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  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
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Show Notes

In a time where billionaires roamed the earth, it seemed as if everything in the United States was gold. Spoiler Alert: it wasn’t. If your last name isn’t Rockefeller, Carnegie, or Vanderbilt, there’s a good chance your ancestors were dirt poor and pawns in the grips of capitalism and corruption. In this Episode, Jac takes you through the history of the Gilded Age, striping off the thin gold on top and exposing the rusted, abused tin underneath. For more episodes from How Did We Not Know That, check out our weekly podcast on Anchor, Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or wherever you listen to your podcasts. At How Did We Not Know That or HDWNKT

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/early-20th-century-us/triangle-shirtwaist-fire

https://www.history.com/topics/19th-century/gilded-age#:~:text=%E2%80%9CThe%20Gilded%20Age%E2%80%9D%20is%20the,1800s%2C%20and%20was%20its%20namesake.

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/the-gilded-age/gilded-age/v/the-gilded-age-part-1

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/the-gilded-age/gilded-age/v/what-was-the-gilded-age

https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/gold/golden-ages/the-gilded-age#:~:text=The%20term%20%22Gilded%20Age%2C%22,class%20of%20the%20super%2Drich.

http://sageamericanhistory.net/gildedage/topics/gildedagepolitics.html

Transcript

0:00:00.240,0:00:04.160
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.240,0:00:07.759
another episode of how did we not

0:00:04.160,0:00:10.480
know that i’m nat i’m jack

0:00:07.759,0:00:10.960
and today uh jack is going to be talking

0:00:10.480,0:00:13.040
about

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a part of history that i don’t know

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about

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it is the gilded age

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but before we start i have some

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announcements

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so firstly follow us on social media at

0:00:25.760,0:00:30.000
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nkt please subscribe to us

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on youtube give us a like on facebook

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um give us a reading and like let us

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know what you think of it we’d really

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appreciate that

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yeah leave it give a comment it would

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help us a lot we love reading yeah

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let us know how you’re doing we would

0:00:50.480,0:00:56.960
really just like some interaction it

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makes our day uh also as always

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please check out our patreon at how did

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we not know that

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and we want to give a shout out to our

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most recent patreon

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caroline from california thank you so

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much for becoming a history hero

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and let us know if you have a topic you

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want us to cover because we will do that

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yeah thank you caroline you’re great

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and then also the biggest announcements

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we have for

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i guess today are um

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we have recently started a monthly

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newsletter so at the end of each month

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we’ll just

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send out a quick email telling you what

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episodes we released that month

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and you can go to our website

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at hdwnkt.com to sign up for

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it it’s under the contact page yeah we

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have a lot of

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um big updates coming to this show soon

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so if you sign up for monthly

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newsletters you get

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the inside scoop on everything behind

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the scenes and all of our upcoming

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plans and things so yes

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subscribe to that for sure and then we

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can like just see

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who’s listening which would be nice

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sometimes

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like are you guys there yeah police

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hello anyways okay the gilded age

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so let me know uh nat what do you

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first off do you know what gilded means

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um gilded is that like oh my gosh i’m

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about to sound

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real stupid but it doesn’t have to do

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with like

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like metal and like gilded i think of

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like

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gold and metal stuff yeah

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yeah gilded well yeah so gilded actually

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means like

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it’s like metal like tin a cheap metal

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and then it’s thinly covered

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with gold paint um and then it also

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means wealthy or privileged

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and the term gilded age was coined by

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mark twain

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and charles dudley warner in their 1873

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book

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the gilded age a tale of today and that

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book was a criticism on basically social

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inequality

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during that time in america and

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it was to draw a contrast between like

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the golden age where the golden age is

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everyone’s doing well

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everyone’s thriving and it’s a golden

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era

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but gilded is kind of a sarcastic

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comment on what’s happening because it

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seems like everything’s great because we

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have these

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mega millionaire billionaires

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but everyone else is suffering so it

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just looks like it’s golden

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it’s actually just gilded that’s tea

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that’s major tea

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so yeah basically america seems great

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but it literally sucked for basically

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everyone

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who wasn’t thriving and this is the time

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period in america of

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the mega wealthy who are known as barons

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so that’s rockefeller that’s carnegie

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vanderbilt

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jp morgan and this is a time where

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there’s

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like huge huge huge monopolies in very

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very

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expensive industries like oil

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and steel and the railroads and also

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finances

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so why did this age start

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so the gilded age started after the

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civil war in 1865 and it ended around

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1898 and do you know why it might have

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ended

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uh the spanish-american war yeah it did

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yes oh my gosh you guys where we talk

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about i feel like we keep bringing up

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spanish-american war

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well we’re gonna do an episode about it

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but yeah we drop it every single episode

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we’re saying

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like we will do the spanish-american war

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but yes

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it ends around 1898 with the

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spanish-american war

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so the reason the gilded age started was

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because we had a second industrial

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revolution so do you remember what the

0:04:56.800,0:05:01.280
first industrial revolution was like

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yeah wasn’t that with the invention of

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like the cotton gin

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um right and it was like

0:05:06.160,0:05:10.320
it was like during the slavery era so

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what’s a cotton gin oh isn’t that like

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they process like you can process cotton

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easily to like turn it into fabric

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yeah like a textile textile mills

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basically

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wait didn’t the first industrial

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revolution start in

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england and like the great britain and

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then like it made its way over to

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yeah it bleeds into the us anyways

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because we’re doing trade with britain

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so any first industrial revolution

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industrial

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revolution is gonna we’re gonna adapt

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that anyways

0:05:40.160,0:05:46.639
gotcha but yeah it’s like textile mills

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um and canal boats and like the steam

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engine

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oh yeah yeah yeah so then the second

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industrial revolution is mainly

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this new process to create

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steel and steel isn’t like a new

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technology they already

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made steel it was just there was a new

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process called the bessemer steel

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process and that’s how you

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that was a way that you blew out like

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toxins within

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the iron to create steel and that would

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make it high quality

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well it produced higher quality steel

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that was faster and cheaper okay

0:06:23.840,0:06:28.160
yeah and then also there’s like the

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assembly line with henry ford

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so that made cars really cheap so much

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so that even his workers could afford to

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buy them which just helped his company

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because then you’re selling more cars

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yeah

0:06:38.160,0:06:42.400
wow okay yeah now this is all coming

0:06:40.319,0:06:44.479
back to me it’s like

0:06:42.400,0:06:46.720
fifth grade i didn’t even remember the

0:06:44.479,0:06:48.000
first one i was like oh yeah canal boats

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that’s a

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that’s a thing okay so then around this

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time too

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with all of this like technology

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emerging and the industrial

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industrialization uh we also see

0:06:59.840,0:07:04.160
an urbanization effect and so

0:07:02.160,0:07:06.479
urbanization is

0:07:04.160,0:07:07.680
basically the process of moving to

0:07:06.479,0:07:11.120
cities from

0:07:07.680,0:07:13.120
outside so during this time before the

0:07:11.120,0:07:14.160
gilded age most people were living in

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rural areas

0:07:14.160,0:07:19.919
and farms and by the late 1800s

0:07:17.759,0:07:22.639
the united states industrial output and

0:07:19.919,0:07:24.560
gdp which is your gross domestic product

0:07:22.639,0:07:26.960
was growing faster than that of any

0:07:24.560,0:07:30.800
other country in the world

0:07:26.960,0:07:34.160
wow yeah and so by 1890

0:07:30.800,0:07:37.360
28 of americans lived in urban areas and

0:07:34.160,0:07:39.360
by 1920 more americans lived in towns

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and cities than in rural areas

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and this was all because of like a

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technological

0:07:42.479,0:07:47.280
advancement stage which not only pushed

0:07:45.199,0:07:50.800
more people from rural areas into

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the cities to find work but also it

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attracted more immigrants from other

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countries mostly europe to pursue

