
deserves like a few more episodes

0:49:34.950,0:49:42.059
because I feel like just the the Wounded

0:49:39.420,0:49:43.740
Knee Massacre of 1890 how did we down

0:49:42.059,0:49:45.509
there that I have never heard of that

0:49:43.740,0:49:47.759
and then while you were talking I like

0:49:45.509,0:49:50.400
looked it up that’s like oh there were

0:49:47.759,0:49:52.920
two situations like this which the siege

0:49:50.400,0:49:54.900
which you presented on well this is like

0:49:52.920,0:49:56.279
a serious stuff like that’s a big deal I

0:49:54.900,0:49:59.910
don’t know why they didn’t bring that up

0:49:56.279,0:50:03.539
in history class yeah during high school

0:49:59.910,0:50:07.650
so yeah I feel like that alone could

0:50:03.539,0:50:10.079
have been one topic so I feel like we

0:50:07.650,0:50:12.880
can definitely bring up more on this in

0:50:10.079,0:50:14.680
the future yeah I think that’s really

0:50:12.880,0:50:17.920
cordoning yeah I would love to talk

0:50:14.680,0:50:19.569
about it more there’s some money defense

0:50:17.920,0:50:23.230
throughout history I think a lot of

0:50:19.569,0:50:25.839
Native American history is forgotten by

0:50:23.230,0:50:28.660
most Americans and it isn’t taught about

0:50:25.839,0:50:31.660
in the classroom and so we need to you

0:50:28.660,0:50:33.269
know I just encourage people to learn

0:50:31.660,0:50:36.009
about it on their own

0:50:33.269,0:50:37.660
permanently so make change within the

0:50:36.009,0:50:41.940
classroom and the education system as

0:50:37.660,0:50:45.450
well yeah well thank you for presenting

0:50:41.940,0:50:45.450
thank you for listening

0:50:45.520,0:51:05.260
[Music]