Are You A Communist?

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Show Notes

Wiretaps, undercover surveillance, and Soviet spies: this is what the US looked like in the 1950’s. In this episode, Nat goes over the Red Scare and McCarthyism, and the widespread fear of communism that shook the country.

Sources:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1uEeadIGqf3zO8auijhkVCbja3Dt17ZGpfowoahB-uQc/edit?usp=sharing

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:03.030
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:01.620,0:00:09.660
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:03.030,0:00:10.700
that I’m Jack and today actually don’t

0:00:09.660,0:00:12.840
know what you’re gonna talk about today

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yet today I’m going to be talking about

0:00:12.840,0:00:22.380
communism fun communism in the red

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square favorite yeah before I talk about

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today’s topic I wanted to remind all of

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our new listeners to subscribe to our

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a history hero and get a fun shout out

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in one of our future episodes so

0:01:05.070,0:01:19.159
definitely check that out enough of our

0:01:14.850,0:01:19.159
propaganda to get you to support us

0:01:20.720,0:01:28.250
today I’m talking about the Red Scare

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and McCarthyism so before I go on ahead

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Jack what do you know about the Red

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Scare okay I’ve never heard of

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McCarthyism that second thing that you

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just said but the Red Scare was during

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the is it like World War two yeah it is

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right it’s okay so World War two yeah I

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think we’re just like very scared of the

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rise of communism to the point where I

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believe people were like reporting their

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neighbors if they thought you were a

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communist um but yeah I only know cuz

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the space race rumor like one of the

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yeah with the space race when they like

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formed a like joined alliances

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with the Soviet Union because like Nazi

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Germany was worse than communism at the

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time so ya know yeah it’s like kind of

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in the same time period it’s during the

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Cold War but yeah so I so I remember

0:02:27.099,0:02:31.690
learning about the Red Scare in high

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school I just remember like Senator

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McCarthy who will talk about later and

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yeah pretty much the same thing just

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like Oh communism is bad and it’s gonna

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tear down our country but I like after

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doing research I did not realize the

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extent that it had in our government and

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like the laws we were passing and it’s

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so scary um also like I did not realize

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there actually to read scares so this

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was news to me

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so the first Red Scare it actually began

0:02:58.390,0:03:04.920
during World War one so in 1917 there is

0:03:02.860,0:03:09.069
the outbreak of the Russian Revolution

0:03:04.920,0:03:11.110
led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks

0:03:09.069,0:03:14.250
and Bolsheviks are basically it’s like

0:03:11.110,0:03:16.989
another word for communism kind of and

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Lenin and the Bolsheviks destroy the

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Romanov dynasty that had been ruling

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Russia up until then so okay that them

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is it the monarchy with like princess

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Anastasia that goes missing yeah super

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dark yeah I’m not like nighttime and

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we’re in closets like I don’t want to

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not be able to sleep yeah in our

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appearance yeah so yeah the Romanov

0:03:51.730,0:03:57.130
dynasty had been ruling forever and the

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US was actually supporting the dynasty

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and Tsar Nicholas and after World War

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one they actually sent troops to Russia

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hoping that they could help defeat the

0:04:05.260,0:04:10.150
red Communist rebel forces but the

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Bolsheviks one and they murder the

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entire Romanov family and they slowly

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secure control all over Russia and so

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this is pretty much the beginning of the

0:04:17.650,0:04:22.930
rise of the Communist Party but it’s not

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like this was the first time anyone had

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heard of communism so Karl Marx’s

0:04:25.380,0:04:29.590
ideology

0:04:26.560,0:04:33.520
had been well-known since 1848 there’s

0:04:29.590,0:04:36.550
kind of the father of communism and but

0:04:33.520,0:04:39.160
this revolution in particular was so I

0:04:36.550,0:04:41.440
guess triggering because up until now it

0:04:39.160,0:04:43.300
had just been a theory and before this

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no country in the world had had a

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successful communist revolution and so

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capitalist countries all around the

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world were like international fear of

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communism and anarchy in general so in

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the u.s. veterans are returning home

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from World War one and workers were

0:05:03.340,0:05:09.220
demanding increases in order to keep up

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with increasing inflation in the US and

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so in the short period following World

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War one there are actually over 3,300

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labor strikes in the US and in 1919 a

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small group of radicals formed the

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Communist Labor Party and the press

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basically since sensationalized all of

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these labor strikes as being caused by

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immigrants who wanted to destroy the

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American Way of life and everyone

0:05:34.450,0:05:39.490
including both progressive and

0:05:36.910,0:05:42.280
conservative Americans were super scared

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of a communist revolution in the US and

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they pretty much decided that the labor

0:05:44.860,0:05:49.840
activism was a threat to national

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security and it had to be soft as soon

0:05:49.840,0:05:55.840
as possible and so I just wanted a quick

0:05:53.200,0:05:57.820
throwback to episode 5 is it free speech

0:05:55.840,0:06:01.450
or espionage we talked about the

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Sedition Act of 1918 you remember but

0:06:01.450,0:06:05.710
you don’t have to quote it but dude is

0:06:02.889,0:06:09.610
it like we talked about wasn’t it that

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like in wartime you cannot your freedom

0:06:09.610,0:06:15.060
of speech is like limited in times of

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war yeah kind of it yeah like this act

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it targets people who criticize the

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government

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so yeah limits their free speech and it

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monitored radicals and labor unions with

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the threat of deportation

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so yeah you were spot on we go way more

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into detail in episode 5 so pay

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attention ok I have a question too

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before you go on

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so you said anarchy and communism

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like both they’re scared of both is it

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their separate scares though because

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like is communism anarchy are they

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they’re not the same no not at all

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barely not even similar but they’re just

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scared of a revolution that will

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overthrow their government and like

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thought of system the American system

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and capitalism and so they kind of put

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the two together because like communism

0:07:02.120,0:07:06.320
has nothing to do with anarchy but

0:07:04.370,0:07:08.780
they’re just like oh in order to become

0:07:06.320,0:07:12.640
a communist come communist country we’d

0:07:08.780,0:07:15.560
have to overthrow our current way of

0:07:12.640,0:07:17.450
government so yeah that’s kind of why

0:07:15.560,0:07:20.000
they’re like okay anarchy in general

0:07:17.450,0:07:22.060
like that Anakin anarchy just means no

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government at all and like everyone

0:07:22.060,0:07:28.310
martyrs whatever they want oh so yeah

0:07:26.090,0:07:29.900
they were just scared of an overthrow of

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the government if that makes sense

0:07:29.900,0:07:37.160
and they kind of their I mean their fear

0:07:34.520,0:07:40.760
isn’t unwarranted because in the night

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in 1919 the u.s. is shook by a series of

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bombings carried out by anarchists that

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targeted the homes of law enforcement

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and government officials in Boston

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Cleveland Philadelphia Washington DC in

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New York City and so Americans are

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absolutely terrified because their worst