0:07:57.120,0:08:01.599
a better life because the country’s

0:07:59.360,0:08:04.080
growing so fast it was like

0:08:01.599,0:08:05.759
um the american dream kind of starts to

0:08:04.080,0:08:07.360
form where you can build a better life

0:08:05.759,0:08:10.240
for yourself

0:08:07.360,0:08:11.599
wow so there ended up being about 11

0:08:10.240,0:08:14.560
million americans

0:08:11.599,0:08:16.800
so like american-born people who

0:08:14.560,0:08:19.919
migrated from the countryside to cities

0:08:16.800,0:08:22.560
between 1870 and 1920 and then an

0:08:19.919,0:08:25.360
additional 25 million immigrants

0:08:22.560,0:08:27.520
mostly again from europe who hadn’t

0:08:25.360,0:08:30.960
moved to the united states

0:08:27.520,0:08:32.560
wow that’s a lot and another thing too

0:08:30.960,0:08:34.719
for like immigrants not moving

0:08:32.560,0:08:36.159
is mostly because when you move to a new

0:08:34.719,0:08:37.519
country you kind of have to stay with

0:08:36.159,0:08:40.080
your support system

0:08:37.519,0:08:40.560
so you really can’t afford to move that

0:08:40.080,0:08:43.360
far

0:08:40.560,0:08:44.959
out of where you’re first arriving and

0:08:43.360,0:08:47.279
one of the big ports is going to be like

0:08:44.959,0:08:50.399
ellis island in new york

0:08:47.279,0:08:54.640
okay so with

0:08:50.399,0:08:57.680
all of these new jobs the big question

0:08:54.640,0:08:59.920
is who are the laborers and how did they

0:08:57.680,0:09:03.440
get treated

0:08:59.920,0:09:05.920
so with all of these big big fortunes

0:09:03.440,0:09:08.240
that are getting billed during this time

0:09:05.920,0:09:09.680
they were built off of the backs of

0:09:08.240,0:09:13.279
immigrants

0:09:09.680,0:09:16.399
um and one of the biggest examples of

0:09:13.279,0:09:19.279
that is the transcontinental rail

0:09:16.399,0:09:20.880
the trans-continental railroad and we’re

0:09:19.279,0:09:21.680
going to do a whole nother episode in

0:09:20.880,0:09:24.320
depth on this

0:09:21.680,0:09:24.959
because it’s like a very chunky piece of

0:09:24.320,0:09:26.720
history

0:09:24.959,0:09:28.560
in the united states that they often do

0:09:26.720,0:09:31.440
not cover

0:09:28.560,0:09:32.320
but the plan uh for the transcontinental

0:09:31.440,0:09:35.519
railroad

0:09:32.320,0:09:38.640
was to connect the entire usa

0:09:35.519,0:09:41.519
by railroad and so over

0:09:38.640,0:09:43.200
40 000 miles of steel were laid down to

0:09:41.519,0:09:46.720
create the tracks

0:09:43.200,0:09:48.399
and to put that into perspective coast

0:09:46.720,0:09:50.080
to coast if you’re going to drive from

0:09:48.399,0:09:52.080
california to

0:09:50.080,0:09:55.200
new york or like west coast to east

0:09:52.080,0:09:58.080
coast that’s only about 3 000 miles

0:09:55.200,0:09:59.519
and so to lay down 40 000 miles of steel

0:09:58.080,0:10:01.600
they’re really connecting

0:09:59.519,0:10:04.160
all of the united states as much as they

0:10:01.600,0:10:07.120
possibly can i

0:10:04.160,0:10:08.079
can’t imagine i know i know it’s so much

0:10:07.120,0:10:11.360
work

0:10:08.079,0:10:12.800
and because of the railroad they were

0:10:11.360,0:10:15.040
able to greatly improve

0:10:12.800,0:10:16.399
our ability to transport goods across

0:10:15.040,0:10:18.720
the country which helps us

0:10:16.399,0:10:20.720
being self-sufficient as well which will

0:10:18.720,0:10:22.800
just increase our like gdp

0:10:20.720,0:10:25.200
because we can ship things out and we

0:10:22.800,0:10:28.640
don’t have to depend so heavily on trade

0:10:25.200,0:10:29.680
yeah that’s huge and the railroad was

0:10:28.640,0:10:33.120
built by

0:10:29.680,0:10:34.480
90 percent chinese immigrants so that’s

0:10:33.120,0:10:36.720
like

0:10:34.480,0:10:38.160
of the workers 90 of them are chinese

0:10:36.720,0:10:41.200
they’re not like i’m a 90

0:10:38.160,0:10:42.320
chinese person just to like clarify when

0:10:41.200,0:10:44.720
i said that i was like

0:10:42.320,0:10:45.519
is that clear to everyone anyways and

0:10:44.720,0:10:47.519
then

0:10:45.519,0:10:49.600
like the last 10 percent were irish

0:10:47.519,0:10:52.320
immigrants which we can go into more but

0:10:49.600,0:10:54.800
irish immigrants were actually seen as

0:10:52.320,0:10:55.760
um non-whites and they were treated

0:10:54.800,0:10:57.839
probably the worst

0:10:55.760,0:10:59.680
out of potentially the worst i don’t

0:10:57.839,0:11:01.279
want to say that like for sure but they

0:10:59.680,0:11:04.959
were treated potentially

0:11:01.279,0:11:06.320
the worst um out of like the white class

0:11:04.959,0:11:08.240
they weren’t treated very well

0:11:06.320,0:11:10.000
it was built by like mostly chinese

0:11:08.240,0:11:10.720
immigrants and the chinese immigrants

0:11:10.000,0:11:14.079
were always

0:11:10.720,0:11:16.079
paid less than their white counterparts

0:11:14.079,0:11:19.200
which were usually irish

0:11:16.079,0:11:20.480
immigrants i know and they would like go

0:11:19.200,0:11:23.279
on strike a lot

0:11:20.480,0:11:24.959
to protest the injustice and they never

0:11:23.279,0:11:27.920
did get to the same fair

0:11:24.959,0:11:28.880
like but they never got to equal wages

0:11:27.920,0:11:32.600
wow

0:11:28.880,0:11:33.920
yeah so the railroad finished in may of

0:11:32.600,0:11:36.240
1869

0:11:33.920,0:11:37.680
and this was a project of leland

0:11:36.240,0:11:40.320
stanford who is the

0:11:37.680,0:11:43.200
founder of stanford university and he

0:11:40.320,0:11:45.200
got extremely wealthy from the railroad

0:11:43.200,0:11:46.880
and the work of chinese immigrants and

0:11:45.200,0:11:49.920
it’s just ironic

0:11:46.880,0:11:51.760
because leland stanford is was the

0:11:49.920,0:11:54.320
governor of california

0:11:51.760,0:11:56.639
and his campaign was made on the basis

0:11:54.320,0:11:59.360
of being anti-chinese

0:11:56.639,0:12:01.200
so basically he advocated against giving

0:11:59.360,0:12:04.240
chinese people rights

0:12:01.200,0:12:05.680
and he abused them during their time

0:12:04.240,0:12:08.160
working on the railroads

0:12:05.680,0:12:09.040
and then he became like disgustingly

0:12:08.160,0:12:12.240
rich

0:12:09.040,0:12:16.079
because of them so

0:12:12.240,0:12:18.079
so upsetting i had no idea

0:12:16.079,0:12:19.600
yeah it’s pretty sad and like fun fact

0:12:18.079,0:12:22.560
i’m half chinese and

0:12:19.600,0:12:24.000
like this didn’t affect my ancestors so

0:12:22.560,0:12:24.720
much as like they didn’t work on the

0:12:24.000,0:12:29.360
railroad

0:12:24.720,0:12:32.000
but the next thing did so in 1882

0:12:29.360,0:12:33.120
the chinese exclusion act was put into

0:12:32.000,0:12:35.760
place so

0:12:33.120,0:12:37.360
the railroad gets finished in 1869 you

0:12:35.760,0:12:38.000
have this huge group of immigrants who

0:12:37.360,0:12:40.399
just worked so

0:12:38.000,0:12:41.680
hard to build it and now what they’ve

0:12:40.399,0:12:43.519
built has

0:12:41.680,0:12:44.959
extremely benefited the country beyond

0:12:43.519,0:12:46.880
our greatest like

0:12:44.959,0:12:48.720
imagination it’s connecting us it’s

0:12:46.880,0:12:52.320
increasing like our output

0:12:48.720,0:12:54.000
and then they decided to ban all chinese

0:12:52.320,0:12:56.240
immigrants like a complete ban

0:12:54.000,0:12:58.399
no immigration from china at all so that

0:12:56.240,0:13:00.000
did affect my family because my family

0:12:58.399,0:13:02.639
was not able to come to the us

0:13:00.000,0:13:04.000
and they immigrated to malaysia instead

0:13:02.639,0:13:06.880
so

0:13:04.000,0:13:08.959
the chinese exclusion act not only bans

0:13:06.880,0:13:10.639
chinese immigrants but it also denies

0:13:08.959,0:13:13.519
the ones who were are

0:13:10.639,0:13:15.440
already there who built the railroad

0:13:13.519,0:13:18.839
that it denied them citizenship and it

0:13:15.440,0:13:20.399
also segregated them from the rest of

0:13:18.839,0:13:23.680
society

0:13:20.399,0:13:26.480
awful yeah it’s so disgusting

0:13:23.680,0:13:27.600
like oh thanks for your cheap labor and

0:13:26.480,0:13:30.800
like thanks for

0:13:27.600,0:13:34.639
like working extremely hard over this

0:13:30.800,0:13:38.000
railroad and like now get out like yeah

0:13:34.639,0:13:41.519
that’s so upsetting it’s horrific

0:13:38.000,0:13:42.639
but it’s a reoccurring theme in american

0:13:41.519,0:13:45.199
history

0:13:42.639,0:13:47.279
okay so yeah the exclusion act uh was

0:13:45.199,0:13:51.120
not fully lifted until the immigration

0:13:47.279,0:13:52.880
and nationality act of 1965. so

0:13:51.120,0:13:55.279
you’re wondering why there aren’t a ton

0:13:52.880,0:13:58.240
of chinese immigrants where you’re from

0:13:55.279,0:13:59.360
could be it wow that’s such a long

0:13:58.240,0:14:01.279
period of time

0:13:59.360,0:14:03.839
yeah literally they started to lift it

0:14:01.279,0:14:07.120
in 1943 but it was a quota

0:14:03.839,0:14:09.199
of only 105 max

0:14:07.120,0:14:11.440
chinese immigrants could be taken in per

0:14:09.199,0:14:13.760
year and so it was like a

0:14:11.440,0:14:16.240
very very very tiny amount would be let

0:14:13.760,0:14:18.000
in and then 1965 they finally got rid of

0:14:16.240,0:14:20.240
it

0:14:18.000,0:14:22.639
that’s like really recently i did not

0:14:20.240,0:14:26.880
realize it took that long

0:14:22.639,0:14:30.240
to be repealed holy moly wild

0:14:26.880,0:14:31.440
so um so those workers work six days a

0:14:30.240,0:14:34.320
week and they made

0:14:31.440,0:14:34.800
26 dollars a month which is a little

0:14:34.320,0:14:38.560
over

0:14:34.800,0:14:41.920
one dollar a day and that’s about 31

0:14:38.560,0:14:42.720
today so roughly only three dollars an

0:14:41.920,0:14:45.519
hour

0:14:42.720,0:14:46.399
in today’s money and that’s being

0:14:45.519,0:14:49.600
conservative

0:14:46.399,0:14:51.519
with me considering i’m i’m saying that

0:14:49.600,0:14:53.440
they worked only 10 hours a day and

0:14:51.519,0:14:56.560
that’s a conservative estimate

0:14:53.440,0:14:57.680
yeah i’m sure it was and it’s like hard

0:14:56.560,0:15:00.000
labor

0:14:57.680,0:15:01.199
jeez yeah a lot of them died you would

0:15:00.000,0:15:04.320
get paid

0:15:01.199,0:15:05.519
um one extra dollar if you did the

0:15:04.320,0:15:07.519
tunneling work

0:15:05.519,0:15:08.720
which is the most dangerous part that’s

0:15:07.519,0:15:10.480
where a lot of

0:15:08.720,0:15:12.000
people would die because the tunnels

0:15:10.480,0:15:15.279
would cave in on them

0:15:12.000,0:15:18.399
oh my god that’s so scary that’s

0:15:15.279,0:15:21.120
awful with that extra dollar though

0:15:18.399,0:15:21.839
yeah but like if you’re getting paid so

0:15:21.120,0:15:24.079
little

0:15:21.839,0:15:24.880
like one dollar like that’s a third of

0:15:24.079,0:15:26.800
your

0:15:24.880,0:15:28.959
it’s ridiculous and the wage gap was

0:15:26.800,0:15:32.560
about nine dollars between

0:15:28.959,0:15:35.279
chinese and irish workers oh man

0:15:32.560,0:15:37.440
yeah anyway so that’s just the biggest

0:15:35.279,0:15:38.959
example i wanted to put into there

0:15:37.440,0:15:40.959
there are bad working conditions

0:15:38.959,0:15:43.120
basically all around for immigrants

0:15:40.959,0:15:44.959
but that is one of the biggest ones and

0:15:43.120,0:15:46.720
overall

0:15:44.959,0:15:48.079
yeah bad working conditions in the

0:15:46.720,0:15:51.360
cities for immigrants

0:15:48.079,0:15:54.160
they all lived in very tiny rooms with

0:15:51.360,0:15:56.639
sometimes 10 of them crammed in together

0:15:54.160,0:15:57.759
with basically no light there’s no light

0:15:56.639,0:16:00.480
in these

0:15:57.759,0:16:02.000
tiny rooms and all the fortunes that

0:16:00.480,0:16:03.839
we’re going to talk about were built on

0:16:02.000,0:16:06.000
the backs

0:16:03.839,0:16:07.440
and labor of immigrants there are lots

0:16:06.000,0:16:09.920
of preventable deaths

0:16:07.440,0:16:11.040
they’re very long work days bad working

0:16:09.920,0:16:12.720
conditions

0:16:11.040,0:16:14.399
and a book that i think i’m going to

0:16:12.720,0:16:15.279
read we were supposed to read this in

0:16:14.399,0:16:17.279
high school but i

0:16:15.279,0:16:18.399
did not read it because i wasn’t a

0:16:17.279,0:16:21.040
reader in high school

0:16:18.399,0:16:23.199
but if you’re interested you can read

0:16:21.040,0:16:25.680
the jungle by upton sinclair

0:16:23.199,0:16:27.920
it’s a 1906 novel that illustrates the

0:16:25.680,0:16:30.959
harsh working conditions in chicago

0:16:27.920,0:16:34.160
specifically the meat industry i think

0:16:30.959,0:16:36.480
yeah yeah did you read it no

0:16:34.160,0:16:38.639
because like i was so scared i was like

0:16:36.480,0:16:41.839
a vegetarian for so long and i was like

0:16:38.639,0:16:43.759
i’m scared to read about me like i think

0:16:41.839,0:16:45.360
it’s a really important book i

0:16:43.759,0:16:47.920
should read it this leads to the

0:16:45.360,0:16:49.360
question how bad was the wealth gap in

0:16:47.920,0:16:52.959
the gilded age

0:16:49.360,0:16:55.920
so there’s a very sharp contrast

0:16:52.959,0:16:57.199
to the poor immigrant workers that we

0:16:55.920,0:17:00.399
just talked about

0:16:57.199,0:17:01.199
and so on the complete other end of the

0:17:00.399,0:17:03.519
spectrum

0:17:01.199,0:17:05.120
are what are known as barons they’re

0:17:03.519,0:17:06.799
also called robber barons

0:17:05.120,0:17:09.360
just because basically like the amount

0:17:06.799,0:17:12.959
of wealth they had was criminal

0:17:09.360,0:17:14.400
um and they really exploited the flaws

0:17:12.959,0:17:17.199
of capitalism

0:17:14.400,0:17:19.360
to the worst extent which also in case

0:17:17.199,0:17:22.079
anyone doesn’t know

0:17:19.360,0:17:23.280
nat do you want to define capitalism

0:17:22.079,0:17:26.559
capitalism

0:17:23.280,0:17:28.400
the definition of capitalism um it’s

0:17:26.559,0:17:32.640
like

0:17:28.400,0:17:35.360
yeah market market determined

0:17:32.640,0:17:37.200
it’s a free market so the government

0:17:35.360,0:17:41.120
like doesn’t get involved

0:17:37.200,0:17:44.400
with the market economy

0:17:41.120,0:17:47.679
and they leave it up to like consumers

0:17:44.400,0:17:48.559
and companies yeah and like competition

0:17:47.679,0:17:51.600
is good

0:17:48.559,0:17:52.880
in capitalism so basically everyone gets

0:17:51.600,0:17:55.919
to compete

0:17:52.880,0:17:56.960
and everyone can own like

0:17:55.919,0:17:59.039
entrepreneurship

0:17:56.960,0:18:00.559
is stuff i don’t have a textbook

0:17:59.039,0:18:03.039
definition for capitalism but

0:18:00.559,0:18:04.880
anyways so they made their well through

0:18:03.039,0:18:07.679
the monopolization

0:18:04.880,0:18:07.679
monopolization

0:18:09.480,0:18:13.039
monopolization of huge industries like

0:18:12.240,0:18:16.640
oil

0:18:13.039,0:18:20.480
steel railroads and financing

0:18:16.640,0:18:22.160
um jp morgan dominated corporate finance

0:18:20.480,0:18:26.240
on wall street

0:18:22.160,0:18:29.440
and okay this the stat is literally wild

0:18:26.240,0:18:30.000
but they were as calculated making ten

0:18:29.440,0:18:33.039
dollars

0:18:30.000,0:18:33.600
a minute in their time so ten dollars a

0:18:33.039,0:18:37.880
minute

0:18:33.600,0:18:42.000
back in the late 1800s and that’s about

0:18:37.880,0:18:44.320
310 a minute in today’s terms

0:18:42.000,0:18:45.600
which is approximately eighteen thousand

0:18:44.320,0:18:48.640
six hundred dollars an

0:18:45.600,0:18:49.520
hour which is way more than i make i

0:18:48.640,0:18:51.200
don’t know about you

0:18:49.520,0:18:53.919
now if you’re like a secret wealthy

0:18:51.200,0:18:57.280
person uh i wish

0:18:53.919,0:18:59.200
i was like what you couldn’t and

0:18:57.280,0:19:00.640
maybe okay there’s a big range too

0:18:59.200,0:19:02.799
because rockefeller

0:19:00.640,0:19:04.640
is by far the wealthiest out of all the

0:19:02.799,0:19:05.679
barons we’re going to talk about he’s

0:19:04.640,0:19:08.400
like

0:19:05.679,0:19:10.400
i will tell you how much he makes in a

0:19:08.400,0:19:12.960
bet but he’s way wealthier

0:19:10.400,0:19:14.880
and so this estimate is more like an

0:19:12.960,0:19:18.240
average between all of the barons

0:19:14.880,0:19:21.360
but that’s insane like 18

0:19:18.240,0:19:23.120
600 an hour

0:19:21.360,0:19:24.799
do you know how much bezos makes is it

0:19:23.120,0:19:27.200
like similar

0:19:24.799,0:19:28.640
to that bezos hun okay i’m just gonna go

0:19:27.200,0:19:31.440
right into the next die

0:19:28.640,0:19:33.039
uh rockefeller’s wealth and rock okay

0:19:31.440,0:19:34.960
john d rockefeller for anyone who

0:19:33.039,0:19:36.559
doesn’t know he was the founder of the

0:19:34.960,0:19:39.280
standard oil company

0:19:36.559,0:19:41.039
which was the monopoly and then i should

0:19:39.280,0:19:43.600
define monopoly monopoly

0:19:41.039,0:19:44.799
is basically if you ever played the game

0:19:43.600,0:19:46.799
monopoly

0:19:44.799,0:19:49.520
your the goal of that is to make sure

0:19:46.799,0:19:51.840
that you buy up as much property so that

0:19:49.520,0:19:53.200
anytime someone lands they’re always

0:19:51.840,0:19:56.320
paying you money

0:19:53.200,0:19:59.520
i guess and so in

0:19:56.320,0:20:02.720
the real world a monopoly is

0:19:59.520,0:20:05.200
where you hold so many companies or

0:20:02.720,0:20:07.200
control of so much of an industry

0:20:05.200,0:20:09.360
that people have no choice but to come

0:20:07.200,0:20:10.799
to you and when that happens it’s really

0:20:09.360,0:20:13.919
bad because then

0:20:10.799,0:20:16.159
without competition there’s no

0:20:13.919,0:20:18.159
limitation on how you can price your

0:20:16.159,0:20:18.720
products so with the standard oil

0:20:18.159,0:20:21.600
company

0:20:18.720,0:20:22.880
since rockefeller held a monopoly on all

0:20:21.600,0:20:25.919
oil companies

0:20:22.880,0:20:27.200
if you need oil which basically every

0:20:25.919,0:20:29.280
industry does

0:20:27.200,0:20:30.559
you have no choice but to get oil from

0:20:29.280,0:20:32.159
rockefeller and

0:20:30.559,0:20:34.080
since no one else is competing with

0:20:32.159,0:20:37.520
rockefeller he can just price oil

0:20:34.080,0:20:40.799
as high as he wants to price it so

0:20:37.520,0:20:45.039
he made a ton of money and at his

0:20:40.799,0:20:49.120
peak he was worth about 318.3 billion

0:20:45.039,0:20:50.799
in today’s money whoa but that’s

0:20:49.120,0:20:52.640
ridiculous and to put that into

0:20:50.799,0:20:54.320
perspective the richest man in the world

0:20:52.640,0:20:57.559
right now jeff bezos

0:20:54.320,0:21:01.679
is currently only at a measly

0:20:57.559,0:21:05.280
189 billion his pocket change

0:21:01.679,0:21:07.440
for a rockefeller like i don’t think

0:21:05.280,0:21:08.640
mentally can you comprehend a billion

0:21:07.440,0:21:10.720
dollars can you come

0:21:08.640,0:21:13.039
okay just think about a million and

0:21:10.720,0:21:13.919
that’s like a hundred times that is one

0:21:13.039,0:21:17.600
billion

0:21:13.919,0:21:19.760
and bezos has a hundred of those

0:21:17.600,0:21:21.600
plus 89 more of those and then

0:21:19.760,0:21:25.600
rockefeller has 300

0:21:21.600,0:21:28.320
plus 18 like it’s it’s an insane amount

0:21:25.600,0:21:31.520
of wealth like you can’t even imagine

0:21:28.320,0:21:33.600
how much there’s literally like there’s

0:21:31.520,0:21:35.600
a website and it’s like

0:21:33.600,0:21:37.280
like something like spend can you spend

0:21:35.600,0:21:39.120
bill gates money because he

0:21:37.280,0:21:41.039
bill gates also has a lot of money not

0:21:39.120,0:21:43.360
as much as jeff bezos or

0:21:41.039,0:21:44.799
rockefeller but a lot and like literally

0:21:43.360,0:21:46.400
it’s like you could like buy like a cup

0:21:44.799,0:21:47.919
of coffee and like you could see like

0:21:46.400,0:21:50.159
your total net worth and like

0:21:47.919,0:21:51.679
one cup of coffee like there’s nothing

0:21:50.159,0:21:53.360
and it’s it’s just funny

0:21:51.679,0:21:55.840
to see like how much stuff people buy

0:21:53.360,0:21:56.880
because i cannot i cannot like mentally

0:21:55.840,0:21:59.919
comprehend

0:21:56.880,0:22:01.919
that much money like oh my gosh i could

0:21:59.919,0:22:04.240
pay off my loans like

0:22:01.919,0:22:05.520
i could your loans are pocket change

0:22:04.240,0:22:08.960
it’s a penny to them

0:22:05.520,0:22:10.960
it’s nothing oh my god okay jeffy

0:22:08.960,0:22:12.799
here what do you think about even like

0:22:10.960,0:22:15.039
what is it the kardashians they’re

0:22:12.799,0:22:16.400
like they’re so wealthy and famous and

0:22:15.039,0:22:18.159
everything

0:22:16.400,0:22:19.600
like they don’t even have a billion

0:22:18.159,0:22:22.480
dollars

0:22:19.600,0:22:23.919
like it’s nothing if there are any

0:22:22.480,0:22:26.559
billionaires listening

0:22:23.919,0:22:29.280
please consider donating please become a

0:22:26.559,0:22:32.640
history hero and sponsor us on patreon

0:22:29.280,0:22:36.320
yeah it’s only three dollars a month

0:22:32.640,0:22:41.360
please it’s like not even a

0:22:36.320,0:22:45.440
penny to you

0:22:41.360,0:22:48.960
yeah so wild it’s incredible wealth um

0:22:45.440,0:22:50.320
and also so another big barren during

0:22:48.960,0:22:53.679
this time

0:22:50.320,0:22:56.640
is vanderbilt so

0:22:53.679,0:22:58.400
i don’t really know specifically what is

0:22:56.640,0:22:58.880
it cornelius vanderbilt let me look it

0:22:58.400,0:23:00.960
up

0:22:58.880,0:23:02.720
i don’t even know i think of vanderbilt

0:23:00.960,0:23:06.159
i think it’s serena vanderbilt from

0:23:02.720,0:23:07.280
gossip oh my god is she a vanderbilt in

0:23:06.159,0:23:08.799
that show

0:23:07.280,0:23:10.559
well she’s on vanderbilt i guess i don’t

0:23:08.799,0:23:12.159
know if she’s like the vanderbilt

0:23:10.559,0:23:14.400
i would imagine because her family is

0:23:12.159,0:23:17.360
like super rich you know who is a

0:23:14.400,0:23:17.919
vanderbilt um anderson cooper did you

0:23:17.360,0:23:22.159
know that

0:23:17.919,0:23:22.559
no oh yeah his mom’s a vanderville what

0:23:22.159,0:23:24.640
the heck

0:23:22.559,0:23:26.080
he’s super wealthy i found that out when

0:23:24.640,0:23:29.280
i was researching and i was like

0:23:26.080,0:23:31.200
anderson cooper what random

0:23:29.280,0:23:33.679
i mean probably not but like he’s such a

0:23:31.200,0:23:35.840
nice guy too i was like oh my god

0:23:33.679,0:23:37.200
but honestly the wealth has been like

0:23:35.840,0:23:39.840
diluted

0:23:37.200,0:23:41.360
for the generation so they’re still

0:23:39.840,0:23:44.640
obviously really wealthy like he

0:23:41.360,0:23:48.320
inherited like 1.5 million but it’s like

0:23:44.640,0:23:50.640
i mean whatever it’s not like yeah

0:23:48.320,0:23:52.080
i’ll take it if you’re gonna give it to

0:23:50.640,0:23:54.000
me

0:23:52.080,0:23:56.480
anyways so yeah it’s cornelius

0:23:54.000,0:23:59.679
vanderbilt so cornelius vanderbilt

0:23:56.480,0:24:01.279
built his wealth through railroads and

0:23:59.679,0:24:04.640
shipping

0:24:01.279,0:24:06.320
and um something interesting is

0:24:04.640,0:24:07.840
uh because like how are these people

0:24:06.320,0:24:10.080
spending their money right so

0:24:07.840,0:24:10.960
vanderbilt built these really huge

0:24:10.080,0:24:13.679
estates

0:24:10.960,0:24:16.159
and an estate is basically a big house

0:24:13.679,0:24:16.880
and a lot of land just tons of acres of

0:24:16.159,0:24:20.880
it

0:24:16.880,0:24:22.559
so um i actually went to

0:24:20.880,0:24:24.240
one of his estates it’s called the

0:24:22.559,0:24:25.120
biltmore estate and that’s in north

0:24:24.240,0:24:27.279
carolina

0:24:25.120,0:24:28.799
which i also just realized when i was

0:24:27.279,0:24:30.799
doing this research that that is only

0:24:28.799,0:24:32.159
one of their estates that’s not they

0:24:30.799,0:24:34.720
have multiple estates

0:24:32.159,0:24:37.039
but this is just one and i i don’t even

0:24:34.720,0:24:38.159
think it’s cornelius’s it was one of his

0:24:37.039,0:24:41.360
descendants

0:24:38.159,0:24:44.159
who built this estate just for himself

0:24:41.360,0:24:45.840
it is if you can go just search biltmore

0:24:44.159,0:24:47.600
estate and go buy some tickets and go to

0:24:45.840,0:24:49.600
north carolina and check it out

0:24:47.600,0:24:50.799
if you can go it is literally the most

0:24:49.600,0:24:53.440
greedy thing

0:24:50.799,0:24:53.840
you will ever lay your eyes on the house

0:24:53.440,0:24:55.679
is

0:24:53.840,0:24:57.279
huge i just remember walking through and

0:24:55.679,0:25:00.240
i was like why does this exist

0:24:57.279,0:25:02.240
like who who needed this much it’s i

0:25:00.240,0:25:03.120
don’t even like so many rooms and

0:25:02.240,0:25:05.919
there’s like

0:25:03.120,0:25:06.559
golden maybe gilded maybe not golden but

0:25:05.919,0:25:08.880
like

0:25:06.559,0:25:10.880
just like golden um what are they called

0:25:08.880,0:25:14.240
the things like that people put

0:25:10.880,0:25:16.640
like in their houses like on the corners

0:25:14.240,0:25:17.679
you don’t have any like the the things

0:25:16.640,0:25:21.840
like on the bottom

0:25:17.679,0:25:23.600
oh i’m too poor i’m just kidding i know

0:25:21.840,0:25:25.520
like what you’re talking about i don’t

0:25:23.600,0:25:26.640
know they’re like crown crownings maybe

0:25:25.520,0:25:29.440
or something

0:25:26.640,0:25:30.720
crowning yeah maybe crownings yeah

0:25:29.440,0:25:32.799
something like that i don’t

0:25:30.720,0:25:34.080
even know what to google like yeah like

0:25:32.799,0:25:36.320
an image search or something

0:25:34.080,0:25:38.240
but yeah they had like golden gold

0:25:36.320,0:25:41.120
everywhere like golden accents

0:25:38.240,0:25:42.400
um and they would have they had a

0:25:41.120,0:25:44.559
swimming pool

0:25:42.400,0:25:46.960
in the basement and they had a bowling

0:25:44.559,0:25:49.120
alley and the swimming pool’s nice

0:25:46.960,0:25:50.000
like i would use it in a whole changing

0:25:49.120,0:25:54.000
room

0:25:50.000,0:25:54.720
and um yeah it’s just an insane amount

0:25:54.000,0:25:57.120
of wealth

0:25:54.720,0:25:58.559
and keep in mind that’s like late 1800s

0:25:57.120,0:26:00.320
just that much wealth

0:25:58.559,0:26:02.480
and they’re not just paying for all of

0:26:00.320,0:26:04.000
that land and all like this enormous

0:26:02.480,0:26:05.360
house you’re also paying for all of

0:26:04.000,0:26:07.360
these servants

0:26:05.360,0:26:08.840
too who run the house and clean the

0:26:07.360,0:26:10.720
house

0:26:08.840,0:26:11.919
so yeah hopefully

0:26:10.720,0:26:14.240
[Music]

