There Was A Native American Civil Rights Movement?

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Show Notes

The Native American civil rights movement is considered to be one of the most radical social movements of the era, but it is largely overlooked in the context of our country’s history and often forgotten by most Americans. In this episode, Nat gives a brief overview of Native American social activism during the 1960s & 70s, focusing on the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973.

Sources:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1rUccHlEAqagzdCS4YUKHYWBB62Xlw5lAx0j42lVdsXI/edit?usp=sharing

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:04.020
hi everybody welcome to another episode

0:00:01.829,0:00:08.460
of how did we not know that my name is

0:00:04.020,0:00:11.240
Jack and I’m Matt and today that is

0:00:08.460,0:00:13.830
going to present a topic of her choosing

0:00:11.240,0:00:15.839
yeah today I’m going to be talking about

0:00:13.830,0:00:18.810
the Native American civil rights

0:00:15.839,0:00:23.250
movement in the 1960s and seventies

0:00:18.810,0:00:26.430
okay do tell so yeah actually I’m super

0:00:23.250,0:00:30.090
excited to talk about this I feel like I

0:00:26.430,0:00:33.420
really did not know anything about this

0:00:30.090,0:00:35.670
movement um so yeah I have a lot to talk

0:00:33.420,0:00:37.710
about I’m going to talk about quite a

0:00:35.670,0:00:40.559
few different demonstrations and

0:00:37.710,0:00:42.809
activist groups and so just before to

0:00:40.559,0:00:46.289
get into all that I kind of want to set

0:00:42.809,0:00:49.170
the stage of as to what the u.s. looks

0:00:46.289,0:00:52.910
like during the 1960’s so basically

0:00:49.170,0:00:56.280
during this time we see a huge surge in

0:00:52.910,0:00:59.399
social activism and many different civil

0:00:56.280,0:01:01.890
rights movements the most I guess the

0:00:59.399,0:01:04.260
most notable one is the African American

0:01:01.890,0:01:07.260
civil rights movement and so the Civil

0:01:04.260,0:01:09.810
Rights Act is actually passed in 1964 as

0:01:07.260,0:01:13.290
we all know and that was a huge landmark

0:01:09.810,0:01:17.580
for minorities in the u.s. um

0:01:13.290,0:01:20.850
and so with this in mind we also see a

0:01:17.580,0:01:24.750
lot of social activism in regards to

0:01:20.850,0:01:28.200
Native American rights in the US and so

0:01:24.750,0:01:31.979
before you go I have a question so with

0:01:28.200,0:01:34.770
the Native American Civil Rights Act how

0:01:31.979,0:01:36.930
did it look for Native Americans in the

0:01:34.770,0:01:39.450
country during the 1960’s what because

0:01:36.930,0:01:41.189
there’s we see like segregation between

0:01:39.450,0:01:43.049
blacks and whites but I actually don’t

0:01:41.189,0:01:44.970
know what that looked like for Asians or

0:01:43.049,0:01:48.000
Hispanics or Native American so did you

0:01:44.970,0:01:49.680
do like research on that yeah so this is

0:01:48.000,0:01:52.290
actually just like the general Civil

0:01:49.680,0:01:55.530
Rights Act in 1964 that was passed in

0:01:52.290,0:01:59.430
regards like segregation in general but

0:01:55.530,0:02:02.729
so Native Americans at this time I would

0:01:59.430,0:02:04.740
say a lot of the main concerns on in

0:02:02.729,0:02:09.149
regards to their protest is about land

0:02:04.740,0:02:13.410
claim and life on the reservations and

0:02:09.149,0:02:16.590
treaties that had been ignored by the

0:02:13.410,0:02:21.390
and so a lot of it is has a more legal

0:02:16.590,0:02:24.960
focus um compared to other I guess other

0:02:21.390,0:02:29.850
minority groups and so yeah yeah yeah

0:02:24.960,0:02:32.520
it’s just a lot of like land claim right

0:02:29.850,0:02:35.820
if that makes sense yeah that doesn’t

0:02:32.520,0:02:39.570
make sense yeah and so Native Americans

0:02:35.820,0:02:41.760
were also facing a lot of racism and we

0:02:39.570,0:02:44.960
see like harassment from police and

0:02:41.760,0:02:49.550
profiling as well at this time too and

0:02:44.960,0:02:51.720
and struggles between you know

0:02:49.550,0:02:55.200
encouragement of Native Americans to

0:02:51.720,0:02:58.800
assimilate to standard American white

0:02:55.200,0:03:02.930
culture and at this sign there’s yeah

0:02:58.800,0:03:07.200
there’s mostly a lot of anger about a

0:03:02.930,0:03:10.680
reclaiming land I hadn’t stolen in the

0:03:07.200,0:03:13.230
past so we also see like protests

0:03:10.680,0:03:15.780
against the holiday of Columbus Day a

0:03:13.230,0:03:18.870
lot of people are to this day are so

0:03:15.780,0:03:21.810
very angry that it is a u.s. holiday um

0:03:18.870,0:03:25.890
oh wow they were protesting that in the

0:03:21.810,0:03:28.770
60s yeah it’s you dude I got literally I

0:03:25.890,0:03:30.570
got taught about Columbus Day like as a

0:03:28.770,0:03:32.580
good thing when I was in second grade

0:03:30.570,0:03:36.750
and there it already it was already

0:03:32.580,0:03:39.870
controversial ya know I I was really

0:03:36.750,0:03:42.330
surprised to see that – I I also thought

0:03:39.870,0:03:44.430
it was like a more recent issue but no

0:03:42.330,0:03:48.989
this has been literally being protest

0:03:44.430,0:03:50.970
against since the 60s but yet so we see

0:03:48.989,0:03:53.820
protests against that holiday and then

0:03:50.970,0:03:56.430
we also see a lot of lobbying um of

0:03:53.820,0:03:58.320
history textbook companies to include

0:03:56.430,0:04:01.550
more respectful accounts of needham

0:03:58.320,0:04:04.950
Native American culture in history and

0:04:01.550,0:04:07.500
so obviously this is episode of how did

0:04:04.950,0:04:09.360
we not know that so I still think

0:04:07.500,0:04:11.760
there’s a lot of progress that needs to

0:04:09.360,0:04:13.860
be made in regards to the American

0:04:11.760,0:04:18.060
education system and how it teaches

0:04:13.860,0:04:20.190
Native American history um but I mean

0:04:18.060,0:04:22.260
compared to how it was in the 1960s I

0:04:20.190,0:04:25.910
think a lot there has been like

0:04:22.260,0:04:28.730
significant changes that have been made

0:04:25.910,0:04:30.890
with like the Internet I think now you

0:04:28.730,0:04:32.510
can actually like hear the other side’s

0:04:30.890,0:04:34.190
opinions instead of just getting a

0:04:32.510,0:04:36.590
textbook and having to rely on that

0:04:34.190,0:04:40.940
exactly exactly I think that’s the most

0:04:36.590,0:04:43.130
important way to understand how Native

0:04:40.940,0:04:44.600
American held it with the contemporary

0:04:43.130,0:04:46.460
situation is like and then also

0:04:44.600,0:04:49.400
accessories from Native Americans and

0:04:46.460,0:04:55.010
indigenous peoples directly so yeah

0:04:49.400,0:04:57.350
internet um so I guess to go into a

0:04:55.010,0:05:00.440
little bit more about the act as a

0:04:57.350,0:05:01.370
movement we also see organized organized

0:05:00.440,0:05:03.500
fishin’s

0:05:01.370,0:05:05.540
where Native Americans would fish in

0:05:03.500,0:05:07.730
rivers that white residents wanted

0:05:05.540,0:05:09.650
exclusively for themselves and so these

0:05:07.730,0:05:14.870
were more like peaceful demonstrations

0:05:09.650,0:05:20.600
um also like uh fighting for their land

0:05:14.870,0:05:22.550
claims and in 1961 so 500 Indian leaders

0:05:20.600,0:05:24.860
from all across the country meet in

0:05:22.550,0:05:28.070
Chicago to form the National Indian

0:05:24.860,0:05:30.380
Youth Council and so as a result of the

0:05:28.070,0:05:32.360
organization begins to petition the

0:05:30.380,0:05:34.280
federal government to address hundreds

0:05:32.360,0:05:36.880
of Indian treaties that the government

0:05:34.280,0:05:40.270
had broken over the last 400 years and

0:05:36.880,0:05:42.980
so like I guess this is one of the

0:05:40.270,0:05:44.720
what’s the word for it like this is one

0:05:42.980,0:05:46.370
of the more like notable features of the

0:05:44.720,0:05:49.240
movement at this time is that we start

0:05:46.370,0:05:52.640
seeing groups we there had always been

0:05:49.240,0:05:55.370
activists and people who wanted to make

0:05:52.640,0:05:57.980
a change but now we see more organized

0:05:55.370,0:06:00.530
groups coming together to make

0:05:57.980,0:06:03.080
substantial legislative change and so

0:06:00.530,0:06:06.620
for example when the federal government

0:06:03.080,0:06:08.840
wanted to build a dam on Seneca land the

0:06:06.620,0:06:10.520
Native Americans cited treaties that had

0:06:08.840,0:06:12.560
been signed during George Washington’s

0:06:10.520,0:06:14.270
administration saying that the US

0:06:12.560,0:06:16.880
wouldn’t build on Seneca land and so

0:06:14.270,0:06:20.690
that project got cancelled and so you

0:06:16.880,0:06:22.400
can see like um yeah like a lot of

0:06:20.690,0:06:25.520
progress is being made

0:06:22.400,0:06:27.850
um and then actually Native Americans

0:06:25.520,0:06:31.220
were at the center of the anti-vietnam

0:06:27.850,0:06:34.700
protests and so I thought this was

0:06:31.220,0:06:36.350
really interesting and really honorable

0:06:34.700,0:06:38.390
because they were not only fighting for

0:06:36.350,0:06:39.650
their own rights but also against like

0:06:38.390,0:06:43.970
the aggression of the

0:06:39.650,0:06:45.710
US government as as a whole and the

0:06:43.970,0:06:47.930
government’s like brutality to its own

0:06:45.710,0:06:50.300
people and the people of Vietnam because

0:06:47.930,0:06:52.580
actually many Native Americans who have

0:06:50.300,0:06:55.160