0:07:56.360,0:08:01.520
fears seem to be coming through like

0:07:58.669,0:08:04.640
right in front of their own eyes and US

0:08:01.520,0:08:06.800
Attorney General Alexander okay I’m

0:08:04.640,0:08:09.440
gonna say the US Attorney General

0:08:06.800,0:08:11.780
Alexander mitchell Palmer would carry

0:08:09.440,0:08:12.650
out what would later be known as the

0:08:11.780,0:08:15.350
Palmer Raids

0:08:12.650,0:08:17.870
and these were a series of violent law

0:08:15.350,0:08:21.620
enforcement raids that targeted leftist

0:08:17.870,0:08:24.890
radicals and anarchists in 1919 and 1920

0:08:21.620,0:08:25.400
and this would later be known as the red

0:08:24.890,0:08:28.669
summer

0:08:25.400,0:08:31.460
okay so through Palmer support the

0:08:28.669,0:08:34.640
Federal Bureau of Investigation also

0:08:31.460,0:08:36.950
known as the FBI is created under the

0:08:34.640,0:08:39.890
leadership of J Edgar Hoover so it’s

0:08:36.950,0:08:42.860
basically created to find aunt economy

0:08:39.890,0:08:43.370
to find communists within the federal

0:08:42.860,0:08:47.540
government

0:08:43.370,0:08:49.790
so in January 8th 1920s VI agents break

0:08:47.540,0:08:52.520
into the homes of suspected and our case

0:08:49.790,0:08:52.960
without any search words and then the

0:08:52.520,0:08:55.290
arrest

0:08:52.960,0:08:58.090
labor leaders they end up holding about

0:08:55.290,0:09:01.540
5,000 citizens without respecting their

0:08:58.090,0:09:04.260
right to legal counsel and eventually

0:09:01.540,0:09:07.570
most of these people are released but

0:09:04.260,0:09:11.620
249 Russian immigrants are deported

0:09:07.570,0:09:14.100
without just cause so this is like

0:09:11.620,0:09:17.560
completely awful and is obviously a

0:09:14.100,0:09:20.110
blatant violation of civil liberties but

0:09:17.560,0:09:21.610
Palmer he believed that American civil

0:09:20.110,0:09:24.070
liberties were less important than

0:09:21.610,0:09:26.710
protecting national security so I it’s

0:09:24.070,0:09:28.750
just like horrifying to see I don’t know

0:09:26.710,0:09:30.220
just like the tenants of our legal

0:09:28.750,0:09:33.340
system it was completely thrown out the

0:09:30.220,0:09:35.800
window and yeah and they’re targeting

0:09:33.340,0:09:39.940
immigrants too so I’m sure they had a

0:09:35.800,0:09:42.250
lot less power you know there’s always a

0:09:39.940,0:09:44.710
loophole it’s like life and liberty all

0:09:42.250,0:09:46.140
men are created equal but but like you

0:09:44.710,0:09:49.120
know I mean there’s always something

0:09:46.140,0:09:51.250
yeah exactly so that was really

0:09:49.120,0:09:52.900
upsetting to hear about and it like

0:09:51.250,0:09:55.570
continues like this it it just gets

0:09:52.900,0:09:57.430
worse so basically so this is a first

0:09:55.570,0:09:59.080
Red Scare right so eventually it dies

0:09:57.430,0:10:01.120
down because then we enter World War two

0:09:59.080,0:10:03.940
and we’re focused on Nazi Germany but

0:10:01.120,0:10:06.430
then World War two ends and then the

0:10:03.940,0:10:09.130
fear of communism is reignited and

0:10:06.430,0:10:11.050
becomes much more intense because after

0:10:09.130,0:10:13.810
World War two the US and Soviet Union

0:10:11.050,0:10:15.370
become enemies in the Cold War so that’s

0:10:13.810,0:10:18.700
yeah we touched on the Cold War a little

0:10:15.370,0:10:28.000
bit in our space race episode a lot more

0:10:18.700,0:10:31.390
lighthearted than check it out yeah ten

0:10:28.000,0:10:34.300
out of ten great yeah so the whole

0:10:31.390,0:10:36.880
country is scared of Americans working

0:10:34.300,0:10:39.010
as Soviet spies and this poses a threat

0:10:36.880,0:10:41.710
to national security so you might be

0:10:39.010,0:10:43.810
thinking like okay everyone just chill

0:10:41.710,0:10:45.940
that’s a bit dramatic that they’re like

0:10:43.810,0:10:48.610
Soviet spies in our government but

0:10:45.940,0:10:51.550
there’s actually quite a long history of

0:10:48.610,0:10:54.100
the Soviet Union carrying out espionage

0:10:51.550,0:10:56.260
activities inside the US through the

0:10:54.100,0:10:59.740
help of US citizens especially during

0:10:56.260,0:11:02.170
World War two um there are also several

0:10:59.740,0:11:05.200
huge events around the world at this

0:11:02.170,0:11:06.400
time that really like ignite this fear

0:11:05.200,0:11:09.190
and make the threat

0:11:06.400,0:11:12.580
of a communist revolution seem more

0:11:09.190,0:11:15.850
likely and so in August 40 in August

0:11:12.580,0:11:18.430
1949 the Soviet Union successfully tests

0:11:15.850,0:11:22.240
its first nuclear bomb and the US is

0:11:18.430,0:11:28.990
like oh no try not to swear but like

0:11:22.240,0:11:31.600
insert expletive but also 1949 communist

0:11:28.990,0:11:36.250
forces led by Mao Zedong take control

0:11:31.600,0:11:39.610
over China and then it through 1950 to

0:11:36.250,0:11:41.589
1953 US troops are fighting the

0:11:39.610,0:11:45.370
Communists supported forces of North

0:11:41.589,0:11:47.560
Korea in the Korean War and so yeah

0:11:45.370,0:11:49.089
we’re fighting communists all over the

0:11:47.560,0:11:50.890
world and we’re just like we’re seeing

0:11:49.089,0:11:52.930
it spread and we’re like oh my gosh it’s

0:11:50.890,0:11:56.440
only a matter of time before it takes

0:11:52.930,0:11:58.570
over the US so very quickly we start to

0:11:56.440,0:12:02.279
see I guess our federal government

0:11:58.570,0:12:05.440
respond to this right so in March 21st

0:12:02.279,0:12:09.160
1947 President Harry Truman issues

0:12:05.440,0:12:11.740
executive order 9 8:35 also known as the

0:12:09.160,0:12:14.050
loyalty order this mandates that all

0:12:11.740,0:12:16.000
federal employees must be analyzed to

0:12:14.050,0:12:19.209
determine whether they were sufficiently

0:12:16.000,0:12:21.339
loyal to the government which like just

0:12:19.209,0:12:24.040
the wording itself like oil to the

0:12:21.339,0:12:25.930
government that’s so ominous and it’s

0:12:24.040,0:12:28.120
like a huge deal for a country that

0:12:25.930,0:12:30.100
prides itself with the values of

0:12:28.120,0:12:32.470
personal liberty and freedom of

0:12:30.100,0:12:36.000
political organization like I don’t know

0:12:32.470,0:12:39.459
this is just crazy that this got passed

0:12:36.000,0:12:43.029
yeah it kinda it feels a bit 1984 which

0:12:39.459,0:12:45.880
I’ve been just such a 1984 I like have

0:12:43.029,0:12:48.400
issues with that book but um yeah that

0:12:45.880,0:12:52.180
feels that line just feels very like

0:12:48.400,0:12:53.020
it’s out of a dystopian novel this is

0:12:52.180,0:12:56.020
what Harry

0:12:53.020,0:12:58.450
President Truman passes also in the FBI

0:12:56.020,0:13:01.600
under the leadership of day edgar Hoover

0:12:58.450,0:13:03.660
they begin compiling extensive files on

0:13:01.600,0:13:06.670
suspected spies through the use of

0:13:03.660,0:13:09.279
wiretaps and surveillance and they also

0:13:06.670,0:13:11.320
infiltrate leftist groups and these

0:13:09.279,0:13:13.779
files and evidence are later used in the

0:13:11.320,0:13:16.390
court and so one of these was the high

0:13:13.779,0:13:19.270
profile conviction of Julius and Ethel

0:13:16.390,0:13:20.529
Rosenberg for espionage they were

0:13:19.270,0:13:23.139
basically accused

0:13:20.529,0:13:26.499
of overseeing a spy network at Seoul

0:13:23.139,0:13:29.919
American atomic bomb secrets and handed

0:13:26.499,0:13:32.469
them over to the Soviet Union and they

0:13:29.919,0:13:35.049
were found guilty and were executed two

0:13:32.469,0:13:38.159
years later making them the only alleged

0:13:35.049,0:13:41.769
spies executed during the Red Scare and

0:13:38.159,0:13:43.959
Hoover was super anti-communist and he

0:13:41.769,0:13:46.629
was also super quick to label any kind

0:13:43.959,0:13:48.519
of protest as communist including major

0:13:46.629,0:13:50.799
civil rights demonstrations at the time

0:13:48.519,0:13:54.429
so he had actually labeled Martin Luther

0:13:50.799,0:13:58.389
King jr. as a communist so we see our

0:13:54.429,0:14:03.039
presidents passing laws we see our

0:13:58.389,0:14:05.829
judicial system uh also freaking out and

0:14:03.039,0:14:07.599
then the FBI is freaking out and then if

0:14:05.829,0:14:10.149
we look at the House of Representatives

0:14:07.599,0:14:12.519
in Congress we see the creation of the

0:14:10.149,0:14:15.879
house on American Activities Committee

0:14:12.519,0:14:17.799
also known as eight new AC it was

0:14:15.879,0:14:21.069
actually formed in 1938 but it really

0:14:17.799,0:14:23.079
reached its height in the 1950s so

0:14:21.069,0:14:24.759