0:26:11.919,0:26:15.360
a whole city like you’re like employing

0:26:14.240,0:26:17.279
the whole town

0:26:15.360,0:26:18.960
it literally is like a that just shows

0:26:17.279,0:26:21.520
you

0:26:18.960,0:26:22.799
how much how ridiculous the amount of

0:26:21.520,0:26:26.799
wealth

0:26:22.799,0:26:30.799
it was in the 1800s

0:26:26.799,0:26:33.200
so as you might ask

0:26:30.799,0:26:35.360
as i did why were those people allowed

0:26:33.200,0:26:36.720
to get so wealthy and why were other

0:26:35.360,0:26:38.559
people so poor

0:26:36.720,0:26:40.159
like how did that happen why did no one

0:26:38.559,0:26:41.440
say anything so

0:26:40.159,0:26:43.360
during this time there’s actually

0:26:41.440,0:26:46.000
something called the social darwinism

0:26:43.360,0:26:46.000
mindset

0:26:46.320,0:26:52.640
so as you may know charles darwin

0:26:49.760,0:26:54.240
in 1859 published this book on the

0:26:52.640,0:26:57.200
theory of evolution

0:26:54.240,0:26:58.880
and this became known as darwinism no

0:26:57.200,0:27:01.440
not social darwinism

0:26:58.880,0:27:02.640
so people twisted the concept of

0:27:01.440,0:27:04.880
darwinism

0:27:02.640,0:27:06.159
and they created a field called social

0:27:04.880,0:27:09.600
darwinism

0:27:06.159,0:27:11.679
and basically social darwinism was used

0:27:09.600,0:27:14.960
as a justification for racism

0:27:11.679,0:27:18.159
sexism and poverty in the world

0:27:14.960,0:27:19.440
and herbert spencer spearheaded this

0:27:18.159,0:27:21.520
philosophy saying

0:27:19.440,0:27:23.600
you shouldn’t help the poor because it

0:27:21.520,0:27:25.039
was survival of the fittest

0:27:23.600,0:27:28.480
and by helping the poor you’re

0:27:25.039,0:27:31.279
preventing weaker genes from dying out

0:27:28.480,0:27:32.399
so we’re going to go into why this is

0:27:31.279,0:27:34.080
wrong

0:27:32.399,0:27:35.520
basically in case you didn’t know it

0:27:34.080,0:27:38.559
gives you things like

0:27:35.520,0:27:41.520
oh sounds about right like um

0:27:38.559,0:27:42.320
which i think like okay if i were like

0:27:41.520,0:27:45.679
growing up

0:27:42.320,0:27:48.159
and i like heard darwinism

0:27:45.679,0:27:50.559
maybe if i if you didn’t talk to me more

0:27:48.159,0:27:53.279
about evolution if i just heard about

0:27:50.559,0:27:55.039
like the theory of evolution i might

0:27:53.279,0:27:55.840
come to this incorrect conclusion as

0:27:55.039,0:27:57.679
well

0:27:55.840,0:27:59.200
and so we’re going to talk about why

0:27:57.679,0:28:01.200
it’s not what i feel like

0:27:59.200,0:28:03.039
oh i just was going to say like i feel

0:28:01.200,0:28:05.360
like rich people

0:28:03.039,0:28:06.960
wealthy people at the time and today too

0:28:05.360,0:28:09.440
like trying to use this mindset

0:28:06.960,0:28:10.480
to like make themselves feel better like

0:28:09.440,0:28:12.000
oh no i

0:28:10.480,0:28:14.000
like deserve this amount of wealth

0:28:12.000,0:28:16.320
because i work hard and like it’s not

0:28:14.000,0:28:17.039
just because i inherited it like i work

0:28:16.320,0:28:19.200
harder

0:28:17.039,0:28:21.039
than like people who don’t have as much

0:28:19.200,0:28:22.640
wealth when like

0:28:21.039,0:28:24.559
that’s not true that’s not the whole

0:28:22.640,0:28:27.679
picture but yeah

0:28:24.559,0:28:30.799
yeah and it’s not like not to discredit

0:28:27.679,0:28:32.960
obviously like to build empires and

0:28:30.799,0:28:36.320
entrepreneurs you do have to work hard

0:28:32.960,0:28:39.520
but everyone’s got certain benefits

0:28:36.320,0:28:42.080
especially all these barons so

0:28:39.520,0:28:43.279
the reason why social darwinism is wrong

0:28:42.080,0:28:45.360
is because

0:28:43.279,0:28:47.200
a lot of people will wrongly think about

0:28:45.360,0:28:48.720
evolution in terms of a linear

0:28:47.200,0:28:51.120
progression

0:28:48.720,0:28:52.720
uh like you see with there’s that one

0:28:51.120,0:28:54.799
picture and it’s like the ape

0:28:52.720,0:28:56.880
that turns into the human people think

0:28:54.799,0:29:00.240
that it’s like a linear

0:28:56.880,0:29:00.559
thing so the human is more developed

0:29:00.240,0:29:03.679
than

0:29:00.559,0:29:05.200
an ape so we are by nature superior

0:29:03.679,0:29:07.360
and that’s incorrect that’s not the

0:29:05.200,0:29:09.919
correct way to think about evolution

0:29:07.360,0:29:11.440
i also blame evernote here i also blame

0:29:09.919,0:29:13.039
the pokemon game

0:29:11.440,0:29:14.559
uh for distorting how we think about

0:29:13.039,0:29:16.399
evolving because even i

0:29:14.559,0:29:18.080
like i’ve thought about evolution

0:29:16.399,0:29:20.559
incorrectly as well because

0:29:18.080,0:29:21.360
when your pokemon evolves unless you

0:29:20.559,0:29:23.679
press b

0:29:21.360,0:29:25.520
you don’t stunt its growth and so when

0:29:23.679,0:29:26.559
it evolves it’s supposed to become this

0:29:25.520,0:29:29.120
like stronger

0:29:26.559,0:29:31.039
better creature and that’s actually not

0:29:29.120,0:29:33.279
how evolution works

0:29:31.039,0:29:35.200
yeah so evolution is not a time thing

0:29:33.279,0:29:37.600
where other species

0:29:35.200,0:29:38.960
are less evolved or have not been

0:29:37.600,0:29:41.200
evolving for as much

0:29:38.960,0:29:42.559
time basically everything that you see

0:29:41.200,0:29:45.440
today has been

0:29:42.559,0:29:48.159
evolving for the same amount of time

0:29:45.440,0:29:51.679
evolution is when the adaptations or

0:29:48.159,0:29:54.159
traits or mutations that suit a species

0:29:51.679,0:29:54.720
better for a specific environment will

0:29:54.159,0:29:56.480
survive

0:29:54.720,0:29:58.399
and thrive better than others without

0:29:56.480,0:29:59.039
the same gene but they’re coming from

0:29:58.399,0:30:02.080
the same

0:29:59.039,0:30:02.880
shared ancestor so it helps if you think

0:30:02.080,0:30:05.760
of it like

0:30:02.880,0:30:06.640
a tree where the branches will come out

0:30:05.760,0:30:09.840
and

0:30:06.640,0:30:11.440
maybe like there’s more leaves on one

0:30:09.840,0:30:12.880
branch than the other but it doesn’t

0:30:11.440,0:30:14.640
mean that the branches

0:30:12.880,0:30:16.159
one branch is more superior because

0:30:14.640,0:30:17.200
you’re coming from the same branch if

0:30:16.159,0:30:19.440
that makes sense

0:30:17.200,0:30:20.240
i think that’s a bad example yeah i get

0:30:19.440,0:30:23.679
that

0:30:20.240,0:30:25.919
okay but yeah it’s basically like

0:30:23.679,0:30:27.360
there’s a good beetle example but

0:30:25.919,0:30:30.480
basically like

0:30:27.360,0:30:31.279
um they’re like there’s like a group of

0:30:30.480,0:30:34.880
beetles

0:30:31.279,0:30:36.880
and the beetles are some beetles are

0:30:34.880,0:30:39.200
green some beetles are blue

0:30:36.880,0:30:40.960
and in their environment and it’s

0:30:39.200,0:30:42.880
because there’s a genetic mutation that

0:30:40.960,0:30:45.120
some are blue some are green

0:30:42.880,0:30:47.520
and in the environment there happens to

0:30:45.120,0:30:49.919
be a lot of green foliage

0:30:47.520,0:30:50.880
and the birds in the environment that

0:30:49.919,0:30:52.720
eat beetles

0:30:50.880,0:30:54.559
are having a better time seeing the blue

0:30:52.720,0:30:57.679
ones instead of the green ones

0:30:54.559,0:31:01.200
so just in that environment there

0:30:57.679,0:31:02.559
happens to be more green beetle survival

0:31:01.200,0:31:04.000
because they’re blending in and the blue

0:31:02.559,0:31:04.880
ones aren’t it doesn’t mean that the

0:31:04.000,0:31:07.279
blue ones

0:31:04.880,0:31:07.919
are inferior to the green ones it just

0:31:07.279,0:31:10.399
means

0:31:07.919,0:31:11.360
in that scenario like in that specific

0:31:10.399,0:31:14.080
environment

0:31:11.360,0:31:14.880
those traits were able to live on that’s

0:31:14.080,0:31:18.399
why you see

0:31:14.880,0:31:20.880
trait variation between species

0:31:18.399,0:31:23.360
wow you did a good job explaining that

0:31:20.880,0:31:25.760
we should become a science podcast

0:31:23.360,0:31:27.600
if history doesn’t work out special

0:31:25.760,0:31:30.559
season yeah

0:31:27.600,0:31:31.679
so a lot of people today even still

0:31:30.559,0:31:34.720
think this way

0:31:31.679,0:31:37.360
especially with poorer countries so

0:31:34.720,0:31:39.200
for example with a lot of african

0:31:37.360,0:31:41.440
countries a lot of people

0:31:39.200,0:31:43.200
modern day like to claim that africans

0:31:41.440,0:31:45.919
by nature are inferior

0:31:43.200,0:31:46.880
or not as smart or civilized and that

0:31:45.919,0:31:49.279
these are why

0:31:46.880,0:31:50.880
these countries are poor and that

0:31:49.279,0:31:52.960
completely ignores the fact that

0:31:50.880,0:31:54.399
westernized countries have been stealing

0:31:52.960,0:31:58.000
natural resources

0:31:54.399,0:32:00.799
including human labor slavery

0:31:58.000,0:32:01.760
for over 400 years and they continue to

0:32:00.799,0:32:04.559
do so

0:32:01.760,0:32:06.320
so social darwinism just completely

0:32:04.559,0:32:09.519
disregards the effect

0:32:06.320,0:32:12.559
of colonization on different groups of

0:32:09.519,0:32:12.559
people around the world

0:32:12.720,0:32:17.519
anyways so this also supported the idea

0:32:15.840,0:32:20.000
that you shouldn’t mix

0:32:17.519,0:32:21.279
as we saw with miscegenation laws which

0:32:20.000,0:32:25.440
we covered in

0:32:21.279,0:32:29.200
our episode we were illegal and

0:32:25.440,0:32:32.320
that’s really bad so because um

0:32:29.200,0:32:34.320
when you do not mix with different

0:32:32.320,0:32:35.919
race or the less you tend to mix with

0:32:34.320,0:32:36.559
people who have different traits than

0:32:35.919,0:32:38.960
you

0:32:36.559,0:32:40.399
then the lower your genetic variation is

0:32:38.960,0:32:43.440
for your descendants

0:32:40.399,0:32:46.399
and the reason why that’s bad is because

0:32:43.440,0:32:48.880
you not only have a lower ability to

0:32:46.399,0:32:50.799
survive you also will have

0:32:48.880,0:32:52.000
um it’s very common to develop a lot of

0:32:50.799,0:32:54.880
health issues

0:32:52.000,0:32:56.240
and rare diseases so for example in

0:32:54.880,0:32:59.200
amish country

0:32:56.240,0:32:59.519
or the royal family there we see a lot

0:32:59.200,0:33:02.720
of

0:32:59.519,0:33:04.240
um i don’t

0:33:02.720,0:33:05.919
want to see this like nicely but we see

0:33:04.240,0:33:09.039
a lot of like rare genetic

0:33:05.919,0:33:12.320
mutations or diseases because there’s a

0:33:09.039,0:33:14.240
um there’s a practice of inbreeding

0:33:12.320,0:33:15.840
within those communities especially with

0:33:14.240,0:33:18.240
the royal family the

0:33:15.840,0:33:20.159
consideration of being pure bread or

0:33:18.240,0:33:22.000
pure blood or something like that

0:33:20.159,0:33:23.519
um they would tend not to mix with

0:33:22.000,0:33:25.679
anyone who wasn’t

0:33:23.519,0:33:27.679
within the family and as a result you

0:33:25.679,0:33:30.960
see a lot of

0:33:27.679,0:33:31.760
diseases and mental disorders because of

0:33:30.960,0:33:34.159
that

0:33:31.760,0:33:36.159
one of the biggest ones within the royal

0:33:34.159,0:33:38.159
family was hemophilia

0:33:36.159,0:33:39.840
which is the inability of your blood to

0:33:38.159,0:33:41.120
clot and that was actually known as the

0:33:39.840,0:33:43.279
royals disease

0:33:41.120,0:33:45.120
because it was very common in the royal

0:33:43.279,0:33:48.399
family

0:33:45.120,0:33:51.120
so and to go off of that

0:33:48.399,0:33:52.399
yeah so the lack of genetic variation so

0:33:51.120,0:33:55.200
the main reason

0:33:52.399,0:33:57.440
endangered species become endangered is

0:33:55.200,0:33:59.360
because of the low genetic variation in

0:33:57.440,0:34:02.159
their gene pool

0:33:59.360,0:34:03.679
so the same thing with literally every

0:34:02.159,0:34:05.760
living thing that you see

0:34:03.679,0:34:06.960
the lower the genetic variation the

0:34:05.760,0:34:10.960
worse off you are

0:34:06.960,0:34:15.520
because you’re not able to let’s say

0:34:10.960,0:34:15.520
like you’re not able to withstand

0:34:15.919,0:34:19.200
what is it like natural disasters like

0:34:17.599,0:34:21.280
you’re less able to adapt to different

0:34:19.200,0:34:24.800
surroundings when you only have

0:34:21.280,0:34:26.960
a set amount of traits so

0:34:24.800,0:34:28.000
a fun fact actually is even banana

0:34:26.960,0:34:30.800
fruits

0:34:28.000,0:34:32.879
are like the ones we see today have very

0:34:30.800,0:34:34.960
very little genetic variation

0:34:32.879,0:34:36.480
and it’s only a matter of time before

0:34:34.960,0:34:39.200
the banana that we know

0:34:36.480,0:34:40.240
gets completely wiped out have you heard

0:34:39.200,0:34:41.679
of this

0:34:40.240,0:34:44.879
yeah i feel like i’ve heard of this

0:34:41.679,0:34:46.480
before yeah the banana we know today is

0:34:44.879,0:34:49.040
like the cavendish banana

0:34:46.480,0:34:50.480
and it’s really um how they made it

0:34:49.040,0:34:53.200
because our first banana

0:34:50.480,0:34:54.480
that we had was the gross michelle

0:34:53.200,0:34:57.760
banana

0:34:54.480,0:34:59.599
and that one died out so what they did

0:34:57.760,0:35:00.000
is they took a cavendish banana and then

0:34:59.599,0:35:02.720
they

0:35:00.000,0:35:04.640
i believe mutated it so that every

0:35:02.720,0:35:06.800
single banana has like literally the

0:35:04.640,0:35:09.520
same genetic makeup

0:35:06.800,0:35:11.920
so there’s absolutely like no genetic

0:35:09.520,0:35:15.119
variation between banana plants today

0:35:11.920,0:35:17.359
so as soon as we have one disease

0:35:15.119,0:35:18.560
that the banana is not resistant to it’s

0:35:17.359,0:35:20.240
gonna completely

0:35:18.560,0:35:21.720
die out and we’ll never have bananas

0:35:20.240,0:35:24.800
again i like

0:35:21.720,0:35:28.720
bananas what the heck

0:35:24.800,0:35:32.079
save the bananas it’s gonna happen like

0:35:28.720,0:35:34.880
it’s coming okay

0:35:32.079,0:35:35.599
so then also to yeah the government was

0:35:34.880,0:35:38.240
not like

0:35:35.599,0:35:39.680
involved basically during this time too

0:35:38.240,0:35:40.560
it’s like where is everyone in the

0:35:39.680,0:35:42.320
government

0:35:40.560,0:35:43.839
government did very little to help

0:35:42.320,0:35:45.440
laborers

0:35:43.839,0:35:48.000
yeah politics were actually

0:35:45.440,0:35:49.440
characterized by scandal and corruption

0:35:48.000,0:35:52.880
during this time

0:35:49.440,0:35:56.320
jp morgan who was a wealthy baron

0:35:52.880,0:35:58.400
gave 400 million dollars as a loan to

0:35:56.320,0:36:01.040
the u.s government

0:35:58.400,0:36:01.680
and so the government is basically a

0:36:01.040,0:36:03.359
pawn

0:36:01.680,0:36:06.320
to the wealthy because that’s where

0:36:03.359,0:36:07.680
they’re getting their money from

0:36:06.320,0:36:10.640
there’s also something known as the

0:36:07.680,0:36:12.640
patronage or spoils system

0:36:10.640,0:36:13.760
which is where the elected president is

0:36:12.640,0:36:15.920
allowed to give

0:36:13.760,0:36:17.680
government positions to their friends or

0:36:15.920,0:36:22.079
close political supporters

0:36:17.680,0:36:25.119
so that makes for a very homogenous

0:36:22.079,0:36:28.480
cabinet like government that

0:36:25.119,0:36:31.040
has only one idea um

0:36:28.480,0:36:31.680
so lots of opportunity for corruption

0:36:31.040,0:36:34.720
yeah

0:36:31.680,0:36:37.359
yeah and so the final reform of this

0:36:34.720,0:36:37.920
policy comes after the assassination of

0:36:37.359,0:36:41.200
president

0:36:37.920,0:36:44.320
james garfield in 1881

0:36:41.200,0:36:44.800
oh my gosh which we should cover at some

0:36:44.320,0:36:48.000
point

0:36:44.800,0:36:48.880
and they after this they reformed civil

0:36:48.000,0:36:51.520
service and

0:36:48.880,0:36:53.040
ended the spoils system in 1883 with the

0:36:51.520,0:36:54.720
pendleton act

0:36:53.040,0:36:57.680
and another big problem with the

0:36:54.720,0:37:01.040
government is laissez-faire government

0:36:57.680,0:37:04.560
so laissez faire is a key part

0:37:01.040,0:37:07.920
in capitalist economics and

0:37:04.560,0:37:09.440
laissez-faire policies basically oppose

0:37:07.920,0:37:13.119
government intervention

0:37:09.440,0:37:14.160
in society or the market i think laissez

0:37:13.119,0:37:16.560
faire

0:37:14.160,0:37:18.480
because it comes from like a french word

0:37:16.560,0:37:19.520
right and i think it means let it be or

0:37:18.480,0:37:23.119
something

0:37:19.520,0:37:25.440
yeah yeah let it be that sounds correct

0:37:23.119,0:37:26.320
it’s like hands off like just let it do

0:37:25.440,0:37:30.800
whatever

0:37:26.320,0:37:33.280
yeah don’t touch it don’t do anything

0:37:30.800,0:37:35.200
so proponents of laissez faire so

0:37:33.280,0:37:36.000
supporters of laissez faire were

0:37:35.200,0:37:39.280
actually known as

0:37:36.000,0:37:42.320
liberals this is really interesting and

0:37:39.280,0:37:44.720
the liberals had the belief that a free

0:37:42.320,0:37:47.119
market would naturally produce the best

0:37:44.720,0:37:48.640
and most efficient solutions to economic

0:37:47.119,0:37:51.280
and social problems

0:37:48.640,0:37:53.520
and this is extremely different from the

0:37:51.280,0:37:56.800
definition of liberalism

0:37:53.520,0:38:00.000
that we have today so

0:37:56.800,0:38:01.520
liberals today are like perhaps some of

0:38:00.000,0:38:04.800
the polar opposites of

0:38:01.520,0:38:07.839
the original definition for liberals um

0:38:04.800,0:38:09.440
so today liberals would

0:38:07.839,0:38:11.680
typically advocate for government

0:38:09.440,0:38:14.320
intervention to solve social problems

0:38:11.680,0:38:16.240
so libertarians are more closely

0:38:14.320,0:38:17.680
equivalent to the gilded age liberals in

0:38:16.240,0:38:21.520
u.s politics

0:38:17.680,0:38:22.960
i see yeah and the combo of

0:38:21.520,0:38:24.720
laissez-faire capitalism

0:38:22.960,0:38:26.240
social darwinism and a corrupt

0:38:24.720,0:38:30.400
government was basically

0:38:26.240,0:38:33.520
a recipe for some very terrible lives

0:38:30.400,0:38:35.119
um for basically anyone who was not a

0:38:33.520,0:38:37.760
baron

0:38:35.119,0:38:39.119
and then of course people rose up

0:38:37.760,0:38:41.359
because if they didn’t we would not be

0:38:39.119,0:38:45.359
here today

0:38:41.359,0:38:46.640
so between 1881 and 1900s 35 000 workers

0:38:45.359,0:38:49.280
per year

0:38:46.640,0:38:51.440
lost their lives in industrial and other

0:38:49.280,0:38:56.240
accidents at work

0:38:51.440,0:38:56.240
wow yeah so because of

0:38:56.640,0:39:00.000
yeah because it’s not even like like i

0:38:58.079,0:39:03.760
know our population is a lot bigger now

0:39:00.000,0:39:07.280
but during the this time period

0:39:03.760,0:39:07.280
it at most would be like

0:39:07.440,0:39:12.000
35 million maybe maybe like 40 million

0:39:10.480,0:39:15.119
at most

0:39:12.000,0:39:16.000
yeah i don’t even know so people started

0:39:15.119,0:39:18.640
going on strike

0:39:16.000,0:39:19.760
literally all the time there are no

0:39:18.640,0:39:22.880
fewer than 100

0:39:19.760,0:39:27.040
000 workers who are on strike each year

0:39:22.880,0:39:30.880
and in 1892 about 1200 strikes

0:39:27.040,0:39:33.200
involving roughly 164 000 workers took

0:39:30.880,0:39:36.960
place across the nation

0:39:33.200,0:39:39.520
wow that’s a lot

0:39:36.960,0:39:42.160
yeah well it shows too that like people

0:39:39.520,0:39:43.680
have always been and will always fight

0:39:42.160,0:39:47.040
against injustice

0:39:43.680,0:39:47.760
and it’s because of the efforts of those

0:39:47.040,0:39:49.440
people

0:39:47.760,0:39:50.960
that change was made because the

0:39:49.440,0:39:54.480
government was not doing

0:39:50.960,0:39:54.480
jack squat for them

0:39:54.560,0:39:58.960
so um another thing that happened in

0:39:58.000,0:40:02.240
addition to strikes

0:39:58.960,0:40:04.240
is that labor unions started to form

0:40:02.240,0:40:06.319
so labor unions work to limit the

0:40:04.240,0:40:08.240
influence of big businesses and gain

0:40:06.319,0:40:10.480
rights for all laborers

0:40:08.240,0:40:12.880
and they would come together in larger

0:40:10.480,0:40:14.880
numbers to strike and protest unfair

0:40:12.880,0:40:16.640
labor wages and conditions

0:40:14.880,0:40:20.000
an example of this was the knights of

0:40:16.640,0:40:23.040
labor which was founded in 1869

0:40:20.000,0:40:24.000
they unfortunately collapsed and like

0:40:23.040,0:40:26.640
the 1886

0:40:24.000,0:40:28.160
haymarket square right in chicago do you

0:40:26.640,0:40:30.000
know about this

0:40:28.160,0:40:32.480
i like didn’t know about it until i was

0:40:30.000,0:40:36.880
researching topics to talk about

0:40:32.480,0:40:39.839
but yeah it was like a riot

0:40:36.880,0:40:42.000
because of labor right yeah they wanted

0:40:39.839,0:40:45.200
like an eight-hour workday

0:40:42.000,0:40:47.839
yeah yeah it was like a bomb

0:40:45.200,0:40:48.319
at some point and then police shot into

0:40:47.839,0:40:52.400
the

0:40:48.319,0:40:54.160
protesters also i don’t know if you like

0:40:52.400,0:40:56.240
read about like saw this in your

0:40:54.160,0:40:58.480
research about nights of labor but i was

0:40:56.240,0:41:00.720
also like looking into covering them i

0:40:58.480,0:41:03.119
remember reading that like

0:41:00.720,0:41:05.040
um knights of labor like they were

0:41:03.119,0:41:06.640
really strong union but they supported

0:41:05.040,0:41:09.200
the chinese exclusion act

0:41:06.640,0:41:10.000
because it would be chinese immigrants

0:41:09.200,0:41:13.119
would be

0:41:10.000,0:41:14.480
competition for them so like that’s just

0:41:13.119,0:41:16.240
like something to consider

0:41:14.480,0:41:19.119
too is like these late a lot of these

0:41:16.240,0:41:21.599
labor unions it was like yeah we want

0:41:19.119,0:41:24.000
not all of them but like like the

0:41:21.599,0:41:26.160
general trend is like yeah we want like

0:41:24.000,0:41:27.839
fair wages and like safe working

0:41:26.160,0:41:30.480
standards but like

0:41:27.839,0:41:32.640
we’re only including like we’re only

0:41:30.480,0:41:34.000
representing white americans and like

0:41:32.640,0:41:36.400
we’re only fighting for white

0:41:34.000,0:41:38.240
americans so again like americans of

0:41:36.400,0:41:39.359
people of color working in america are

0:41:38.240,0:41:41.920
like left out of the

0:41:39.359,0:41:43.040
picture or are like trying to be

0:41:41.920,0:41:45.280
excluded yeah so

0:41:43.040,0:41:46.880
yeah no that’s so thank you for adding

0:41:45.280,0:41:50.000
that looks literally like such a

0:41:46.880,0:41:52.240
common theme that color does affect the

0:41:50.000,0:41:55.440
way you get treated

0:41:52.240,0:41:57.520
yep yep anyways

0:41:55.440,0:42:00.160
and so yeah the knights of labor

0:41:57.520,0:42:04.000
eventually got disbanded after that

0:42:00.160,0:42:07.520
and by 1886 the american federation of

0:42:04.000,0:42:09.359
labor was formed and it was growing

0:42:07.520,0:42:12.079
and there was also the people’s populist

0:42:09.359,0:42:14.000
party and this was a political party

0:42:12.079,0:42:16.880
that arose in 1890

0:42:14.000,0:42:18.800
to champion the interest of farmers and

0:42:16.880,0:42:22.319
that party

0:42:18.800,0:42:24.000
rallied with the labor movement

0:42:22.319,0:42:25.359
but they eventually just folded into the

0:42:24.000,0:42:28.400
democratic party

0:42:25.359,0:42:32.720
in 1896 and

0:42:28.400,0:42:34.160
they ended up disbanding in 1908.

0:42:32.720,0:42:36.160
and then this is important because this

0:42:34.160,0:42:39.359
one’s on our this is on our test

0:42:36.160,0:42:40.319
like the term so muckrakers you know

0:42:39.359,0:42:42.079
what this is

0:42:40.319,0:42:44.160
i remember it from high school but i

0:42:42.079,0:42:45.839
don’t i don’t remember what it means

0:42:44.160,0:42:47.359
yeah i literally it was like one of the

0:42:45.839,0:42:47.920
questions on the test and i was like

0:42:47.359,0:42:50.000
okay

0:42:47.920,0:42:51.200
it’s actually very important so a

0:42:50.000,0:42:54.560
muckraker

0:42:51.200,0:42:55.040
is a reform-minded journalist who formed

0:42:54.560,0:42:57.920
in the

0:42:55.040,0:42:59.760
progressive era so not necessarily the

0:42:57.920,0:43:01.359
gilded age but there’s a bit of overlap

0:42:59.760,0:43:04.480
the progressive era

0:43:01.359,0:43:06.000
is from the 1890s to the 1920s which is

0:43:04.480,0:43:08.319
basically

0:43:06.000,0:43:09.200
we made a lot of progress in human

0:43:08.319,0:43:12.079
rights and

0:43:09.200,0:43:13.760
civil rights uh overlapping with the

0:43:12.079,0:43:16.720
gilded age

0:43:13.760,0:43:18.800
so muckrakers basically exposed

0:43:16.720,0:43:19.599
established institutions and leaders as

0:43:18.800,0:43:22.720
corrupt

0:43:19.599,0:43:26.480
and they worked with oh the work was

0:43:22.720,0:43:29.040
usually published in magazines

0:43:26.480,0:43:29.839
okay so to close how did things change

0:43:29.040,0:43:32.480
and how did it

0:43:29.839,0:43:34.960
end so we eventually hit an economic

0:43:32.480,0:43:38.319
depression in 1893 known as

0:43:34.960,0:43:41.040
the panic of 1893. millions of people

0:43:38.319,0:43:43.599
were unemployed homeless and hungry

0:43:41.040,0:43:45.440
unemployment reaches about 50 percent

0:43:43.599,0:43:48.880
and

0:43:45.440,0:43:52.319
50 yeah that’s pretty bad

0:43:48.880,0:43:55.599
wait that’s like literally insane yeah

0:43:52.319,0:43:58.160
well it was a depression so

0:43:55.599,0:44:01.680
i’m like so desensitized to like stats

0:43:58.160,0:44:01.680
nowadays i’m like yeah it’s rough

0:44:03.440,0:44:07.599
and because of that this leads to lots

0:44:06.480,0:44:09.680
of anger

0:44:07.599,0:44:11.440
from the low and middle class with

0:44:09.680,0:44:12.800
political corruption and social

0:44:11.440,0:44:16.240
inequality

0:44:12.800,0:44:17.920
started the progressive movement which

0:44:16.240,0:44:20.640
oh so then the progressive movement

0:44:17.920,0:44:22.160
starts and that was because of president

0:44:20.640,0:44:26.079
theodore roosevelt

0:44:22.160,0:44:31.920
teddy roosevelt who took office in 1901

0:44:26.079,0:44:35.359
after the assassination of mckinley

0:44:31.920,0:44:37.119
yeah i’m excited

0:44:35.359,0:44:41.520
literally check out our president

0:44:37.119,0:44:41.520
mckinley was assassinated episode

0:44:41.760,0:44:49.760
yeah go back to our first episode

0:44:44.960,0:44:51.680
we’ve come so far and yeah roosevelt

0:44:49.760,0:44:52.880
corporate america but he believed

0:44:51.680,0:44:55.280
federal checks

0:44:52.880,0:44:57.040
and control should be in place to limit

0:44:55.280,0:44:59.280
excessive corporate greed

0:44:57.040,0:45:01.359
off the backs of immigrants and the

0:44:59.280,0:45:04.640
lower class

0:45:01.359,0:45:08.160
so with the work of the government and

0:45:04.640,0:45:08.720
muckrakers so the people the progressive

0:45:08.160,0:45:11.040
era

0:45:08.720,0:45:12.160
was able to usher in a lot of reform

0:45:11.040,0:45:16.000
that helped shift away

0:45:12.160,0:45:18.960
power from robber barons such as

0:45:16.000,0:45:20.400
trust busting with the sherman

0:45:18.960,0:45:22.640
anti-trust laws

0:45:20.400,0:45:25.440
so that’s just basically outlawing

0:45:22.640,0:45:27.520
monopolies like you cannot own

0:45:25.440,0:45:29.119
every single thing in an industry you

0:45:27.520,0:45:32.240
have to have competition

0:45:29.119,0:45:34.400
between the industries and within

0:45:32.240,0:45:37.200
industry

0:45:34.400,0:45:38.720
and there’s also labor reform so eight

0:45:37.200,0:45:43.200
hour work day

0:45:38.720,0:45:46.480
no child labor child labor laws

0:45:43.200,0:45:49.079
wow women’s suffrage birth control

0:45:46.480,0:45:51.119
trade unions food and medicine

0:45:49.079,0:45:54.960
regulations

0:45:51.119,0:45:56.800
yeah lots of stuff fair labor standards

0:45:54.960,0:45:58.880
that’s a lot of reform like if you can’t

0:45:56.800,0:46:02.720
like can you imagine like

0:45:58.880,0:46:05.280
i don’t know if you’re like born in like

0:46:02.720,0:46:05.680
the late 1800s and then you lived to

0:46:05.280,0:46:09.839
like

0:46:05.680,0:46:10.480
the mid 1900s and then like you see how

0:46:09.839,0:46:12.960
much

0:46:10.480,0:46:13.520
the work working for us has changed and

0:46:12.960,0:46:16.000
like

0:46:13.520,0:46:17.359
working standards has changed like

0:46:16.000,0:46:20.400
that’s a lot that’s

0:46:17.359,0:46:21.119
happened yeah yeah it shows just like

0:46:20.400,0:46:25.680
how much

0:46:21.119,0:46:28.880
growth like each generation had to do

0:46:25.680,0:46:32.160
and i think it didn’t occur to me

0:46:28.880,0:46:34.640
until i was doing this that these are

0:46:32.160,0:46:36.720
real people i think with history

0:46:34.640,0:46:38.720
i like at least will tend to think that

0:46:36.720,0:46:41.119
these people didn’t exist

0:46:38.720,0:46:42.240
and that this stuff is like so so long

0:46:41.119,0:46:45.359
ago and like

0:46:42.240,0:46:47.680
beast i’m just looking at like history

0:46:45.359,0:46:49.599
and it’s like fictional to me but like

0:46:47.680,0:46:50.720
it’s a real problem that people really

0:46:49.599,0:46:52.079
had and

0:46:50.720,0:46:53.760
i think it was really weird for me to

0:46:52.079,0:46:55.119
look at images of people during this

0:46:53.760,0:46:56.720
time because i don’t know what i was

0:46:55.119,0:46:58.720
expecting them to look like

0:46:56.720,0:47:00.400
but they look like us like we literally

0:46:58.720,0:47:02.960
look the same and i was like

0:47:00.400,0:47:04.480
there’s no indication that they’re old

0:47:02.960,0:47:06.800
or anything

0:47:04.480,0:47:08.240
and just because like your grandma is

0:47:06.800,0:47:10.560
really old doesn’t mean

0:47:08.240,0:47:11.440
that she wasn’t your age at once and

0:47:10.560,0:47:14.960
there weren’t

0:47:11.440,0:47:17.280
problems during that time that’s so true

0:47:14.960,0:47:18.319
it really is like especially just

0:47:17.280,0:47:20.640
reading from

0:47:18.319,0:47:22.079
a really boring old textbook like it’s

0:47:20.640,0:47:25.839
so hard to emphasize

0:47:22.079,0:47:25.839
and emphasize

0:47:27.520,0:47:31.520
it’s so hard to empathize with people

0:47:30.400,0:47:33.280
because

0:47:31.520,0:47:34.880
like if you don’t hear about individual

0:47:33.280,0:47:36.400
stories or like if you’re just getting

0:47:34.880,0:47:40.240
like numbers and like

0:47:36.400,0:47:42.000
facts and just statistics it’s hard to

0:47:40.240,0:47:43.839
really think about like put yourself in

0:47:42.000,0:47:45.520
some in their shoes and i think about

0:47:43.839,0:47:45.839
what life was like at that time and how

0:47:45.520,0:47:48.640
much

0:47:45.839,0:47:51.280
people struggled and yeah it’s weird to

0:47:48.640,0:47:53.680
like think of people in like the 1800s

0:47:51.280,0:47:54.880
like normal people like it does sound

0:47:53.680,0:47:58.480
like silly to say

0:47:54.880,0:48:00.400
but i don’t know no it’s literally so

0:47:58.480,0:48:03.280
true okay so to close us out

0:48:00.400,0:48:04.319
uh by 1916 america’s cities were cleaner

0:48:03.280,0:48:06.720
and healthier

0:48:04.319,0:48:07.520
factories were safer governments less

0:48:06.720,0:48:09.599
corrupt

0:48:07.520,0:48:10.960
and many people had better housing

0:48:09.599,0:48:14.000
working hours

0:48:10.960,0:48:15.520
and wages so there are fewer monopolies

0:48:14.000,0:48:17.359
which meant that more people could

0:48:15.520,0:48:18.960
pursue the american dream and start

0:48:17.359,0:48:21.920
their own businesses

0:48:18.960,0:48:23.119
just before we hit world war one the

0:48:21.920,0:48:26.079
spanish flu

0:48:23.119,0:48:28.960
and the roaring twenties so most of the

0:48:26.079,0:48:31.119
robber barons and their families however

0:48:28.960,0:48:32.079
remained wealthy for generations of

0:48:31.119,0:48:34.559
course

0:48:32.079,0:48:36.319
and progressives still continued their

0:48:34.559,0:48:38.960
mission to close the gap between the

0:48:36.319,0:48:42.240
wealthy and poor and champion the needy

0:48:38.960,0:48:46.559
and disenfranchised wow

0:48:42.240,0:48:48.880
that’s the gilly dave amazing job jack

0:48:46.559,0:48:50.000
okay next week is our last episode for

0:48:48.880,0:48:52.800
season one

0:48:50.000,0:48:54.559
and if you didn’t notice season one has

0:48:52.800,0:48:58.720
basically only been us

0:48:54.559,0:49:02.960
history so season two is going to be

0:48:58.720,0:49:04.640
world history um

0:49:02.960,0:49:06.559
yeah we’re really excited for that so

0:49:04.640,0:49:09.760
stay tuned we’re also gonna have a

0:49:06.559,0:49:10.319
break in between seasons so after next

0:49:09.760,0:49:13.280
week

0:49:10.319,0:49:15.119
we will take a two-week break and then

0:49:13.280,0:49:16.720
we’ll come back at it

0:49:15.119,0:49:19.520
yeah excited because we’re going to

0:49:16.720,0:49:20.079
cover topics from other countries and we

0:49:19.520,0:49:21.680
see

0:49:20.079,0:49:23.760
a lot of our viewers from different

0:49:21.680,0:49:25.760
countries so please

0:49:23.760,0:49:26.960
leave us a rating tell us where you’re

0:49:25.760,0:49:28.960
from tell us

0:49:26.960,0:49:30.319
what about your country what you want us

0:49:28.960,0:49:34.319
to cover

0:49:30.319,0:49:35.040
and yeah tweet us i would tweet us yes

0:49:34.319,0:49:38.240
please

0:49:35.040,0:49:38.880
email us follow us on instagram send us

0:49:38.240,0:49:41.839
a um

0:49:38.880,0:49:44.000
an owl do something anything there are

0:49:41.839,0:49:46.880
so many ways to get in touch with us and

0:49:44.000,0:49:48.000
we’re just so excited to hear from you

0:49:46.880,0:49:58.130
all right

0:49:48.000,0:50:10.179
for the city guys bye

0:49:58.130,0:50:10.179
[Music]

0:50:10.960,0:50:13.040
you

What’s The Big Deal With Voting In 2020?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
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  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

We’ve got a HUGE election coming up in 2020 during a PANDEMIC! In this special episode, our good friend David teaches us everything we know about preparing to vote this year and the history and ongoing issue of voter suppression in the USA!  

VOTING LINKS BELOW! LET’S GO!  

PSA GENERAL ELECTION IS NOVEMBER 3rd 2020!!!  

What do I need to do today?Register to vote!  Request an Absentee Ballot NOW (THOSE ARE DUE ~3 WEEKS BEFORE NOV 3RD)  Research WHO is up for election  Choose who you plan to vote for  VOTE + SEND IT BACK OR DROP IT OFF AT YOUR LOCAL ELECTION OFFICE (if absentee)   Am I registered? https://www.vote.org/   When are the Elections? https://www.vote.org/election-reminders/   Who are the candidates? https://www.ballotready.org/

Sources:

One Person No Vote by Carol Anderson

https://www.newsobserver.com/opinion/op-ed/article122593759.html

https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/7-years-gutting-voting-rights

https://www.pbs.org/weta/washingtonweek/blog-post/numbers-voter-fraud

https://www.census.gov/newsroom/blogs/random-samplings/2017/05/voting_in_america.html

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/11/12/about-100-million-people-couldnt-be-bothered-to-vote-this-year/