served in the war found a lot of

0:06:52.580,0:06:58.070
similarities between American soldiers

0:06:55.160,0:07:00.770
treatment of Vietnamese peasants and

0:06:58.070,0:07:06.680
then past soldiers treatment of Indians

0:07:00.770,0:07:08.300
so I thought that was like yeah um and I

0:07:06.680,0:07:11.530
don’t think that gets mentioned a lot

0:07:08.300,0:07:13.669
yeah honestly we don’t talk enough about

0:07:11.530,0:07:16.970
Vietnam war either that should be

0:07:13.669,0:07:18.620
another episode and like I don’t know if

0:07:16.970,0:07:20.570
I told you when I actually went to

0:07:18.620,0:07:24.199
Vietnam and just like spent a day in the

0:07:20.570,0:07:26.539
museums and like every American should

0:07:24.199,0:07:29.900
probably take a trip to Vietnam and just

0:07:26.539,0:07:32.000
do that too because the way that we

0:07:29.900,0:07:34.010
treated them like a lot of American

0:07:32.000,0:07:36.080
soldiers is ridiculous and it’s not just

0:07:34.010,0:07:38.150
like finding and soldiers it’s just like

0:07:36.080,0:07:41.180
innocent civilians and kids and the way

0:07:38.150,0:07:44.630
that we came in there yeah literally

0:07:41.180,0:07:48.800
just so many innocent lives were lost

0:07:44.630,0:07:50.389
and it was really brutal yeah they’d

0:07:48.800,0:07:52.910
killed and harmed them

0:07:50.389,0:07:55.070
and I honestly like tortured to it

0:07:52.910,0:07:58.880
wasn’t even like the images are really

0:07:55.070,0:07:59.450
disturbing anyways that’s another topic

0:07:58.880,0:08:01.190
for anything

0:07:59.450,0:08:02.450
I think that’s like one of the reasons

0:08:01.190,0:08:05.180
why we don’t talk about it is because

0:08:02.450,0:08:07.810
it’s really hard to remember but we have

0:08:05.180,0:08:11.720
to remember it so we don’t repeat that

0:08:07.810,0:08:12.949
in the future but yeah yeah yeah that’s

0:08:11.720,0:08:15.410
maybe that’s something we can talk about

0:08:12.949,0:08:17.690
in another episode tube because

0:08:15.410,0:08:19.550
conveniently and I feel like in all my

0:08:17.690,0:08:21.710
history classes we only made it up to

0:08:19.550,0:08:26.530
World War two we never got to that era

0:08:21.710,0:08:29.900
but anyway so one of the UH one of the

0:08:26.530,0:08:31.610
events during this time to support the

0:08:29.900,0:08:33.740
movement that caught some of the most

0:08:31.610,0:08:37.250
media attention was the occupation of

0:08:33.740,0:08:41.450
Alcatraz Island so I really had no idea

0:08:37.250,0:08:44.180
of this but a Native American activist

0:08:41.450,0:08:46.190
had actually a like they went to the

0:08:44.180,0:08:48.589
island and occupied it for a very

0:08:46.190,0:08:52.010
significant time and so the prison had

0:08:48.589,0:08:52.910
actually closed in 1963 and so after

0:08:52.010,0:08:55.190
that native

0:08:52.910,0:08:57.350
Americans in San Francisco and the Bay

0:08:55.190,0:08:59.690
Area were started lobbying the

0:08:57.350,0:09:02.240
government to have it redeveloped as an

0:08:59.690,0:09:05.510
Indian cultural center in school but

0:09:02.240,0:09:07.370
like they the government basically I was

0:09:05.510,0:09:10.550
like oh no sorry

0:09:07.370,0:09:12.110
and that’s all so how do you get when

0:09:10.550,0:09:15.980
you have to take like a bow every day to

0:09:12.110,0:09:17.720
get to Alcatraz yeah yeah I think yeah

0:09:15.980,0:09:19.760
you would have to take a bow I don’t

0:09:17.720,0:09:23.450
know maybe like water taxis or something

0:09:19.760,0:09:25.730
okay I’ve never been to Alcatraz I don’t

0:09:23.450,0:09:31.910
know how far away it is from I think you

0:09:25.730,0:09:33.680
can possibly swim not really though you

0:09:31.910,0:09:36.470
can really in shape you good swim

0:09:33.680,0:09:37.880
no like there were like prisoners who

0:09:36.470,0:09:39.770
escaped from Alcatraz and the whole

0:09:37.880,0:09:42.380
thing it’s like there’s actually only

0:09:39.770,0:09:44.510
like three prisoners who escaped and

0:09:42.380,0:09:47.360
that was like a big conspiracy theory

0:09:44.510,0:09:49.850
because the bodies were never found but

0:09:47.360,0:09:51.800
then I don’t know I looked into it for a

0:09:49.850,0:09:53.930
little bit they do have like a triathlon

0:09:51.800,0:09:55.070
called the Escape from Alcatraz but I

0:09:53.930,0:09:57.290
don’t think you’re actually leaving

0:09:55.070,0:10:00.140
Alcatraz I think you’re on a boat out

0:09:57.290,0:10:05.900
there and then you swim in I see okay

0:10:00.140,0:10:09.320
yeah they’re mad like go be free but so

0:10:05.900,0:10:10.430
yeah okay so in October 1969 a fire

0:10:09.320,0:10:12.440
burns down

0:10:10.430,0:10:14.990
san Francisco’s American Indian Center

0:10:12.440,0:10:16.640
and so the state of Americans are even

0:10:14.990,0:10:18.740
more adamant like hey now we really

0:10:16.640,0:10:22.430
don’t have anything like can we please

0:10:18.740,0:10:25.100
please build an Native American cultural

0:10:22.430,0:10:27.110
center on this island and again the

0:10:25.100,0:10:31.010
government says no and so in Nova

0:10:27.110,0:10:32.960
November 19 1969 a handful of protesters

0:10:31.010,0:10:36.020
belonging to an activist group known as

0:10:32.960,0:10:38.720
Indians of all tribes occupy Alcatraz

0:10:36.020,0:10:41.990
and so they are led by a mohawk leader

0:10:38.720,0:10:44.990
and Professor Richard Oakes and Richard

0:10:41.990,0:10:46.880
Oakes he basically argues that the

0:10:44.990,0:10:49.460
protesters had the right to occupy the

0:10:46.880,0:10:53.180
island under a treaty provision that

0:10:49.460,0:10:56.420
granted Native Americans on used federal

0:10:53.180,0:10:58.580
land and he also said what quite

0:10:56.420,0:11:00.860
sarcastically that alphatron should be

0:10:58.580,0:11:03.470
an Indian Reservation because it was

0:11:00.860,0:11:08.290
isolated in Rocky it had no running

0:11:03.470,0:11:08.290
water and it house prisoners so

0:11:11.570,0:11:17.270
like oh my gosh you everyone should look

0:11:14.670,0:11:25.110
up Richard Oaks and all of his

0:11:17.270,0:11:27.840
interviews because he like oh my god and

0:11:25.110,0:11:30.620
so these professors on the end up saying

0:11:27.840,0:11:35.880
for one night before they’re removed by

0:11:30.620,0:11:38.520
authorities and so Oaks he comes back in

0:11:35.880,0:11:40.890
new states that if a one day occupation

0:11:38.520,0:11:43.320
by white men on Indian land years ago

0:11:40.890,0:11:45.090
establish squatter’s rights then the one

0:11:43.320,0:11:46.890
day occupation of Alcatraz should

0:11:45.090,0:11:49.740
establish Indian rights to the island

0:11:46.890,0:11:53.910
but he was like really this and like I

0:11:49.740,0:11:57.090
love it but uh oh and so on November

0:11:53.910,0:11:59.130
20th 1969 the Indians of all tribes

0:11:57.090,0:12:02.010
activist groups they try one more time

0:11:59.130,0:12:05.160
to occupy the island and this time they

0:12:02.010,0:12:07.980
come with 89 men women and children and

0:12:05.160,0:12:10.380
so a bunch of people coming this time

0:12:07.980,0:12:12.900
and they all move into the old wardens

0:12:10.380,0:12:14.970
house and the guards quarters and they

0:12:12.900,0:12:16.800
address the public and they say their

0:12:14.970,0:12:19.200
intentions to use the island for an

0:12:16.800,0:12:22.230
Indian School cultural center and museum

0:12:19.200,0:12:25.950
and so it’s like it’s pretty innocent

0:12:22.230,0:12:27.420
you know innocent request like you it’s

0:12:25.950,0:12:30.840
not they’re not really asking for much

0:12:27.420,0:12:33.810
and so Richard Nixon is president at the

0:12:30.840,0:12:36.360
time and his administration was pretty

0:12:33.810,0:12:40.320
hesitant at first to forcefully remove

0:12:36.360,0:12:41.850
protesters so the government decides to

0:12:40.320,0:12:44.130
leave them alone as long as they’re

0:12:41.850,0:12:46.380
peaceful and there are actually many

0:12:44.130,0:12:47.940
attempts by the government to settle a

0:12:46.380,0:12:50.760
compromise with the protesters

0:12:47.940,0:12:53.130
diplomatically but the activists are

0:12:50.760,0:12:55.860
very adamant that they won’t settle for

0:12:53.130,0:12:58.050
anything other than land rights and so

0:12:55.860,0:13:00.360
more and more protesters come to the

0:12:58.050,0:13:02.490
island because this demonstration is

0:13:00.360,0:13:04.380
gaining so much media attention and so

0:13:02.490,0:13:07.650
pretty soon there are actually more than

0:13:04.380,0:13:10.110
600 occupants on the island and so they

0:13:07.650,0:13:12.780
form a Governing Council they create a

0:13:10.110,0:13:14.850
clinic a kitchen public relations

0:13:12.780,0:13:16.980
department and even a nursery in a grade

0:13:14.850,0:13:19.320
school for their children and so it’s

0:13:16.980,0:13:21.870
like literally like it’s their own self

0:13:19.320,0:13:24.870
yeah dude have Biggie’s Alcatraz I did

0:13:21.870,0:13:27.510
not think it was that big I guess they

0:13:24.870,0:13:29.130
have like the prison itself can hold a

0:13:27.510,0:13:30.420
lot of people but I don’t think the

0:13:29.130,0:13:32.070
island like I don’t think there’s much

0:13:30.420,0:13:34.470
free sink it’s tiny

0:13:32.070,0:13:37.770
I’ll go sometime and let you know I

0:13:34.470,0:13:40.020
don’t think it’s that big no it does not

0:13:37.770,0:13:42.060
sound like it’s a fun place to live but

0:13:40.020,0:13:47.370
they were very passionate about the

0:13:42.060,0:13:49.470
cause um so however by early 1970 many

0:13:47.370,0:13:51.630
of the islands college students had to