federal employees especially those in

0:14:23.079,0:14:26.589
the State Department and intelligence

0:14:24.759,0:14:28.749
agencies were analyzed to determine

0:14:26.589,0:14:31.720
whether or not they were loyal to the

0:14:28.749,0:14:34.119
government and again this isn’t even a

0:14:31.720,0:14:36.459
partisan issue politicians on both sides

0:14:34.119,0:14:38.709
try to make sure no one thought they

0:14:36.459,0:14:41.369
were anti-communist and no one wanted to

0:14:38.709,0:14:43.899
criticize these tactics used to punish

0:14:41.369,0:14:45.249
suspected communists because they were

0:14:43.899,0:14:48.220
scared of the backlash they would

0:14:45.249,0:14:50.559
receive yeah then you look like you’re a

0:14:48.220,0:14:52.569
communist it’s like what’s the big deal

0:14:50.559,0:14:55.029
if you’re not a communist what then we

0:14:52.569,0:14:57.189
should have this policy yeah if people

0:14:55.029,0:14:59.829
are so quick to point thing you’re so

0:14:57.189,0:15:02.799
quick to convict and it’s just like a

0:14:59.829,0:15:05.439
really terrifying time yeah it’s like

0:15:02.799,0:15:08.109
that um what is it like the witch the

0:15:05.439,0:15:12.159
witch like yeah things that were going

0:15:08.109,0:15:16.149
on yeah yeah literally it’s just like

0:15:12.159,0:15:18.639
pointing all yours yeah I have a

0:15:16.149,0:15:21.159
question with them so what I’m are you

0:15:18.639,0:15:23.199
gonna explain kind of what is deemed as

0:15:21.159,0:15:25.839
loyal versus not loyal to the government

0:15:23.199,0:15:28.070
I mean that’s the thing is like it’s

0:15:25.839,0:15:31.550
super vague

0:15:28.070,0:15:34.630
as our umbrella like oh if you’re seen

0:15:31.550,0:15:37.460
as more to the left more communists in

0:15:34.630,0:15:39.230
some way like okay you’re not loyal to

0:15:37.460,0:15:41.630
the government but people use this

0:15:39.230,0:15:43.310
tactic actually the tactic itself is

0:15:41.630,0:15:44.330
called red-baiting when you just point

0:15:43.310,0:15:45.980
fingers at someone you’re like you’re

0:15:44.330,0:15:48.230
communist and you’re out of here

0:15:45.980,0:15:50.690
but like politicians would just use it

0:15:48.230,0:15:51.740
against their political enemies and so

0:15:50.690,0:15:53.090
like if you didn’t get along with

0:15:51.740,0:15:56.180
someone you really okay with he’s a

0:15:53.090,0:15:58.280
communist like the n-double-a-cp was

0:15:56.180,0:16:01.730
labeled as a communist or of course they

0:15:58.280,0:16:04.010
were we can I could go on and on and on

0:16:01.730,0:16:06.170
but ya know I’m not surprised that they

0:16:04.010,0:16:08.420
label at the end of lazy P is communist

0:16:06.170,0:16:10.760
so like there doesn’t even have to be

0:16:08.420,0:16:12.670
evidence like you could just say I just

0:16:10.760,0:16:16.370
know like there are communists and

0:16:12.670,0:16:18.940
people yeah they’re just little evidence

0:16:16.370,0:16:21.260
is needed in order to convict someone so

0:16:18.940,0:16:24.710
it really is just like the Salem witch

0:16:21.260,0:16:26.690
trials but yeah so as a result obviously

0:16:24.710,0:16:29.480
you left his political group membership

0:16:26.690,0:16:32.270
Falls and opposing voices fall silent

0:16:29.480,0:16:32.900
because everyone’s horrified and also

0:16:32.270,0:16:34.910
this is crazy

0:16:32.900,0:16:37.640
twenty-eight states actually banned the

0:16:34.910,0:16:40.160
public use or the public display of red

0:16:37.640,0:16:44.060
flags in their state which is like so

0:16:40.160,0:16:45.920
extreme and yeah and so the height of

0:16:44.060,0:16:47.660
the Red Scare I mean I can’t really talk

0:16:45.920,0:16:50.260
about the red sphere without talking

0:16:47.660,0:16:53.420
about Senator Joseph McCarthy of

0:16:50.260,0:16:55.940
Wisconsin and McCarthyism so he’s pretty

0:16:53.420,0:16:58.070
much synonymous with the Red Scare he

0:16:55.940,0:17:00.290
spent five years trying to expose

0:16:58.070,0:17:03.140
communists in the government and his

0:17:00.290,0:17:06.050
career is an anti-communist basically

0:17:03.140,0:17:08.390
begins in February 1950 when he gives a

0:17:06.050,0:17:12.920
speech where he declares that he has a

0:17:08.390,0:17:15.140
list of 205 sorry 205 known members of

0:17:12.920,0:17:18.079
the Communist Party who were quote

0:17:15.140,0:17:20.570
working and shaping policy unquote in

0:17:18.079,0:17:23.120
the State Department and the next month

0:17:20.570,0:17:25.130
the Senate launched an investigation but

0:17:23.120,0:17:27.709
they don’t find any proof of any

0:17:25.130,0:17:29.900
subversive activity and actually at the

0:17:27.709,0:17:32.360
beginning many of his colleagues both

0:17:29.900,0:17:34.790
Democratic and Republican including

0:17:32.360,0:17:37.790
President Dwight Eisenhower they don’t

0:17:34.790,0:17:39.860
like him or the tactics he’s using but

0:17:37.790,0:17:41.720
McCarthy continues his red-baiting

0:17:39.860,0:17:44.510
techniques and in nineteen

0:17:41.720,0:17:46.610
at the beginning of his second term as

0:17:44.510,0:17:48.980
Senator he’s put in charge of the

0:17:46.610,0:17:51.530
Committee on government operations and

0:17:48.980,0:17:53.720
this position allows him to launch even

0:17:51.530,0:17:55.940
more investigations of the alleged

0:17:53.720,0:17:59.750
communist infiltration of the government

0:17:55.940,0:18:01.820
so he has even more power and over the

0:17:59.750,0:18:05.090
course of several hearings McCarthy

0:18:01.820,0:18:08.000
interrogated these witnesses extremely

0:18:05.090,0:18:10.010
aggressively and it can be considered as

0:18:08.000,0:18:12.500
a direct violation of their civil rights

0:18:10.010,0:18:14.539
and although there’s little to no

0:18:12.500,0:18:16.640
evidence of espionage more than two

0:18:14.539,0:18:19.190
thousand government employees lost their

0:18:16.640,0:18:22.130
jobs as a result of his investigations

0:18:19.190,0:18:24.260
which is so like two thousand people

0:18:22.130,0:18:29.990
over the course of a few years

0:18:24.260,0:18:31.640
it’s an insane yes like okay the thing

0:18:29.990,0:18:34.220
is when you’re saying this I’m gonna go

0:18:31.640,0:18:38.030
back to 1984 so you know and I if you’ve

0:18:34.220,0:18:42.830
read 1984 for the viewers who have not

0:18:38.030,0:18:44.270
read 1984 it’s a big um not a big novel

0:18:42.830,0:18:46.070
but it’s a it’s a really really

0:18:44.270,0:18:47.720
important novel that I think they may

0:18:46.070,0:18:49.850
call high school most high schoolers

0:18:47.720,0:18:51.980
read and it basically is supposed to

0:18:49.850,0:18:54.799
talk about a dystopian society that

0:18:51.980,0:18:56.900
would result with the rise of is it

0:18:54.799,0:19:01.220
communism it’s like government regime

0:18:56.900,0:19:02.780
that’s like Aryan totalitarian and

0:19:01.220,0:19:08.780
they’re always inspecting you but the

0:19:02.780,0:19:10.520
last scene in it spoiler the last one of

0:19:08.780,0:19:14.000
the last scenes is they basically like

0:19:10.520,0:19:16.039
torture the main character with his

0:19:14.000,0:19:18.350
greatest fear to get him to admit to

0:19:16.039,0:19:20.600
crimes that he didn’t necessarily commit

0:19:18.350,0:19:22.580
but also like betray like his loved ones

0:19:20.600,0:19:25.850
and they like play on like your greatest

0:19:22.580,0:19:27.620
fears and that just feels like this book

0:19:25.850,0:19:29.870
that is like totalitarian and like

0:19:27.620,0:19:32.059
anti-communist anti-surveillance and

0:19:29.870,0:19:34.370
then the tactics that were being used by

0:19:32.059,0:19:36.500
McCarthy where you literally interrogate

0:19:34.370,0:19:38.990
so I don’t know what extent so you get

0:19:36.500,0:19:43.309
them to admit to things that maybe they

0:19:38.990,0:19:46.610
didn’t even do I like it’s well yeah no

0:19:43.309,0:19:49.190
you’re completely right like the court

0:19:46.610,0:19:55.309
the legal system was not just at all

0:19:49.190,0:19:58.159
like there’s no evidence and people like

0:19:55.309,0:19:59.990
are being defended properly and no one’s

0:19:58.159,0:20:01.580
listening like literally as soon as you

0:19:59.990,0:20:05.029
hear the word communism like you’re just

0:20:01.580,0:20:06.860
painted as evil and as a traitor to the

0:20:05.029,0:20:11.480
country and so no one takes it seriously

0:20:06.860,0:20:13.820
but again like I mean yeah McCarthy had

0:20:11.480,0:20:16.039
like a huge like a lot of people

0:20:13.820,0:20:17.779
supported him I guess in politics people

0:20:16.039,0:20:20.090
just were scared to get on his bad side

0:20:17.779,0:20:21.980
because they’d be his next victim but