Transcript

0:00:00.320,0:00:04.240
hi everyone welcome back to another

0:00:02.159,0:00:05.600
episode of how did we not know that my

0:00:04.240,0:00:09.280
name is jack

0:00:05.600,0:00:12.400
i’m nat and i’m david

0:00:09.280,0:00:15.440
and we have a very special guest

0:00:12.400,0:00:18.080
david is going to be talking to us about

0:00:15.440,0:00:19.520
something exciting related to voting

0:00:18.080,0:00:22.400
very excited to hear about it

0:00:19.520,0:00:23.680
uh yeah because voting is coming up so

0:00:22.400,0:00:25.359
in the united states

0:00:23.680,0:00:27.039
the us is about to have a really big

0:00:25.359,0:00:30.800
election this fall

0:00:27.039,0:00:34.800
so david’s gonna educate us on voting

0:00:30.800,0:00:38.160
yeah so as of today

0:00:34.800,0:00:40.879
we are 93 days out from the election

0:00:38.160,0:00:42.160
it’s going to be pretty insane probably

0:00:40.879,0:00:43.280
the most unique election of our

0:00:42.160,0:00:45.360
lifetimes

0:00:43.280,0:00:48.000
during a pandemic countless americans

0:00:45.360,0:00:50.239
are getting prepared to vote by mail

0:00:48.000,0:00:51.120
we have no idea what things are going to

0:00:50.239,0:00:53.039
look like

0:00:51.120,0:00:55.039
lines that are already pretty long are

0:00:53.039,0:00:58.559
going to be

0:00:55.039,0:00:59.120
social distanced with six feet between

0:00:58.559,0:01:01.920
people

0:00:59.120,0:01:03.280
we might have some lines stretching a

0:01:01.920,0:01:06.479
mile long across

0:01:03.280,0:01:08.720
cities not to discourage people but

0:01:06.479,0:01:11.600
people need to be prepared ahead of time

0:01:08.720,0:01:14.080
with how they’re gonna vote this year

0:01:11.600,0:01:16.400
if people are going to vote by mail they

0:01:14.080,0:01:20.320
should be applying for ballots

0:01:16.400,0:01:22.960
already david actually

0:01:20.320,0:01:25.200
is the one who encouraged me to register

0:01:22.960,0:01:28.240
absentee so i can vote by ballot

0:01:25.200,0:01:31.360
this fall so good job yeah

0:01:28.240,0:01:32.079
oh thank you thank you for doing so but

0:01:31.360,0:01:34.560
yeah

0:01:32.079,0:01:36.640
uh voting by mail is pretty interesting

0:01:34.560,0:01:40.000
in the united states too because like i

0:01:36.640,0:01:43.360
i live in montana 40 of people here vote

0:01:40.000,0:01:44.799
by mail on a normal year just everyone

0:01:43.360,0:01:47.600
does it

0:01:44.799,0:01:48.799
polling places are far apart or like

0:01:47.600,0:01:50.720
that’s a big part of it

0:01:48.799,0:01:52.479
because i mean montana is insanely

0:01:50.720,0:01:54.640
spread out but

0:01:52.479,0:01:55.920
also kind of the culture of the west you

0:01:54.640,0:01:58.000
know like

0:01:55.920,0:01:59.680
oregon and washington ballots are

0:01:58.000,0:02:00.399
automatically mailed to registered

0:01:59.680,0:02:03.680
voters

0:02:00.399,0:02:05.680
even like all across the west in

0:02:03.680,0:02:06.960
arizona eighty percent of people vote by

0:02:05.680,0:02:10.319
mail

0:02:06.960,0:02:11.280
it’s come out yeah you go out west and

0:02:10.319,0:02:14.640
it’s

0:02:11.280,0:02:17.280
it’s the norm yeah question david

0:02:14.640,0:02:18.480
because don’t you oh sorry david’s from

0:02:17.280,0:02:20.400
nebraska

0:02:18.480,0:02:22.080
i just know this because we’re pals but

0:02:20.400,0:02:25.520
um so you’re voting

0:02:22.080,0:02:27.520
in montana this fall are you or

0:02:25.520,0:02:29.440
okay so how does that work if you’re

0:02:27.520,0:02:31.680
from nebraska what if you’re from one

0:02:29.440,0:02:33.599
state and you move to another state

0:02:31.680,0:02:35.440
which state do you vote for where do you

0:02:33.599,0:02:38.959
register absentee

0:02:35.440,0:02:41.920
well you can only vote in one state and

0:02:38.959,0:02:42.800
it has to be a state where you live so

0:02:41.920,0:02:45.120
for me

0:02:42.800,0:02:45.840
i could vote in either nebraska or

0:02:45.120,0:02:47.519
montana

0:02:45.840,0:02:48.959
because i’m a permanent resident of

0:02:47.519,0:02:51.440
nebraska technically

0:02:48.959,0:02:53.200
and i’m i’m registered to vote there but

0:02:51.440,0:02:55.599
there are different rules for each state

0:02:53.200,0:02:56.239
for who can vote in montana they’re

0:02:55.599,0:02:58.480
really

0:02:56.239,0:02:59.680
relaxed you have to live here for 30

0:02:58.480,0:03:02.640
days

0:02:59.680,0:03:02.959
like that’s i don’t know what else but

0:03:02.640,0:03:05.360
it’s

0:03:02.959,0:03:06.319
it’s very simple and i will have been

0:03:05.360,0:03:09.280
here for

0:03:06.319,0:03:10.720
a lot more than 30 days so so yeah i’ll

0:03:09.280,0:03:14.000
be voting in montana

0:03:10.720,0:03:15.680
but then like i’m also like i voted in

0:03:14.000,0:03:17.840
ohio

0:03:15.680,0:03:19.920
two years ago but i don’t have an

0:03:17.840,0:03:23.200
address there anymore so

0:03:19.920,0:03:24.959
i i can’t vote there yeah

0:03:23.200,0:03:26.480
okay yeah i did the same thing like i

0:03:24.959,0:03:29.760
was out of state at

0:03:26.480,0:03:32.640
when i was at osu but i still voted in

0:03:29.760,0:03:33.840
ohio in the 2016 elections also i have a

0:03:32.640,0:03:36.959
question for you too

0:03:33.840,0:03:38.480
um can you vote by mail in every state

0:03:36.959,0:03:40.319
or are there some states that don’t

0:03:38.480,0:03:42.080
allow it you can in

0:03:40.319,0:03:44.879
every state but there are some states

0:03:42.080,0:03:48.080
where you need a reason

0:03:44.879,0:03:52.480
you need to prove why

0:03:48.080,0:03:54.319
you want to vote by mail and uh

0:03:52.480,0:03:55.519
for the pandemic since we’re in a

0:03:54.319,0:03:58.159
pandemic you would hope

0:03:55.519,0:03:59.519
that everyone would say yeah you can

0:03:58.159,0:04:02.000
vote by mail but

0:03:59.519,0:04:03.120
unfortunately not i think that like 40

0:04:02.000,0:04:04.799
states you can

0:04:03.120,0:04:06.319
vote by mail at least during the

0:04:04.799,0:04:09.840
pandemic though

0:04:06.319,0:04:11.360
gotcha okay you have a list of states by

0:04:09.840,0:04:12.560
any chance off the top of your head

0:04:11.360,0:04:14.480
where you

0:04:12.560,0:04:15.599
would have to prove that you need to

0:04:14.480,0:04:19.199
vote by mail

0:04:15.599,0:04:22.320
overwhelmingly be from the south okay um

0:04:19.199,0:04:24.320
the thing about voting by mail is uh

0:04:22.320,0:04:26.000
it can be tricky for the infrastructure

0:04:24.320,0:04:29.600
infrastructure of a state

0:04:26.000,0:04:32.560
like in michigan uh in 2016

0:04:29.600,0:04:33.199
500 000 people voted absentee in their

0:04:32.560,0:04:36.160
primary

0:04:33.199,0:04:36.800
but for the 2020 primary two million

0:04:36.160,0:04:40.560
people

0:04:36.800,0:04:43.520
voted absentee whoa and

0:04:40.560,0:04:44.160
it’s it’s hard for states to handle that

0:04:43.520,0:04:47.120
uptick

0:04:44.160,0:04:47.840
of volume which is why if you’re voting

0:04:47.120,0:04:50.639
by mail

0:04:47.840,0:04:52.080
you want to do so way ahead of time you

0:04:50.639,0:04:55.199
want to be super prepared

0:04:52.080,0:04:56.000
also for mail-in ballots or absentee

0:04:55.199,0:04:57.360
voting

0:04:56.000,0:04:59.680
your ballot will be mailed to your

0:04:57.360,0:05:01.360
address then you can either mail it back

0:04:59.680,0:05:04.160
out to your election office

0:05:01.360,0:05:05.280
or you can drop it off in person at your

0:05:04.160,0:05:07.919
election office or

0:05:05.280,0:05:09.520
secure dropbox and that’s a good idea

0:05:07.919,0:05:12.800
for this election to not

0:05:09.520,0:05:15.360
overwhelm the mail services yeah

0:05:12.800,0:05:16.560
yeah how is oh my gosh that’s crazy like

0:05:15.360,0:05:17.600
because also i’m thinking about the

0:05:16.560,0:05:19.360
people who have to like

0:05:17.600,0:05:21.360
count these ballots and like count these

0:05:19.360,0:05:22.960
votes and like you also have to be

0:05:21.360,0:05:25.759
safe and like socially distance while

0:05:22.960,0:05:28.240
you’re doing that as well so i

0:05:25.759,0:05:29.280
that must be really stressful like i

0:05:28.240,0:05:31.680
can’t even imagine

0:05:29.280,0:05:32.960
there’s not a lot of time too to prepare

0:05:31.680,0:05:35.520
um

0:05:32.960,0:05:36.320
yeah to go from 500 000 people to 2

0:05:35.520,0:05:39.360
million

0:05:36.320,0:05:41.680
so and i think too at least in ohio

0:05:39.360,0:05:43.199
has to be received before a certain date

0:05:41.680,0:05:46.479
like they can’t receive it

0:05:43.199,0:05:49.120
on election day from my understanding so

0:05:46.479,0:05:50.080
is that like a standard for all of the

0:05:49.120,0:05:51.360
states

0:05:50.080,0:05:52.880
is there like a certain time that you

0:05:51.360,0:05:54.160
should be making sure you’ve mailed your

0:05:52.880,0:05:56.479
ballot in

0:05:54.160,0:05:58.720
it varies per state there are some

0:05:56.479,0:06:00.880
states where it has to be received

0:05:58.720,0:06:02.000
by election day there are other states

0:06:00.880,0:06:05.199
where it has to be

0:06:02.000,0:06:07.680
postmarked by election day so they can

0:06:05.199,0:06:10.560
come in days later and still count

0:06:07.680,0:06:11.759
but especially out east like i think i

0:06:10.560,0:06:13.440
was reading that michigan

0:06:11.759,0:06:15.520
ballots have to be received by election

0:06:13.440,0:06:18.080
day like i don’t think it matters when

0:06:15.520,0:06:18.880
it was sent and election day is what day

0:06:18.080,0:06:22.479
this year

0:06:18.880,0:06:23.440
november 3rd okay so if you’re voting

0:06:22.479,0:06:25.520
absentee

0:06:23.440,0:06:27.039
make sure that you send out your ballot

0:06:25.520,0:06:29.280
way before

0:06:27.039,0:06:31.360
november 3rd so you can make sure that i

0:06:29.280,0:06:33.360
would i would say like three weeks

0:06:31.360,0:06:34.639
if you’re mailing it yeah and if you’re

0:06:33.360,0:06:36.960
pushing it close

0:06:34.639,0:06:37.919
bring it to a secure dropbox or your

0:06:36.960,0:06:40.639
election office

0:06:37.919,0:06:42.160
if i register to vote absentee do you

0:06:40.639,0:06:42.880
know when they’re supposed to send that

0:06:42.160,0:06:45.840
to me

0:06:42.880,0:06:47.039
if i like haven’t received my ballot by

0:06:45.840,0:06:48.560
a certain date

0:06:47.039,0:06:50.000
is there something i should do someone i

0:06:48.560,0:06:51.840
should contact well you would want to

0:06:50.000,0:06:53.840
contact your local election office

0:06:51.840,0:06:55.120
it honestly varies by state there’s some

0:06:53.840,0:06:56.080
states where this is a lot more

0:06:55.120,0:06:58.319
difficult than others

0:06:56.080,0:07:00.560
i can speak mostly from montana where

0:06:58.319,0:07:02.240
it’s it’s pretty easy here you can track

0:07:00.560,0:07:04.560
your ballot but i don’t think

0:07:02.240,0:07:07.199
that’s offered in every state you want

0:07:04.560,0:07:08.160
to talk to your local election office or

0:07:07.199,0:07:09.840
check the

0:07:08.160,0:07:12.319
secretary of state website for your

0:07:09.840,0:07:13.120
state so yeah when you ask a lot of

0:07:12.319,0:07:14.560
people why they’re

0:07:13.120,0:07:16.160
why they vote i think they’ll say

0:07:14.560,0:07:18.000
because we live in a democracy

0:07:16.160,0:07:19.759
and it’s important to make your voice

0:07:18.000,0:07:20.400
heard or you can’t complain about what

0:07:19.759,0:07:22.880
happened

0:07:20.400,0:07:24.639
that’s definitely true and the reason

0:07:22.880,0:07:26.720
voting is important for me is that you

0:07:24.639,0:07:27.360
know in a democracy the more people that

0:07:26.720,0:07:29.440
vote

0:07:27.360,0:07:30.479
the harder it is for the government to

0:07:29.440,0:07:33.199
get away with

0:07:30.479,0:07:34.000
doing whatever they want no matter how

0:07:33.199,0:07:37.039
it

0:07:34.000,0:07:38.639
might impact their citizens so the more

0:07:37.039,0:07:40.960
people that vote the more

0:07:38.639,0:07:42.560
politicians feel the consequences of

0:07:40.960,0:07:44.240
their constituents

0:07:42.560,0:07:46.319
and have to accurately represent

0:07:44.240,0:07:48.560
everyone unfortunately a lot of

0:07:46.319,0:07:51.199
america’s history has been the story

0:07:48.560,0:07:52.400
of some people trying to stop others

0:07:51.199,0:07:55.280
from voting

0:07:52.400,0:07:56.800
i think we like to think that that’s

0:07:55.280,0:08:00.720
something of the past that

0:07:56.800,0:08:03.680
ended with the civil rights era but

0:08:00.720,0:08:05.360
we have not progressed past voter

0:08:03.680,0:08:08.479
suppression being an issue

0:08:05.360,0:08:11.280
and it’s actually been revving up

0:08:08.479,0:08:13.039
a lot recently as people have relaxed

0:08:11.280,0:08:13.440
their focus in recent years thinking

0:08:13.039,0:08:15.599
we’ve

0:08:13.440,0:08:17.280
moved on from certain issues voter

0:08:15.599,0:08:19.840
suppression today is actually

0:08:17.280,0:08:20.800
as serious as it’s been in a long time

0:08:19.840,0:08:23.280
i’ve seen a lot of

0:08:20.800,0:08:24.879
people talking about how like 46 of

0:08:23.280,0:08:27.199
americans didn’t vote in the last

0:08:24.879,0:08:28.000
election like get off your couch you

0:08:27.199,0:08:30.479
need to go

0:08:28.000,0:08:31.120
like it’s your fault that for whatever’s

0:08:30.479,0:08:33.599
happened

0:08:31.120,0:08:34.320
and like i even read a washington post

0:08:33.599,0:08:37.039
article

0:08:34.320,0:08:38.800
was titled about 100 million americans

0:08:37.039,0:08:42.479
couldn’t be bothered to vote this year

0:08:38.800,0:08:43.279
wait 46 did not vote in the last

0:08:42.479,0:08:45.920
election

0:08:43.279,0:08:47.279
yeah but the thing is it’s not always

0:08:45.920,0:08:49.279
that simple as saying

0:08:47.279,0:08:50.880
100 million people couldn’t be bothered

0:08:49.279,0:08:51.279
to get up and go vote a lot of those

0:08:50.880,0:08:53.920
people

0:08:51.279,0:08:54.480
wanted to vote may have actively tried

0:08:53.920,0:08:56.959
to vote

0:08:54.480,0:08:59.040
and simply not been able to because for

0:08:56.959,0:09:01.200
some people the barriers for voting

0:08:59.040,0:09:02.560
are impossible to get past it’s hard to

0:09:01.200,0:09:03.360
wrap your mind around sometimes

0:09:02.560,0:09:05.360
especially like

0:09:03.360,0:09:07.360
voting’s always been so easy for me i’ve

0:09:05.360,0:09:09.839
been able to just walk right in

0:09:07.360,0:09:11.519
no line cast my vote and go but it’s not

0:09:09.839,0:09:12.800
like that for everyone can we talk about

0:09:11.519,0:09:15.920
some of the barriers

0:09:12.800,0:09:18.880
that people face when going to vote

0:09:15.920,0:09:19.920
yeah one of the big ones is shutting

0:09:18.880,0:09:22.000
polling locations

0:09:19.920,0:09:23.120
in a second i’ll talk about the the

0:09:22.000,0:09:26.240
voting rights act

0:09:23.120,0:09:28.560
and how it was rolled back in 2013.

0:09:26.240,0:09:29.920
that caused a lot of states to flat out

0:09:28.560,0:09:32.880
start closing

0:09:29.920,0:09:34.399
mass amounts of polling locations and

0:09:32.880,0:09:37.519
implementing these strict

0:09:34.399,0:09:38.399
voter id laws yeah those are two of the

0:09:37.519,0:09:40.160
main reasons

0:09:38.399,0:09:41.519
that all really starts with the voting

0:09:40.160,0:09:43.760
rights act so

0:09:41.519,0:09:45.040
i’ll backtrack a second to talk about

0:09:43.760,0:09:46.720
that so yeah i think

0:09:45.040,0:09:48.880
everyone associates the voting rights

0:09:46.720,0:09:50.080
act with you know one of the landslide

0:09:48.880,0:09:53.519
victories of the civil rights

0:09:50.080,0:09:56.000
era and it was certainly prior to that

0:09:53.519,0:09:57.440
some states in the south used loopholes

0:09:56.000,0:10:00.399
to make their primaries

0:09:57.440,0:10:01.680
whites only so minorities could vote in

0:10:00.399,0:10:03.680
the general election

0:10:01.680,0:10:05.200
but it wouldn’t matter by then because

0:10:03.680,0:10:05.920
the candidates would pretty much already

0:10:05.200,0:10:08.560
be selected

0:10:05.920,0:10:10.000
african americans would be intimidated

0:10:08.560,0:10:11.920
by the police and

0:10:10.000,0:10:13.519
local militias when they attempted to

0:10:11.920,0:10:16.800
vote like you would have to be

0:10:13.519,0:10:18.480
a hero to even try to vote in certain

0:10:16.800,0:10:20.959
states back then but with the

0:10:18.480,0:10:21.600
voting rights act that cut back poll

0:10:20.959,0:10:23.680
taxes

0:10:21.600,0:10:25.680
literacy tests it increased polling

0:10:23.680,0:10:29.040
locations in minority areas

0:10:25.680,0:10:31.440
and it was a very proactive

0:10:29.040,0:10:32.320
policy so areas that had a history of

0:10:31.440,0:10:34.720
discriminating

0:10:32.320,0:10:36.640
had to have new laws they were trying to

0:10:34.720,0:10:37.920
implement be approved before they were

0:10:36.640,0:10:40.560
even put into place

0:10:37.920,0:10:41.839
so states couldn’t just try and pass

0:10:40.560,0:10:44.640
this discriminatory

0:10:41.839,0:10:46.399
act and wait for someone to step in they

0:10:44.640,0:10:47.200
had to get that approved ahead of time

0:10:46.399,0:10:48.720
which

0:10:47.200,0:10:50.640
wouldn’t happen most of the time that

0:10:48.720,0:10:52.320
was a major turning point in voting

0:10:50.640,0:10:53.519
rights in the united states can we do a

0:10:52.320,0:10:56.000
refresher on like the

0:10:53.519,0:10:56.800
poll taxes and the literary literacy

0:10:56.000,0:11:00.160
test right

0:10:56.800,0:11:00.959
yeah right right yeah so uh poll taxes

0:11:00.160,0:11:04.240
essentially

0:11:00.959,0:11:07.200
uh voters would have to pay a tax

0:11:04.240,0:11:09.920
every time they wanted to vote and for a

0:11:07.200,0:11:12.320
lot of places this tax was cumulative

0:11:09.920,0:11:14.399
so if you took elections off that poll

0:11:12.320,0:11:16.640
tax would grow higher and higher so

0:11:14.399,0:11:18.720
if someone was 40 years old and was like

0:11:16.640,0:11:20.720
i want to go vote for the first time

0:11:18.720,0:11:21.760
boom look they’d have this massive poll

0:11:20.720,0:11:24.480
tax they had to pay

0:11:21.760,0:11:24.880
wow i didn’t realize it was cumulative

0:11:24.480,0:11:28.079
that’s

0:11:24.880,0:11:30.399
insane yeah at least in some states

0:11:28.079,0:11:31.360
and it was targeted at mostly african

0:11:30.399,0:11:34.959
americans and

0:11:31.360,0:11:38.000
hispanic voters and uh literacy tests

0:11:34.959,0:11:40.640
citizens would have to take these insane

0:11:38.000,0:11:42.079
tests proving that they know the laws of

0:11:40.640,0:11:44.320
their local community

0:11:42.079,0:11:45.760
and if you read those literacy tests

0:11:44.320,0:11:49.279
they’re insane

0:11:45.760,0:11:52.639
like no one and no one could possibly

0:11:49.279,0:11:54.880
pass them yeah and they they pretty much

0:11:52.639,0:11:56.000
only administered them to minority

0:11:54.880,0:11:59.120
voters so like

0:11:56.000,0:12:00.320
they they selectively used these uh like

0:11:59.120,0:12:02.720
poll taxes and

0:12:00.320,0:12:03.360
literacy tests to stop minorities from

0:12:02.720,0:12:06.720
voting

0:12:03.360,0:12:10.639
yeah back to the voting rights act uh

0:12:06.720,0:12:13.120
in 2013 the supreme court decided

0:12:10.639,0:12:14.160
to roll back the voting rights act by

0:12:13.120,0:12:17.440
their logic

0:12:14.160,0:12:20.399
issues of voter suppression racism

0:12:17.440,0:12:22.480
wasn’t really an issue anymore in the

0:12:20.399,0:12:24.800
states the voting rights act

0:12:22.480,0:12:27.040
initially targeted they said at this

0:12:24.800,0:12:30.000
point it’s kind of discriminatory

0:12:27.040,0:12:30.560
towards these southern states who have

0:12:30.000,0:12:33.200
to get

0:12:30.560,0:12:34.320
all of their policies approved so they

0:12:33.200,0:12:37.440
decided to

0:12:34.320,0:12:40.639
roll back the voting rights act

0:12:37.440,0:12:41.440
because there was in their words no no

0:12:40.639,0:12:44.560
need

0:12:41.440,0:12:47.680
for it anymore as you can imagine

0:12:44.560,0:12:49.519
as soon as they did that uh insidious

0:12:47.680,0:12:50.880
voter suppression tactics started coming

0:12:49.519,0:12:53.279
back after that

0:12:50.880,0:12:55.519
about a thousand polling locations were

0:12:53.279,0:12:59.200
closed in nine states alone

0:12:55.519,0:13:00.160
a thousand yeah and that happens

0:12:59.200,0:13:04.160
primarily

0:13:00.160,0:13:06.320
in african-american hispanic communities

0:13:04.160,0:13:07.360
where residents might not have access to

0:13:06.320,0:13:09.120
a vehicle’s

0:13:07.360,0:13:10.800
vehicle maybe not even public

0:13:09.120,0:13:13.279
transportation and have to walk

0:13:10.800,0:13:14.320
miles to vote and there may be one

0:13:13.279,0:13:16.959
polling location

0:13:14.320,0:13:17.680
that’s ridiculous voting voting day

0:13:16.959,0:13:19.920
isn’t

0:13:17.680,0:13:22.160
a holiday federally but are there some

0:13:19.920,0:13:25.040
states that make it a paid

0:13:22.160,0:13:26.720
work holiday you know i don’t believe

0:13:25.040,0:13:28.399
there are any states i’m not sure but

0:13:26.720,0:13:29.040
there has been a lot of talk about that

0:13:28.399,0:13:30.959
recently

0:13:29.040,0:13:32.839
i know i’ve seen some companies letting

0:13:30.959,0:13:36.079
their their workers off

0:13:32.839,0:13:37.040
oh on election day but there has been

0:13:36.079,0:13:39.519
more talk about that

0:13:37.040,0:13:41.360
recently at the same time states started

0:13:39.519,0:13:43.680
implementing voter id laws

0:13:41.360,0:13:44.399
along with this a lot of them started

0:13:43.680,0:13:46.959
shutting down

0:13:44.399,0:13:48.000
dmvs which is where you go to get a

0:13:46.959,0:13:50.800
driver’s license

0:13:48.000,0:13:51.600
and again this happened mostly in black

0:13:50.800,0:13:54.240
communities

0:13:51.600,0:13:54.880
i read that in some areas in texas you

0:13:54.240,0:13:58.320
have to drive

0:13:54.880,0:14:02.240
250 miles to get a voter id

0:13:58.320,0:14:04.160
oh my gosh what yeah ridiculous

0:14:02.240,0:14:05.839
and you have to have certain you have to

0:14:04.160,0:14:07.040
have like a birth certificate or certain

0:14:05.839,0:14:08.800
documents to prove

0:14:07.040,0:14:10.480
you are who you are and not everyone has

0:14:08.800,0:14:12.399
those maybe if you weren’t born in a

0:14:10.480,0:14:14.399
hospital that’s not so easy to get

0:14:12.399,0:14:16.000
it takes a long time to get like a copy

0:14:14.399,0:14:18.240
of your birth certificate and it’s a lot

0:14:16.000,0:14:19.199
of money too yeah like it’s ridiculous

0:14:18.240,0:14:22.160
unreasonable

0:14:19.199,0:14:23.360
so uh to see the actual effects of that

0:14:22.160,0:14:26.880
in milwaukee

0:14:23.360,0:14:29.360
in 2016 compared to 2012 50

0:14:26.880,0:14:30.320
000 fewer votes were cast in the

0:14:29.360,0:14:33.440
presidential

0:14:30.320,0:14:35.600
election whoa and

0:14:33.440,0:14:38.079
a lot of media was saying like the

0:14:35.600,0:14:38.639
african-american enthusiasm is not as

0:14:38.079,0:14:41.440
high

0:14:38.639,0:14:43.360
but no they weren’t able to vote because

0:14:41.440,0:14:45.440
their polling locations were gutted and

0:14:43.360,0:14:48.000
they implemented a strict voter id

0:14:45.440,0:14:50.000
law sorry i have another question so

0:14:48.000,0:14:51.279
what is like the justification that

0:14:50.000,0:14:52.880
these states use

0:14:51.279,0:14:54.320
to implement these laws why are they

0:14:52.880,0:14:56.160
saying this is a beneficial

0:14:54.320,0:14:58.320
thing yeah well for the polling

0:14:56.160,0:15:01.120
locations it’s basically

0:14:58.320,0:15:01.760
efficiency reasons or like saving money

0:15:01.120,0:15:04.560
but

0:15:01.760,0:15:05.279
they mostly only cut them in minority

0:15:04.560,0:15:08.079
communities

0:15:05.279,0:15:08.480
keeping multiple polling locations open

0:15:08.079,0:15:11.360
in

0:15:08.480,0:15:13.440
white communities with significantly

0:15:11.360,0:15:16.639
fewer citizens oh my god

0:15:13.440,0:15:17.279
for the voter id laws it’s in an effort

0:15:16.639,0:15:19.680
to

0:15:17.279,0:15:20.480
fight voter fraud i’ll touch on that

0:15:19.680,0:15:23.680
near the end

0:15:20.480,0:15:24.720
okay but spoiler alert those voter id

0:15:23.680,0:15:27.920
laws don’t

0:15:24.720,0:15:29.519
have any impact at all on voter fraud

0:15:27.920,0:15:31.040
so that’s why they’re justified but

0:15:29.519,0:15:32.959
there’s no statistical

0:15:31.040,0:15:34.959
basis for it another voting rights

0:15:32.959,0:15:37.600
debacle in america

0:15:34.959,0:15:38.079
is felon voting rights in the united

0:15:37.600,0:15:41.120
states

0:15:38.079,0:15:42.320
it’s really difficult for felons to vote

0:15:41.120,0:15:44.480
sometimes impossible

0:15:42.320,0:15:45.440
there are only four democracies in the

0:15:44.480,0:15:47.199
world

0:15:45.440,0:15:48.959
that restrict voting rights after

0:15:47.199,0:15:50.000
someone leaves prison and the united

0:15:48.959,0:15:52.800
states is one of them

0:15:50.000,0:15:53.519
wow felon disenfranchisement or like

0:15:52.800,0:15:55.600
felons

0:15:53.519,0:15:57.519
not being able to vote that varies state

0:15:55.600,0:15:59.839
by state in maine and vermont

0:15:57.519,0:16:01.600
felons can vote in prison okay they

0:15:59.839,0:16:03.600
don’t lose their voting rights but

0:16:01.600,0:16:05.360
that is the exception it’s a big deal

0:16:03.600,0:16:08.240
because like we have the most

0:16:05.360,0:16:10.079
like the highest per capita rate of

0:16:08.240,0:16:12.480
incarceration or like what are you

0:16:10.079,0:16:13.600
like we just have like yeah in the world

0:16:12.480,0:16:16.480
oh yeah

0:16:13.600,0:16:17.600
like we have like a historical high for

0:16:16.480,0:16:19.279
citizens in prison

0:16:17.600,0:16:21.680
even when rights are restored to felons

0:16:19.279,0:16:25.040
though it’s it’s not always that simple

0:16:21.680,0:16:27.920
in florida in 2018 the state voted

0:16:25.040,0:16:29.279
to restore voting rights to felons which

0:16:27.920,0:16:31.120
was a big deal

0:16:29.279,0:16:32.959
but then the florida legislature came

0:16:31.120,0:16:34.240
out and said but you have to pay your

0:16:32.959,0:16:37.120
court fees first

0:16:34.240,0:16:37.920
and for some of those felons their court

0:16:37.120,0:16:40.000
fees are

0:16:37.920,0:16:41.120
thousands upon thousands of dollars it’s

0:16:40.000,0:16:43.120
hard to get a job

0:16:41.120,0:16:45.759
after you’re out of prison and paying

0:16:43.120,0:16:48.240
that off is no easy task at all

0:16:45.759,0:16:50.720
so that’s basically a modern day poll

0:16:48.240,0:16:52.240
tax yeah like being required to pay

0:16:50.720,0:16:55.360
money to vote like that

0:16:52.240,0:16:57.600
that does not sound very democratic yeah

0:16:55.360,0:17:00.959
spoiler alert it’s not

0:16:57.600,0:17:02.160
yeah so yeah in alabama the legislature

0:17:00.959,0:17:04.240
came out and said that

0:17:02.160,0:17:05.520
felons couldn’t vote if they had

0:17:04.240,0:17:08.640
committed a crime

0:17:05.520,0:17:09.600
of moral turpitude but they didn’t state

0:17:08.640,0:17:11.919
what that meant

0:17:09.600,0:17:12.799
and they didn’t tell the vote the felons

0:17:11.919,0:17:15.919
whose

0:17:12.799,0:17:19.199
rights had been restored oh no

0:17:15.919,0:17:21.039
so no one knew if that meant them or not

0:17:19.199,0:17:22.240
yeah they didn’t tell you like your

0:17:21.039,0:17:24.000
crime was moral

0:17:22.240,0:17:25.600
what does that even mean that sounds

0:17:24.000,0:17:29.039
like a fake word it’s like

0:17:25.600,0:17:30.799
severity okay and if if they went to

0:17:29.039,0:17:32.720
sign up to vote they would have to check

0:17:30.799,0:17:33.840
if they had committed a crime of moral

0:17:32.720,0:17:36.640
turpitude

0:17:33.840,0:17:37.600
under fear of prosecution well who’s the

0:17:36.640,0:17:40.320
one deciding

0:17:37.600,0:17:42.160
like yeah is it a judge or what and then

0:17:40.320,0:17:44.880
do they have to pay court fees for that

0:17:42.160,0:17:46.640
judge to decide if it’s a moral tribute

0:17:44.880,0:17:48.320
it would be the like the attorney

0:17:46.640,0:17:50.320
general wow

0:17:48.320,0:17:51.600
the courts so no one knew they would go

0:17:50.320,0:17:53.520
to vote and be like

0:17:51.600,0:17:55.360
i don’t know if this is me or not yeah

0:17:53.520,0:17:57.200
and it’s like are they classifying like

0:17:55.360,0:17:58.559
do they have to do case by case person

0:17:57.200,0:18:00.400
by person or is it like

0:17:58.559,0:18:02.559
caught with a certain offense like all

0:18:00.400,0:18:03.760
people if it’s like a drug offense like

0:18:02.559,0:18:04.559
but i don’t know but like what if it’s

0:18:03.760,0:18:06.400
like person

0:18:04.559,0:18:08.320
per person and then that’s going to take

0:18:06.400,0:18:11.200
forever to like figure out if

0:18:08.320,0:18:12.240
you qualified yeah i think that was the

0:18:11.200,0:18:14.480
point to make it

0:18:12.240,0:18:16.320
difficult to make people confused to not

0:18:14.480,0:18:18.480
know if they can build or not yeah

0:18:16.320,0:18:19.600
but yeah all in all there are six

0:18:18.480,0:18:21.600
million

0:18:19.600,0:18:22.799
americans who have lost the right to

0:18:21.600,0:18:24.880
vote and like that

0:18:22.799,0:18:25.840
only hurts our democracy i was like

0:18:24.880,0:18:28.080
talking to like my

0:18:25.840,0:18:30.480
australian friends and then i think it’s

0:18:28.080,0:18:32.320
the same in britain in malaysia

0:18:30.480,0:18:34.160
in those countries apparently voting is

0:18:32.320,0:18:36.320
mandatory so they always have to like

0:18:34.160,0:18:37.039
you’re legally required to vote in every

0:18:36.320,0:18:39.039
election

0:18:37.039,0:18:40.880
and so they always have 100 turnout you

0:18:39.039,0:18:42.240
can choose to abstain your vote but you

0:18:40.880,0:18:44.160
still have to like tell

0:18:42.240,0:18:46.160
the government like i’m staying in my

0:18:44.160,0:18:48.400
vote and like at first i was like my

0:18:46.160,0:18:49.360
like gut reaction to that was like i’m

0:18:48.400,0:18:50.890
an american

0:18:49.360,0:18:52.559
government can’t tell me what to do

0:18:50.890,0:18:55.120
[Laughter]