0:13:49.470,0:13:53.580
return to school and they ended up

0:13:51.630,0:13:56.250
leaving the island and they were

0:13:53.580,0:13:58.380
actually student replaced by people who

0:13:56.250,0:14:02.480
are more worried about living rent-free

0:13:58.380,0:14:05.340
than the actual cause and yeah and so

0:14:02.480,0:14:07.380
wait but like weren’t they were they

0:14:05.340,0:14:08.790
also Native American or was it people

0:14:07.380,0:14:11.550
who weren’t even Native American who

0:14:08.790,0:14:15.540
just came there are some Native American

0:14:11.550,0:14:16.860
some non Native Americans because it’s

0:14:15.540,0:14:18.840
getting a lot of media attention and

0:14:16.860,0:14:20.130
people are coming out and yeah I think

0:14:18.840,0:14:23.520
there are some people who are taking

0:14:20.130,0:14:26.520
advantage of the situation and weren’t

0:14:23.520,0:14:29.580
really there to like fight for the land

0:14:26.520,0:14:31.740
rights oh yeah and so unfortunately

0:14:29.580,0:14:34.050
drugs and alcohol although they were

0:14:31.740,0:14:36.390
originally banned it becomes a pretty

0:14:34.050,0:14:40.680
prominent issue on the island as these

0:14:36.390,0:14:43.380
newcomers join the settlement and this

0:14:40.680,0:14:46.320
is really sad but in January 1970

0:14:43.380,0:14:48.510
Oakes’s young stepdaughter she falls to

0:14:46.320,0:14:51.270
her death from one of the stairwells and

0:14:48.510,0:14:54.150
so because of this folks and his wife

0:14:51.270,0:14:55.680
leave the island soon after and so this

0:14:54.150,0:14:57.330
kind of leaves all these different

0:14:55.680,0:15:00.720
groups to fight over control of the

0:14:57.330,0:15:03.030
island and so the government the federal

0:15:00.720,0:15:04.890
government sees this and they decide

0:15:03.030,0:15:07.620
that there’s really no longer much hope

0:15:04.890,0:15:10.260
for a diplomatic resolution and so they

0:15:07.620,0:15:12.180
decide to cut off all the power in an

0:15:10.260,0:15:15.960
effort to like force the activist out

0:15:12.180,0:15:18.000
and they’re all these actors are so

0:15:15.960,0:15:19.980
passionate that they decide to say and a

0:15:18.000,0:15:23.430
few weeks later a fire breaks out and

0:15:19.980,0:15:26.030
burns down several buildings and so this

0:15:23.430,0:15:29.310
yeah it’s really sad and so despite

0:15:26.030,0:15:31.110
these awful living conditions and then

0:15:29.310,0:15:33.030
there’s also diminishing outside groups

0:15:31.110,0:15:35.580
support because it’s

0:15:33.030,0:15:37.460
what’s going on so long and the media is

0:15:35.580,0:15:39.720
happening as much attention to it so

0:15:37.460,0:15:41.730
despite all this there are still a few

0:15:39.720,0:15:45.060
activists that continue to live on the

0:15:41.730,0:15:47.000
island for a whole another year it isn’t

0:15:45.060,0:15:50.550
like this lasts forever and so

0:15:47.000,0:15:54.480
unfortunately it well okay yeah On June

0:15:50.550,0:15:56.490
11 1971 armed federal marshals descend

0:15:54.480,0:15:59.190
on the island because they’re like hey

0:15:56.490,0:16:01.320
we need to restore the island foghorn

0:15:59.190,0:16:04.470
and lighthouse like we’ve lit we waited

0:16:01.320,0:16:05.610
for over a year and so sorry but you

0:16:04.470,0:16:07.980
guys all have to leave and so they

0:16:05.610,0:16:10.950
removed the last of the activists and so

0:16:07.980,0:16:14.280
by the end the remaining protestors

0:16:10.950,0:16:17.730
included six men five women and four

0:16:14.280,0:16:21.120
children and so the occupation lasted 19

0:16:17.730,0:16:23.370
months and it basically inspires many

0:16:21.120,0:16:25.830
other occupations and protests all

0:16:23.370,0:16:28.050
across the country and because of this

0:16:25.830,0:16:30.090
federal officials begin to listen more

0:16:28.050,0:16:32.970
to issues regarding Native American

0:16:30.090,0:16:35.010
self-determination and later on the US

0:16:32.970,0:16:37.890
government would return millions of

0:16:35.010,0:16:39.720
acres of ancestral Indian land and they

0:16:37.890,0:16:42.630
would pass more than fifty legislative

0:16:39.720,0:16:44.490
proposals supporting tribal self-rule so

0:16:42.630,0:16:50.280
there was a lot that came out of this

0:16:44.490,0:16:52.650
okay yeah yeah and so the social

0:16:50.280,0:16:54.630
movement so the Native American civil

0:16:52.650,0:16:56.970
rights movement can be seen as one of

0:16:54.630,0:17:00.450
the most radical social movements of the

0:16:56.970,0:17:04.439
era because unlike many other I guess

0:17:00.450,0:17:06.720
more populist causes at the time the

0:17:04.439,0:17:08.730
Native American rights movement attacked

0:17:06.720,0:17:10.980
people’s fundamental right to their own

0:17:08.730,0:17:13.140
property by argument arguing that

0:17:10.980,0:17:17.730
American society was built on the theft

0:17:13.140,0:17:20.699
of Indian land so it’s like yeah they’re

0:17:17.730,0:17:22.860
basically yeah see that’s funny they’d

0:17:20.699,0:17:25.110
be like it’s like the more radical but I

0:17:22.860,0:17:28.439
was like no makes sense like but yeah I

0:17:25.110,0:17:30.030
guess like that is a radical no I

0:17:28.439,0:17:31.410
actually don’t I have a hard time

0:17:30.030,0:17:34.410
feeling like that’s right cool

0:17:31.410,0:17:37.080
no but I guess yeah I guess it just it’s

0:17:34.410,0:17:39.570
not as populist or I cannot miss a

0:17:37.080,0:17:42.510
correct word but it basically is

0:17:39.570,0:17:45.510
attacking like every non-native American

0:17:42.510,0:17:46.350
oh so any landowner basically like

0:17:45.510,0:17:50.639
you’re in

0:17:46.350,0:17:53.519
okay but like I can you see where

0:17:50.639,0:17:55.289
they’re coming from and yeah it’s also

0:17:53.519,0:17:57.779
like it’s also really interesting to

0:17:55.289,0:18:00.090
note that these Native Americans are

0:17:57.779,0:18:01.860
protesting against the US government by

0:18:00.090,0:18:04.169
using their own treaties

0:18:01.860,0:18:06.090
against it and this kind of ultimately

0:18:04.169,0:18:09.509
exposes the government as a dishonest

0:18:06.090,0:18:12.179
institution so that’s why I think the

0:18:09.509,0:18:13.679
Native American civil rights movement is

0:18:12.179,0:18:17.070
really different compared to other

0:18:13.679,0:18:20.269
social activist movements because it’s

0:18:17.070,0:18:23.159
focus its focus is like mainly legal and

0:18:20.269,0:18:25.980
that’s kind of how they fight things out

0:18:23.159,0:18:28.169
is through the courts and I thought that

0:18:25.980,0:18:30.809
was really interesting that is I think

0:18:28.169,0:18:33.210
that’s also very impressive to me is

0:18:30.809,0:18:36.029
like you basically just like you made

0:18:33.210,0:18:39.029
this contract yes and I think that’s

0:18:36.029,0:18:41.279
really clever and well and there are so

0:18:39.029,0:18:44.009
many treaties that had been signed – so

0:18:41.279,0:18:45.570
you have to have such a wide knowledge

0:18:44.009,0:18:48.240
of all these different treaties that

0:18:45.570,0:18:51.570
have been made like years and years like

0:18:48.240,0:18:54.659
hundreds of years ago and that could be

0:18:51.570,0:18:56.940
well to be honest if like you’re getting

0:18:54.659,0:18:58.830
taken advantage of for years and years

0:18:56.940,0:19:01.950
and years I’d be reading my treaties –

0:18:58.830,0:19:03.690
like what did I sign up for that’s so

0:19:01.950,0:19:09.539
true you know how many times I read my

0:19:03.690,0:19:12.000
Li statement like messing around no

0:19:09.539,0:19:15.720
that’s so true yeah you’re you would

0:19:12.000,0:19:19.769
definitely be way more I guess yeah way

0:19:15.720,0:19:21.779
more knowledgeable and so yeah also at

0:19:19.769,0:19:24.090
this time we see all these different

0:19:21.779,0:19:27.419
organizations that are being created

0:19:24.090,0:19:31.379
because they’re I guess before this it

0:19:27.419,0:19:34.440
was mostly inner tribe activism and so

0:19:31.379,0:19:36.629
you kind of mostly worked with your own

0:19:34.440,0:19:39.840
tribe to fight for your land rights in

0:19:36.629,0:19:42.210
your area in your reservation but then

0:19:39.840,0:19:43.950
now we see a lot of organizations where

0:19:42.210,0:19:45.330
we’re getting Native American leaders

0:19:43.950,0:19:47.669
from all across the country to come

0:19:45.330,0:19:50.519
together and support the movement as a

0:19:47.669,0:19:53.220
whole and so one of these organizations

0:19:50.519,0:19:56.639
is the American Indian Movement also

0:19:53.220,0:19:59.680
known as aim and so it’s founded in 1968

0:19:56.639,0:20:01.570
by Russell Means Dennis banks and

0:19:59.680,0:20:03.930
other native leaders as a militant

0:20:01.570,0:20:06.700
political and civil rights organization

0:20:03.930,0:20:08.830
and it was actually one of the reasons

0:20:06.700,0:20:12.880
they decided to create this organization

0:20:08.830,0:20:14.380
is to stop police harassment of Native

0:20:12.880,0:20:18.250
Americans in the Minneapolis area

0:20:14.380,0:20:24.310
because I had been a really big issue at

0:20:18.250,0:20:26.320
the time Minneapolis Minnesota yeah so I

0:20:24.310,0:20:28.030
guess that was an issue all the way in

0:20:26.320,0:20:32.320
the nineteen fifties so I’ll leave it at

0:20:28.030,0:20:33.790
that but um so now this brings me to I

0:20:32.320,0:20:37.000
guess what I want to talk about for the

0:20:33.790,0:20:40.930
remainder of the episode which is the

0:20:37.000,0:20:45.030
occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973 which