0:20:20.090,0:20:25.190
the American people like were really

0:20:21.980,0:20:26.450
scared of a revolution in their country

0:20:25.190,0:20:29.210
and then they thought their way of life

0:20:26.450,0:20:32.299
is going to be disrupted and again

0:20:29.210,0:20:33.740
they’re hearing like what the press is

0:20:32.299,0:20:36.889
telling them what the government is

0:20:33.740,0:20:40.249
telling them about communism we don’t

0:20:36.889,0:20:41.570
know I don’t know how the picture was

0:20:40.249,0:20:43.610
painted of course it’s going to be a

0:20:41.570,0:20:45.320
bias about it but yeah like people are

0:20:43.610,0:20:47.600
just scared like did you just hear the

0:20:45.320,0:20:49.220
word communism and you automatically are

0:20:47.600,0:20:53.749
just horrified so yeah it’s like the

0:20:49.220,0:20:55.460
pair lost in 1984 is insane horrifying

0:20:53.749,0:20:58.610
this is real life this actually happened

0:20:55.460,0:21:02.450
in the US this is a fictional novel and

0:20:58.610,0:21:05.629
and not that far like away I go this is

0:21:02.450,0:21:08.690
it’s less than a hundred years yeah this

0:21:05.629,0:21:09.710
is in the 1950s like it’s really not

0:21:08.690,0:21:13.610
that long ago

0:21:09.710,0:21:16.309
and yeah okay so this kind of brings me

0:21:13.610,0:21:19.220
to my next point this I had never heard

0:21:16.309,0:21:21.590
of this but McCarthy apparently he

0:21:19.220,0:21:24.169
didn’t just attack communists in the

0:21:21.590,0:21:26.419
government he also attacked the lgbtq+

0:21:24.169,0:21:28.999
community and what would later be known

0:21:26.419,0:21:31.639
as the lavender scare I really had never

0:21:28.999,0:21:35.869
heard about this but basically McCarthy

0:21:31.639,0:21:38.210
argued that LGBT lgbtq+ employees could

0:21:35.869,0:21:40.210
be blackmailed by enemy agents over

0:21:38.210,0:21:44.720
their sexuality and could thereby

0:21:40.210,0:21:46.879
betrayed national secrets in 1950 Senate

0:21:44.720,0:21:48.950
Republicans write up a report saying

0:21:46.879,0:21:50.840
that gay and lesbian government workers

0:21:48.950,0:21:54.440
were a potential moral threat to the

0:21:50.840,0:21:57.320
government and later in 1953 President

0:21:54.440,0:22:00.080
Eisenhower signed executive order one

0:21:57.320,0:22:02.600
zero four five zero which allowed the

0:22:00.080,0:22:04.759
government to track down gay and lesbian

0:22:02.600,0:22:06.889
government employees and fire them due

0:22:04.759,0:22:09.809
to the labeling of sexual pervasion

0:22:06.889,0:22:13.859
as an undesirable trait for employment

0:22:09.809,0:22:17.219
which this is horrifying so several

0:22:13.859,0:22:19.710
employees either were fired or they

0:22:17.219,0:22:21.809
resigned out of fear and variance

0:22:19.710,0:22:23.450
various surveillance measures were

0:22:21.809,0:22:26.219
instituted to try and track down

0:22:23.450,0:22:29.099
employees intimate habits like this is a

0:22:26.219,0:22:32.070
violation of privacy and civil rights

0:22:29.099,0:22:34.979
civil liberties I’m like every level

0:22:32.070,0:22:36.899
yeah everything it’s like the things

0:22:34.979,0:22:39.840
that we criticize with other countries

0:22:36.899,0:22:41.519
that have communist regimes and like

0:22:39.840,0:22:45.080
we’re literally doing the same exact

0:22:41.519,0:22:48.809
thing in order to smash down communism

0:22:45.080,0:22:51.479
yeah exactly like oh my gosh it’s just I

0:22:48.809,0:22:53.969
can’t believe we got away with this but

0:22:51.479,0:22:56.849
the most horrifying aspect of us is that

0:22:53.969,0:22:59.820
this governmental van on lgbtq+

0:22:56.849,0:23:01.440
employees wasn’t officially lifted until

0:22:59.820,0:23:04.830
President Bill Clinton’s administration

0:23:01.440,0:23:07.349
in the 1990s so this is this like

0:23:04.830,0:23:09.629
executive order was in place for a very

0:23:07.349,0:23:11.489
long time I don’t know if everyone acted

0:23:09.629,0:23:15.149
upon it but it’s still like the

0:23:11.489,0:23:19.799
government had the right to like so yeah

0:23:15.149,0:23:21.570
to spy on you and see like like go into

0:23:19.799,0:23:23.729
your intimate personal life like that’s

0:23:21.570,0:23:26.070
such a breach of privacy it’s so

0:23:23.729,0:23:26.609
horrifying and yeah just like a friendly

0:23:26.070,0:23:28.169
reminder

0:23:26.609,0:23:30.330
everyone it wasn’t until a month ago

0:23:28.169,0:23:33.929
that the Supreme Court ruled that the

0:23:30.330,0:23:36.059
1964 Civil Rights Act protects lgbtq+

0:23:33.929,0:23:38.789
employees from discrimination based on

0:23:36.059,0:23:40.080
sex so there’s so so much work that

0:23:38.789,0:23:44.969
needs to be done

0:23:40.080,0:23:47.309
okay there’s kind of a theme yeah I mean

0:23:44.969,0:23:52.019
history is like progressive through time

0:23:47.309,0:23:53.999
right so there’s always work that’s true

0:23:52.019,0:23:55.559
but yeah like I guess the reason I

0:23:53.999,0:23:57.450
pointed out is because like when we talk

0:23:55.559,0:23:59.849
about the Red Scare it’s easy to dismiss

0:23:57.450,0:24:02.159
it as like oh it was so long ago but

0:23:59.849,0:24:04.469
like we see we still see the effects up

0:24:02.159,0:24:06.299
until recent history you’re right

0:24:04.469,0:24:08.849
actually there’s a really good quote and

0:24:06.299,0:24:11.580
I forget who said it I will look it up

0:24:08.849,0:24:15.809
and like recoat this later but it was

0:24:11.580,0:24:17.789
something like with history we often

0:24:15.809,0:24:18.440
think that the future is closer than it

0:24:17.789,0:24:20.779
is and

0:24:18.440,0:24:23.149
passes further away and that’s so true

0:24:20.779,0:24:26.509
like we think that we’re more further

0:24:23.149,0:24:28.220
ahead with being accepting and open to

0:24:26.509,0:24:30.200
people and world peace than we actually

0:24:28.220,0:24:33.710
are we don’t see like the work that we

0:24:30.200,0:24:35.629
have to do still and we think that the

0:24:33.710,0:24:37.720
terrible events in our past are a lot

0:24:35.629,0:24:40.370
further back than they actually are I

0:24:37.720,0:24:42.799
love that quote so much that’s such a

0:24:40.370,0:24:51.710
that’s so true though like really if you

0:24:42.799,0:24:53.269
think about it this so – I’m like oh my

0:24:51.710,0:24:54.740
god but yeah that’s how it’s important

0:24:53.269,0:24:56.570
to talk about history because it’s

0:24:54.740,0:24:58.700
really not that long ago it has

0:24:56.570,0:25:01.309
obviously has lasting effects on our

0:24:58.700,0:25:04.789
society today so yeah but I guess to

0:25:01.309,0:25:08.389
continue obviously the Red Scare has to

0:25:04.789,0:25:11.330
come to an end and so people were able

0:25:08.389,0:25:13.850
to overlook Senator McCarthy attacks on

0:25:11.330,0:25:15.830
government employees and other elites in

0:25:13.850,0:25:17.690
the US but people immediately lost

0:25:15.830,0:25:20.360
support for him once he decided to go

0:25:17.690,0:25:23.929
after members of the Armed Services so

0:25:20.360,0:25:26.090
in April 1954 millions of Americans

0:25:23.929,0:25:28.850
watched as Senator McCarthy attacked

0:25:26.090,0:25:30.950
members of the army and it’s legal TV on

0:25:28.850,0:25:32.929
live television and almost immediately

0:25:30.950,0:25:35.149
the sense of I guess like

0:25:32.929,0:25:37.759
invulnerability that had surrounded him

0:25:35.149,0:25:39.679
disappears and there are pretty much two

0:25:37.759,0:25:42.919
reasons for his downfall

0:25:39.679,0:25:44.870
so first the Army’s legal counsel was

0:25:42.919,0:25:47.960
able to undermine his credibility

0:25:44.870,0:25:50.029
by showing evidence that Senator

0:25:47.960,0:25:51.649
McCarthy had tried to win preferential

0:25:50.029,0:25:54.470
treatment for his age when they were

0:25:51.649,0:25:58.309
drafted in the war and that’s like super

0:25:54.470,0:26:00.799
I think yeah that’s illegal and not good

0:25:58.309,0:26:03.230
at all so they’re like okay this dude’s

0:26:00.799,0:26:05.539
not good yeah wait can we talk about

0:26:03.230,0:26:08.870
what that means like in more layman’s

0:26:05.539,0:26:11.450
terms when his aides and his colleagues

0:26:08.870,0:26:14.659
like his like staff they were drafted

0:26:11.450,0:26:16.490
into the war I guess I guess is World

0:26:14.659,0:26:17.840
War two this is like showing evidence in

0:26:16.490,0:26:20.450
the past when they were drafted into the

0:26:17.840,0:26:23.419
war he was like oh I want them to be in

0:26:20.450,0:26:25.399
like easy positions or I want them to be

0:26:23.419,0:26:27.470
like stationed in the u.s. somewhere but

0:26:25.399,0:26:28.970