0:18:52.559,0:18:57.039
classic but like i don’t know like what

0:18:55.120,0:18:58.799
i feel like that’s kind of like

0:18:57.039,0:19:00.799
like what a true democracy means like

0:18:58.799,0:19:02.799
everyone that way like you can’t

0:19:00.799,0:19:03.760
be restricting people’s votes what do

0:19:02.799,0:19:05.760
you guys think about that because i’m

0:19:03.760,0:19:07.679
sure there’s like a lot of pros and cons

0:19:05.760,0:19:10.000
i think there’s so many barriers that

0:19:07.679,0:19:12.080
we’re talking about right now to voting

0:19:10.000,0:19:13.520
if you required like felons to vote

0:19:12.080,0:19:15.120
which means you’d require them to pay

0:19:13.520,0:19:17.280
court fees i think that’s not

0:19:15.120,0:19:18.880
awesome not super feasible for our

0:19:17.280,0:19:21.039
country right now but i think that

0:19:18.880,0:19:22.799
that’s the point that we want to get to

0:19:21.039,0:19:24.480
i think having the option to abstain

0:19:22.799,0:19:26.480
easily i think that we should also

0:19:24.480,0:19:27.600
utilize technology with voting

0:19:26.480,0:19:30.240
i don’t know if we have a bunch of

0:19:27.600,0:19:31.760
luddites in politics or what

0:19:30.240,0:19:34.000
luddite is like someone who’s scared of

0:19:31.760,0:19:34.640
technology but like i think that oh

0:19:34.000,0:19:36.080
definitely

0:19:34.640,0:19:37.520
i think we should start utilizing

0:19:36.080,0:19:38.240
technology to make voting more

0:19:37.520,0:19:39.520
accessible

0:19:38.240,0:19:40.720
ideally that’s where we’d want to be i

0:19:39.520,0:19:42.240
think that’s a better idea it’s

0:19:40.720,0:19:43.520
mandatory to at least say that you’re

0:19:42.240,0:19:45.919
abstaining from voting

0:19:43.520,0:19:46.799
or to actually place your vote if anyone

0:19:45.919,0:19:50.080
happened to

0:19:46.799,0:19:52.960
watch a bit of the of congress

0:19:50.080,0:19:54.160
questioning the uh the tech ceos last

0:19:52.960,0:19:57.440
week i think you would get

0:19:54.160,0:20:00.400
that they don’t have much uh technical

0:19:57.440,0:20:01.760
technological knowledge yeah i think uh

0:20:00.400,0:20:04.640
have either of you heard of the

0:20:01.760,0:20:06.080
electoral integrity project it’s the

0:20:04.640,0:20:08.080
most accurate measurement

0:20:06.080,0:20:09.200
for free and fair elections the most

0:20:08.080,0:20:11.919
commonly used one

0:20:09.200,0:20:12.960
in 2016 they came out with a report that

0:20:11.919,0:20:16.080
basically said

0:20:12.960,0:20:19.039
that north carolina isn’t a democracy

0:20:16.080,0:20:19.600
their electoral rating was so bad that

0:20:19.039,0:20:23.039
they fell

0:20:19.600,0:20:26.080
somewhere between iran and venezuela

0:20:23.039,0:20:28.480
one party is overwhelmingly receiving

0:20:26.080,0:20:30.080
seats in regards to how the people vote

0:20:28.480,0:20:32.159
the main issue was

0:20:30.080,0:20:34.320
voting district boundaries if you know

0:20:32.159,0:20:36.559
what gerrymandering is it’s

0:20:34.320,0:20:38.240
drawing district boundaries in a way

0:20:36.559,0:20:41.679
that helps your party

0:20:38.240,0:20:42.960
so republicans in power will decide to

0:20:41.679,0:20:44.799
redistrict the state

0:20:42.960,0:20:46.880
and draw out the voting boundaries

0:20:44.799,0:20:48.159
between districts if the state is maybe

0:20:46.880,0:20:51.280
like 55

0:20:48.159,0:20:53.280
republican and 45 democrat they may be

0:20:51.280,0:20:56.320
able to draw those boundaries to make

0:20:53.280,0:20:58.640
them have 12 republican seats versus

0:20:56.320,0:20:59.679
three democratic seats the electoral

0:20:58.640,0:21:02.320
integrity project

0:20:59.679,0:21:03.760
found that north carolina’s integrity of

0:21:02.320,0:21:07.520
voting district boundaries

0:21:03.760,0:21:09.200
was lower than any country on earth so

0:21:07.520,0:21:10.880
their boundaries like their voting

0:21:09.200,0:21:11.840
district boundaries are just so

0:21:10.880,0:21:13.840
like you could tell it’s been

0:21:11.840,0:21:15.520
manipulated so much and it’s like so

0:21:13.840,0:21:17.600
unnatural yeah

0:21:15.520,0:21:18.640
okay they gave them all these crazy

0:21:17.600,0:21:21.039
names like

0:21:18.640,0:21:23.039
frogs splattered on a windshield because

0:21:21.039,0:21:24.880
the districts look like they make no

0:21:23.039,0:21:27.039
logical sense on how they look

0:21:24.880,0:21:28.240
because they’re they’re drawn

0:21:27.039,0:21:30.480
specifically

0:21:28.240,0:21:32.480
to increase voting power for a certain

0:21:30.480,0:21:34.159
party so i know in our example we said

0:21:32.480,0:21:36.000
the republican party

0:21:34.159,0:21:37.280
is this hap does this happen on both

0:21:36.000,0:21:39.280
sides or is there

0:21:37.280,0:21:41.039
like a particular side that has done

0:21:39.280,0:21:43.919
this more often historically

0:21:41.039,0:21:45.039
yeah you know both parties have done it

0:21:43.919,0:21:47.360
mostly

0:21:45.039,0:21:48.720
republican both parties have done this

0:21:47.360,0:21:51.919
to their own advantage

0:21:48.720,0:21:52.640
in unfair ways but if you look at how

0:21:51.919,0:21:55.120
things stand

0:21:52.640,0:21:55.760
now like wisconsin north carolina

0:21:55.120,0:21:57.840
georgia

0:21:55.760,0:22:00.000
pennsylvania their districts are drawn

0:21:57.840,0:22:03.200
in ways that disproportionately

0:22:00.000,0:22:04.720
favor republicans oh wow okay

0:22:03.200,0:22:06.799
that’s interesting it’d be interesting

0:22:04.720,0:22:10.000
to see like the ratio between

0:22:06.799,0:22:12.159
states that are gerrymandering and what

0:22:10.000,0:22:13.120
political party represents that state

0:22:12.159,0:22:15.200
yeah yeah

0:22:13.120,0:22:16.720
yeah like wisconsin’s a pretty split

0:22:15.200,0:22:19.280
state you know

0:22:16.720,0:22:20.240
but their their state legislature is

0:22:19.280,0:22:22.400
overwhelmingly

0:22:20.240,0:22:23.679
republican this is something that gets

0:22:22.400,0:22:25.600
fought in the courts

0:22:23.679,0:22:27.360
and a lot of but honestly a lot of the

0:22:25.600,0:22:28.159
time the chords rule you need to redraw

0:22:27.360,0:22:30.400
your boundaries

0:22:28.159,0:22:33.120
and then they just reach on in another

0:22:30.400,0:22:33.120
gerrymandering

0:22:35.360,0:22:40.320
it’s a hard problem to solve definitely

0:22:38.400,0:22:42.480
also just i’m curious where did that

0:22:40.320,0:22:42.960
term come from gerrymandering is there a

0:22:42.480,0:22:46.080
guy

0:22:42.960,0:22:49.679
whose name was gerrymander

0:22:46.080,0:22:52.240
it’s from like the like early colonial

0:22:49.679,0:22:53.120
days so this has been an ongoing issue

0:22:52.240,0:22:57.200
yeah

0:22:53.120,0:22:59.760
okay wow yeah it was first used in 1812.

0:22:57.200,0:23:03.840
because uh the first time it was done it

0:22:59.760,0:23:05.679
resembled the shape of a salamander

0:23:03.840,0:23:09.760
it was the governor’s last name put

0:23:05.679,0:23:12.400
together with the word salamander

0:23:09.760,0:23:12.960
very creative natalie you asked earlier

0:23:12.400,0:23:15.120
about

0:23:12.960,0:23:16.480
why voter id laws are implemented the

0:23:15.120,0:23:19.440
justification for that

0:23:16.480,0:23:19.840
is to stop voter fraud but when you look

0:23:19.440,0:23:23.440
at

0:23:19.840,0:23:25.760
all the elections between 2000 and 2016

0:23:23.440,0:23:26.960
that’s five presidential elections how

0:23:25.760,0:23:29.039
many more small ones

0:23:26.960,0:23:30.880
that is one billion votes there were

0:23:29.039,0:23:33.120
only 44

0:23:30.880,0:23:34.080
incidents of voter fraud out of a

0:23:33.120,0:23:37.120
billion

0:23:34.080,0:23:40.320
whoa that’s a point

0:23:37.120,0:23:40.799
zero zero zero zero zero four percent

0:23:40.320,0:23:42.640
chance

0:23:40.799,0:23:44.080
you’re more likely to win an olympic

0:23:42.640,0:23:47.120
gold medal

0:23:44.080,0:23:48.480
yeah and all of those incidents of voter

0:23:47.120,0:23:50.159
fraud they did find

0:23:48.480,0:23:51.600
three of them would have been stopped by

0:23:50.159,0:23:53.600
a voter id i feel like

0:23:51.600,0:23:55.120
the voter fraud debate here all the time

0:23:53.600,0:23:56.640
but i actually didn’t know the numbers

0:23:55.120,0:23:58.320
behind it so i’m glad you

0:23:56.640,0:24:00.000
put them in the episode yeah the whole

0:23:58.320,0:24:01.600
point is putting that on the agenda

0:24:00.000,0:24:03.360
making people worried about it

0:24:01.600,0:24:05.440
nowadays you hear everyone talking about

0:24:03.360,0:24:08.640
like mail-in voting fraud

0:24:05.440,0:24:10.240
but actually voting by mail

0:24:08.640,0:24:12.159
those ballots are under much more

0:24:10.240,0:24:14.159
scrutiny than normal voting

0:24:12.159,0:24:16.159
the only real problem with them is that

0:24:14.159,0:24:18.799
way too many are rejected

0:24:16.159,0:24:21.200
because they a lot of they’ll check your

0:24:18.799,0:24:23.440
signature to see if it matches

0:24:21.200,0:24:25.200
the signature on your id those ballots

0:24:23.440,0:24:27.039
are actually under more scrutiny

0:24:25.200,0:24:28.240
and a decent number of them do get

0:24:27.039,0:24:32.400
rejected

0:24:28.240,0:24:34.320
wow also millions upon millions of

0:24:32.400,0:24:34.960
voters have been purged from the voter

0:24:34.320,0:24:36.799
rolls

0:24:34.960,0:24:39.120
to stop voter fraud that’s the thing

0:24:36.799,0:24:42.799
like these accusations of voter fraud

0:24:39.120,0:24:46.240
are speculation but the voter purging

0:24:42.799,0:24:48.640
is real well why

0:24:46.240,0:24:50.960
these state governments will remove

0:24:48.640,0:24:52.799
voters from the voter registration list

0:24:50.960,0:24:54.000
because they think maybe they moved out

0:24:52.799,0:24:56.480
of state or something

0:24:54.000,0:24:57.840
they see someone who’s registered in

0:24:56.480,0:25:00.320
multiple states

0:24:57.840,0:25:02.320
but there have been so many flaws with

0:25:00.320,0:25:04.240
that people have been like uh i voted in

0:25:02.320,0:25:05.679
the primary election three months ago

0:25:04.240,0:25:06.640
and you purged me from the voter roll

0:25:05.679,0:25:08.720
and a lot of people

0:25:06.640,0:25:10.480
show up to vote on election day and find

0:25:08.720,0:25:12.240
out that they’ve been purged from the

0:25:10.480,0:25:14.559
voter roll to stop voter fraud

0:25:12.240,0:25:17.039
oh my gosh and you can’t can you

0:25:14.559,0:25:18.400
register the day of to vote or no like

0:25:17.039,0:25:21.279
what if you got purged

0:25:18.400,0:25:21.679
and then you showed me you’d be out of

0:25:21.279,0:25:24.159
luck

0:25:21.679,0:25:25.760
that’s another thing like in montana you

0:25:24.159,0:25:28.640
can register the day of the election

0:25:25.760,0:25:30.000
it’s so easy out here but but like you

0:25:28.640,0:25:33.120
go to like georgia

0:25:30.000,0:25:34.000
there are so many barriers it’s it’s

0:25:33.120,0:25:36.000
ridiculous

0:25:34.000,0:25:37.760
it shouldn’t even be a partisan thing

0:25:36.000,0:25:40.880
there is reason to be

0:25:37.760,0:25:41.679
very careful with voting and to double

0:25:40.880,0:25:43.520
check

0:25:41.679,0:25:45.600
that you’re registered to know how

0:25:43.520,0:25:48.159
you’re voting especially this year

0:25:45.600,0:25:49.520
like if you’re voting in person try to

0:25:48.159,0:25:51.600
vote early if you can

0:25:49.520,0:25:52.960
a lot of states offer early voting take

0:25:51.600,0:25:54.640
safety precautions

0:25:52.960,0:25:56.400
if you’re voting by mail make sure your

0:25:54.640,0:25:58.720
signature matches your id

0:25:56.400,0:26:00.080
mail in your ballot far ahead of time

0:25:58.720,0:26:02.400
take that ballot

0:26:00.080,0:26:04.240
drop it off at a drop box if you can

0:26:02.400,0:26:06.640
request an absentee ballot

0:26:04.240,0:26:08.320
now for me like you know you hear a lot

0:26:06.640,0:26:10.960
of people talk about how they don’t like

0:26:08.320,0:26:13.039
politics how they’re disillusioned

0:26:10.960,0:26:14.320
but i don’t think that’s any excuse not

0:26:13.039,0:26:17.200
to vote and

0:26:14.320,0:26:19.279
for me that comes down to the stories of

0:26:17.200,0:26:20.159
all those who have fought so hard for

0:26:19.279,0:26:21.760
the right to vote

0:26:20.159,0:26:23.200
you look at how many people are trying

0:26:21.760,0:26:25.679
to vote and have

0:26:23.200,0:26:28.080
such difficulties in doing so i don’t

0:26:25.679,0:26:30.480
think you can look at that and say

0:26:28.080,0:26:32.159
well i don’t want to vote because i

0:26:30.480,0:26:32.640
don’t really like either candidate i

0:26:32.159,0:26:34.559
know

0:26:32.640,0:26:36.880
we want candidates that perfectly fit

0:26:34.559,0:26:38.559
everything we want all our policy wishes

0:26:36.880,0:26:40.720
but it rarely works like that

0:26:38.559,0:26:41.600
and there is a difference in the leaders

0:26:40.720,0:26:44.559
that we choose

0:26:41.600,0:26:46.240
even if we don’t like our options and

0:26:44.559,0:26:47.440
it’s the vulnerable communities that

0:26:46.240,0:26:49.520
most feel the effects

0:26:47.440,0:26:50.960
of that which i think everyone needs to

0:26:49.520,0:26:52.799
remember when they vote i don’t think

0:26:50.960,0:26:54.400
voting has to be a cure-all

0:26:52.799,0:26:56.720
your vote isn’t going to change

0:26:54.400,0:26:59.600
everything but it’s a first step

0:26:56.720,0:27:00.320
it’s an important one and for some of us

0:26:59.600,0:27:03.200
it’s easy

0:27:00.320,0:27:05.360
yeah beautifully said and i agree it’s

0:27:03.200,0:27:07.760
not just voting in the general election

0:27:05.360,0:27:09.360
local elections primaries every single

0:27:07.760,0:27:11.039
chance you get to cast a vote

0:27:09.360,0:27:12.640
it’s a privilege and responsibility for

0:27:11.039,0:27:15.360
american citizens to

0:27:12.640,0:27:15.919
cast a vote whenever you can local

0:27:15.360,0:27:18.399
elections

0:27:15.919,0:27:19.279
have like the lowest turnout out of all

0:27:18.399,0:27:20.880
of our

0:27:19.279,0:27:22.880
different types of elections but like

0:27:20.880,0:27:23.679
honestly they’re so important state

0:27:22.880,0:27:25.840
officials

0:27:23.679,0:27:27.039
county officials town officials they

0:27:25.840,0:27:28.640
have a lot more power

0:27:27.039,0:27:30.880
than people realize like attorney

0:27:28.640,0:27:31.200
generals i realized until recently like

0:27:30.880,0:27:34.640
oh

0:27:31.200,0:27:37.919
man like i didn’t realize how much

0:27:34.640,0:27:39.600
legislation they impact yeah the

0:27:37.919,0:27:42.320
attorney general’s the one

0:27:39.600,0:27:43.120
doing the moral term interpretee what is

0:27:42.320,0:27:46.159
it

0:27:43.120,0:27:48.159
turpitude perpetuity you gotta

0:27:46.159,0:27:49.360
pick the right one encourage everyone to

0:27:48.159,0:27:52.159
do their research i think

0:27:49.360,0:27:53.840
there are a lot of websites that i think

0:27:52.159,0:27:55.279
break down all the candidates for like

0:27:53.840,0:27:56.640
all these like various

0:27:55.279,0:27:58.480
positions i don’t know what i’m trying

0:27:56.640,0:28:00.720
to say let’s try to link that

0:27:58.480,0:28:02.000
in like the description on the youtube

0:28:00.720,0:28:04.320
channel and the podcast because

0:28:02.000,0:28:06.080
i’m gonna get off my high horse i will

0:28:04.320,0:28:07.679
be the first one to say i do not vote in

0:28:06.080,0:28:09.360
every single election i’m really like

0:28:07.679,0:28:12.000
giving good advice that i should be

0:28:09.360,0:28:13.679
taking i need to vote more often and i

0:28:12.000,0:28:15.440
do not educate myself as much as i

0:28:13.679,0:28:16.480
should to be a good voter and that’s

0:28:15.440,0:28:18.480
something that i’m

0:28:16.480,0:28:20.159
working on changing and making an effort

0:28:18.480,0:28:21.440
to get better at we’re all learning

0:28:20.159,0:28:23.520
we’re all learning how to be better

0:28:21.440,0:28:24.799
proactive citizens of our country for

0:28:23.520,0:28:27.679
sure i really agree

0:28:24.799,0:28:29.360
even in like the 2016 election like in

0:28:27.679,0:28:30.640
the general election i just voted for

0:28:29.360,0:28:33.600
like president

0:28:30.640,0:28:35.279
like all the other like local um

0:28:33.600,0:28:36.799
officials that were on the ballot i kind

0:28:35.279,0:28:38.080
of like i just abstained and i skipped

0:28:36.799,0:28:40.080
through because i was like oh i don’t

0:28:38.080,0:28:41.600
i didn’t even realize they were up for

0:28:40.080,0:28:42.559
election and like i don’t know who these

0:28:41.600,0:28:45.200
people are and like

0:28:42.559,0:28:46.640
all these positions are so important so

0:28:45.200,0:28:49.120
everyone should do their research

0:28:46.640,0:28:51.600
definitely especially all the new young

0:28:49.120,0:28:54.480
voters our demographic for this podcast

0:28:51.600,0:28:56.960
is quite young so some of you may be

0:28:54.480,0:29:00.000
voting for the first time so get excited

0:28:56.960,0:29:00.720
get educated and get ready to vote for

0:29:00.000,0:29:03.520
this fall

0:29:00.720,0:29:04.000
for sure that’s right so for my job i’ve

0:29:03.520,0:29:05.840
been

0:29:04.000,0:29:08.080
talking to a lot of voters across

0:29:05.840,0:29:10.399
america i talked to this one lady she

0:29:08.080,0:29:12.559
was 75 years old i asked her if she

0:29:10.399,0:29:15.760
would vote absentee she was like

0:29:12.559,0:29:18.880
nothing short of death will stop me from

0:29:15.760,0:29:20.799
voting she was like if i become sick i

0:29:18.880,0:29:23.919
will have my children keep me on

0:29:20.799,0:29:24.880
life support until november 3rd this

0:29:23.919,0:29:27.039
lady is

0:29:24.880,0:29:28.880
my hero i think our i think our

0:29:27.039,0:29:30.559
generation needs more of that

0:29:28.880,0:29:32.960
you talk to the older generation they’re

0:29:30.559,0:29:34.720
always like yes

0:29:32.960,0:29:36.880
nothing will stop me i was like an

0:29:34.720,0:29:39.120
election judge one year and i swear like

0:29:36.880,0:29:40.880
80 of the people that came to vote were

0:29:39.120,0:29:43.440
like over the age of 65

0:29:40.880,0:29:46.080
i was like wow well i mean think about

0:29:43.440,0:29:47.039
that demographic if you’re over 65 you

0:29:46.080,0:29:49.200
probably grew up

0:29:47.039,0:29:51.120
civil rights era so you know how much of

0:29:49.200,0:29:52.720
an honor it is to be able to like have

0:29:51.120,0:29:55.600
your voice represented

0:29:52.720,0:29:57.919
that’s true thank you so much david for

0:29:55.600,0:30:01.200
doing this episode and educating us

0:29:57.919,0:30:04.480
on how to vote everyone get excited

0:30:01.200,0:30:09.690
yeah thanks for having me on your show

0:30:04.480,0:30:19.259
come back i’m an honored guest

0:30:09.690,0:30:19.259
[Music]

We inspired Nazi Germany? | History of Forced Sterilization in the United States

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!Ā  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! šŸŽ™ The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com šŸ“¦ ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnktĀ  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnktĀ Ā  Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThatĀ  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

What’s the most insidious way to stop the continuation of the human race? Forced sterilization would be our guess. It may seem like a thing of the past but you’ll be terrified to know that practices of force sterilization and the eugenics movement lasted well into the 70’s for the United States. In our FIRST Guest episode EVER, our friend Indeep takes us on a journey through the history of forced sterilization, who it targeted, the resistance, and how long it lasted.

Sources:

https://www.panoramas.pitt.edu/health-and-society/dark-history-forced-sterilization-latina-women