0:20:40.930,0:20:48.250
is one of the more like well-known

0:20:45.030,0:20:50.070
demonstrations during the Native

0:20:48.250,0:20:53.830
American civil rights movement and so

0:20:50.070,0:20:57.370
Wounded Knee is located in the Pine

0:20:53.830,0:21:01.780
Ridge Reservation in South Dakota and so

0:20:57.370,0:21:05.010
it’s a small town and it’s actually in

0:21:01.780,0:21:08.740
1890 it was the site of the massacre of

0:21:05.010,0:21:10.870
302 Native Americans by the seventh

0:21:08.740,0:21:13.540
Cavalry and so it holds a lot of

0:21:10.870,0:21:19.290
historical significance for Native

0:21:13.540,0:21:22.090
Americans in the area and in 1973 it

0:21:19.290,0:21:25.030
Wounded Knee is helped to the Oglala

0:21:22.090,0:21:27.640
Lakota tribe and it’s one of the poorest

0:21:25.030,0:21:29.500
communities in the u.s. and it has one

0:21:27.640,0:21:32.080
of the country’s lowest rates of life

0:21:29.500,0:21:35.490
expectancy along with the other towns

0:21:32.080,0:21:38.170
within the Pine Ridge Reservation and so

0:21:35.490,0:21:40.540
like it’s really sad it’s a really poor

0:21:38.170,0:21:44.080
community and on top of this the people

0:21:40.540,0:21:46.330
in Wounded Knee face racism not only

0:21:44.080,0:21:49.120
outside of the reservation but inside

0:21:46.330,0:21:51.550
their own reservation as well and this

0:21:49.120,0:21:56.140
is partly due to a very poorly managed

0:21:51.550,0:21:59.080
tribal government and so basically the

0:21:56.140,0:22:01.950
people of Wounded Knee really wanted to

0:21:59.080,0:22:04.390
remove the tribal chairman dick Wilson

0:22:01.950,0:22:07.320
because they thought he was very corrupt

0:22:04.390,0:22:10.600
and so people said he favored mixed-race

0:22:07.320,0:22:13.070
assimilated Lakota like himself and so

0:22:10.600,0:22:15.530
they tried and tried to impeach him but

0:22:13.070,0:22:18.650
at all all their efforts failed and so

0:22:15.530,0:22:21.890
the Ocala Lakota tribal leaders they

0:22:18.650,0:22:25.550
turn to aim for help with removing him

0:22:21.890,0:22:29.060
by force and so the contact a man aims

0:22:25.550,0:22:32.600
answer is to occupy the town of Wounded

0:22:29.060,0:22:34.400
Knee and so in early 1973 aim begins

0:22:32.600,0:22:38.000
their preparations for this occupation

0:22:34.400,0:22:40.580
and so aim believes that they needed to

0:22:38.000,0:22:43.310
use physical force in order to create

0:22:40.580,0:22:44.870
change in American society so that’s why

0:22:43.310,0:22:47.630
they choose to armed themselves with

0:22:44.870,0:22:49.850
guns and other weapons and they refused

0:22:47.630,0:22:52.370
to leave the town and they also argue

0:22:49.850,0:22:54.020
that they had to arm themselves the US

0:22:52.370,0:22:57.020
government had robbed them of their

0:22:54.020,0:23:00.010
lands with our worst acts of violence so

0:22:57.020,0:23:03.770
that is their minds that going into this

0:23:00.010,0:23:09.620
demonstration occupation and so on

0:23:03.770,0:23:12.620
February 27th 1973 around 202 Native

0:23:09.620,0:23:15.290
Americans led by members of aim occupied

0:23:12.620,0:23:18.050
the town of Wounded Knee and so they

0:23:15.290,0:23:21.140
basically what happens is they arrive in

0:23:18.050,0:23:22.640
town at night in a caravan of cars and

0:23:21.140,0:23:25.850
trucks and they take the town’s

0:23:22.640,0:23:29.150
residences hostage and so they declare

0:23:25.850,0:23:33.290
the town liberated from the US then they

0:23:29.150,0:23:36.470
cite a treaty from 1868 that allowed the

0:23:33.290,0:23:37.640
town to remain under Lakota control so

0:23:36.470,0:23:39.860
they have this treaty and they’re like

0:23:37.640,0:23:41.660
the government this is one of the many

0:23:39.860,0:23:43.940
treaties that the government has ignored

0:23:41.660,0:23:44.330
and actually this shouldn’t be American

0:23:43.940,0:23:49.040
soil

0:23:44.330,0:23:51.170
um and within hours police around the

0:23:49.040,0:23:53.420
town of Wounded Knee and so basically

0:23:51.170,0:23:56.270
this prevents protesters from leaving

0:23:53.420,0:23:59.380
and then sympathizers from entering and

0:23:56.270,0:24:02.720
so they basically besieged the town and

0:23:59.380,0:24:05.830
they order the occupants to disarm

0:24:02.720,0:24:08.690
themselves but that does not happen and

0:24:05.830,0:24:10.490
so dick Wilson and the tribal chairman

0:24:08.690,0:24:13.310
that people were complaining about

0:24:10.490,0:24:16.370
earlier he had actually heard about Ames

0:24:13.310,0:24:19.820
plans to occupy the town and remove him

0:24:16.370,0:24:22.070
and so he before this he retreats to

0:24:19.820,0:24:24.590
tribal headquarters where he is under

0:24:22.070,0:24:26.330
the protection of federal marshals and

0:24:24.590,0:24:29.630
then Bureau of Indian Affairs

0:24:26.330,0:24:31.730
police and so he’s like safe and out of

0:24:29.630,0:24:34.880
the picture even though that was kind of

0:24:31.730,0:24:38.540
one of the main reasons for infiltrating

0:24:34.880,0:24:41.510
or occupying the town until the

0:24:38.540,0:24:44.300
following day a members begin trading

0:24:41.510,0:24:46.460
gunfire with federal marshals that are

0:24:44.300,0:24:48.980
surrounding the town and then they also

0:24:46.460,0:24:52.040
fire at like automobiles that are

0:24:48.980,0:24:55.340
driving by and in low-flying planes that

0:24:52.040,0:24:58.130
yeah and so from then on they would

0:24:55.340,0:25:00.740
trade fire with federal authorities

0:24:58.130,0:25:03.370
almost every night and so I want to ask

0:25:00.740,0:25:06.770
you – like how long do you think this

0:25:03.370,0:25:09.130
siege lasts I literally was about to ask

0:25:06.770,0:25:12.290
you I was like how long did that last

0:25:09.130,0:25:15.650
um let me think can i I was thinking

0:25:12.290,0:25:17.480
like a week maybe okay of like ongoing

0:25:15.650,0:25:21.070
it’s just like them firing back at each

0:25:17.480,0:25:26.300
other every day yeah your final answer

0:25:21.070,0:25:32.150
yeah but I guess it’s wrong so it

0:25:26.300,0:25:35.750
actually lets 71 days know white for –

0:25:32.150,0:25:39.050
my mind was blown every single day every

0:25:35.750,0:25:40.910
single day they’re like trading fire

0:25:39.050,0:25:45.110
with federal authorities I cannot

0:25:40.910,0:25:48.110
imagine how stressful that living

0:25:45.110,0:25:50.330
situation could be like right fine they

0:25:48.110,0:25:53.420
also are they like did anyone get hurt

0:25:50.330,0:25:57.170
and also wet was the cost of like always

0:25:53.420,0:26:01.310
going to buy like weapons we’ll get into

0:25:57.170,0:26:04.880
that uh like after this but yeah it

0:26:01.310,0:26:06.650
lasts for a really long time and so

0:26:04.880,0:26:08.480
they’re basically trapped in the town

0:26:06.650,0:26:10.790
though you know because the authorities

0:26:08.480,0:26:13.750
are surrounding the town so their only

0:26:10.790,0:26:16.730
way out is like their surrender and so

0:26:13.750,0:26:19.430