he basically asks the army to be like

0:26:27.470,0:26:31.460
hey like I don’t want them to get hurt

0:26:28.970,0:26:32.300
can you put them somewhere nice and

0:26:31.460,0:26:35.960
cushy

0:26:32.300,0:26:38.330
you like Wow okay and we were being

0:26:35.960,0:26:41.540
drafted like it station all over the

0:26:38.330,0:26:43.340
world yeah so secondly of the American

0:26:41.540,0:26:46.100
people were able to see for the first

0:26:43.340,0:26:48.560
time on live television how Senator

0:26:46.100,0:26:50.660
McCarthy intimidated witnesses and gave

0:26:48.560,0:26:52.760
evasive responses when questioned

0:26:50.660,0:26:55.460
because people I mean they didn’t really

0:26:52.760,0:26:56.990
have televised court like that this was

0:26:55.460,0:27:00.410
the first time the American people were

0:26:56.990,0:27:01.640
actually seeing him in work and like you

0:27:00.410,0:27:04.640
know doing his thing and they’re like

0:27:01.640,0:27:10.310
this is awful like this guy’s horrible

0:27:04.640,0:27:11.330
and so I guess one of the most one of

0:27:10.310,0:27:14.090
the things people remember the most

0:27:11.330,0:27:16.370
about Senator McCarthy is when he

0:27:14.090,0:27:19.550
started to attack a young army lawyer

0:27:16.370,0:27:23.420
and the Army’s chief counsel Joseph

0:27:19.550,0:27:26.510
Welch Welch famously shouted have you no

0:27:23.420,0:27:29.870
decency sir at long last have you left

0:27:26.510,0:27:35.980
no sense of decency which I get in like

0:27:29.870,0:27:38.030
nineteen fifties this is the biggest

0:27:35.980,0:27:40.340
like insult

0:27:38.030,0:27:42.680
ever just like oh you have no sense of

0:27:40.340,0:27:45.320
decency live and yeah like this

0:27:42.680,0:27:54.590
soundbite is really popular it’s in this

0:27:45.320,0:28:00.110
song caught their eyes by jay-z oh my

0:27:54.590,0:28:02.510
gosh that’s a guy from the doozie you

0:28:00.110,0:28:06.800
should link it in the show notes in our

0:28:02.510,0:28:09.320
description where the original soundbite

0:28:06.800,0:28:11.000
you could link both I was thinking the

0:28:09.320,0:28:22.490
original sound might put the song to

0:28:11.000,0:28:25.580
that’s fine you know but yeah so that’s

0:28:22.490,0:28:28.640
like a really famous quote and so after

0:28:25.580,0:28:30.470
this this any like they also do support

0:28:28.640,0:28:31.760
for McCarthy they’re like finally we can

0:28:30.470,0:28:34.490
go after him we hate him

0:28:31.760,0:28:37.880
they vote to condemn Senator McCarthy

0:28:34.490,0:28:40.400
for his quote inexcusable reprehensible

0:28:37.880,0:28:43.160
vulgar and insulting conduct that was

0:28:40.400,0:28:44.519
unbecoming of a senator unquote and his

0:28:43.160,0:28:46.820
five-year long reign of

0:28:44.519,0:28:49.830
are finally came crashing down and

0:28:46.820,0:28:51.809
Senator McCarthy would keep his position

0:28:49.830,0:28:54.649
as Senator but he pretty much lost all

0:28:51.809,0:28:57.209
of his power and he actually died in

0:28:54.649,0:28:59.729
1957 at the age of 48

0:28:57.209,0:29:01.469
due to acute hepatitis and liver or

0:28:59.729,0:29:05.580
liver failure as a result of

0:29:01.469,0:29:07.739
complications from alcoholism so he like

0:29:05.580,0:29:11.429
pretty much dies right after he lived he

0:29:07.739,0:29:14.700
leaves office and that’s the fall of

0:29:11.429,0:29:17.009
McCarthyism and basically the right

0:29:14.700,0:29:20.909
scare kind of after his reign of terror

0:29:17.009,0:29:25.559
ends people because like you know it’s

0:29:20.909,0:29:27.059
not red-baiting it has less power it’s

0:29:25.559,0:29:29.729
not as common anymore people are like

0:29:27.059,0:29:32.070
okay actually this is horrible and maybe

0:29:29.729,0:29:35.039
we should reconsider what we’re doing

0:29:32.070,0:29:39.059
and so the Red Scare finally come kind

0:29:35.039,0:29:41.099
of kind of quiets down and communism is

0:29:39.059,0:29:43.499
still obviously the cold war lasts

0:29:41.099,0:29:46.799
forever but I guess in government and

0:29:43.499,0:29:49.529
attacking other federal employees and

0:29:46.799,0:29:51.869
even like Hollywood actors were also

0:29:49.529,0:29:54.479
tagged to like it was crazy so yeah the

0:29:51.869,0:29:56.729
type of tactic of red-baiting quiets

0:29:54.479,0:29:57.209
down but we still are very much in the

0:29:56.729,0:30:00.089
Cold War

0:29:57.209,0:30:03.989
um so Soviet Union is so very much our

0:30:00.089,0:30:06.359
enemy and while a small number of the

0:30:03.989,0:30:08.489
accused communists may have been guilty

0:30:06.359,0:30:10.709
of conspiring to revolt against the

0:30:08.489,0:30:13.320
government the vast majority of victims

0:30:10.709,0:30:16.469
of the Red Scare were falsely accused or

0:30:13.320,0:30:18.749
had not done nothing more than exercise

0:30:16.469,0:30:21.119
their constitutional right to join a

0:30:18.749,0:30:23.789
political party and the thousands of

0:30:21.119,0:30:26.519
alleged communist sympathizers had their

0:30:23.789,0:30:28.709
lives and their reputations completely

0:30:26.519,0:30:31.200
destroyed they were attacked by law

0:30:28.709,0:30:33.869
enforcement revoked of basic civil

0:30:31.200,0:30:36.389
liberties they’re alienated from their

0:30:33.869,0:30:38.729
families and their friends and they’re

0:30:36.389,0:30:43.320
fired from their jobs so this ruined so

0:30:38.729,0:30:45.779
many people’s entire life and again the

0:30:43.320,0:30:48.209
word communism was turned into term that

0:30:45.779,0:30:51.029
Americans would immediately react to

0:30:48.209,0:30:52.710
with disgust or fear regardless of

0:30:51.029,0:30:54.599
whether or not they actually understood

0:30:52.710,0:30:56.849
what it means and you can still see

0:30:54.599,0:30:57.910
similar reactions today with both the

0:30:56.849,0:31:00.820
terms communist

0:30:57.910,0:31:03.280
them in socialism even though at least

0:31:00.820,0:31:07.090
me personally I really didn’t understand

0:31:03.280,0:31:09.070
the ideology until more recently and of

0:31:07.090,0:31:11.860
course I’m not trying to push like any

0:31:09.070,0:31:15.430
political views on listeners I do think

0:31:11.860,0:31:17.560
it really is important like to educate

0:31:15.430,0:31:19.180
yourself and take the time to understand

0:31:17.560,0:31:21.250
these concepts whether you agree with

0:31:19.180,0:31:22.930
them or not and the same thing goes for

0:31:21.250,0:31:25.930
capitalism like you should educate

0:31:22.930,0:31:28.570
yourself on what this really means and

0:31:25.930,0:31:30.370
understand it well because like if we

0:31:28.570,0:31:32.800
don’t understand something it’s super

0:31:30.370,0:31:36.730
easy to be swept up in a mass hysteria

0:31:32.800,0:31:39.220
and be overcome by fear but knowledge is

0:31:36.730,0:31:41.950
power and it can help keep us rational

0:31:39.220,0:31:43.690
so I think that it’s really one of the

0:31:41.950,0:31:46.570
main lessons that we can learn from the

0:31:43.690,0:31:49.270
Red Scare and that’s how we make sure we

0:31:46.570,0:31:52.900
don’t repeat this really shameful part

0:31:49.270,0:31:57.670
of history in the future and yeah that’s

0:31:52.900,0:32:00.400
pretty much summary of the Red Scare I

0:31:57.670,0:32:04.150
love it know very nicely said very

0:32:00.400,0:32:08.320
nicely wrapped up in a bow everyone

0:32:04.150,0:32:10.110
hopefully uh yeah hopefully you guys

0:32:08.320,0:32:14.040
learn something new

0:32:10.110,0:32:33.779
we’ll see you again next time

0:32:14.040,0:32:33.779
[Music]

Who REALLY Won The Space Race?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! 🎙 The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com 📦 ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnkt  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

The race is off against the Soviet Union and the United States! In a time of rising tensions, science and technology paved our way into space. But WHO actually won the space race and what were we racing for? In honor of the recent SpaceX in partnership with NASA launch, Jac brings us on a journey through the first era of space exploration, the Space Race!

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/space-race

https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/space-race

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/moon-space-race/

https://history.state.gov/milestones/1937-1945/us-soviet

https://www.rmg.co.uk/discover/explore/space-race-timeline

Transcript

0:00:00.030,0:00:03.810
hello everyone and welcome back to

0:00:02.159,0:00:07.970
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:03.810,0:00:11.280
that my name is Matt my name is Jack and