Transcript

0:00:00.320,0:00:04.720
hello everybody and welcome to another

0:00:02.560,0:00:08.240
episode of how did we not know that

0:00:04.720,0:00:11.519
i’m nat i’m jack and i’m in deep

0:00:08.240,0:00:13.840
yay yay

0:00:11.519,0:00:15.519
hey everyone welcome we are really

0:00:13.840,0:00:16.160
excited we have our first guest ever

0:00:15.519,0:00:18.560
today

0:00:16.160,0:00:20.320
she was our very good friend in deep in

0:00:18.560,0:00:22.640
deep and i actually met while we were

0:00:20.320,0:00:24.640
studying abroad in senegal

0:00:22.640,0:00:27.199
so she’s going to present today on a

0:00:24.640,0:00:30.400
topic of her choosing

0:00:27.199,0:00:32.960
take it away indeed okay so

0:00:30.400,0:00:33.760
a fun thing is that neither jack nor nat

0:00:32.960,0:00:35.040
know my topic

0:00:33.760,0:00:37.040
so i’m really curious to see how they

0:00:35.040,0:00:39.200
react um so

0:00:37.040,0:00:42.719
to open i have a question what is your

0:00:39.200,0:00:46.160
guys’s worst nightmare

0:00:42.719,0:00:49.600
if i had to give like blood repeatedly

0:00:46.160,0:00:53.360
like over and over and over okay okay

0:00:49.600,0:00:56.399
and that i’m really scared

0:00:53.360,0:00:58.800
of like open spaces like the ocean i’m

0:00:56.399,0:01:02.480
really scared of the ocean actually

0:00:58.800,0:01:05.920
that’s interesting yeah so mine

0:01:02.480,0:01:08.640
we’re gonna use it against us

0:01:05.920,0:01:09.680
can you imagine um i feel like you’re

0:01:08.640,0:01:13.280
not on topic at all

0:01:09.680,0:01:17.360
go ahead mine would

0:01:13.280,0:01:18.799
probably be having unanesthetized

0:01:17.360,0:01:21.759
gynecological surgery

0:01:18.799,0:01:21.759
without my consent

0:01:21.920,0:01:27.280
okay so the title of my presentation

0:01:25.759,0:01:29.759
is going to was going to be i was

0:01:27.280,0:01:32.320
between reproductive politics

0:01:29.759,0:01:33.600
or how women’s bodies were the original

0:01:32.320,0:01:35.600
battlegrounds of how men

0:01:33.600,0:01:37.520
especially american colonizers and slave

0:01:35.600,0:01:39.360
owners gain and kept their power and

0:01:37.520,0:01:43.280
influence

0:01:39.360,0:01:45.119
wow that’s heavy girl

0:01:43.280,0:01:46.320
you guys i don’t come here to play i

0:01:45.119,0:01:48.399
come here to let you know

0:01:46.320,0:01:50.560
you know to spill the pee and the tea is

0:01:48.399,0:01:52.560
going to be spilled

0:01:50.560,0:01:53.680
this is a rabbit hole and i’m sorry

0:01:52.560,0:01:54.000
you’re not going gonna be the same once

0:01:53.680,0:01:57.280
you come

0:01:54.000,0:02:00.079
out and i hope that’s okay oh my gosh

0:01:57.280,0:02:02.079
yes i feel like american history just

0:02:00.079,0:02:04.880
like the more i study it the more i’m

0:02:02.079,0:02:04.880
like yikes

0:02:05.119,0:02:08.800
um and i also think it’s funny that like

0:02:07.280,0:02:10.239
they’re just these little holes there’s

0:02:08.800,0:02:11.760
these little things that are just like

0:02:10.239,0:02:14.160
oh we never even thought about that

0:02:11.760,0:02:16.000
and it’s actually like this huge problem

0:02:14.160,0:02:17.440
that still affects people

0:02:16.000,0:02:19.840
um but something i also want to

0:02:17.440,0:02:23.040
highlight before i kind of get like into

0:02:19.840,0:02:26.800
the um stick of

0:02:23.040,0:02:29.120
the presentation is um how

0:02:26.800,0:02:30.560
the resistance to these is sometimes

0:02:29.120,0:02:32.239
documented and i really want to like

0:02:30.560,0:02:34.400
highlight it as we go through

0:02:32.239,0:02:36.480
because i don’t want to like erase the

0:02:34.400,0:02:37.120
stories of the victims and dehumanize

0:02:36.480,0:02:40.080
them

0:02:37.120,0:02:40.640
um and so i want to kind of highlight

0:02:40.080,0:02:42.560
that

0:02:40.640,0:02:44.879
these are people who exercise their will

0:02:42.560,0:02:46.800
when they could and they often did so

0:02:44.879,0:02:49.040
like against really scary odds and

0:02:46.800,0:02:50.400
really powerful institutions and forces

0:02:49.040,0:02:51.200
so as we’re like going through this

0:02:50.400,0:02:52.800
we’re gonna just

0:02:51.200,0:02:55.200
highlight the resistance and highlight

0:02:52.800,0:02:58.800
the fact that these were people you know

0:02:55.200,0:03:02.239
it all starts with our guy

0:02:58.800,0:03:05.040
james marion sims aka

0:03:02.239,0:03:06.480
the father of modern gynecology and i

0:03:05.040,0:03:06.879
feel like we all just feel weird about

0:03:06.480,0:03:08.319
there

0:03:06.879,0:03:11.840
being someone with the title the father

0:03:08.319,0:03:11.840
of modern gynecology right

0:03:13.360,0:03:18.080
that’s upsetting since practice medicine

0:03:16.319,0:03:18.720
at a time when treating women was

0:03:18.080,0:03:22.319
considered

0:03:18.720,0:03:23.360
distasteful and rarely done and you know

0:03:22.319,0:03:26.239
no one surprised

0:03:23.360,0:03:28.080
and he invented the vaginal speculum

0:03:26.239,0:03:29.200
which is a tool used for dilation and

0:03:28.080,0:03:31.760
examination

0:03:29.200,0:03:32.560
and are all thinking oh okay cool cool

0:03:31.760,0:03:34.879
um and

0:03:32.560,0:03:36.159
he also pioneered a surgical technique

0:03:34.879,0:03:39.120
to repair

0:03:36.159,0:03:41.599
vesico vaginal fistula which is a common

0:03:39.120,0:03:45.200
19th century complication of childbirth

0:03:41.599,0:03:47.920
in which okay get ready a tear happens

0:03:45.200,0:03:48.720
between the uterus and the bladder and

0:03:47.920,0:03:51.840
that causes

0:03:48.720,0:03:53.519
constant pain and urine leakage and so

0:03:51.840,0:03:55.519
this still happens today in developing

0:03:53.519,0:03:58.319
countries and it’s really avoidable

0:03:55.519,0:03:59.120
and it literally happens when a baby is

0:03:58.319,0:04:02.480
stuck

0:03:59.120,0:04:04.159
for too long and they like wear a hole

0:04:02.480,0:04:06.799
next to your vagina and it can happen

0:04:04.159,0:04:07.120
like next to your bladder or next to

0:04:06.799,0:04:10.000
your

0:04:07.120,0:04:10.480
literal anus and it causes like leaking

0:04:10.000,0:04:12.000
and

0:04:10.480,0:04:13.439
i don’t know about this gonna happen but

0:04:12.000,0:04:15.120
when it happens it happens and it’s a

0:04:13.439,0:04:16.639
really big problem like in developing

0:04:15.120,0:04:17.040
countries because people who have this

0:04:16.639,0:04:19.680
problem

0:04:17.040,0:04:21.759
are often like um first of all the baby

0:04:19.680,0:04:23.759
usually suffocates and dies

0:04:21.759,0:04:25.680
um i know because they’re in there for

0:04:23.759,0:04:29.199
days like that’s how long it takes right

0:04:25.680,0:04:31.080
and um also like they’re often

0:04:29.199,0:04:33.280
um what’s the word when you’re like

0:04:31.080,0:04:34.880
excommunicated like thrown out of the

0:04:33.280,0:04:37.600
tribe thrown out of the

0:04:34.880,0:04:38.160
village and i know they can’t have a

0:04:37.600,0:04:40.320
baby

0:04:38.160,0:04:42.000
because it’s stuck because their baby

0:04:40.320,0:04:44.560
died and because they smell

0:04:42.000,0:04:45.840
bad because after this happens they like

0:04:44.560,0:04:47.759
it’s just really gross

0:04:45.840,0:04:49.199
you know and they like have because it’s

0:04:47.759,0:04:51.520
leaking okay

0:04:49.199,0:04:52.639
exactly and so i think they think of it

0:04:51.520,0:04:54.160
as like a curse

0:04:52.639,0:04:56.000
or sometimes it’s just like kind of

0:04:54.160,0:04:56.960
distasteful to have around and they’re

0:04:56.000,0:04:59.199
just kind of like

0:04:56.960,0:05:00.320
banished the woman and this is like

0:04:59.199,0:05:01.840
really first of all this is really

0:05:00.320,0:05:03.360
easily repaired by surgery just some

0:05:01.840,0:05:05.280
stitches you know

0:05:03.360,0:05:06.160
and okay i don’t want to reduce that i

0:05:05.280,0:05:08.840
don’t know how it’s prepared i’m

0:05:06.160,0:05:10.240
assuming it’s just

0:05:08.840,0:05:12.800
bitches but

0:05:10.240,0:05:14.240
also um it’s really preventable like if

0:05:12.800,0:05:14.880
you just have something kind of take the

0:05:14.240,0:05:16.240
baby out

0:05:14.880,0:05:18.400
you could do a c-section like there’s a

0:05:16.240,0:05:19.440
lot of ways to like get the baby to come

0:05:18.400,0:05:22.560
out now

0:05:19.440,0:05:25.520
but you know if you just don’t have any

0:05:22.560,0:05:26.080
resources sorry what year is this that

0:05:25.520,0:05:28.320
he’s

0:05:26.080,0:05:31.360
inventing this do you know so he’s

0:05:28.320,0:05:33.240
inventing this he was born in 1813

0:05:31.360,0:05:34.400
so i think he was inventing this in the

0:05:33.240,0:05:37.600
1830s

0:05:34.400,0:05:39.919
1840s maybe cool wait question

0:05:37.600,0:05:40.960
sorry he’s american so the father of

0:05:39.919,0:05:44.080
gynecology

0:05:40.960,0:05:46.320
is american yeah okay and he was born in

0:05:44.080,0:05:49.919
lancaster county south carolina

0:05:46.320,0:05:51.919
in 1813 um and he entered the medical

0:05:49.919,0:05:53.440
profession when doctors didn’t undergo

0:05:51.919,0:05:55.199
the same rigorous coursework and

0:05:53.440,0:05:57.360
training they do today

0:05:55.199,0:05:58.479
after interning with a doctor and taking

0:05:57.360,0:06:00.800
a three-month course

0:05:58.479,0:06:01.759
and studying for a year at jefferson

0:06:00.800,0:06:04.639
medical college

0:06:01.759,0:06:06.080
he began his practice he later relocated

0:06:04.639,0:06:09.199
to montgomery county

0:06:06.080,0:06:09.680
alabama seeking a fresh start after the

0:06:09.199,0:06:13.199
death

0:06:09.680,0:06:13.199
of his first two patients

0:06:13.360,0:06:18.639
no the third time’s a charm right just

0:06:16.240,0:06:20.319
gotta move to alabama so they don’t have

0:06:18.639,0:06:23.520
that third try

0:06:20.319,0:06:24.720
no the father of the father of modern

0:06:23.520,0:06:27.600
gynecology

0:06:24.720,0:06:29.199
so it was in montgomery that sims built

0:06:27.600,0:06:31.039
his reputation among rich white

0:06:29.199,0:06:34.000
plantation owners by treating their

0:06:31.039,0:06:36.800
human property

0:06:34.000,0:06:37.840
article does not play um according to

0:06:36.800,0:06:39.520
vanessa gamble

0:06:37.840,0:06:41.919
university professor of medical

0:06:39.520,0:06:42.880
humanities at gw george washington

0:06:41.919,0:06:44.560
university

0:06:42.880,0:06:45.919
since this practice was deeply rooted in

0:06:44.560,0:06:47.919
the slave trade

0:06:45.919,0:06:50.080
and while most healthcare took place in

0:06:47.919,0:06:52.080
the plantation some stubborn cases were

0:06:50.080,0:06:54.000
brought to physicians like sims

0:06:52.080,0:06:55.759
who patched up enslaved workers so they

0:06:54.000,0:06:56.960
could produce and reproduce for their

0:06:55.759,0:06:58.400
masters again

0:06:56.960,0:07:00.400
otherwise they were useless to their

0:06:58.400,0:07:02.400
owners and this kind of brings up this

0:07:00.400,0:07:05.120
concept of soundness

0:07:02.400,0:07:07.039
um being a sound a meant that you could

0:07:05.120,0:07:08.880
produce and reproduce so men could

0:07:07.039,0:07:10.800
produce and women could reproduce for

0:07:08.880,0:07:11.759
women having fistula made them less

0:07:10.800,0:07:13.039
sound because they couldn’t really

0:07:11.759,0:07:16.319
reproduce as much

0:07:13.039,0:07:18.240
it goes into the whole slavery and child

0:07:16.319,0:07:21.199
bearing which i’m going to get into

0:07:18.240,0:07:21.919
but just to finish on our guy james

0:07:21.199,0:07:23.199
marion sims

0:07:21.919,0:07:24.639
there’s a lot more on him if you’re

0:07:23.199,0:07:25.919
interested he started like the first

0:07:24.639,0:07:28.240
women’s hospital

0:07:25.919,0:07:29.440
killed a bunch of people saved some

0:07:28.240,0:07:33.039
people you know

0:07:29.440,0:07:36.400
and he had i think three statues of him

0:07:33.039,0:07:38.080
that are starting to come down so

0:07:36.400,0:07:40.880
there was one of his statues was

0:07:38.080,0:07:42.800
literally in central park

0:07:40.880,0:07:44.560
opposite the new york academy of

0:07:42.800,0:07:47.360
medicine in new york city

0:07:44.560,0:07:48.720
and this was removed on april 17 2018

0:07:47.360,0:07:50.639
and its current plaque

0:07:48.720,0:07:52.000
will be replaced by one that educates

0:07:50.639,0:07:52.639
the public on the origins of the

0:07:52.000,0:07:54.960
monument

0:07:52.639,0:07:56.240
and the controversial non-consensual

0:07:54.960,0:07:58.720
medical experiments he

0:07:56.240,0:07:59.919
used on women of color mostly enslaved

0:07:58.720,0:08:01.919
black women

0:07:59.919,0:08:03.520
the names and histories of three known

0:08:01.919,0:08:05.440
women whose bodies were used in the name

0:08:03.520,0:08:07.520
of medical and scientific advancement

0:08:05.440,0:08:09.120
by the doctor their names are lucy

0:08:07.520,0:08:09.840
anarca and betsy will take their

0:08:09.120,0:08:11.919
rightful

0:08:09.840,0:08:15.680
place on the new plaque and i will also

0:08:11.919,0:08:18.160
mention he did his experiments on slaves

0:08:15.680,0:08:19.520
without anesthesia because it wasn’t

0:08:18.160,0:08:24.639
invented at the time

0:08:19.520,0:08:27.360
and also because i know and also because

0:08:24.639,0:08:29.120
they didn’t think that black bodies felt

0:08:27.360,0:08:30.879
pain the same way that white bodies did

0:08:29.120,0:08:32.880
which is still a myth that happens to

0:08:30.879,0:08:35.919
this day like to this day black people

0:08:32.880,0:08:37.760
are um given less anesthesia

0:08:35.919,0:08:39.680
on average than like their white

0:08:37.760,0:08:40.000
counterparts because they believe that

0:08:39.680,0:08:42.959
black

0:08:40.000,0:08:45.839
people somehow feel less pain and that’s

0:08:42.959,0:08:48.720
james marion sims

0:08:45.839,0:08:49.279
jeez oh my god that’s so upsetting that

0:08:48.720,0:08:52.800
like

0:08:49.279,0:08:54.399
not only is he this awful person

0:08:52.800,0:08:55.839
he killed all these women and like none

0:08:54.399,0:08:58.160
of his surgeries were really consensual

0:08:55.839,0:08:59.760
but how did he get all these statues

0:08:58.160,0:09:02.399
like

0:08:59.760,0:09:03.279
i have no idea what i do know is that i

0:09:02.399,0:09:04.959
don’t know like he

0:09:03.279,0:09:06.399
started doing surgeries on white women

0:09:04.959,0:09:08.240
and he did make a lot of advancements

0:09:06.399,0:09:10.959
because before nobody would even

0:09:08.240,0:09:12.959
like delve into women’s reproductive

0:09:10.959,0:09:14.160
like they were like growth you know

0:09:12.959,0:09:16.000
and then he started doing surgeries on

0:09:14.160,0:09:17.839
white women with anesthesia

0:09:16.000,0:09:19.839
because you know handily it was invented

0:09:17.839,0:09:23.440
and also you know white women feel pain

0:09:19.839,0:09:25.680
apparently um who knew so

0:09:23.440,0:09:27.279
not me that white side of me doesn’t

0:09:25.680,0:09:29.839
feel pain so i don’t know what you’re

0:09:27.279,0:09:29.839
talking about

0:09:30.640,0:09:34.480
so i can just delve into slavery and

0:09:33.600,0:09:36.640
child bearing

0:09:34.480,0:09:38.640
because you know this is all this

0:09:36.640,0:09:40.880
research was just a hole that i just dug

0:09:38.640,0:09:42.640
deeper and deeper into it just doesn’t

0:09:40.880,0:09:43.839
end everything that i’m going to say is

0:09:42.640,0:09:46.640
accepted

0:09:43.839,0:09:48.640
from birthing a slave motherhood and

0:09:46.640,0:09:49.440
medicine in the antebellum south by

0:09:48.640,0:09:52.240
murray

0:09:49.440,0:09:53.279
marie jenkins schwartz so here’s like a

0:09:52.240,0:09:55.760
little bit of background

0:09:53.279,0:09:57.279
um as of 1808 congress ended the

0:09:55.760,0:09:58.720
nation’s participation in the

0:09:57.279,0:10:00.240
international slave trade

0:09:58.720,0:10:01.920
so that means that the only practical

0:10:00.240,0:10:03.120
way of increasing the number of slave

0:10:01.920,0:10:06.240
laborers was through

0:10:03.120,0:10:08.320
new births so if enslaved mothers did

0:10:06.240,0:10:10.079
not bear sufficient numbers of children

0:10:08.320,0:10:11.680
to take the place of aged and dying

0:10:10.079,0:10:12.800
workers the south couldn’t continue as a

0:10:11.680,0:10:15.040
slave society

0:10:12.800,0:10:16.560
and as we know slavery lasted a lot

0:10:15.040,0:10:20.079
longer than 1808

0:10:16.560,0:10:22.640
right so they really made it work

0:10:20.079,0:10:23.360
slave trade ends in 1808 yeah the slave

0:10:22.640,0:10:25.600
like trade

0:10:23.360,0:10:26.560
like the international slave trade ended

0:10:25.600,0:10:29.360
in 1808

0:10:26.560,0:10:30.560
like within we had like 60 yeah 60 years

0:10:29.360,0:10:33.680
and they’re just like

0:10:30.560,0:10:35.839
breeding more slaves now breeding is a

0:10:33.680,0:10:37.680
terrible i’m sorry i even use that word

0:10:35.839,0:10:39.519
like no but that’s a word that’s used

0:10:37.680,0:10:40.160
because it’s like you know it’s not

0:10:39.519,0:10:43.519
humane

0:10:40.160,0:10:45.279
like the way that this is right um

0:10:43.519,0:10:47.519
literally looking at it is like numbers

0:10:45.279,0:10:49.600
like they’re not looking them at

0:10:47.519,0:10:51.440
looking at it as like human beings yeah

0:10:49.600,0:10:54.640
they’re looking at them like livestock

0:10:51.440,0:10:55.120
it’s like literally literally first

0:10:54.640,0:10:57.600
thing

0:10:55.120,0:11:00.240
oh my god but rewards for motherhood

0:10:57.600,0:11:02.880
follow the birth of children for um like

0:11:00.240,0:11:04.480
female slaves to give birth right so

0:11:02.880,0:11:07.040
these included extra clothing

0:11:04.480,0:11:07.680
exemption from harsh punishment and even

0:11:07.040,0:11:10.880
rarely

0:11:07.680,0:11:12.800
rarely rarely freedom um some women were

0:11:10.880,0:11:15.040
able to avoid field or other arduous

0:11:12.800,0:11:16.720
labor as a result of bearing children

0:11:15.040,0:11:18.079
a breeder so these women were called

0:11:16.720,0:11:19.839
breeders

0:11:18.079,0:11:22.560
always fared better than the majority of

0:11:19.839,0:11:24.800
female slaves

0:11:22.560,0:11:25.680
and there were repercussions for

0:11:24.800,0:11:28.079
barrenness

0:11:25.680,0:11:29.040
so young woman who had not demonstrated

0:11:28.079,0:11:31.440
fertility

0:11:29.040,0:11:32.160
faced the possibility of separation from

0:11:31.440,0:11:35.680
family

0:11:32.160,0:11:37.040
as well as additional labor if a married

0:11:35.680,0:11:38.480
couple lived together for long without

0:11:37.040,0:11:41.440
having a baby

0:11:38.480,0:11:44.160
you they could owners would force

0:11:41.440,0:11:47.200
husband and wife to choose new partners

0:11:44.160,0:11:49.200
and um it’s also

0:11:47.200,0:11:51.120
like a former slave his name is henry

0:11:49.200,0:11:53.360
bobbitt maintained that many marriages

0:11:51.120,0:11:55.040
did not last longer than five years

0:11:53.360,0:11:56.639
because if no children were born within

0:11:55.040,0:11:58.800
five years husbands and wives were

0:11:56.639,0:12:01.519
expected to find other spouses

0:11:58.800,0:12:03.440
so from the standpoint of enslaved women

0:12:01.519,0:12:05.440
the slave owners fluoride into the

0:12:03.440,0:12:07.920
scientific management of their bodies

0:12:05.440,0:12:09.120
aka just like interest in their

0:12:07.920,0:12:11.519
reproductive systems

0:12:09.120,0:12:12.959
represented something beyond benevolence

0:12:11.519,0:12:16.079
i think not of a third

0:12:12.959,0:12:17.279
surprise um it was an effort to decrease

0:12:16.079,0:12:19.360
the importance of

0:12:17.279,0:12:21.279
women’s community and to substitute the

0:12:19.360,0:12:22.480
ways of white men for those of black

0:12:21.279,0:12:23.920
women and i found that like really

0:12:22.480,0:12:24.399
interesting just the way that was worded

0:12:23.920,0:12:26.079
it’s like

0:12:24.399,0:12:27.920
that’s literally what’s happening but

0:12:26.079,0:12:29.200
white men trying to control

0:12:27.920,0:12:31.040
trying to make like black women’s

0:12:29.200,0:12:32.560
reproductive systems work for them the

0:12:31.040,0:12:33.440
women struggle to assert their own

0:12:32.560,0:12:35.920
customs so

0:12:33.440,0:12:37.440
rather than acquiescing and slaveholders

0:12:35.920,0:12:38.480
demands that they bear as many children

0:12:37.440,0:12:40.320
as possible

0:12:38.480,0:12:42.240
enslaved women attempted to regulate

0:12:40.320,0:12:43.760
child bearing to accord with their own

0:12:42.240,0:12:45.360
notions of the proper timing and

0:12:43.760,0:12:47.200
frequency of motherhood

0:12:45.360,0:12:49.040
in resisting the dominion of white men

0:12:47.200,0:12:50.480
in this regard black women cast

0:12:49.040,0:12:51.680
themselves essential actors in the

0:12:50.480,0:12:53.760
unfolding drama

0:12:51.680,0:12:55.519
that constituted slave life and culture

0:12:53.760,0:12:57.279
in the antebellum south so essentially

0:12:55.519,0:12:59.040
like the fact that these women like

0:12:57.279,0:13:00.959
wouldn’t always have children whenever

0:12:59.040,0:13:03.279
it was demanded really really shaped the

0:13:00.959,0:13:05.200
narrative of like how slavery continued

0:13:03.279,0:13:06.639
because as we know like it is only

0:13:05.200,0:13:07.440
through these women that slavery could

0:13:06.639,0:13:09.680
continue

0:13:07.440,0:13:11.200
i’m like speechless just because like oh

0:13:09.680,0:13:12.800
my god like you’re literally like

0:13:11.200,0:13:15.519
manipulating

0:13:12.800,0:13:16.560
and like forcing yourself like on every

0:13:15.519,0:13:18.880
aspect of

0:13:16.560,0:13:20.720
like slaves like on their bodies and

0:13:18.880,0:13:24.079
like women especially like that’s so

0:13:20.720,0:13:25.440
violating and like dehumanizing and like

0:13:24.079,0:13:28.720
i just can’t even

0:13:25.440,0:13:32.399
i can’t even like imagine

0:13:28.720,0:13:32.959
how like painful and just how horrifying

0:13:32.399,0:13:35.519
and

0:13:32.959,0:13:37.440
disgusting that is like it’s really

0:13:35.519,0:13:40.000
upsetting to hear but i don’t know

0:13:37.440,0:13:41.839
like yeah and like just the pain of

0:13:40.000,0:13:42.800
child birth and child bearing and

0:13:41.839,0:13:44.800
everything you have to go through with

0:13:42.800,0:13:46.959
that and then the bond that like

0:13:44.800,0:13:48.160
a mothers feel with like their children

0:13:46.959,0:13:49.440
and then your child

0:13:48.160,0:13:51.279
is literally just being treated as

0:13:49.440,0:13:52.480
livestock i know i’m sure like

0:13:51.279,0:13:54.480
i’ve read things where they get

0:13:52.480,0:13:56.240
separated at birth and like the child

0:13:54.480,0:13:56.639
gets sold maybe to another slave owner

0:13:56.240,0:14:00.079
it’s

0:13:56.639,0:14:01.600
like horrific yeah it is crazy

0:14:00.079,0:14:03.120
it’s crazy to think about like whatever

0:14:01.600,0:14:05.600
children you have like you’re not going

0:14:03.120,0:14:07.839
to have any rights to them

0:14:05.600,0:14:09.440
yeah and literally like just being

0:14:07.839,0:14:12.079
thought of as like

0:14:09.440,0:14:13.920
an experiment and like something like a

0:14:12.079,0:14:15.920
test subject like oh that’s so

0:14:13.920,0:14:17.600
disgusting and that’s so scary like i’m

0:14:15.920,0:14:19.920
just like even like giving

0:14:17.600,0:14:22.320
birth to child like like any woman in

0:14:19.920,0:14:24.160
this time i know

0:14:22.320,0:14:26.240
absolutely horrifying like i can’t even

0:14:24.160,0:14:27.920
imagine i’m like so scared

0:14:26.240,0:14:30.240
like i would be so scared either way and

0:14:27.920,0:14:32.000
then in this setting especially like

0:14:30.240,0:14:33.920
oh my gosh i wonder how many like are

0:14:32.000,0:14:36.240
there any statistics and like how many

0:14:33.920,0:14:37.600
like fatalities like how many women died

0:14:36.240,0:14:39.839
because of this although i guess this

0:14:37.600,0:14:40.240
probably wasn’t documented it’s hard to

0:14:39.839,0:14:42.880
tell

0:14:40.240,0:14:44.959
because i don’t know how much they would

0:14:42.880,0:14:46.959
have like actually documented

0:14:44.959,0:14:48.480
you know other than like to suit their

0:14:46.959,0:14:50.800
own needs you know

0:14:48.480,0:14:51.600
yeah no history is like documented by

0:14:50.800,0:14:53.760
the winners

0:14:51.600,0:14:55.360
as they say and like especially they’re

0:14:53.760,0:14:56.560
not teaching slaves how to read and

0:14:55.360,0:14:58.000
write it’s hard to find any

0:14:56.560,0:14:59.680
documentation at all i’m actually

0:14:58.000,0:15:01.279
impressed that there’s at least

0:14:59.680,0:15:03.360
documentation

0:15:01.279,0:15:05.120
on this so we know about it i know it’s

0:15:03.360,0:15:07.600
crazy i think that a lot of it also

0:15:05.120,0:15:08.320
honestly came from like the descendants

0:15:07.600,0:15:10.720
of like

0:15:08.320,0:15:12.560
slaves because a lot of this was like

0:15:10.720,0:15:13.120
told through stories and i think it’s

0:15:12.560,0:15:14.880
just like

0:15:13.120,0:15:16.320
i don’t know even we’re gonna go like

0:15:14.880,0:15:18.160
through a few more subjects but even

0:15:16.320,0:15:20.160
just like the way that like

0:15:18.160,0:15:21.680
people are researching these things and

0:15:20.160,0:15:23.040
it’s so important to research it makes

0:15:21.680,0:15:24.800
me have such respect because i feel like

0:15:23.040,0:15:26.399
this is so traumatizing to research

0:15:24.800,0:15:27.680
about like write about every day you

0:15:26.399,0:15:29.680
know

0:15:27.680,0:15:31.920
and very painful for them to like relive

0:15:29.680,0:15:34.639
those experiences to share the story

0:15:31.920,0:15:35.519
to that for that to be documented yeah

0:15:34.639,0:15:37.680
that’s so true

0:15:35.519,0:15:38.959
on to the next phase and so we don’t

0:15:37.680,0:15:41.200
have another question for you

0:15:38.959,0:15:43.040
you two lovely young humans

0:15:41.200,0:15:44.880
[Laughter]

0:15:43.040,0:15:46.639
when you think of the 1970s what do you

0:15:44.880,0:15:49.759
think of i think of like the hip

0:15:46.639,0:15:50.480
hippies and like i think of the vietnam

0:15:49.759,0:15:53.279
war

0:15:50.480,0:15:54.560
and like there’s a lot of like unrest

0:15:53.279,0:15:57.120
and people are

0:15:54.560,0:15:59.120
upset i think of like the start of the

0:15:57.120,0:16:01.120
end of like social darwinism

0:15:59.120,0:16:02.399
and like the end of the eugenics

0:16:01.120,0:16:05.839
practices well

0:16:02.399,0:16:09.759
so we so we believe yeah jack is ready

0:16:05.839,0:16:11.279
she knows how this goes

0:16:09.759,0:16:12.880
it’s because i’m studying the gilded age

0:16:11.279,0:16:14.240
right now so i’m like learning about

0:16:12.880,0:16:15.120
everything that was put in place and

0:16:14.240,0:16:16.880
then it’s like

0:16:15.120,0:16:19.120
ending in the 70s so i just want to

0:16:16.880,0:16:21.360
request you guys on roe v wade happened

0:16:19.120,0:16:23.360
in 1973

0:16:21.360,0:16:25.440
and it was a landmark decision of the us

0:16:23.360,0:16:27.440
supreme court in which the court ruled

0:16:25.440,0:16:29.120
that the constitution of the united

0:16:27.440,0:16:29.920
states protects a pregnant woman’s

0:16:29.120,0:16:32.320
liberty to

0:16:29.920,0:16:35.199
choose to have an abortion without

0:16:32.320,0:16:37.839
excessive government restrictions

0:16:35.199,0:16:39.360
some hot tea and so we can get into some

0:16:37.839,0:16:40.240
like in the background there was this

0:16:39.360,0:16:43.360
woman

0:16:40.240,0:16:45.120
um and her pseudonym was jane roe and

0:16:43.360,0:16:46.800
she became pregnant with her third child

0:16:45.120,0:16:49.120
and she won an abortion

0:16:46.800,0:16:51.199
um but she lived in texas where abortion

0:16:49.120,0:16:54.959
was illegal and so

0:16:51.199,0:16:57.120
she filed the lawsuit um on her behalf

0:16:54.959,0:17:00.560
in the u.s federal court against henry

0:16:57.120,0:17:02.959
wade who was her local district attorney

0:17:00.560,0:17:04.640
and so basically they heard the case

0:17:02.959,0:17:05.520
they ruled in her favor and then texted

0:17:04.640,0:17:07.199
appeal to

0:17:05.520,0:17:08.640
the u.s supreme court which agreed to

0:17:07.199,0:17:12.160
hear the case and

0:17:08.640,0:17:13.120
they appeal or they ruled in her favor

0:17:12.160,0:17:15.760
which meant that

0:17:13.120,0:17:17.760
federally abortion is legal abortion in

0:17:15.760,0:17:20.160
the united states is legal

0:17:17.760,0:17:21.919
nationally but abortion laws are also

0:17:20.160,0:17:23.600
like under state jurisdiction

0:17:21.919,0:17:25.039
but technically like it has to be

0:17:23.600,0:17:27.679
illegal in all states but it’s

0:17:25.039,0:17:29.200
regulated by the states yeah so i kind

0:17:27.679,0:17:29.840
of wanted to highlight this because i

0:17:29.200,0:17:32.240
felt like

0:17:29.840,0:17:33.760
um this is like the struggle that we

0:17:32.240,0:17:34.480
hear about but this is a struggle of

0:17:33.760,0:17:36.160
white women

0:17:34.480,0:17:38.000
as i’m gonna kind of like go into more

0:17:36.160,0:17:41.120
like the struggle was different for

0:17:38.000,0:17:43.200
different populations of women of color

0:17:41.120,0:17:44.720
and it’s kind of crazy how different the

0:17:43.200,0:17:45.679
struggles like they were just not even

0:17:44.720,0:17:47.679
the same

0:17:45.679,0:17:49.840
like not even the same issue and we’re

0:17:47.679,0:17:51.520
going to start with indigenous women

0:17:49.840,0:17:53.919
i’m going to start with with a fun

0:17:51.520,0:17:56.799
statistic in the 1970s

0:17:53.919,0:17:57.039
doctors in the united states sterilized

0:17:56.799,0:18:00.080
an

0:17:57.039,0:18:02.240
estimated 25 to 42 percent

0:18:00.080,0:18:04.480
of native american women of childbearing

0:18:02.240,0:18:08.400
age some as young as 15.