in order to try and break the siege the

0:26:16.730,0:26:21.320
FBI cuts up all electricity and water to

0:26:19.430,0:26:23.330
the town and they attempt to prevent

0:26:21.320,0:26:25.310
food and ammunition from being passed to

0:26:23.330,0:26:27.410
the occupiers so this is like literally

0:26:25.310,0:26:29.660
horrible horrible living conditions and

0:26:27.410,0:26:32.510
so bill Zimmerman

0:26:29.660,0:26:34.940
he’s a sympathetic activist and a pilot

0:26:32.510,0:26:37.400
from Boston he basically agrees to

0:26:34.940,0:26:40.130
deliver 2,000 pounds of food and

0:26:37.400,0:26:42.910
supplies to the town like via a small

0:26:40.130,0:26:46.850
little playing and so he flies to

0:26:42.910,0:26:48.460
Wounded Knee and he’s like I don’t know

0:26:46.850,0:26:53.420
the mechanics which is like dropping

0:26:48.460,0:26:56.510
dropping the supplies and sadly or I

0:26:53.420,0:26:58.310
guess however when the occupiers run out

0:26:56.510,0:27:01.460
of the building where they were hiding

0:26:58.310,0:27:04.670
to grab the supplies the federal agents

0:27:01.460,0:27:06.560
opened fire on them and so yeah so

0:27:04.670,0:27:09.620
during the shootout the first member of

0:27:06.560,0:27:11.870
the occupation to die he’s a Cherokee

0:27:09.620,0:27:13.340
man that he was shot by a bullet that

0:27:11.870,0:27:18.260
had flown through the wall of a church

0:27:13.340,0:27:22.070
and so he’s the first person this

0:27:18.260,0:27:24.050
occupation question okay I’m just gonna

0:27:22.070,0:27:26.510
wrap my mind around like physically what

0:27:24.050,0:27:30.080
this looks like so there are very like

0:27:26.510,0:27:32.060
surrounding a town basically and is

0:27:30.080,0:27:34.010
there like a barricade at all or it’s

0:27:32.060,0:27:36.050
just like literally like I’m imagining

0:27:34.010,0:27:38.510
like tanks or something in a big circle

0:27:36.050,0:27:40.490
around it yeah when I was looking at

0:27:38.510,0:27:42.170
photos I like didn’t get an aerial I

0:27:40.490,0:27:44.210
didn’t see any aerial tap photos but

0:27:42.170,0:27:46.610
good photos they did there were tanks

0:27:44.210,0:27:49.390
and like like physical like wood

0:27:46.610,0:27:52.550
barricades that blacked off the roads

0:27:49.390,0:27:54.530
and also you have it like remember it’s

0:27:52.550,0:27:57.650
in South Dakota so it’s like open plains

0:27:54.530,0:28:00.770
and some really like there’s no trees

0:27:57.650,0:28:04.100
for people to hide yeah I’m imagining

0:28:00.770,0:28:06.950
it’s like pretty open open so just like

0:28:04.100,0:28:08.480
building so you can’t really like you

0:28:06.950,0:28:11.420
can’t run you can’t escape because

0:28:08.480,0:28:14.500
you’re out in the open and so and then

0:28:11.420,0:28:17.510
was this after the 71 days then like

0:28:14.500,0:28:21.050
versus during the 71 days then someone

0:28:17.510,0:28:23.860
dies okay this is I think I don’t I

0:28:21.050,0:28:26.540
think it’s about like halfway through

0:28:23.860,0:28:28.760
maybe closer towards the end but I

0:28:26.540,0:28:30.440
didn’t get a specific date on the bill

0:28:28.760,0:28:32.900
Zimmerman air drop I know he actually

0:28:30.440,0:28:34.970
wrote a book about the the pilot wrote a

0:28:32.900,0:28:40.130
book about this event and so you can

0:28:34.970,0:28:42.110
read that but yeah so there should their

0:28:40.130,0:28:45.230
training prior with federal agents every

0:28:42.110,0:28:47.270
night and then on April 26 tribe member

0:28:45.230,0:28:48.440
buddy Lamont is shot and killed

0:28:47.270,0:28:51.710
[Music]

0:28:48.440,0:28:53.960
by agents and morale drops severely

0:28:51.710,0:28:58.010
because this has also been going on for

0:28:53.960,0:29:00.080
so long and it’s really yeah it’s really

0:28:58.010,0:29:02.600
awful living situations and so aim

0:29:00.080,0:29:04.520
members they basically they really want

0:29:02.600,0:29:08.480
to continue the occupation but the

0:29:04.520,0:29:12.020
Oglala they overrule them and so after

0:29:08.480,0:29:15.260
this negotiations pretty much begin like

0:29:12.020,0:29:16.820
before there had been negotiators that

0:29:15.260,0:29:19.040
had been sent from the government to

0:29:16.820,0:29:22.010
talk to the protesters but they really

0:29:19.040,0:29:25.070
had no interest in what they were saying

0:29:22.010,0:29:27.770
but then after the second member is

0:29:25.070,0:29:30.530
killed then that’s when they really I

0:29:27.770,0:29:34.310
guess start putting more effort into the

0:29:30.530,0:29:36.440
negotiations and so Russell Means he was

0:29:34.310,0:29:38.660
one of the founders of aim so he leads

0:29:36.440,0:29:40.040
the negotiations for the release of the

0:29:38.660,0:29:41.690
hostages because you also have to

0:29:40.040,0:29:45.880
remember like they’re taking the people

0:29:41.690,0:29:48.860
in this town is hostage to um and so

0:29:45.880,0:29:51.590
Richard means he demanded that the US

0:29:48.860,0:29:54.140
Senate launched an investigation of the

0:29:51.590,0:29:56.180
Bureau of Indian Affairs and all two

0:29:54.140,0:29:59.750
reservations in the South Dakota in

0:29:56.180,0:30:02.150
South Dakota and he also wants the

0:29:59.750,0:30:04.220
Senate Foreign Relations Committee to

0:30:02.150,0:30:07.340
hold hearings on the several Indian

0:30:04.220,0:30:08.840
treaties broken by the US government and

0:30:07.340,0:30:12.590
so they have very like specific

0:30:08.840,0:30:17.570
legislative action that they want to be

0:30:12.590,0:30:19.070
passed on and so all rights right have

0:30:17.570,0:30:20.930
pretty much all pertaining to land

0:30:19.070,0:30:23.690
rights and then also there’s this Bureau

0:30:20.930,0:30:26.660
of Indian Affairs which exists today and

0:30:23.690,0:30:29.930
there they have a lot of complaints with

0:30:26.660,0:30:32.060
the Bureau as a whole and the way they

0:30:29.930,0:30:34.460
deal with Native Americans

0:30:32.060,0:30:38.090
um and so that like there would a m–

0:30:34.460,0:30:41.240
also ended up occupying the Bureau of

0:30:38.090,0:30:42.770
Indian Affairs building in DC later and

0:30:41.240,0:30:44.690
so there’s a lot of issues with this

0:30:42.770,0:30:47.000
specific department and so they want

0:30:44.690,0:30:49.370
like they want an investigation being

0:30:47.000,0:30:51.290
held on the department to make sure it’s

0:30:49.370,0:30:54.830
as effective in supportive as possible

0:30:51.290,0:30:58.190
for Native Americans um and yeah and

0:30:54.830,0:31:00.200
then also land claims and breaking

0:30:58.190,0:31:02.570
treaties like they want these treaties

0:31:00.200,0:31:05.510
to be reconciled and so

0:31:02.570,0:31:08.150
oh yes I didn’t yeah I was gonna ask so

0:31:05.510,0:31:10.640
this is this is the Wounded Knee it’s

0:31:08.150,0:31:13.760
not the Wounded Knee Massacre right yes

0:31:10.640,0:31:17.290
it is this is Wounded Knee 1973 there is

0:31:13.760,0:31:22.670
a Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890 and that