0:00:07.970,0:00:13.049
today Jack has a lot of interesting

0:00:11.280,0:00:17.070
stuff to talk about

0:00:13.049,0:00:20.670
yes I do so in honor of the SpaceX

0:00:17.070,0:00:25.560
launch this weekend we’re filming on

0:00:20.670,0:00:28.820
June 1st and the launch was on Sunday no

0:00:25.560,0:00:32.399
it was Saturday it was May

0:00:28.820,0:00:35.489
what was it 30th May 30th May 30th

0:00:32.399,0:00:37.620
yeah I’m May 30th 2020 it’s delayed

0:00:35.489,0:00:39.390
because of rain yeah I was supposed to

0:00:37.620,0:00:44.399
be I’m like a Thursday or something or

0:00:39.390,0:00:46.230
Friday or Wednesday watch party but then

0:00:44.399,0:00:49.140
it got canceled anyways

0:00:46.230,0:00:51.110
SpaceX if you haven’t been reading up on

0:00:49.140,0:00:54.750
the news regarding space

0:00:51.110,0:00:59.160
SpaceX partnered with NASA just launched

0:00:54.750,0:01:02.430
a rocket into space for the first time

0:00:59.160,0:01:03.870
from American soil in like ten years so

0:01:02.430,0:01:08.010
a lot of people are really excited

0:01:03.870,0:01:10.890
because it symbolizes the start of a new

0:01:08.010,0:01:14.220
Space Age in a more space exploration

0:01:10.890,0:01:19.680
which is really exciting so today we’re

0:01:14.220,0:01:23.610
going to talk about B first age of space

0:01:19.680,0:01:28.799
exploration okay it’s like the original

0:01:23.610,0:01:30.900
the original like space the og well

0:01:28.799,0:01:38.130
space war is like cool that’s heavy

0:01:30.900,0:01:41.939
it’s the space race award like maybe one

0:01:38.130,0:01:43.530
day um but okay so let’s start at the

0:01:41.939,0:01:46.009
first space race here we got let’s reel

0:01:43.530,0:01:49.860
it back it’s the end of World War two in

0:01:46.009,0:01:51.899
1945 so actually tell me what you know

0:01:49.860,0:01:56.399
about the space race like do you know in

0:01:51.899,0:01:58.829
a nutshell who was against who basically

0:01:56.399,0:02:01.590
the u.s. is racing against the Soviet

0:01:58.829,0:02:05.310
Union to try to be the first man in

0:02:01.590,0:02:07.200
space and so it’s also like during the

0:02:05.310,0:02:11.430
Cold War so this is kind of just like

0:02:07.200,0:02:16.560
hey we’re gonna beat you yes

0:02:11.430,0:02:18.930
No meet you here and in space everything

0:02:16.560,0:02:24.689
we’re gonna cover it all all dimensions

0:02:18.930,0:02:26.209
everywhere I said meet me at Mars I will

0:02:24.689,0:02:29.689
fight you on Mars

0:02:26.209,0:02:33.900
he’s gonna fight me it oh we’re good

0:02:29.689,0:02:36.030
yeah oh go ahead

0:02:33.900,0:02:38.299
that’s like a summary yeah no you’re

0:02:36.030,0:02:40.980
basically right you basically handled it

0:02:38.299,0:02:45.900
but yeah it was that in a World War two

0:02:40.980,0:02:48.629
so there’s the the US and the Soviet

0:02:45.900,0:02:50.069
Union which just to clarify can I

0:02:48.629,0:02:52.530
discover this one I through my research

0:02:50.069,0:02:54.420
that the Soviet Union is dominated by

0:02:52.530,0:02:58.489
Russia but it’s not actually just Russia

0:02:54.420,0:03:01.890
it’s like the yeah there’s like a lot of

0:02:58.489,0:03:04.319
countries what we know like today it’s

0:03:01.890,0:03:11.670
like the former Soviet bloc countries so

0:03:04.319,0:03:14.790
it’s like Ukraine well we don’t even

0:03:11.670,0:03:17.910
need to prove that you already know no

0:03:14.790,0:03:20.340
but there’s something huge and after it

0:03:17.910,0:03:21.450
collapsed then now we like Russia is the

0:03:20.340,0:03:23.609
biggest country and then we have all

0:03:21.450,0:03:25.019
these things Eastern European countries

0:03:23.609,0:03:28.470
it used to be part of the Soviet Union

0:03:25.019,0:03:33.989
exactly exactly and the USS R stands for

0:03:28.470,0:03:36.120
the United States of Soviet Russia no

0:03:33.989,0:03:38.849
that’s a good guess though it’s the

0:03:36.120,0:03:40.019
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics I