0:18:04.480,0:18:10.320
that number is insane crazy

0:18:08.400,0:18:12.799
i don’t even how was did you find out

0:18:10.320,0:18:15.200
anything like on the process was it like

0:18:12.799,0:18:17.280
were they using like armed forces to

0:18:15.200,0:18:18.000
like pull women from their homes what

0:18:17.280,0:18:19.919
was it

0:18:18.000,0:18:21.679
so what they would do is like they would

0:18:19.919,0:18:24.240
women would go in

0:18:21.679,0:18:25.679
for you know maybe like a procedure

0:18:24.240,0:18:27.600
maybe like a checkup often

0:18:25.679,0:18:28.960
just like giving birth and then while

0:18:27.600,0:18:29.760
they were giving birth it would be a

0:18:28.960,0:18:33.600
quick

0:18:29.760,0:18:36.880
procedure that was yeah and also

0:18:33.600,0:18:37.600
without their consent consent even

0:18:36.880,0:18:38.960
knowing

0:18:37.600,0:18:40.880
sometimes it would happen like

0:18:38.960,0:18:42.400
technically with their consent but it

0:18:40.880,0:18:43.600
was like they didn’t know like they were

0:18:42.400,0:18:45.360
just told it was birth control they

0:18:43.600,0:18:46.720
didn’t know that it was permanent they

0:18:45.360,0:18:48.720
didn’t know what it really meant

0:18:46.720,0:18:51.440
you know although the practice is

0:18:48.720,0:18:54.240
primarily associated with nazi germany

0:18:51.440,0:18:55.360
north korea and other oppressive regimes

0:18:54.240,0:18:57.200
the us has had its

0:18:55.360,0:18:58.880
share of four sterilization laws that

0:18:57.200,0:18:59.360
fit with the eugenic culture of the

0:18:58.880,0:19:01.280
early

0:18:59.360,0:19:03.360
20th century and i wanted to find

0:19:01.280,0:19:05.039
eugenics real quick it’s a science that

0:19:03.360,0:19:07.440
tries to improve

0:19:05.039,0:19:09.039
the human race by controlling which

0:19:07.440,0:19:10.880
people become parents

0:19:09.039,0:19:12.480
which is a great law if i’ve ever heard

0:19:10.880,0:19:17.120
one

0:19:12.480,0:19:18.960
um you do not want a voice bit of you

0:19:17.120,0:19:20.320
saying

0:19:18.960,0:19:22.320
it’s gonna come back when you have a

0:19:20.320,0:19:22.880
campaign one day i need to be more

0:19:22.320,0:19:25.919
careful

0:19:22.880,0:19:29.200
but also i’m like literally sweating

0:19:25.919,0:19:30.960
so funny how crazy that is okay

0:19:29.200,0:19:34.000
so here’s the timeline of some of the

0:19:30.960,0:19:35.919
more notable events from 1849 and to the

0:19:34.000,0:19:39.919
last sterilization performed in

0:19:35.919,0:19:44.559
jared for 1981. 1981

0:19:39.919,0:19:47.760
so uh recent great reason

0:19:44.559,0:19:49.840
so in 1849 gordon

0:19:47.760,0:19:51.760
lindscum so he was a famed texas

0:19:49.840,0:19:53.520
biologist and physician

0:19:51.760,0:19:55.280
and he proposed a bill mandating the

0:19:53.520,0:19:57.120
eugenic sterilization of the mentally

0:19:55.280,0:19:58.880
handicapped and others whose genes he

0:19:57.120,0:20:01.039
deemed undesirable so although the

0:19:58.880,0:20:02.720
legislation was never sponsored or

0:20:01.039,0:20:04.559
brought up for a vote it was the first

0:20:02.720,0:20:06.240
serious attempt in u.s history to use

0:20:04.559,0:20:06.880
forced sterilization for eugenic

0:20:06.240,0:20:09.039
purposes

0:20:06.880,0:20:10.480
between now and 1907 there were a few

0:20:09.039,0:20:12.000
other attempts at passing a forced

0:20:10.480,0:20:13.840
sterilization law but none of them

0:20:12.000,0:20:16.799
passed um and then 1907

0:20:13.840,0:20:18.960
indiana um ohio’s neighbor for you you

0:20:16.799,0:20:20.000
who do not know ohio state university

0:20:18.960,0:20:22.640
where we all

0:20:20.000,0:20:23.679
go and went you know right next to

0:20:22.640,0:20:26.080
indiana

0:20:23.679,0:20:27.760
in 1907 indiana became the first state

0:20:26.080,0:20:29.919
in the country to successfully pass a

0:20:27.760,0:20:33.200
mandatory force sterilization law

0:20:29.919,0:20:35.039
impacting the feeble-minded a term used

0:20:33.200,0:20:35.919
at the time to refer to the mentally

0:20:35.039,0:20:37.679
handicapped

0:20:35.919,0:20:39.120
okay i really did not realize like

0:20:37.679,0:20:40.640
because i have like looked into

0:20:39.120,0:20:42.159
for sterilization a little bit but like

0:20:40.640,0:20:42.960
i didn’t realize it like there were laws

0:20:42.159,0:20:44.000
being passed about

0:20:42.960,0:20:47.039
i always thought it was just kind of

0:20:44.000,0:20:49.200
like shady like yeah like on the dl

0:20:47.039,0:20:50.240
yeah that’s literally that’s horrifying

0:20:49.200,0:20:53.200
that there was a

0:20:50.240,0:20:54.400
literal law so in 1909 california and

0:20:53.200,0:20:56.640
washington both

0:20:54.400,0:20:58.960
passed mandatory sterilization laws in

0:20:56.640,0:21:01.919
1927 the u.s supreme court

0:20:58.960,0:21:03.600
ruled in bucks rebel that laws mandating

0:21:01.919,0:21:05.280
the sterilization of the mentally

0:21:03.600,0:21:06.720
handicapped did not violate the

0:21:05.280,0:21:10.000
constitution

0:21:06.720,0:21:12.159
and just as oliver wendell holmes

0:21:10.000,0:21:13.360
made an explicitly eugenic argument in

0:21:12.159,0:21:15.440
writing for the majority

0:21:13.360,0:21:17.840
it is better for all the world if

0:21:15.440,0:21:19.600
instead of waiting to execute degenerate

0:21:17.840,0:21:21.360
offspring for crime

0:21:19.600,0:21:22.640
or to let them starve for their

0:21:21.360,0:21:24.799
imbecility

0:21:22.640,0:21:26.159
society can prevent those who are

0:21:24.799,0:21:30.080
manifestly unfit

0:21:26.159,0:21:32.240
from continuing their kind oh my god

0:21:30.080,0:21:33.520
straight out of sparta where they used

0:21:32.240,0:21:36.720
to leave like

0:21:33.520,0:21:37.760
handicapped out to die by themselves or

0:21:36.720,0:21:39.280
like the sick

0:21:37.760,0:21:41.679
literally that’s insane and we’ve talked

0:21:39.280,0:21:44.159
about justice oliver wendell holmes

0:21:41.679,0:21:45.200
in our is it free speech or espionage

0:21:44.159,0:21:47.200
episode and like

0:21:45.200,0:21:48.640
when i was doing research like none of

0:21:47.200,0:21:49.280
this came up like you they were just

0:21:48.640,0:21:51.760
like oh

0:21:49.280,0:21:53.120
he’s a really influential judge like

0:21:51.760,0:21:56.720
yeah probably because he

0:21:53.120,0:21:59.280
literally like said that oh my god like

0:21:56.720,0:22:00.000
you’re crazy okay so this this next fact

0:21:59.280,0:22:03.039
is fun

0:22:00.000,0:22:05.200
in 1936 nazi propaganda

0:22:03.039,0:22:06.159
defended germany’s force sterilization

0:22:05.200,0:22:08.400
program

0:22:06.159,0:22:10.320
by citing the us as an ally in the

0:22:08.400,0:22:12.240
eugenic movement

0:22:10.320,0:22:13.679
um world war ii and the atrocities

0:22:12.240,0:22:14.240
committed by the nazi government would

0:22:13.679,0:22:16.240
rapidly

0:22:14.240,0:22:18.159
rapidly change u.s attitudes towards

0:22:16.240,0:22:19.919
eugenics i guess that’s what it takes i

0:22:18.159,0:22:22.720
don’t know

0:22:19.919,0:22:24.159
okay t um actually nazi germany took a

0:22:22.720,0:22:26.799
lot of our practices

0:22:24.159,0:22:28.000
as an inspiration for their practices i

0:22:26.799,0:22:30.720
don’t know if you guys know like the

0:22:28.000,0:22:32.000
gasoline baths at the border between

0:22:30.720,0:22:34.159
mexico

0:22:32.000,0:22:35.120
yeah at the border between mexico they

0:22:34.159,0:22:37.440
would like bathe

0:22:35.120,0:22:39.120
um mexican immigrants who were waiting

0:22:37.440,0:22:40.880
to like get citizenship

0:22:39.120,0:22:42.400
they’d bathe them in gasoline to clean

0:22:40.880,0:22:44.240
them those cleaning chambers were

0:22:42.400,0:22:45.600
inspiration for the gas chambers in nazi

0:22:44.240,0:22:46.559
germany that’s a whole i’m probably

0:22:45.600,0:22:48.320
gonna have to cut this out because

0:22:46.559,0:22:50.080
that’s a whole another episode and can

0:22:48.320,0:22:51.360
of worms but yeah that stuff happened oh

0:22:50.080,0:22:54.559
my god

0:22:51.360,0:22:58.559
that’s crazy i had no idea

0:22:54.559,0:23:01.760
yeah continue please

0:22:58.559,0:23:03.919
um so the nixon administration um

0:23:01.760,0:23:06.799
dramatically increased medicaid-funded

0:23:03.919,0:23:09.840
sterilization of low-income americans

0:23:06.799,0:23:11.679
primarily those of color um while these

0:23:09.840,0:23:14.080
sterilizations were

0:23:11.679,0:23:16.080
voluntary as a matter of policy

0:23:14.080,0:23:17.919
anecdotal evidence later suggested that

0:23:16.080,0:23:18.640
they were often involuntary as a matter

0:23:17.919,0:23:20.720
of practice

0:23:18.640,0:23:22.000
patients were frequently misinformed or

0:23:20.720,0:23:23.280
left uninformed regarding

0:23:22.000,0:23:25.120
the nature of the proceedings that

0:23:23.280,0:23:27.200
they’d agreed to undergo none of us are

0:23:25.120,0:23:29.440
surprised so in 1979

0:23:27.200,0:23:31.360
a survey conducted by family planning

0:23:29.440,0:23:33.840
perspectives found that approximately

0:23:31.360,0:23:36.000
70 percent of american hospitals failed

0:23:33.840,0:23:38.000
to adequately follow the us department

0:23:36.000,0:23:39.760
of health and human services guidelines

0:23:38.000,0:23:40.880
regarding informed consent in cases of

0:23:39.760,0:23:42.320
sterilization

0:23:40.880,0:23:44.720
i think the only thing that’s surprising

0:23:42.320,0:23:45.840
to us is that there was guidelines on

0:23:44.720,0:23:47.520
sterilization

0:23:45.840,0:23:50.240
i think we’re like this just doesn’t

0:23:47.520,0:23:52.080
make sense and then in 1981 oregon

0:23:50.240,0:23:53.760
performed the last week of fourth

0:23:52.080,0:23:55.360
sterilization in u.s history

0:23:53.760,0:23:56.880
crazy that it was oregon and like

0:23:55.360,0:23:57.440
california and washington who like

0:23:56.880,0:24:00.080
really

0:23:57.440,0:24:03.279
stand out it’s also america we all got

0:24:00.080,0:24:07.279
we’re all in it together like

0:24:03.279,0:24:08.799
she’s right okay so that was a brief

0:24:07.279,0:24:10.720
history of the

0:24:08.799,0:24:12.400
a brief overview of the history of force

0:24:10.720,0:24:13.440
sterilization in the u.s and now let’s

0:24:12.400,0:24:15.840
go back to

0:24:13.440,0:24:17.919
indigenous americans in the 1970s

0:24:15.840,0:24:18.640
doctors in the united states sterilized

0:24:17.919,0:24:21.279
and estimated

0:24:18.640,0:24:23.600
25 to 42 percent native american women

0:24:21.279,0:24:25.120
of childbearing age some as young as 15.