0:31:17.290,0:31:26.780
yeah where basically the US Army kind of

0:31:22.670,0:31:33.530
kills the massacre what did I say 300

0:31:26.780,0:31:36.740
1800s yeah in 1890 so yeah Wow Native

0:31:33.530,0:31:39.170
Americans are killed and so yeah that’s

0:31:36.740,0:31:41.780
one of the reasons why they choose

0:31:39.170,0:31:44.480
Wounded Knee I get maybe not one of the

0:31:41.780,0:31:47.390
reasons but it really holds a lot of

0:31:44.480,0:31:49.220
significance during their protests just

0:31:47.390,0:31:52.390
remembering like all the atrocities that

0:31:49.220,0:31:59.600
has been committed in this one town um

0:31:52.390,0:32:02.240
and yeah and so on may 8th 1973 aim

0:31:59.600,0:32:04.070
leaders and supporters surrender after

0:32:02.240,0:32:05.990
officials promised they’re going to

0:32:04.070,0:32:08.200
investigate their complaints so they’re

0:32:05.990,0:32:11.990
like okay we’ll meet your demands and

0:32:08.200,0:32:13.910
yeah but okay yeah well I guess we’ll

0:32:11.990,0:32:16.610
get into that later but um so throughout

0:32:13.910,0:32:18.590
the duration of the siege to Native

0:32:16.610,0:32:21.230
Americans were killed and a federal

0:32:18.590,0:32:24.320
marshal was permanently paralyzed by a

0:32:21.230,0:32:26.660
bullet wound and so some a members

0:32:24.320,0:32:29.360
actually managed to escape the town

0:32:26.660,0:32:32.020
before being arrested however they’re so

0:32:29.360,0:32:35.180
like hundreds of arrests that are made

0:32:32.020,0:32:37.940
and so Russell Means and Dennis banks

0:32:35.180,0:32:42.770
are among the activists that are

0:32:37.940,0:32:45.740
arrested but on September 16 1973 they

0:32:42.770,0:32:47.960
go to court right and the federal judge

0:32:45.740,0:32:50.420
actually dismisses the charges against

0:32:47.960,0:32:53.150
them because the US government had

0:32:50.420,0:32:55.760
unlawfully handled witnesses and

0:32:53.150,0:32:58.970
evidence so it kind of come out that the

0:32:55.760,0:33:00.650
FBI had manipulated key witnesses and so

0:32:58.970,0:33:03.590
the charges against them are drop and

0:33:00.650,0:33:09.560
they’re like free um

0:33:03.590,0:33:11.150
and so remember how one when they had

0:33:09.560,0:33:12.890
started to occupy the land they said

0:33:11.150,0:33:15.800
that there was this treaty from 1868

0:33:12.890,0:33:18.890
that allowed a little bit

0:33:15.800,0:33:21.770
olala Lakota to claim the land right and

0:33:18.890,0:33:25.400
so the government basically concludes

0:33:21.770,0:33:28.280
that this treaty was superseded by the

0:33:25.400,0:33:31.100
principle of eminent domain and so

0:33:28.280,0:33:34.130
eminent domain I like remember hearing

0:33:31.100,0:33:35.750
about it in like AP US government but I

0:33:34.130,0:33:38.230
had completely forgotten what it means

0:33:35.750,0:33:41.120
so just as a refresher for everyone

0:33:38.230,0:33:43.100
eminent domain is the power of the

0:33:41.120,0:33:45.679
government to seize the private property

0:33:43.100,0:33:48.470
of an individual or group for use by the

0:33:45.679,0:33:51.620
state if they provide just just

0:33:48.470,0:33:54.440
compensation to property owners so

0:33:51.620,0:33:56.090
basically they’re like oh okay I have

0:33:54.440,0:33:58.070
heard of this because isn’t it like

0:33:56.090,0:34:00.320
that’s when like the guy like if they

0:33:58.070,0:34:02.059
want to build a highway like they can

0:34:00.320,0:34:04.280
take your house yeah

0:34:02.059,0:34:05.690
as long as they like pay you yeah then

0:34:04.280,0:34:08.510
it’s fine and so basically they’re like

0:34:05.690,0:34:11.300
yeah so we paid you for this land and so

0:34:08.510,0:34:15.560
this treaty is invalid and it’s actually

0:34:11.300,0:34:18.230
American soil still yeah did they get

0:34:15.560,0:34:21.230
paid for the land oh and what were they

0:34:18.230,0:34:22.909
compensated with I could not have fine

0:34:21.230,0:34:24.590
that’s why I was that was my immediate

0:34:22.909,0:34:29.290
thought it’s like okay was it actually

0:34:24.590,0:34:32.090
just compensation because I guess maybe

0:34:29.290,0:34:33.560
yeah a long time ago when during

0:34:32.090,0:34:36.770
westward expansion and all that I guess

0:34:33.560,0:34:42.340
the land technically was purchased but I

0:34:36.770,0:34:45.350
could not find a lake yeah like what

0:34:42.340,0:34:48.429
because California’s expense a baby like

0:34:45.350,0:34:51.200
how much did you pay that you know like

0:34:48.429,0:34:54.909
very interested to see like how much

0:34:51.200,0:34:57.650
they paid the tribes for their land

0:34:54.909,0:35:00.830
mm-hmm but basically they’re like your

0:34:57.650,0:35:04.310
whole argument is invalid and so yeah

0:35:00.830,0:35:09.200
guys so people as you can imagine people

0:35:04.310,0:35:11.390
were very devastated yeah in terms of I

0:35:09.200,0:35:14.030
guess other ways this event is

0:35:11.390,0:35:17.600
remembered so according to the US

0:35:14.030,0:35:19.640
Marshal Service the occupation of

0:35:17.600,0:35:21.740
Wounded Knee was actually the longest

0:35:19.640,0:35:23.420
lasting civil disorder in two hundred

0:35:21.740,0:35:26.030
years of history so I think it’s also

0:35:23.420,0:35:28.790
important to note different ways this

0:35:26.030,0:35:29.480
event is remembered and kind of people

0:35:28.790,0:35:33.410
sentiment

0:35:29.480,0:35:35.990
what happened yeah oh yeah oh I was

0:35:33.410,0:35:39.109
gonna say I would love if we could like

0:35:35.990,0:35:42.350
find someone who’s like more connected

0:35:39.109,0:35:44.869
like maybe Native American and has like

0:35:42.350,0:35:46.100
gone through like history and like heard

0:35:44.869,0:35:47.990
stories from their family because I’m

0:35:46.100,0:35:50.300
curious as to the whole purchase

0:35:47.990,0:35:53.000
argument that they made like who do they

0:35:50.300,0:35:54.590
pay like who got the money who did they

0:35:53.000,0:35:56.240
make a deal with and why does that

0:35:54.590,0:35:59.390
invalidate like every single other

0:35:56.240,0:36:02.240
person who’s a part of the community now

0:35:59.390,0:36:03.470
I would really love to talk to someone

0:36:02.240,0:36:05.690
about that too because I have so many

0:36:03.470,0:36:06.790
questions I’m also like yeah who gets

0:36:05.690,0:36:11.600
the money

0:36:06.790,0:36:15.020
who decided like how much money is being

0:36:11.600,0:36:16.730
spent and then also I guess eminent

0:36:15.020,0:36:19.070
domain is kind of tricky because like

0:36:16.730,0:36:21.050
what is it justification what qualifies

0:36:19.070,0:36:23.150
when they use a word like just

0:36:21.050,0:36:26.420
compensation like what what makes it

0:36:23.150,0:36:31.340
like a repay it’s like who who gave the

0:36:26.420,0:36:33.140
appraisal on that like how can ya so I I

0:36:31.340,0:36:35.780
would really like to talk to someone

0:36:33.140,0:36:37.490
about that I guess I’ll uh there are a

0:36:35.780,0:36:39.980
lot of autobiographies that are written

0:36:37.490,0:36:42.050
about about this and these activities so

0:36:39.980,0:36:45.230
I’ll mention those a bit later but there

0:36:42.050,0:36:49.369
is a great PBS documentary tting a

0:36:45.230,0:36:52.340
special about the occupation in 1973 so

0:36:49.369,0:36:53.990
you could hear the people who were there

0:36:52.340,0:36:56.750
during this protests are being

0:36:53.990,0:36:59.810
interviewed so yeah I know a few people

0:36:56.750,0:37:01.550
who do there like descendants of Native

0:36:59.810,0:37:04.010
Americans and they do activist work in

0:37:01.550,0:37:05.720
the Native American community so maybe

0:37:04.010,0:37:08.060
we could reach out to them or if you’re

0:37:05.720,0:37:09.859
listening to this and you are Native

0:37:08.060,0:37:11.840
American or you know someone who is

0:37:09.859,0:37:14.630
Native American who is connected to that

0:37:11.840,0:37:17.600
history please email us how did we not

0:37:14.630,0:37:19.640
know that at gmail.com yes please do

0:37:17.600,0:37:22.460
because I would love to have I would

0:37:19.640,0:37:24.170
love to hear I guess what they would

0:37:22.460,0:37:26.780
have to say and yeah I have a question

0:37:24.170,0:37:30.619
so please reach out to us that would be

0:37:26.780,0:37:33.859
really exciting um yeah I’m sorry I

0:37:30.619,0:37:36.920
guess to talk a little bit more about

0:37:33.859,0:37:39.170
what happened after so surprised

0:37:36.920,0:37:42.810
surprised Congress took no steps to

0:37:39.170,0:37:46.190
honor the broken Indian treaties um

0:37:42.810,0:37:49.080
but actually in the courts some tribes

0:37:46.190,0:37:51.120