0:03:38.849,0:03:42.239
just want to throw that in there because

0:03:40.019,0:03:45.060
I was talking to a friend and I was like

0:03:42.239,0:03:47.609
what does USSR stand for and she also

0:03:45.060,0:03:49.440
did not know so fun fact seriously

0:03:47.609,0:03:51.989
because I’ve taken so many classes and

0:03:49.440,0:03:53.669
the USSR in the Soviet Union but never

0:03:51.989,0:03:58.760
once have I thought to myself what does

0:03:53.669,0:04:03.810
a US as far as to educate you today I

0:03:58.760,0:04:06.239
was gonna call it USSR so anyways so the

0:04:03.810,0:04:08.730
US and the Soviet Union are against each

0:04:06.239,0:04:11.459
other mainly because of the debate

0:04:08.730,0:04:12.870
between democracy versus communism even

0:04:11.459,0:04:15.120
though it’s the Union of Soviet

0:04:12.870,0:04:17.130
Socialist Republics it’s more of a

0:04:15.120,0:04:20.250
communist regime compared to like

0:04:17.130,0:04:23.729
capitalist and democratic ideas that we

0:04:20.250,0:04:25.949
have in the United States but during

0:04:23.729,0:04:30.000
this time because World War two we were

0:04:25.949,0:04:31.590
fighting against Nazi Germany we even

0:04:30.000,0:04:34.770
though we had a strained relationship

0:04:31.590,0:04:36.300
with them FDR who was president at the

0:04:34.770,0:04:40.620
time acknowledged that the threat of

0:04:36.300,0:04:43.380
Nazi Germany was greater than the threat

0:04:40.620,0:04:45.510
of communism at that time so they teamed

0:04:43.380,0:04:47.040
up together and took down Nazi Germany

0:04:45.510,0:04:48.810
so

0:04:47.040,0:04:51.450
end of the world war happens and both

0:04:48.810,0:04:54.450
sides end up taking rockets from Germany

0:04:51.450,0:04:58.440
after the war specifically this v2

0:04:54.450,0:05:00.270
rocket technology which was like very

0:04:58.440,0:05:03.480
very that was like one of the most

0:05:00.270,0:05:05.760
powerful rockets and that would be very

0:05:03.480,0:05:07.460
scary if the Germans actually were able

0:05:05.760,0:05:10.010
to use that because that was like

0:05:07.460,0:05:13.080
powerful enough to help like send

0:05:10.010,0:05:15.870
nuclear missiles very far around the

0:05:13.080,0:05:17.700
world easily so the Germans had really

0:05:15.870,0:05:21.020
great rocket technology so in addition

0:05:17.700,0:05:24.810
to taking there like long-range missiles

0:05:21.020,0:05:28.170
they also took some German scientists

0:05:24.810,0:05:30.840
like each country took like one watch

0:05:28.170,0:05:34.230
one brilliant rocket scientists from

0:05:30.840,0:05:38.070
like yeah so each side chooses one and

0:05:34.230,0:05:39.720
then I know fun fact I have their names

0:05:38.070,0:05:43.800
but I actually took them out of my notes

0:05:39.720,0:05:46.380
so anyways those two Germans that one

0:05:43.800,0:05:48.090
ends up joining the USSR one joins us

0:05:46.380,0:05:51.380
comes a US citizen they actually both

0:05:48.090,0:05:54.450
are heading like the space race

0:05:51.380,0:05:56.790
initiatives in both countries so because

0:05:54.450,0:05:59.940
a lot of it Rockets came from like the

0:05:56.790,0:06:03.450
v2 space rockets came from like the v2

0:05:59.940,0:06:05.850
rocket technology so to clarify so

0:06:03.450,0:06:07.500
neither East countries neither the US or

0:06:05.850,0:06:09.630
Soviet Union they actually started from

0:06:07.500,0:06:13.280
scratch in the space race they kind of

0:06:09.630,0:06:16.610
just like took Germany’s like head start

0:06:13.280,0:06:19.950
yeah they took Germany’s like very great

0:06:16.610,0:06:22.110
technology and smart people who had

0:06:19.950,0:06:25.980
built that technology which was smart

0:06:22.110,0:06:27.390
but bad very bad and yeah and then they

0:06:25.980,0:06:30.270
turned it into space

0:06:27.390,0:06:35.010
I didn’t no idea I know ready fun fact

0:06:30.270,0:06:37.080
okay so in 1947 the start of the Cold

0:06:35.010,0:06:39.510
War begins because now that the war has

0:06:37.080,0:06:42.120
ended now like tensions resumed and we

0:06:39.510,0:06:50.700
are now focused on splashing down

0:06:42.120,0:06:52.980
communist regimes and yeah I had like

0:06:50.700,0:06:56.070
facts in here about what USSR was but

0:06:52.980,0:06:57.990
you already knew so the nineteen fifties

0:06:56.070,0:06:59.940
are bustling time in the USA we have a

0:06:57.990,0:07:00.330
lot going on it’s the cold war it’s a

0:06:59.940,0:07:02.370
silver

0:07:00.330,0:07:03.509
movement we also have the post-world War

0:07:02.370,0:07:05.669
two boom

0:07:03.509,0:07:08.099
so economy is doing a lot better and

0:07:05.669,0:07:11.669
there’s a lot of growth in technology

0:07:08.099,0:07:13.860
and the tension between the USSR and the

0:07:11.669,0:07:17.580
US starts to grow over technological

0:07:13.860,0:07:19.680
innovation as well so in 1955 which

0:07:17.580,0:07:21.539
signifies like the actual this is the

0:07:19.680,0:07:23.639
year when the space race started both

0:07:21.539,0:07:25.400
countries announced that they intend to

0:07:23.639,0:07:30.409
launch the first artificial satellite

0:07:25.400,0:07:36.030
into space so the race begins

0:07:30.409,0:07:39.870
and then the USSR beats us they win the

0:07:36.030,0:07:42.360
first I think that they launched their

0:07:39.870,0:07:45.150
first satellite called Sputnik 1 which

0:07:42.360,0:07:47.819
Sputnik just means satellite in Russian

0:07:45.150,0:07:52.229
and they launched that in 1957 on

0:07:47.819,0:07:54.479
October 4th so yeah that’s the first

0:07:52.229,0:07:56.969
Earth orbiting satellite in history it’s

0:07:54.479,0:07:59.490
this tiny little silver ball it’s like 2

0:07:56.969,0:08:02.280
feet in diameter I think or maybe the

0:07:59.490,0:08:05.520
size of a basketball and the news of

0:08:02.280,0:08:07.289
this broadcasted a crowd like around the

0:08:05.520,0:08:09.060
world whoever had television so a lot of

0:08:07.289,0:08:11.789
American family is there like sitting

0:08:09.060,0:08:15.529
and watching this in like terror because

0:08:11.789,0:08:17.430
it symbolizes like the USSR was like

0:08:15.529,0:08:22.289
scientifically doing a little better

0:08:17.430,0:08:24.539
than us so technology and so they’re

0:08:22.289,0:08:26.340
gonna use the technology for exactly

0:08:24.539,0:08:29.099
exactly and you bring up a good point

0:08:26.340,0:08:31.969
that the fear wasn’t necessarily just

0:08:29.099,0:08:34.860
that like this small tiny ball was now

0:08:31.969,0:08:36.930
the orbit it was more just like that

0:08:34.860,0:08:39.870
rocket technology that they were capable

0:08:36.930,0:08:42.479
of now they had that and we did not have

0:08:39.870,0:08:46.560
that yet so if there was a war like they

0:08:42.479,0:08:48.390
got the one up and then less than a

0:08:46.560,0:08:50.100
month later they launched their second

0:08:48.390,0:08:51.990
satellite so they already launched their

0:08:50.100,0:08:56.279
first they launched Sputnik 2 that’s a

0:08:51.990,0:08:59.130
success less than a month later and yeah

0:08:56.279,0:09:02.449
in addition to that Sputnik 2 this one’s

0:08:59.130,0:09:05.790
carrying a dog named Laika into space so

0:09:02.449,0:09:09.270
for then yeah and unfortunately like a

0:09:05.790,0:09:11.160
does pass away in the cabin because the

0:09:09.270,0:09:13.470
cabin overheats on like the fourth orbit

0:09:11.160,0:09:16.800
around the Earth so like it doesn’t

0:09:13.470,0:09:19.590
make it back but this does mark the

0:09:16.800,0:09:22.230
first time a living organism has also

0:09:19.590,0:09:25.950
been sent into space so Russia gets that

0:09:22.230,0:09:29.220
one as well so at this point we’re like

0:09:25.950,0:09:31.290
a little nervous and now her president

0:09:29.220,0:09:34.320
at the time Dwight D Eisenhower is like

0:09:31.290,0:09:36.210
speed it up like let’s go so he orders

0:09:34.320,0:09:38.700
the Navy to speed up the project and

0:09:36.210,0:09:41.310
launch a satellite as soon as possible

0:09:38.700,0:09:44.340
and I also need to note that our space

0:09:41.310,0:09:46.830
program at this time at least consisted

0:09:44.340,0:09:48.630
of two different like organizations that

0:09:46.830,0:09:51.180
were working on space technology one was

0:09:48.630,0:09:53.190
the military and then one which hasn’t

0:09:51.180,0:09:55.320
been actually properly formed yet is

0:09:53.190,0:09:59.970
going to be NASA and that’s like more

0:09:55.320,0:10:02.970
publicly displayed race the military

0:09:59.970,0:10:05.390
stuff is more secretive but he’s like he

0:10:02.970,0:10:09.750
orders the military to speed it up so

0:10:05.390,0:10:13.770
December 6 1957 there’s a live broadcast

0:10:09.750,0:10:16.020
of Vanguard TV three test vehicle 3

0:10:13.770,0:10:19.380
which the fact that this is the third

0:10:16.020,0:10:21.510
satellite like TV 3 but I don’t know

0:10:19.380,0:10:23.700
what happened the first two anyways this

0:10:21.510,0:10:25.980
is their satellite but they’re gonna

0:10:23.700,0:10:30.150
launch it’s like this is it so they

0:10:25.980,0:10:32.490
broadcast it live and the satellite like

0:10:30.150,0:10:35.190
launches and then it crashes to the

0:10:32.490,0:10:36.720
ground within like two seconds and you

0:10:35.190,0:10:38.730
should watch the video I have it linked

0:10:36.720,0:10:41.880
in my notes if you take a look it’s the

0:10:38.730,0:10:44.130
most terrifying sad and simultaneously a

0:10:41.880,0:10:45.480
little funny it’s funny now because we

0:10:44.130,0:10:48.960
could laugh about it at the time that

0:10:45.480,0:10:50.640
must have been terrifying yeah it’s like

0:10:48.960,0:10:56.790
the biggest explosion you’ve ever seen

0:10:50.640,0:10:58.500
you really yeah anyway oh sorry yeah no

0:10:56.790,0:11:03.990
we can link it in the show notes as well

0:10:58.500,0:11:06.720
I will post editor at literally how do

0:11:03.990,0:11:11.490
you feel about 2020 like vanguard TV

0:11:06.720,0:11:13.380
thing basically but that was like a huge

0:11:11.490,0:11:15.840
embarrassment and there are news

0:11:13.380,0:11:17.460
articles in Russia that would just like

0:11:15.840,0:11:22.260
poke fun of it and they referred to it

0:11:17.460,0:11:24.570
as slotnick or kaputnik of that oh my

0:11:22.260,0:11:28.430
god it’s beautiful right a little bit of

0:11:24.570,0:11:32.520
friendly banter so they

0:11:28.430,0:11:36.240
some time passes and we finally do get

0:11:32.520,0:11:39.600
the Explorer one project to become a

0:11:36.240,0:11:42.300
success so in 1958 on January 31st we

0:11:39.600,0:11:44.520
finally successfully launched the first

0:11:42.300,0:11:48.300
u.s. satellite into orbit and that was

0:11:44.520,0:11:53.940
Explorer 1 so we finally got one um and

0:11:48.300,0:11:55.920
then we also formed NASA on October 1st

0:11:53.940,0:12:01.320
1958 so asked several months after

0:11:55.920,0:12:03.750
Explorer 1 the public space the public

0:12:01.320,0:12:05.970
space initiative program was actually

0:12:03.750,0:12:07.830
formally known as the National Advisory

0:12:05.970,0:12:11.880
Committee on aeronautics

0:12:07.830,0:12:13.740
so that was NACA and they do like a

0:12:11.880,0:12:15.830
rebrand and it’s now National

0:12:13.740,0:12:18.660
Aeronautics and Space Administration so

0:12:15.830,0:12:24.000
modernly known as NASA so that gets

0:12:18.660,0:12:25.500
formed in 1958 and now a lot more money

0:12:24.000,0:12:28.230
is getting poured into the space program

0:12:25.500,0:12:31.830
because we’re clearly behind and then

0:12:28.230,0:12:34.110
there’s actually so many events so I did

0:12:31.830,0:12:37.020
a quicker summary I’m just gonna quickly

0:12:34.110,0:12:42.150
tell you about some of the things that

0:12:37.020,0:12:44.850
happen from 1958 to 1961 so the u.s.