0:24:23.600,0:24:26.799
so the sterilizations

0:24:25.120,0:24:28.559
subsidized by federal government and

0:24:26.799,0:24:29.919
often undertaken without the consent are

0:24:28.559,0:24:31.760
under great direct

0:24:29.919,0:24:33.200
marks the culmination of a long history

0:24:31.760,0:24:34.960
of efforts by

0:24:33.200,0:24:36.480
federal and local authorities to manage

0:24:34.960,0:24:37.360
the reproductive lives of native

0:24:36.480,0:24:38.960
families

0:24:37.360,0:24:40.880
and this is explained by brianna

0:24:38.960,0:24:42.400
theobald and she’s an assistant

0:24:40.880,0:24:44.080
professor of history at the university

0:24:42.400,0:24:45.919
of rochester

0:24:44.080,0:24:47.440
and her new book reproduction on the

0:24:45.919,0:24:49.360
reservation pregnancy

0:24:47.440,0:24:50.640
childbirth and colonialism in the long

0:24:49.360,0:24:52.640
20th century

0:24:50.640,0:24:54.400
she says the federal government and

0:24:52.640,0:24:56.240
local authorities have long tried to

0:24:54.400,0:24:58.240
control indigenous families and women’s

0:24:56.240,0:25:00.080
reproduction using tactics such as

0:24:58.240,0:25:01.600
coercive sterilization and the removal

0:25:00.080,0:25:03.840
of indigenous children

0:25:01.600,0:25:06.159
into the white foster care system there

0:25:03.840,0:25:07.360
was this mindset this really fun slogan

0:25:06.159,0:25:09.200
that i feel like

0:25:07.360,0:25:11.440
you guys might have heard um kill the

0:25:09.200,0:25:13.600
indian in him and save the man

0:25:11.440,0:25:15.360
and that’s the mindset um under which

0:25:13.600,0:25:17.200
the us government forced tens of

0:25:15.360,0:25:19.039
thousands of native american children to

0:25:17.200,0:25:20.720
attend assimilation boarding schools in

0:25:19.039,0:25:22.480
the late 19th century

0:25:20.720,0:25:23.520
and it’s like the boring schools we’ve

0:25:22.480,0:25:24.559
heard of and i think it’s interesting

0:25:23.520,0:25:26.400
why have we heard of the boarding

0:25:24.559,0:25:27.440
schools and not like forced civilization

0:25:26.400,0:25:29.360
like i don’t know

0:25:27.440,0:25:30.799
yeah or the adoption yeah and deep

0:25:29.360,0:25:32.480
you’re really hitting like all the good

0:25:30.799,0:25:34.400
topics i feel like every

0:25:32.480,0:25:36.559
little bit you say we could literally

0:25:34.400,0:25:38.559
make into a whole another episode and we

0:25:36.559,0:25:40.240
will because it deserves to be spoken

0:25:38.559,0:25:42.240
about more but yeah the the whole

0:25:40.240,0:25:42.720
adoption era with native americans is

0:25:42.240,0:25:44.960
like

0:25:42.720,0:25:46.880
horrific and then the boarding schools

0:25:44.960,0:25:48.559
lasted do you have like the date of how

0:25:46.880,0:25:49.120
long they lasted but they lasted a very

0:25:48.559,0:25:50.559
long time

0:25:49.120,0:25:53.039
i don’t even think that they were

0:25:50.559,0:25:54.159
completely shut down like by the 70s i

0:25:53.039,0:25:55.679
don’t even know if they’re still shut

0:25:54.159,0:25:57.919
down who knows

0:25:55.679,0:25:59.919
yeah well yeah and like these boarding

0:25:57.919,0:26:01.360
schools are like awful like well first

0:25:59.919,0:26:02.720
of all because like they’re separated

0:26:01.360,0:26:05.600
from their family so that

0:26:02.720,0:26:06.559
in itself is awful but then additionally

0:26:05.600,0:26:08.400
like they’re

0:26:06.559,0:26:09.919
forced to i guess convert to

0:26:08.400,0:26:11.679
christianity and like they’re not

0:26:09.919,0:26:13.440
allowed to speak their native language

0:26:11.679,0:26:15.440
they’re like forced to speak in english

0:26:13.440,0:26:16.159
only so you’re wiping out like people’s

0:26:15.440,0:26:18.400
culture

0:26:16.159,0:26:19.600
and yeah when they return like sometimes

0:26:18.400,0:26:20.960
they can’t even communicate to their

0:26:19.600,0:26:21.440
parents anymore because they don’t

0:26:20.960,0:26:22.799
remember

0:26:21.440,0:26:24.640
they were taken away so young so they

0:26:22.799,0:26:25.120
don’t even remember their like native

0:26:24.640,0:26:27.200
tongue

0:26:25.120,0:26:28.559
and they’re lazy third and a lot of them

0:26:27.200,0:26:29.520
like died in the boarding school just

0:26:28.559,0:26:31.440
because of

0:26:29.520,0:26:33.120
proper care also like i don’t know if

0:26:31.440,0:26:35.039
you’re gonna touch on this later

0:26:33.120,0:26:36.400
but like a lot of what’s happening like

0:26:35.039,0:26:38.559
these boarding schools and the four

0:26:36.400,0:26:41.360
sterilization of indigenous women

0:26:38.559,0:26:42.799
also happened at the same time period in

0:26:41.360,0:26:45.039
canada as well

0:26:42.799,0:26:47.039
i didn’t know that this was actually the

0:26:45.039,0:26:48.799
first time i’d ever heard the term

0:26:47.039,0:26:50.400
force sterilization before was when i

0:26:48.799,0:26:52.640
was in canada like

0:26:50.400,0:26:53.600
working there and the canadian

0:26:52.640,0:26:55.279
parliament were

0:26:53.600,0:26:57.120
drawing up a lot of reports and doing a

0:26:55.279,0:26:59.279
lot of research on the history

0:26:57.120,0:27:01.120
of foreign sterilization of indigenous

0:26:59.279,0:27:01.799
women and there’s a lot of efforts

0:27:01.120,0:27:04.240
towards

0:27:01.799,0:27:06.320
reconciliation about the boarding

0:27:04.240,0:27:09.440
schools and there’s four sterilization

0:27:06.320,0:27:10.320
and like bias of police towards like

0:27:09.440,0:27:13.120
against

0:27:10.320,0:27:14.640
indigenous people of canada and so like

0:27:13.120,0:27:17.039
i remember like when i heard the term

0:27:14.640,0:27:18.559
forces for sterilization for the first

0:27:17.039,0:27:20.720
time like this is like two years ago too

0:27:18.559,0:27:22.480
i was like i never even knew this was a

0:27:20.720,0:27:23.600
thing and then i was like doing all this

0:27:22.480,0:27:25.360
research on it and they’re like oh yeah

0:27:23.600,0:27:27.520
this happened in the u.s too of course

0:27:25.360,0:27:29.279
i’m like this happens up until 1981 so

0:27:27.520,0:27:30.240
it’s not even like oh it was just so

0:27:29.279,0:27:32.320
long ago

0:27:30.240,0:27:34.559
like we thought yeah i just wanted to

0:27:32.320,0:27:36.880
know too that like this is so widespread

0:27:34.559,0:27:38.399
um yeah so yeah and i think that’s

0:27:36.880,0:27:40.240
important to know because i feel like

0:27:38.399,0:27:41.520
a lot of us don’t like i don’t you know

0:27:40.240,0:27:43.360
have even like

0:27:41.520,0:27:44.799
a frame of reference you know like this

0:27:43.360,0:27:46.559
is so new

0:27:44.799,0:27:48.080
just like the concepts that we’re cut

0:27:46.559,0:27:48.960
that we’re covering oh jax was something

0:27:48.080,0:27:52.480
that i wanted to

0:27:48.960,0:27:53.520
touch on oh oh um she said okay so jack

0:27:52.480,0:27:55.600
mentioned how

0:27:53.520,0:27:57.840
this podcast like this episode is

0:27:55.600,0:27:59.520
touching on like a lot of other things

0:27:57.840,0:28:01.360
and i think that kind of speaks to how

0:27:59.520,0:28:02.480
like women were like and women’s like

0:28:01.360,0:28:04.799
reproductive

0:28:02.480,0:28:06.720
like freedoms and reproductive just like

0:28:04.799,0:28:08.880
the control of their reproduction

0:28:06.720,0:28:10.000
was like an underlying factor in a lot

0:28:08.880,0:28:11.600
of other things

0:28:10.000,0:28:13.279
but it was never really spoken about

0:28:11.600,0:28:14.720
right like this is like this underlying

0:28:13.279,0:28:16.000
current this underlying theme that

0:28:14.720,0:28:18.080
happened in like a lot

0:28:16.000,0:28:19.440
of different like periods of us history

0:28:18.080,0:28:20.880
and a lot of different oppressions

0:28:19.440,0:28:22.320
it’s just something that like has never

0:28:20.880,0:28:23.919
been spoken about so when you’re just

0:28:22.320,0:28:24.480
focusing on this you kind of see that it

0:28:23.919,0:28:26.080
threads

0:28:24.480,0:28:27.600
throughout like us history which i think

0:28:26.080,0:28:29.279
is like really interesting and also

0:28:27.600,0:28:30.559
crazy but unsurprising that it’s not

0:28:29.279,0:28:32.240
talked about because it combines

0:28:30.559,0:28:33.279
misogyny like no one likes talking about

0:28:32.240,0:28:35.600
women’s reproduction

0:28:33.279,0:28:37.520
like it’s just i mean no one i love it

0:28:35.600,0:28:38.960
but like

0:28:37.520,0:28:40.640
men have historically been a little

0:28:38.960,0:28:42.000
uncomfortable around it you know

0:28:40.640,0:28:44.080
and it speaks about like other

0:28:42.000,0:28:45.840
marginalized identities being

0:28:44.080,0:28:47.760
different race people of color and

0:28:45.840,0:28:49.279
slaves so i think it’s just like so

0:28:47.760,0:28:51.279
interesting how all of these kind of

0:28:49.279,0:28:53.039
become this really like this

0:28:51.279,0:28:55.600
underpinning oppressive

0:28:53.039,0:28:56.480
ruling like this oppressive policy you

0:28:55.600,0:28:58.480
know

0:28:56.480,0:29:00.720
yeah and i think just like to add on to

0:28:58.480,0:29:02.159
that it shows how history because

0:29:00.720,0:29:04.240
we all have said this before but like

0:29:02.159,0:29:06.399
history is a rabbit hole and

0:29:04.240,0:29:07.919
you cannot like history does affect

0:29:06.399,0:29:09.200
multiple things throughout time and

0:29:07.919,0:29:10.159
that’s why it’s important to study

0:29:09.200,0:29:11.919
history because

0:29:10.159,0:29:14.000
it’s not like these events happen in

0:29:11.919,0:29:15.440
like little pockets one event will like

0:29:14.000,0:29:16.640
lead to another event which leads to

0:29:15.440,0:29:18.480
another event and they

0:29:16.640,0:29:19.840
all throughout generations are going to

0:29:18.480,0:29:22.640
affect future

0:29:19.840,0:29:24.399
people and i kind of want to talk about

0:29:22.640,0:29:26.080
the resistance of native american women

0:29:24.399,0:29:28.000
because we want to always humanize

0:29:26.080,0:29:30.240
people and also just like not take away

0:29:28.000,0:29:34.080
their agency even in the retelling

0:29:30.240,0:29:36.080
so until mid-century mid-1900s there was

0:29:34.080,0:29:37.200
a tremendous resistance in some areas to

0:29:36.080,0:29:39.679
the acceptance of

0:29:37.200,0:29:40.640
government physicians the women might

0:29:39.679,0:29:42.080
tell the field nurse

0:29:40.640,0:29:43.600
yes i’ll come to the hospital and then

0:29:42.080,0:29:45.120
wouldn’t it’s actually quite funny to

0:29:43.600,0:29:46.559
read the documentary record

0:29:45.120,0:29:48.880
these field nurses would write in their

0:29:46.559,0:29:50.240
reports and that they were frustrated

0:29:48.880,0:29:51.919
that women who were basically pregnant

0:29:50.240,0:29:56.880
would just lie to their faces and say

0:29:51.919,0:29:56.880
no i’m not i found that so funny

0:29:57.279,0:30:01.279
in an effort to maintain reproductive

0:29:59.080,0:30:02.720
self-determination to keep reproduction

0:30:01.279,0:30:04.159
in these gendered and

0:30:02.720,0:30:06.799
generational networks where they

0:30:04.159,0:30:08.880
believed it belonged in the 1930s

0:30:06.799,0:30:11.039
susie yellowtail a crow woman took up

0:30:08.880,0:30:12.640
midwifery because of her dissatisfaction

0:30:11.039,0:30:13.840
with her own birthing experience at a

0:30:12.640,0:30:15.200
government hospital

0:30:13.840,0:30:16.880
and another example was the

0:30:15.200,0:30:18.159
establishment of the american indian

0:30:16.880,0:30:20.880
movement or aim

0:30:18.159,0:30:22.799
in 1968 in minneapolis this was an

0:30:20.880,0:30:24.480
inter-tribal group oh you guys have

0:30:22.799,0:30:25.840
you guys know about this yeah nat

0:30:24.480,0:30:27.760
covered aim in the

0:30:25.840,0:30:30.399
um there’s a native american civil

0:30:27.760,0:30:32.080
rights movement episode

0:30:30.399,0:30:34.000
please continue and you so you guys

0:30:32.080,0:30:35.360
already covered it and it’s just one of

0:30:34.000,0:30:36.000
several militant groups that became

0:30:35.360,0:30:37.360
associated

0:30:36.000,0:30:39.440
with what’s called the red power

0:30:37.360,0:30:41.120
movement and in the 1970s native

0:30:39.440,0:30:41.679
activism and resistance became very

0:30:41.120,0:30:43.360
visible

0:30:41.679,0:30:44.640
more widespread and ultimately

0:30:43.360,0:30:45.600
coordinated nationally and

0:30:44.640,0:30:46.960
internationally

0:30:45.600,0:30:48.640
and that’s when native women really

0:30:46.960,0:30:50.559
started to organize independently

0:30:48.640,0:30:52.320
they formed women of all red nations

0:30:50.559,0:30:54.000
warren the group that especially took on

0:30:52.320,0:30:55.600
these sterilization abuses

0:30:54.000,0:30:57.679
under pressure the us government

0:30:55.600,0:31:00.240
accountability office investigated the

0:30:57.679,0:31:02.000
issue in 1976. they released a report

0:31:00.240,0:31:03.360
which actually stopped short of saying

0:31:02.000,0:31:06.399
that government divisions

0:31:03.360,0:31:08.320
performed sterilizations coercively but

0:31:06.399,0:31:10.559
it did raise a number of concerns

0:31:08.320,0:31:12.080
regarding the consent process and in the

0:31:10.559,0:31:14.320
aftermath of this report

0:31:12.080,0:31:16.159
amidst native activism and also activism

0:31:14.320,0:31:18.080
by african-american and latino women

0:31:16.159,0:31:20.000
women who were like most poignantly

0:31:18.080,0:31:21.679
affected the department of health

0:31:20.000,0:31:23.360
education and welfare adopted new

0:31:21.679,0:31:24.559
regulations that offered some tangible

0:31:23.360,0:31:27.440
protections for women

0:31:24.559,0:31:27.919
which went into effect in 1979. that’s

0:31:27.440,0:31:30.000
the t

0:31:27.919,0:31:31.519
about their resistance oh so the last

0:31:30.000,0:31:36.240
topic for

0:31:31.519,0:31:39.679
today um is latino women

0:31:36.240,0:31:42.080
and between the 1930s and the 1970s

0:31:39.679,0:31:45.840
approximately wait for it one-third of

0:31:42.080,0:31:47.120
the female population of puerto rico was

0:31:45.840,0:31:48.960
making it the highest rate of

0:31:47.120,0:31:51.760
sterilization in the world

0:31:48.960,0:31:52.880
yeah like i can’t yeah now do you know

0:31:51.760,0:31:55.200
about this

0:31:52.880,0:31:56.559
yeah i just okay so i just read this

0:31:55.200,0:31:58.480
book called how to hide an

0:31:56.559,0:32:00.000
empire i plugged it in one of my mini

0:31:58.480,0:32:03.039
cells but like literally like they

0:32:00.000,0:32:04.159
go over the all the four sterilization

0:32:03.039,0:32:05.600
and like other

0:32:04.159,0:32:08.080
i guess like medical experiments

0:32:05.600,0:32:08.640
conducted on puerto ricans at the time

0:32:08.080,0:32:11.760
and like

0:32:08.640,0:32:14.960
but like just a third of the population

0:32:11.760,0:32:19.200
like that’s so hard to comprehend and

0:32:14.960,0:32:21.840
like yeah is it okay also

0:32:19.200,0:32:22.720
can only women be forcefully sterilized

0:32:21.840,0:32:24.240
we don’t have to keep this in the

0:32:22.720,0:32:27.120
episode i’m just like very

0:32:24.240,0:32:28.320
no that’s a great question yeah um men

0:32:27.120,0:32:30.640
can too

0:32:28.320,0:32:31.600
but for sterilization usually apply to

0:32:30.640,0:32:34.240
women

0:32:31.600,0:32:34.960
um and i think it’s kind of for obvious

0:32:34.240,0:32:37.600
reasons

0:32:34.960,0:32:39.120
um i feel like birth control usually is

0:32:37.600,0:32:42.240
like the women’s

0:32:39.120,0:32:44.240
burden you know um and also i feel like

0:32:42.240,0:32:45.519
if a woman is giving birth it’s easy

0:32:44.240,0:32:46.000
while you’re already in there it’s kind

0:32:45.519,0:32:48.640
of like

0:32:46.000,0:32:50.080
have another operation that’s true if i

0:32:48.640,0:32:52.000
had to guess i would guess that

0:32:50.080,0:32:53.279
men were also forcibly sterilized you

0:32:52.000,0:32:56.000
know especially like

0:32:53.279,0:32:58.000
ones who had disability like kind of we

0:32:56.000,0:32:58.720
said earlier feeble-mindedness was

0:32:58.000,0:33:01.200
considered

0:32:58.720,0:33:02.240
okay yeah i was curious so some argue

0:33:01.200,0:33:04.159
that the pressure to increase

0:33:02.240,0:33:06.000
sterilization procedures in puerto rico

0:33:04.159,0:33:08.080
was a targeted practice to decrease a

0:33:06.000,0:33:09.279
high level of poverty and unemployment

0:33:08.080,0:33:11.120
because the government blamed these

0:33:09.279,0:33:12.960
issues on overpopulation the

0:33:11.120,0:33:14.880
legalization of contraception in puerto

0:33:12.960,0:33:17.840
rico and the puerto rican government

0:33:14.880,0:33:20.080
passage of a law allowing sterilization

0:33:17.840,0:33:23.679
to be conducted at the discretion of a

0:33:20.080,0:33:25.840
eugenics board both occurred in 1937

0:33:23.679,0:33:25.840
i know

0:33:26.720,0:33:29.760
soon after the legal change a program

0:33:28.720,0:33:32.799
endorsed by

0:33:29.760,0:33:34.320
the u.s government um began sending

0:33:32.799,0:33:35.440
health department officials to rural

0:33:34.320,0:33:38.799
parts of the island

0:33:35.440,0:33:40.880
advocating for sterilization and by 1946

0:33:38.799,0:33:42.320
postpartum sterilizations happened

0:33:40.880,0:33:43.120
frequently in various puerto rican

0:33:42.320,0:33:45.360
hospitals

0:33:43.120,0:33:46.480
however a year later a study found that

0:33:45.360,0:33:48.559
a quarter of the women who had been

0:33:46.480,0:33:50.640
sterilized regretted the decisions

0:33:48.559,0:33:52.159
if a quarter reported that they regret

0:33:50.640,0:33:53.360
it like i just i’m thinking like how

0:33:52.159,0:33:56.320
many women are missing

0:33:53.360,0:33:57.440
in this um yeah how many were surveyed

0:33:56.320,0:34:00.640
even

0:33:57.440,0:34:03.919
might accurately reflect the

0:34:00.640,0:34:06.880
like the true feeling of women right

0:34:03.919,0:34:08.399
um but even i don’t know even if it was

0:34:06.880,0:34:08.960
just a quarter a quarter stole a lot of

0:34:08.399,0:34:10.960
people

0:34:08.960,0:34:12.240
a lot of people and catholics and

0:34:10.960,0:34:14.159
nationalists fought against

0:34:12.240,0:34:16.480
sterilizations in the 1950s

0:34:14.159,0:34:18.240
which eventually resulted in the law

0:34:16.480,0:34:19.520
being repealed in 1960

0:34:18.240,0:34:21.359
and also i thought this was really

0:34:19.520,0:34:22.639
interesting in puerto rico family

0:34:21.359,0:34:24.240
planning clinics could be found in

0:34:22.639,0:34:25.359
factories that provided free

0:34:24.240,0:34:28.800
sterilization

0:34:25.359,0:34:32.399
thanks to a usaid grant which is

0:34:28.800,0:34:35.919
wow what’s an aid grant what’s that

0:34:32.399,0:34:38.079
usaid like usaid yeah

0:34:35.919,0:34:39.440
it’s the for the listeners who don’t

0:34:38.079,0:34:41.280
know i guess because it’s not a very

0:34:39.440,0:34:44.480
well-known government agency

0:34:41.280,0:34:45.520
um it’s a federal agency that um is kind

0:34:44.480,0:34:48.079
of in charge of like

0:34:45.520,0:34:48.960
international aid i interned with them a

0:34:48.079,0:34:51.280
few months ago

0:34:48.960,0:34:52.320
and it’s just not a good look it’s not a

0:34:51.280,0:34:55.599
good look

0:34:52.320,0:34:59.440
they don’t do this anymore but you know

0:34:55.599,0:35:01.119
i was like ow through this program

0:34:59.440,0:35:02.960
puerto rican women became the guinea

0:35:01.119,0:35:04.320
pigs for u.s pharmaceutical companies

0:35:02.960,0:35:06.240
who were developing the modern birth

0:35:04.320,0:35:06.720
control pill once again mixed feelings

0:35:06.240,0:35:08.960
because it’s

0:35:06.720,0:35:10.560
not like birth control like modern birth

0:35:08.960,0:35:11.440
control and the pill like has helped a

0:35:10.560,0:35:13.280
lot of women

0:35:11.440,0:35:14.560
but like this history so dicey like at

0:35:13.280,0:35:16.400
the heart of it to remember

0:35:14.560,0:35:18.160
is that whether or not it’s good or bad

0:35:16.400,0:35:19.520
depends like the opinion of the woman

0:35:18.160,0:35:20.960
who’s like affected by it because it

0:35:19.520,0:35:23.040
gets so confusing because it’s like

0:35:20.960,0:35:24.480
birth control isn’t good or bad you know

0:35:23.040,0:35:26.480
and like sterilization

0:35:24.480,0:35:28.320
or whatever the procedure is called now

0:35:26.480,0:35:30.079
it’s not like good or bad

0:35:28.320,0:35:31.680
depending on like whether you want it or

0:35:30.079,0:35:33.280
you don’t and that’s it you know

0:35:31.680,0:35:35.200
that’s true right so i think it’s an

0:35:33.280,0:35:38.640
important distinction maybe to treat

0:35:35.200,0:35:41.280
women as humans i don’t know maybe

0:35:38.640,0:35:42.079
i thought i don’t know in deep that’s

0:35:41.280,0:35:45.920
pretty

0:35:42.079,0:35:48.960
rad and it’s controversial it is radical

0:35:45.920,0:35:51.200
so for sterilization was also common in

0:35:48.960,0:35:52.400
california so there was this one case

0:35:51.200,0:35:55.280
magical versus

0:35:52.400,0:35:56.960
quilligan in 1975 there was a federal

0:35:55.280,0:35:57.520
class action lawsuit in which these

0:35:56.960,0:35:59.119
women

0:35:57.520,0:36:01.520
fought back after being sterilized

0:35:59.119,0:36:02.079
without informed consent or under duress

0:36:01.520,0:36:04.400
and so

0:36:02.079,0:36:06.400
these women kind of refer to latino

0:36:04.400,0:36:07.040
women latinx women there was dolores

0:36:06.400,0:36:08.800
madrigal

0:36:07.040,0:36:10.320
who was one of the 10 plaintiffs in the

0:36:08.800,0:36:12.160
case and she was told that her

0:36:10.320,0:36:14.640
sterilization could easily be reversed

0:36:12.160,0:36:16.480
which i can’t hovita rivera and georgina

0:36:14.640,0:36:16.960
hernandez said that they were pressured

0:36:16.480,0:36:19.040
into

0:36:16.960,0:36:20.880
agreeing to the procedure after being

0:36:19.040,0:36:22.480
intensely criticized by doctors and

0:36:20.880,0:36:23.040
nurses for being poor and having

0:36:22.480,0:36:24.560
children

0:36:23.040,0:36:26.560
these are haunting stories but

0:36:24.560,0:36:28.240
especially the one of ladina hernandez

0:36:26.560,0:36:29.359
who she didn’t even find out that she’d

0:36:28.240,0:36:31.680
been sterilized

0:36:29.359,0:36:33.119
until years after her son was born at

0:36:31.680,0:36:34.800
the heart of the case was a question of

0:36:33.119,0:36:36.800
whether women were coerced into being

0:36:34.800,0:36:38.640
sterilized and if so if latinos were

0:36:36.800,0:36:40.000
targeted and at the end of the trial

0:36:38.640,0:36:42.160
1978 the judge

0:36:40.000,0:36:43.359
ruled that get ready for it neither of

0:36:42.160,0:36:45.760
the charges were true

0:36:43.359,0:36:48.079
citing misunderstandings due to the fact

0:36:45.760,0:36:48.800
that the women primarily spoke spanish

0:36:48.079,0:36:50.720
the judge

0:36:48.800,0:36:52.079
blamed their distress from the procedure

0:36:50.720,0:36:53.839
on cultural background

0:36:52.079,0:36:55.440
that made these women believe that their

0:36:53.839,0:36:56.160
worth was in their ability to have

0:36:55.440,0:36:58.640
children

0:36:56.160,0:36:59.440
so basically he was like nah they

0:36:58.640,0:37:01.520
weren’t coerced

0:36:59.440,0:37:03.119
now latinos weren’t targeted because i

0:37:01.520,0:37:04.800
don’t know they spoke spanish and they

0:37:03.119,0:37:06.079
also felt that their worth was in their

0:37:04.800,0:37:08.160
ability to have children

0:37:06.079,0:37:09.240
that’s so messed up what year is that

0:37:08.160,0:37:12.240
again

0:37:09.240,0:37:16.480

  1. oh my god

0:37:12.240,0:37:18.320
oh my god another cause of this decision

0:37:16.480,0:37:19.760
was that voluntary informed consent was

0:37:18.320,0:37:22.960
not a legal requirement

0:37:19.760,0:37:24.880
which is crazy until 1974 after the case

0:37:22.960,0:37:26.000
was decided although the latino women

0:37:24.880,0:37:28.720
did not win the case

0:37:26.000,0:37:30.960
magical changed state laws and helped to

0:37:28.720,0:37:31.839
solidify the careers of various latino

0:37:30.960,0:37:34.880
politicians

0:37:31.839,0:37:36.960
so you know not nothing okay so

0:37:34.880,0:37:39.359
and that’s kind of all the history that

0:37:36.960,0:37:41.760
i have i just kind of wanted to

0:37:39.359,0:37:43.920
chat a little bit about the effects of

0:37:41.760,0:37:46.480
these like how they still last today

0:37:43.920,0:37:47.920
and how i don’t know i feel like for me

0:37:46.480,0:37:48.240
there’s like a lot of things that kind

0:37:47.920,0:37:50.240
of

0:37:48.240,0:37:51.680
affect us personally that you know maybe

0:37:50.240,0:37:53.839
we should be thinking about

0:37:51.680,0:37:55.200
that we haven’t really liked that aren’t

0:37:53.839,0:37:57.040
really conversations that are

0:37:55.200,0:37:58.320
had and so these questions are like what

0:37:57.040,0:38:00.640
it means to be a woman

0:37:58.320,0:38:01.440
and how being a woman is inherently

0:38:00.640,0:38:03.760
political

0:38:01.440,0:38:05.760
and that’s true because you know women

0:38:03.760,0:38:08.560
are like marginalized

0:38:05.760,0:38:09.599
um there’s the pay gap there’s a lot of

0:38:08.560,0:38:12.720
policies that

0:38:09.599,0:38:13.359
kind of like um kind of hurt women’s

0:38:12.720,0:38:16.480
ability

0:38:13.359,0:38:17.520
to be equal members of society and also

0:38:16.480,0:38:19.520
a woman of color

0:38:17.520,0:38:21.200
and what it means to be able to control

0:38:19.520,0:38:22.640
one’s own reproductive future because i

0:38:21.200,0:38:24.240
feel like we talked about before like

0:38:22.640,0:38:25.440
it’s even scared like even just having

0:38:24.240,0:38:27.440
children

0:38:25.440,0:38:29.280
is terrifying you know and even just

0:38:27.440,0:38:31.280
like the responsibility of that

0:38:29.280,0:38:32.640
is terrifying but the fact that like

0:38:31.280,0:38:33.599
we’re able to control that on an

0:38:32.640,0:38:35.440
individual level

0:38:33.599,0:38:36.960
and how powerful and privileged even

0:38:35.440,0:38:39.040
those concerns are is like

0:38:36.960,0:38:41.040
really crazy to think about you know

0:38:39.040,0:38:41.760
yeah so i don’t know let’s talk about

0:38:41.040,0:38:42.800
those things

0:38:41.760,0:38:44.880
i feel like do you guys have any

0:38:42.800,0:38:46.400
thoughts on those

0:38:44.880,0:38:48.160
that’s a really good that’s a really

0:38:46.400,0:38:51.040
good question

0:38:48.160,0:38:52.320
i guess yeah i mean like you can’t

0:38:51.040,0:38:54.079
ignore

0:38:52.320,0:38:56.000
the ways in which women especially that

0:38:54.079,0:38:57.359
layer of color the ways in which people

0:38:56.000,0:38:59.119
of different color have been treated

0:38:57.359,0:39:01.599
historically and the way

0:38:59.119,0:39:02.880
that your gender will affect like what

0:39:01.599,0:39:04.880
jobs you can take

0:39:02.880,0:39:06.560
what and that this is like societal

0:39:04.880,0:39:07.119
pressure but also there are actual laws

0:39:06.560,0:39:08.640
in place

0:39:07.119,0:39:09.839
that like keep you from having the vote

0:39:08.640,0:39:10.800
they keep you from having government

0:39:09.839,0:39:12.400
representation

0:39:10.800,0:39:14.079
they keep you from getting to study

0:39:12.400,0:39:15.839
certain subjects in school yeah there’s

0:39:14.079,0:39:17.760
just like so many layers and i

0:39:15.839,0:39:19.040
when you’re talking about um all the

0:39:17.760,0:39:21.200
ways in which there’s been like

0:39:19.040,0:39:23.839
sterilization of different colored women

0:39:21.200,0:39:25.200
i also want to add to i know like asian

0:39:23.839,0:39:26.000
women are not super part of this

0:39:25.200,0:39:28.160
narrative

0:39:26.000,0:39:29.920
and reason that could be is because with

0:39:28.160,0:39:31.200
the chinese exclusion act like asian

0:39:29.920,0:39:31.680
women were not allowed to enter the

0:39:31.200,0:39:34.880
country

0:39:31.680,0:39:36.400
during this time up until the 1950s so

0:39:34.880,0:39:38.079
you know there’s so many other layers

0:39:36.400,0:39:39.359
and asian women are not excused from

0:39:38.079,0:39:41.040
this there are lots of things that were

0:39:39.359,0:39:42.640
happening over in east asia and

0:39:41.040,0:39:44.560
southeast asia too and

0:39:42.640,0:39:46.160
this is something that affects everyone

0:39:44.560,0:39:47.920
globally and

0:39:46.160,0:39:49.440
melinda gates and like michelle obama

0:39:47.920,0:39:51.040
all do a lot of work with like girl

0:39:49.440,0:39:53.520
empowerment around the world

0:39:51.040,0:39:54.720
and it’s proven time and time again yes

0:39:53.520,0:39:56.640
with statistics that

0:39:54.720,0:39:58.240
whoever suffers the most like in our

0:39:56.640,0:39:59.200
global sphere is going to be like a

0:39:58.240,0:40:01.359
colored woman

0:39:59.200,0:40:03.040
yeah i guess like to add on to like

0:40:01.359,0:40:05.920
intersectionality of like

0:40:03.040,0:40:06.880
gender and race like this does not

0:40:05.920,0:40:09.839
surprise me

0:40:06.880,0:40:10.400
that i have not heard of a lot of this

0:40:09.839,0:40:12.400
before

0:40:10.400,0:40:13.520
because like i feel like the feminist

0:40:12.400,0:40:16.960
movement in general

0:40:13.520,0:40:20.000
and like women’s history in the us is so

0:40:16.960,0:40:22.480
whitewashed and like we only learn about

0:40:20.000,0:40:23.920
white women in the us i just can’t get

0:40:22.480,0:40:24.640
over the fact that this is happening

0:40:23.920,0:40:26.640
until

0:40:24.640,0:40:27.760
the 80s no one’s talking about it

0:40:26.640,0:40:29.200
especially like

0:40:27.760,0:40:30.880
coming from canada where like they’re

0:40:29.200,0:40:32.800
doing so much research and so much

0:40:30.880,0:40:34.800
reconciliation efforts and like just

0:40:32.800,0:40:37.200
trying to bring awareness to the issue

0:40:34.800,0:40:39.280
and like educating the people on this

0:40:37.200,0:40:41.359
topic the efforts are a lot

0:40:39.280,0:40:43.119
weaker here compared to what i’ve seen

0:40:41.359,0:40:44.480
in canada at least that i’m aware of

0:40:43.119,0:40:46.640
going off your point nat

0:40:44.480,0:40:47.599
in deep i want to ask did you discover

0:40:46.640,0:40:50.560
any like

0:40:47.599,0:40:51.119
reparations that have been made to make

0:40:50.560,0:40:52.960
right

0:40:51.119,0:40:55.280
these wrongs that have happened yeah i

0:40:52.960,0:40:58.400
think that there has been an effort

0:40:55.280,0:41:00.319
towards reparations i’m not sure exactly

0:40:58.400,0:41:01.520
which population i do remember there was

0:41:00.319,0:41:03.359
a mentioning about how

0:41:01.520,0:41:04.880
some families who were affected by four

0:41:03.359,0:41:06.480
sterilization i think it might have been

0:41:04.880,0:41:09.040
indigenous families where

0:41:06.480,0:41:10.000
they tried to give them reparations but

0:41:09.040,0:41:11.520
at the same time i

0:41:10.000,0:41:14.079
think that there was also talk about

0:41:11.520,0:41:15.520
like how it isn’t entirely successful

0:41:14.079,0:41:17.359
implies like you can’t make up for that

0:41:15.520,0:41:19.359
you know there is a consensus

0:41:17.359,0:41:20.480
like the reparations are not ideal but i

0:41:19.359,0:41:23.520
think that reparations

0:41:20.480,0:41:24.720
were like attempted by the united states

0:41:23.520,0:41:26.079
i don’t know how can you repent like i

0:41:24.720,0:41:27.760
just feel like it’s impossible because

0:41:26.079,0:41:29.200
right history builds on itself so how

0:41:27.760,0:41:31.920
can you repair

0:41:29.200,0:41:33.599
like breaking down a whole civilization

0:41:31.920,0:41:34.880
just this current state of the united

0:41:33.599,0:41:36.160
states would be entirely different like

0:41:34.880,0:41:38.480
there’s nothing you can do

0:41:36.160,0:41:39.200
to fix that bring that back or like make

0:41:38.480,0:41:41.599
it okay

0:41:39.200,0:41:43.520
you know right there’s value too though

0:41:41.599,0:41:45.119
and that attempt should still be made i

0:41:43.520,0:41:46.319
think like a lot of people will use that

0:41:45.119,0:41:48.319
argument and they’ll

0:41:46.319,0:41:49.760
be like we know each generation should

0:41:48.319,0:41:51.040
start fresh and

0:41:49.760,0:41:53.440
there’s nothing we can do it’s in the

0:41:51.040,0:41:55.200
past no each generation is not starting

0:41:53.440,0:41:57.280
fresh though because of the past so

0:41:55.200,0:41:59.839
there should be a continuous effort to

0:41:57.280,0:42:01.920
make those reparations and okay i just

0:41:59.839,0:42:04.400
like a little because i was watching a

0:42:01.920,0:42:06.160
finance video as you guys know i love

0:42:04.400,0:42:07.359
and we’re talking about the economics of

0:42:06.160,0:42:08.240
what it’s like to graduate in a

0:42:07.359,0:42:10.480
recession

0:42:08.240,0:42:12.160
and so think about the 2008 financial

0:42:10.480,0:42:12.960
crisis all those people graduating the

0:42:12.160,0:42:15.040
recession

0:42:12.960,0:42:16.800
and now it’s projected these are

0:42:15.040,0:42:17.280
statistics not my opinion they have

0:42:16.800,0:42:19.520
lower

0:42:17.280,0:42:21.040
earnings they have less probability to

0:42:19.520,0:42:22.960
start a family less probability

0:42:21.040,0:42:24.720
to buy a house because they were like

0:42:22.960,0:42:26.640
slammed with these loans and

0:42:24.720,0:42:28.240
lower pay wages because you’re

0:42:26.640,0:42:29.920
graduating in a bad job market

0:42:28.240,0:42:31.760
less opportunities they’re not in the

0:42:29.920,0:42:34.000
same places as their parents were

0:42:31.760,0:42:35.839
for building wealth for their families

0:42:34.000,0:42:37.599
and that’s nothing that they did

0:42:35.839,0:42:39.119
i think we all can agree economically

0:42:37.599,0:42:40.560
you got dealt a bad hand

0:42:39.119,0:42:42.560
and it’s not anything that you did you

0:42:40.560,0:42:44.640
went to school you did the right things

0:42:42.560,0:42:46.640
and if you can think about that and then

0:42:44.640,0:42:48.160
you can shift your mind to understand

0:42:46.640,0:42:49.680
that that’s exactly what happens

0:42:48.160,0:42:51.920
to people of color it’s nothing that

0:42:49.680,0:42:53.280
they’re doing wrong or anyone in any

0:42:51.920,0:42:54.160
oppressive i want to like i’m from

0:42:53.280,0:42:56.319
appalachia

0:42:54.160,0:42:57.920
appalachian is white working class there

0:42:56.319,0:42:58.560
have been problems with that group as

0:42:57.920,0:43:00.160
well they’re

0:42:58.560,0:43:02.480
white immigrants as well who have dealt

0:43:00.160,0:43:03.119
with things but the point is that like

0:43:02.480,0:43:05.040
sometimes

0:43:03.119,0:43:06.800
things are not within your control that

0:43:05.040,0:43:08.560
have happened to you and now you’re

0:43:06.800,0:43:10.160
dealing with all the repercussions of

0:43:08.560,0:43:12.000
that throughout generations

0:43:10.160,0:43:13.599
and that’s nothing that you did wrong

0:43:12.000,0:43:15.520
and that that’s up to us

0:43:13.599,0:43:16.960
who are in positions of power and

0:43:15.520,0:43:18.640
privilege to help

0:43:16.960,0:43:20.319
in any way that we can if that makes

0:43:18.640,0:43:23.440
sense that’s how i see it

0:43:20.319,0:43:25.119
as some hot tea i 100 agree i do realize

0:43:23.440,0:43:26.480
that that argument is an argument and

0:43:25.119,0:43:28.000
not making reparations

0:43:26.480,0:43:29.680
i think it was just being a little bit

0:43:28.000,0:43:31.520
like how could you ever you know i

0:43:29.680,0:43:33.119
understand

0:43:31.520,0:43:34.720
you know but that is a good point and i

0:43:33.119,0:43:36.480
think that i should be like a little

0:43:34.720,0:43:38.640
more mindful of the way that i

0:43:36.480,0:43:40.160
kind of say like oh but you can’t even

0:43:38.640,0:43:42.000
do it you know because that is a good

0:43:40.160,0:43:44.720
point it’s not possible to

0:43:42.000,0:43:46.000
completely make up for what’s been done

0:43:44.720,0:43:46.400
but if there’s no effort then like

0:43:46.000,0:43:47.680
you’re

0:43:46.400,0:43:49.280
you’re just still doing it well it’s

0:43:47.680,0:43:50.400
like population control is something

0:43:49.280,0:43:52.319
that’s so permanent

0:43:50.400,0:43:54.000
yeah like you said like how like how can

0:43:52.319,0:43:56.480
you make up for it but at the very least

0:43:54.000,0:43:57.839
we could at least educate ourselves and

0:43:56.480,0:44:00.480
like promote awareness

0:43:57.839,0:44:02.319
how are we supposed to come up with not

0:44:00.480,0:44:04.720
a solution necessarily but like how are

0:44:02.319,0:44:06.720
we supposed to respond to this and like

0:44:04.720,0:44:08.319
help promote change if like no one knows

0:44:06.720,0:44:10.160
about it you know yeah

0:44:08.319,0:44:11.599
so really touching this but i also

0:44:10.160,0:44:13.599
wanted to think about how some of these

0:44:11.599,0:44:15.040
practices and problems may be ongoing

0:44:13.599,0:44:16.720
and the repercussions of them are

0:44:15.040,0:44:18.240
definitely ongoing in the us

0:44:16.720,0:44:19.359
this is obvious that these policies were

0:44:18.240,0:44:20.800
not written by the people who were

0:44:19.359,0:44:22.000
affected the fact that i’m still

0:44:20.800,0:44:23.920
surprised when i see women

0:44:22.000,0:44:25.359
of color in congress tells us that like

0:44:23.920,0:44:26.720
we’re not at the point where

0:44:25.359,0:44:28.720
the communities that are affected by

0:44:26.720,0:44:30.400
policy are an equal representation of

0:44:28.720,0:44:33.280
the ones making the policy

0:44:30.400,0:44:35.359
i guess those are my remarks and uh how

0:44:33.280,0:44:37.440
are you

0:44:35.359,0:44:39.440
to guys on to that but i recently read

0:44:37.440,0:44:40.000
an article by the new york times talking

0:44:39.440,0:44:43.040
about

0:44:40.000,0:44:45.040
healthcare bias towards black women in

0:44:43.040,0:44:47.440
like the healthcare sector and how

0:44:45.040,0:44:49.040
more women of color died during

0:44:47.440,0:44:50.160
childbirth because

0:44:49.040,0:44:52.240
kind of like you mentioned earlier

0:44:50.160,0:44:54.560
perception of pain there’s a bias

0:44:52.240,0:44:56.400
that people of color women of color

0:44:54.560,0:44:58.000
don’t feel as much pain so if women

0:44:56.400,0:44:59.440
say they’re in pain or there’s something

0:44:58.000,0:45:01.200
wrong they’re not going to be

0:44:59.440,0:45:02.960
believed as much so like that’s another

0:45:01.200,0:45:05.119
thing that’s like oh there’s still

0:45:02.960,0:45:06.960
a lot of issues ongoing today thank you

0:45:05.119,0:45:09.359
so much indeed like that was

0:45:06.960,0:45:10.319
incredible and like so comprehensive and

0:45:09.359,0:45:12.160
like i literally

0:45:10.319,0:45:13.680
i learned so much and there’s so many

0:45:12.160,0:45:15.359
topics that you brought up that

0:45:13.680,0:45:17.359
i want to look into maybe we could do in

0:45:15.359,0:45:19.280
future episodes like everyone

0:45:17.359,0:45:21.280
encourage you to do like individual

0:45:19.280,0:45:23.599
research too like we mentioned

0:45:21.280,0:45:25.280
there’s still ongoing violations of

0:45:23.599,0:45:28.960
women of color’s bodies so

0:45:25.280,0:45:30.240
don’t forget don’t forget and also it

0:45:28.960,0:45:33.280
was my pleasure

0:45:30.240,0:45:35.040
thank you indeed thanks guys it was my i

0:45:33.280,0:45:37.920
can talk about women’s reproductive

0:45:35.040,0:45:39.520
health and intersectionality and old i

0:45:37.920,0:45:41.440
can literally talk about it all day

0:45:39.520,0:45:43.200
like we found my passion yeah we’re

0:45:41.440,0:45:44.319
bringing you back for another episode

0:45:43.200,0:45:46.650
you know it

0:45:44.319,0:45:57.469
you know i would love it

0:45:46.650,0:45:57.469
[Music]