what would wane major settlements from

0:37:49.080,0:37:53.160
both state and federal governments in

0:37:51.120,0:37:55.860
cases regarding tribal land claims

0:37:53.160,0:37:59.340
so the judicial system is really

0:37:55.860,0:38:03.480
important especially when it comes down

0:37:59.340,0:38:06.330
to land claims so yeah and so dick

0:38:03.480,0:38:09.570
Wilson so he is actually not removed

0:38:06.330,0:38:11.790
from his position and the Oglala blamed

0:38:09.570,0:38:14.640
the federal government for failing to

0:38:11.790,0:38:16.080
remove him because that was like when

0:38:14.640,0:38:17.820
they were making negotiations or like

0:38:16.080,0:38:21.360
Katie can you like please get him out of

0:38:17.820,0:38:23.100
here and the government their response

0:38:21.360,0:38:25.080
is that it would be illegal for them to

0:38:23.100,0:38:27.350
do so because it would violate laws

0:38:25.080,0:38:31.170
regarding tribal self-determination

0:38:27.350,0:38:32.940
which is true a lot some people do argue

0:38:31.170,0:38:36.680
that that’s a bit shady because they had

0:38:32.940,0:38:41.550
not been so I guess respectful of these

0:38:36.680,0:38:44.910
laws in the past and so I’ll leave that

0:38:41.550,0:38:47.670
at that but um after this siege and it’s

0:38:44.910,0:38:50.610
basically a civil war between dick

0:38:47.670,0:38:52.860
Wilson and a pro aim faction of the

0:38:50.610,0:38:57.150
Oglala Lakota continues on the

0:38:52.860,0:38:59.550
reservation um but in 90th the 1974

0:38:57.150,0:39:02.280
Wilson is reelected to the tribal

0:38:59.550,0:39:02.790
presidency and he remains in his

0:39:02.280,0:39:07.890
position

0:39:02.790,0:39:09.840
um and so sadly violence continues on

0:39:07.890,0:39:12.750
the Pine Ridge Reservation throughout

0:39:09.840,0:39:14.550
the rest of the 1970s so this was this

0:39:12.750,0:39:16.050
really broke my heart and it really

0:39:14.550,0:39:19.080
shocked me in the three years following

0:39:16.050,0:39:20.820
the standoff Pine Ridge where Wounded

0:39:19.080,0:39:22.680
Knee is located it would have the

0:39:20.820,0:39:25.620
highest per-capita murder rate in the

0:39:22.680,0:39:27.930
whole country and so I had no idea but

0:39:25.620,0:39:30.980
this link it’s I mean if you think about

0:39:27.930,0:39:33.840
population to like it’s a really small

0:39:30.980,0:39:36.690
population in terms of I guess the US

0:39:33.840,0:39:39.210
population as a whole so a series of

0:39:36.690,0:39:42.540
beating shootings and murders left more

0:39:39.210,0:39:45.300
than 100 Native Americans dead and among

0:39:42.540,0:39:48.360
these incidents um is an incident that

0:39:45.300,0:39:51.360
occurs in 1975 where a native man and

0:39:48.360,0:39:54.240
two FBI agents were killed in a shootout

0:39:51.360,0:39:56.520
between federal agents and a members and

0:39:54.240,0:40:01.110
local residents and

0:39:56.520,0:40:05.450
so a member Leonard pet leer I hope I’m

0:40:01.110,0:40:07.680
pronouncing it right it’s PE TL IE our

0:40:05.450,0:40:10.200
buddy who was found guilty of

0:40:07.680,0:40:12.270
first-degree murder and he’s sentenced

0:40:10.200,0:40:16.010
to two consecutive life terms

0:40:12.270,0:40:22.590
um what two consecutive life terms

0:40:16.010,0:40:25.020
because had I killed – yeah well you

0:40:22.590,0:40:27.240
gonna die whines what is the point just

0:40:25.020,0:40:30.090
to spite you two consecutive life terms

0:40:27.240,0:40:31.140
that does one can get you can’t it’s

0:40:30.090,0:40:32.910
okay

0:40:31.140,0:40:34.560
thinkin also I think when it comes to

0:40:32.910,0:40:37.590
like sentencing it also has to do with

0:40:34.560,0:40:39.690
like what happens when you are eligible

0:40:37.590,0:40:41.580
for parole like I think the more like

0:40:39.690,0:40:43.530
terms you have sex okay

0:40:41.580,0:40:46.710
so I think that’s a significance of it

0:40:43.530,0:40:51.270
too but basically did it yeah does not

0:40:46.710,0:40:53.580
look good for him um and so today Pine

0:40:51.270,0:40:55.800
Ridge Reservation is the largest

0:40:53.580,0:40:59.550
community in what might be the poorest

0:40:55.800,0:41:02.190
County in the u.s. so in 2010 the per

0:40:59.550,0:41:04.230
capita income in Shannon County South

0:41:02.190,0:41:07.650
Dakota where Pine Ridge and Wounded Knee

0:41:04.230,0:41:12.120
are located it was lower than any other

0:41:07.650,0:41:14.280
yearĂ­s County and this also blew my mind

0:41:12.120,0:41:15.870
according to reports adult unemployment

0:41:14.280,0:41:19.190
rate on the reservation is somewhere

0:41:15.870,0:41:21.680
between 70% and 80%

0:41:19.190,0:41:25.819
I can’t even comprehend it like that’s

0:41:21.680,0:41:30.710
80% of adults are unemployed so like

0:41:25.819,0:41:32.450
wait how do you live then I I don’t even

0:41:30.710,0:41:36.470
know that like how do you live how do

0:41:32.450,0:41:38.930
you survive and I’m like your basic like

0:41:36.470,0:41:41.030
human death mask though do you know

0:41:38.930,0:41:43.160
where we’re like most of the reserves

0:41:41.030,0:41:45.770
are like I don’t even know where they’re

0:41:43.160,0:41:47.240
located a lot of it is like in the

0:41:45.770,0:41:51.650
plains a great plains so like South

0:41:47.240,0:41:53.869
Dakota Oklahoma things like my pan on

0:41:51.650,0:41:55.490
Wyoming like that area but that’s not

0:41:53.869,0:41:58.339
necessarily that doesn’t mean that

0:41:55.490,0:42:00.410
that’s where I guess I so before

0:41:58.339,0:42:02.660
Europeans came Native Americans or

0:42:00.410,0:42:05.990
indigenous people were like everywhere

0:42:02.660,0:42:07.579
but then because we have forced removal

0:42:05.990,0:42:09.380
of Indian groups and the whole Trail of

0:42:07.579,0:42:13.700
Tears and the Jackson administration

0:42:09.380,0:42:16.730
they’re all forced to move and they’re

0:42:13.700,0:42:18.640
all concentrated there so and then a

0:42:16.730,0:42:21.950
question on when you’re talking about

0:42:18.640,0:42:25.250
that like a lot of people were murdered

0:42:21.950,0:42:27.200
and stuff why was there so many like

0:42:25.250,0:42:29.390
shootouts again what because I felt like

0:42:27.200,0:42:34.040
this land right thing was settled and

0:42:29.390,0:42:38.420
they well but it like kind of like

0:42:34.040,0:42:42.140
settled but I there’s like a continuing

0:42:38.420,0:42:44.480
like feud yeah well yeah it was

0:42:42.140,0:42:47.329
basically very so the treaty they were

0:42:44.480,0:42:49.369
like oh the US government like eminent

0:42:47.329,0:42:51.319
domain supersedes the treaty and then

0:42:49.369,0:42:53.839
they said they would launch an

0:42:51.319,0:42:56.599
investigation like whether or not that

0:42:53.839,0:43:00.200
investigation was actually produced the

0:42:56.599,0:43:01.730
amount I guess research that they had

0:43:00.200,0:43:07.329
wanted maybe it wasn’t as satisfactory

0:43:01.730,0:43:10.190
as people had wanted um and yeah the

0:43:07.329,0:43:12.530
tribal chairman dick Wilson had not been

0:43:10.190,0:43:15.619
removed so they’re still like it was

0:43:12.530,0:43:17.780
resolved but it really yeah they’re

0:43:15.619,0:43:19.250
issues actually there was no resolution

0:43:17.780,0:43:22.670
to the issues it’s kind of like they put

0:43:19.250,0:43:27.500
a bandaid on the situation and so yeah

0:43:22.670,0:43:29.660
like a mean I there are so many like I

0:43:27.500,0:43:32.730
guess demonstrations in different

0:43:29.660,0:43:37.440
occupations that aim and other

0:43:32.730,0:43:39.420
need American activist groups would hold

0:43:37.440,0:43:40.950
like throughout the nineteen sixties and

0:43:39.420,0:43:42.600
seventies like you could it’s a whole

0:43:40.950,0:43:45.810
like rabbit hole there’s so many that

0:43:42.600,0:43:47.220
happen and because of this a lot of

0:43:45.810,0:43:48.600
these groups choose to arm themselves

0:43:47.220,0:43:51.060
and so that’s why there are a lot of

0:43:48.600,0:43:56.870
deaths and yeah

0:43:51.060,0:43:59.580
and yep so actually in 1978 a m–

0:43:56.870,0:44:02.940
disband due to the fact that several of

0:43:59.580,0:44:04.530
its members were imprisoned but local

0:44:02.940,0:44:07.730
aim groups continue to function

0:44:04.530,0:44:10.170
afterwards and like I mentioned earlier

0:44:07.730,0:44:12.090
there are a lot more demonstrations that

0:44:10.170,0:44:13.950
are held and in nineteen eighty-one one

0:44:12.090,0:44:16.590
of these groups occupies part of the

0:44:13.950,0:44:18.060
Black Hills in South Dakota so this is

0:44:16.590,0:44:22.350
not just like an isolated event it

0:44:18.060,0:44:25.560
occurs many times until Russell Means so

0:44:22.350,0:44:27.810
he was the founder of aim he was leading

0:44:25.560,0:44:30.000
the negotiations he continued to

0:44:27.810,0:44:32.250
advocate for Native American rights at

0:44:30.000,0:44:33.960
Pine Ridge and elsewhere and so in

0:44:32.250,0:44:35.850
nineteen eighty eighty-eight he runs for

0:44:33.960,0:44:44.760
president under the Libertarian Party

0:44:35.850,0:44:47.520
and 1992 he begins acting in several

0:44:44.760,0:44:49.110
films including last of the Mohicans and

0:44:47.520,0:44:52.910
he was also a guest star on Curb Your

0:44:49.110,0:44:56.100
Enthusiasm so he like I guess yeah he

0:44:52.910,0:44:59.670
promoted his he supported the movement

0:44:56.100,0:45:02.910
in Hollywood and in film um and then in

0:44:59.670,0:45:04.950
1997 he released an autobiography titled

0:45:02.910,0:45:08.130
where white men fear to tread

0:45:04.950,0:45:10.500
um I’m trying to find it the library I

0:45:08.130,0:45:11.700
really want to read it um so yeah I

0:45:10.500,0:45:13.680
encourage everyone to read it through

0:45:11.700,0:45:16.470
you could hear his accounts of why he

0:45:13.680,0:45:18.090
decided to create aim and struggles that

0:45:16.470,0:45:23.190
he faced growing up uh

0:45:18.090,0:45:25.380
and everything and so in 2001 he also

0:45:23.190,0:45:27.660
attempts to run for the governorship of

0:45:25.380,0:45:29.430
New Mexico but his candidacy was

0:45:27.660,0:45:30.780
disallowed because procedure had not

0:45:29.430,0:45:33.420
been followed so basically he doesn’t

0:45:30.780,0:45:36.330
qualify and so people can’t vote for him

0:45:33.420,0:45:41.370
but um and then sadly he passes away on

0:45:36.330,0:45:44.880
October 12 2012 at the age of 72 um and

0:45:41.370,0:45:47.510
Leonard pet Lear probably a I don’t know

0:45:44.880,0:45:47.510
the

0:45:47.660,0:45:51.860
he was on I mentioned earlier so he

0:45:49.850,0:45:54.410
actually remains in prison today

0:45:51.860,0:45:56.810
although there are continuing efforts to

0:45:54.410,0:45:59.150
win him pardon his next scheduled pardon

0:45:56.810,0:46:02.210
I’m sorry his next scheduled parole

0:45:59.150,0:46:07.970
hearing is in 2024 and he is currently

0:46:02.210,0:46:10.520
75 years old and so um in terms of how

0:46:07.970,0:46:13.220
Wounded Knee impacted the movement as a

0:46:10.520,0:46:15.410
whole so basically this event sparks a

0:46:13.220,0:46:18.140
bunch of international sympathy for

0:46:15.410,0:46:20.210
Native American activism and it inspires

0:46:18.140,0:46:23.060
indigenous people and left-wing

0:46:20.210,0:46:25.310
activists all across the country and a

0:46:23.060,0:46:29.630
lot of people would later remark that

0:46:25.310,0:46:33.140
the standoff in 1973 closely resembles

0:46:29.630,0:46:37.010
the actual Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890

0:46:33.140,0:46:41.270
because people refusing armed and

0:46:37.010,0:46:45.010
deceiving the town and some Vietnam

0:46:41.270,0:46:47.690
veterans who were occupying wooden knee

0:46:45.010,0:46:49.790
they actually said that the siege felt

0:46:47.690,0:46:51.950
like war and reminded them of Vietnam

0:46:49.790,0:46:53.869
because they’re just gunfire daily and

0:46:51.950,0:46:57.550
so it was a really traumatic experience

0:46:53.869,0:47:00.320
for everyone and I guess I kind of

0:46:57.550,0:47:02.450
wanted to mention that I guess perhaps

0:47:00.320,0:47:04.700
more than any other civil rights

0:47:02.450,0:47:07.040
movement it’s work remains unfinished

0:47:04.700,0:47:08.810
there’s still so much progress that

0:47:07.040,0:47:12.340
needs to be made in regards to the

0:47:08.810,0:47:15.440
Native American Rights um however I

0:47:12.340,0:47:18.410
don’t want to downplay like the amount

0:47:15.440,0:47:21.230
of activism that some remains today

0:47:18.410,0:47:23.840
there are saw the many activist groups

0:47:21.230,0:47:26.600
all across the country on hundreds of

0:47:23.840,0:47:31.210
hundreds of groups that are working to I

0:47:26.600,0:47:34.060
guess create positive change and create

0:47:31.210,0:47:36.560
obtain it oh gosh

0:47:34.060,0:47:39.950
there are hundreds of reasons that are

0:47:36.560,0:47:42.770
trying to create change in American

0:47:39.950,0:47:45.710
society so I just wanted to list off a

0:47:42.770,0:47:47.810
few of these groups and so we have the

0:47:45.710,0:47:49.600
American Indigenous business leaders

0:47:47.810,0:47:51.980
they’re a nonprofit organization

0:47:49.600,0:47:53.690
designed to support and promote the

0:47:51.980,0:47:55.400
education and development of future

0:47:53.690,0:47:57.290
Native American leaders while

0:47:55.400,0:47:58.890
maintaining and incorporating cultural

0:47:57.290,0:48:00.960
values there’s also

0:47:58.890,0:48:03.299
the American Indian Policy Center and

0:48:00.960,0:48:06.480
its mission is to provide government

0:48:03.299,0:48:08.579
leaders policymakers and the public with

0:48:06.480,0:48:10.890
accurate information about the legal and

0:48:08.579,0:48:13.230
political history of American Indian

0:48:10.890,0:48:17.059
nations and the contemporary situation

0:48:13.230,0:48:19.349
for American Indians we also have the

0:48:17.059,0:48:21.900
Native American Journalists Association

0:48:19.349,0:48:24.089
which serves and empowers Native

0:48:21.900,0:48:26.039
American journalists through programs

0:48:24.089,0:48:28.200
and actions designed to enrich

0:48:26.039,0:48:30.869
journalism and promote native cultures

0:48:28.200,0:48:33.269
and finally I wanted to I guess

0:48:30.869,0:48:36.900
highlight the women empowering women for

0:48:33.269,0:48:38.910
indigenous nations which exists to

0:48:36.900,0:48:41.119
provide Native women with the knowledge

0:48:38.910,0:48:44.519
support and resources necessary to

0:48:41.119,0:48:47.250
achieve success in their personal and

0:48:44.519,0:48:49.260
professional lives and they hold an

0:48:47.250,0:48:52.079
annual conference that serves as an

0:48:49.260,0:48:54.809
opportunity for Native women to engage

0:48:52.079,0:48:57.180
in professional renewal inspire others

0:48:54.809,0:48:58.950
and to network and so there are so many

0:48:57.180,0:49:03.779
other organizations that I would love to

0:48:58.950,0:49:06.509
talk about um I do not have the time but

0:49:03.779,0:49:09.240
I encourage people to look into local

0:49:06.509,0:49:11.789
activist groups national activist groups

0:49:09.240,0:49:15.380
and yeah I guess that kind of wraps up

0:49:11.789,0:49:17.609
it’s a very brief and short summary of

0:49:15.380,0:49:20.250
the Native American civil rights

0:49:17.609,0:49:23.880
movement in the 1960s and 70s there are

0:49:20.250,0:49:26.250
some significant events that deserve

0:49:23.880,0:49:28.619
recognition so I encourage people to do

0:49:26.250,0:49:30.690
further research right I honestly feel

0:49:28.619,0:49:33.180
like thank you for sharing firstly but I

0:49:30.690,0:49:34.950
honestly feel like this like the ISIS

0:49:33.180,0:49:39.420
deserves like a few more episodes

0:49:34.950,0:49:42.059
because I feel like just the the Wounded

0:49:39.420,0:49:43.740
Knee Massacre of 1890 how did we down

0:49:42.059,0:49:45.509
there that I have never heard of that

0:49:43.740,0:49:47.759
and then while you were talking I like

0:49:45.509,0:49:50.400
looked it up that’s like oh there were

0:49:47.759,0:49:52.920
two situations like this which the siege

0:49:50.400,0:49:54.900
which you presented on well this is like

0:49:52.920,0:49:56.279
a serious stuff like that’s a big deal I

0:49:54.900,0:49:59.910
don’t know why they didn’t bring that up

0:49:56.279,0:50:03.539
in history class yeah during high school

0:49:59.910,0:50:07.650
so yeah I feel like that alone could

0:50:03.539,0:50:10.079
have been one topic so I feel like we

0:50:07.650,0:50:12.880
can definitely bring up more on this in

0:50:10.079,0:50:14.680
the future yeah I think that’s really

0:50:12.880,0:50:17.920
cordoning yeah I would love to talk

0:50:14.680,0:50:19.569
about it more there’s some money defense

0:50:17.920,0:50:23.230
throughout history I think a lot of

0:50:19.569,0:50:25.839
Native American history is forgotten by

0:50:23.230,0:50:28.660
most Americans and it isn’t taught about

0:50:25.839,0:50:31.660
in the classroom and so we need to you

0:50:28.660,0:50:33.269
know I just encourage people to learn

0:50:31.660,0:50:36.009
about it on their own

0:50:33.269,0:50:37.660
permanently so make change within the

0:50:36.009,0:50:41.940
classroom and the education system as

0:50:37.660,0:50:45.450
well yeah well thank you for presenting

0:50:41.940,0:50:45.450
thank you for listening

0:50:45.520,0:51:05.260
[Music]