0:12:42.150,0:12:47.100
launches a communication satellite and a

0:12:44.850,0:12:49.020
weather satellite so they were like okay

0:12:47.100,0:12:51.240
we got the satellite going let’s go just

0:12:49.020,0:12:56.060
like more satellites so like they’re the

0:12:51.240,0:12:58.800
first ones to do like a sound broadcast

0:12:56.060,0:13:00.480
they’re the first maybe not the first

0:12:58.800,0:13:04.490
ones to do a weather satellite but they

0:13:00.480,0:13:07.950
launch that and then the USSR actually

0:13:04.490,0:13:09.960
is doing a lot more stuff with the moon

0:13:07.950,0:13:13.260
so they have their first spacecraft to

0:13:09.960,0:13:15.510
orbit around the moon that was Luna 3

0:13:13.260,0:13:17.910
and then also take photos of the dark

0:13:15.510,0:13:19.920
side of the moon so they’re just like on

0:13:17.910,0:13:24.330
it like getting all these like never

0:13:19.920,0:13:27.900
before see things like yeah yeah it’s

0:13:24.330,0:13:30.540
like oh ok in history class I was taught

0:13:27.900,0:13:32.820
that we want it and I was like I don’t

0:13:30.540,0:13:38.850
know whose opinion that was cuz I don’t

0:13:32.820,0:13:40.200
think I don’t think we’re doing – hi how

0:13:38.850,0:13:41.940
do you decide who wins

0:13:40.200,0:13:44.459
yeah that’s what I was thinking – I’m

0:13:41.940,0:13:46.740
like wait when are we gonna finally get

0:13:44.459,0:13:50.940
the man on the moon because I had not

0:13:46.740,0:13:53.579
heard about like oh yeah why do you man

0:13:50.940,0:13:56.339
but like they literally beat us at

0:13:53.579,0:14:00.260
everything I’ll get into it too at the

0:13:56.339,0:14:02.190
end just to like explain kind of

0:14:00.260,0:14:05.070
actually I’m just gonna say it now so

0:14:02.190,0:14:07.560
basically it was foil alert like um the

0:14:05.070,0:14:10.199
u.s. is like yo like we’re gonna make it

0:14:07.560,0:14:12.779
to the moon first and that will be like

0:14:10.199,0:14:16.980
us winning but this there’s not really

0:14:12.779,0:14:18.870
any proof that like the Soviet Union was

0:14:16.980,0:14:22.709
trying to make like put a man on the

0:14:18.870,0:14:24.630
moon but then that was like the term

0:14:22.709,0:14:26.519
does like whoever gets a man to the moon

0:14:24.630,0:14:31.350
is first but that was determined by who

0:14:26.519,0:14:33.750
like it was determined by us who’s even

0:14:31.350,0:14:36.060
establishing like the race course we

0:14:33.750,0:14:39.510
don’t even know there’s like it we’re

0:14:36.060,0:14:41.430
not clear yeah and I was like um I

0:14:39.510,0:14:43.800
actually have a few friends who are

0:14:41.430,0:14:45.360
Russian so I ping them and I was like

0:14:43.800,0:14:46.920
hey listen like what did you teach you

0:14:45.360,0:14:49.079
about the space race cuz I just want to

0:14:46.920,0:14:51.720
know like do you guys think you won or

0:14:49.079,0:14:54.529
is it like is it agreed that we won

0:14:51.720,0:15:00.660
because I think you guys want as well

0:14:54.529,0:15:02.459
anyways um we did so um one of them went

0:15:00.660,0:15:04.290
to international school so he was like I

0:15:02.459,0:15:06.899
don’t know if I can comment on this but

0:15:04.290,0:15:09.089
when he he’s gonna ask some of his like

0:15:06.899,0:15:11.760
local Russian Russian friends and then

0:15:09.089,0:15:13.500
yeah let me know and then my other

0:15:11.760,0:15:14.730
friend has not responded yet

0:15:13.500,0:15:17.310
but when they do I’ll let you guys know

0:15:14.730,0:15:19.589
if we get the soundbite if I they

0:15:17.310,0:15:21.980
respond like before we post this episode

0:15:19.589,0:15:25.050
I’ll like come in and comment

0:15:21.980,0:15:26.670
I don’t even honestly after I did the

0:15:25.050,0:15:29.160
research I was like you know what I need

0:15:26.670,0:15:31.230
to know like um I think you guys are

0:15:29.160,0:15:35.550
just gonna tell me you think that’s fine

0:15:31.230,0:15:38.310
yeah so yeah anyways let’s go Rach so

0:15:35.550,0:15:41.790
there during the moon stuff 1960 the

0:15:38.310,0:15:44.579
USSR also sent two more dogs and a range

0:15:41.790,0:15:48.000
of plants and they’re the first ones to

0:15:44.579,0:15:51.449
send living organisms that arrived back

0:15:48.000,0:15:53.860
onto earth Oh safely so they go into

0:15:51.449,0:15:58.660
space and they come back alive

0:15:53.860,0:16:03.520
oh oh sorry I also like sent a chimp up

0:15:58.660,0:16:04.570
there money ha oh so 1961 a year later a

0:16:03.520,0:16:06.490
year later

0:16:04.570,0:16:09.400
let me just read that Saul year after

0:16:06.490,0:16:12.430
them they launched the United States

0:16:09.400,0:16:15.940
launches a chimpanzee named ham I don’t

0:16:12.430,0:16:19.990
know why they named him ham oh and he is

0:16:15.940,0:16:23.230
the first great ape in space to survive

0:16:19.990,0:16:24.580
the landing and like when I read that I

0:16:23.230,0:16:26.560
was like okay you guys are just like

0:16:24.580,0:16:28.270
trying to one-up them like they sent an

0:16:26.560,0:16:31.870
animal and you’re like this animal is

0:16:28.270,0:16:34.330
more similar to Isis ooh that’s like ice

0:16:31.870,0:16:38.800
one up in you but it was also like a

0:16:34.330,0:16:44.550
year late so anyways they did that in

0:16:38.800,0:16:48.610
1961 and then on April 12th of 1961

0:16:44.550,0:16:51.010
this is after the great Soviet Union’s

0:16:48.610,0:16:53.530
or ham sorry this is after ham goes to

0:16:51.010,0:16:59.350
space the chimpanzee then the Soviet

0:16:53.530,0:17:01.510
Union sends Yuri Gagarin into space and

0:16:59.350,0:17:03.700
he makes a single orbit around the Earth

0:17:01.510,0:17:08.080
before landing back in West Russia on

0:17:03.700,0:17:10.870
Bostock one so Yuri is the first human

0:17:08.080,0:17:15.220
in space and he’s also the first human

0:17:10.870,0:17:20.410
to orbit the Earth by 1961 so at this

0:17:15.220,0:17:23.770
point the USSR is clearly winning I did

0:17:20.410,0:17:27.190
not I thought but I thought we were the

0:17:23.770,0:17:31.240
first people is we win I look to the

0:17:27.190,0:17:36.430
moon Wow yeah no we literally lost

0:17:31.240,0:17:41.770
everything but like for like one right

0:17:36.430,0:17:43.600
oh okay giannis like okay I looked at

0:17:41.770,0:17:46.030
some Smithsonian stuff and they claimed

0:17:43.600,0:17:49.120
that they found documents that prove

0:17:46.030,0:17:51.130
that the Soviet Union was competing to

0:17:49.120,0:17:53.410
make it to the moon and so they’re like

0:17:51.130,0:17:55.570
that’s why we’ve won but I was like okay

0:17:53.410,0:17:58.330
this is the liquor United States Museum

0:17:55.570,0:18:02.470
that’s telling me this and I just like

0:17:58.330,0:18:04.270
them doing so well I don’t know if they

0:18:02.470,0:18:05.590
really were trying to make it to the

0:18:04.270,0:18:07.290
moon because the Soviet Union claimed

0:18:05.590,0:18:09.540
that like we weren’t trying to put them

0:18:07.290,0:18:13.140
on the moon and I know you guys worry

0:18:09.540,0:18:15.120
like we found some notes I don’t know

0:18:13.140,0:18:18.000
but I’m just saying I do have faith that

0:18:15.120,0:18:21.240
if they had wanted to be dude to do that

0:18:18.000,0:18:24.870
they probably would have most likely

0:18:21.240,0:18:27.330
most likely and like also like I mean if

0:18:24.870,0:18:29.460
you’re just making Italian like Soviet

0:18:27.330,0:18:32.070
Union is like miles and miles ahead of

0:18:29.460,0:18:39.360
us so they yeah that’s very interesting

0:18:32.070,0:18:41.670
I always won the space race yeah also

0:18:39.360,0:18:43.950
too just like the only reason I think

0:18:41.670,0:18:46.680
that maybe they would not have put a man

0:18:43.950,0:18:48.480
on the moon that I think like maybe that

0:18:46.680,0:18:50.490
would have been like USSR was like we

0:18:48.480,0:18:52.680
can’t do it is because that does take a

0:18:50.490,0:18:54.990
lot of fuel because you have to overcome

0:18:52.680,0:18:56.460
like the gravitational pull of the moon

0:18:54.990,0:18:59.610
and you have to have enough fuel to come

0:18:56.460,0:19:03.030
back and like accomplishing that takes a

0:18:59.610,0:19:06.180
lot of energy on like your rockets as

0:19:03.030,0:19:08.430
well so I was like since Soviet Union

0:19:06.180,0:19:11.460
was considered a second world country

0:19:08.430,0:19:14.280
they did not have as much economic like

0:19:11.460,0:19:16.290
growth and production as we did so

0:19:14.280,0:19:19.530
America during this time was way

0:19:16.290,0:19:22.410
wealthier than like almost every country

0:19:19.530,0:19:24.240
in the world so that’s the only yeah I

0:19:22.410,0:19:26.610
was like okay maybe like they caught up

0:19:24.240,0:19:28.800
during that and also it sounds like

0:19:26.610,0:19:31.020
they’re focusing more and like orbiting

0:19:28.800,0:19:33.410
and reaching other parts of the world

0:19:31.020,0:19:35.790
rather than like I don’t know it doesn’t

0:19:33.410,0:19:38.010
maybe they’re like what’s the point of

0:19:35.790,0:19:39.930
going to like yeah it was my thought too

0:19:38.010,0:19:44.460
I was like maybe they didn’t see a lot

0:19:39.930,0:19:47.100
of value yeah I don’t know but okay so

0:19:44.460,0:19:50.010
after Yuri Gagarin comes back President

0:19:47.100,0:19:52.350
Kennedy is elected in 1960 so Yuri

0:19:50.010,0:19:54.450
Gagarin comes back in 1961 and

0:19:52.350,0:19:57.120
immediately after he comes back

0:19:54.450,0:20:02.010
President Kennedy wants to know what can

0:19:57.120,0:20:03.270
we do to get ahead in this race so his

0:20:02.010,0:20:05.880
vice president who at the time was

0:20:03.270,0:20:07.890
lyndon b johnson takes like a poll with

0:20:05.880,0:20:10.710
like nasa in different industries and

0:20:07.890,0:20:14.880
they decide that with a very strong

0:20:10.710,0:20:17.340
effort the US could conceivably beat the

0:20:14.880,0:20:19.470
Soviets at sending a man around the moon

0:20:17.340,0:20:22.020
or landing a man

0:20:19.470,0:20:23.580
the moon so that’s when they’re like

0:20:22.020,0:20:27.929
alright that’s our goal like this is

0:20:23.580,0:20:29.520
gonna be like the finish line um so the

0:20:27.929,0:20:33.210
reason why that hadn’t been done either

0:20:29.520,0:20:35.429
by the 19th by like 1961 is because

0:20:33.210,0:20:37.260
neither country at the time had

0:20:35.429,0:20:39.330
developed the rocket that would be

0:20:37.260,0:20:41.309
powerful enough for that mission because

0:20:39.330,0:20:45.690
again gravitational poles if you have to

0:20:41.309,0:20:47.669
overcome them so they’re like job that’s

0:20:45.690,0:20:49.770
gonna be the goal so May 25th 1961

0:20:47.669,0:20:52.590
President Kennedy gives his speech about

0:20:49.770,0:20:54.929
them choosing to go to the moon and this

0:20:52.590,0:20:57.330
is his famous like moonshot speech and

0:20:54.929,0:20:59.039
I’m gonna tell you like the quote from

0:20:57.330,0:21:02.070
it that everyone knows that this is my

0:20:59.039,0:21:04.320
absolute favorite quote from JFK and he

0:21:02.070,0:21:06.510
says we choose to go to the moon in this

0:21:04.320,0:21:08.460
decade and do other things not because

0:21:06.510,0:21:11.429
they are easy but because they are hard

0:21:08.460,0:21:15.690
and I just like really love that and

0:21:11.429,0:21:17.159
even if we were losing a lot of space I

0:21:15.690,0:21:19.950
think that’s really beautiful when it’s

0:21:17.159,0:21:22.350
like a good sentiment to like why we

0:21:19.950,0:21:24.809
pursue technology and exploration and

0:21:22.350,0:21:27.659
why that’s important it’s like purely

0:21:24.809,0:21:29.820
because we can it’s like it’s difficult

0:21:27.659,0:21:31.890
and that also got me through my computer

0:21:29.820,0:21:34.260
science degree because well it’s not

0:21:31.890,0:21:41.940
easy and so I would always like look at

0:21:34.260,0:21:43.710
that quote yeah ok so he gives us super

0:21:41.940,0:21:46.710
inspiring speech and then we started to

0:21:43.710,0:21:49.620
do a little better so we end up sending

0:21:46.710,0:21:51.539
Alan Shepard into space so he’s our

0:21:49.620,0:21:54.600
first American in space but he doesn’t

0:21:51.539,0:21:58.200
orbit this is done a 1961 katidis comes

0:21:54.600,0:22:02.460
up into space and comes back down so but

0:21:58.200,0:22:04.260
like hey we’re catching up yeah pretty

0:22:02.460,0:22:07.799
cool right

0:22:04.260,0:22:12.470
and then our man John Glenn represent go

0:22:07.799,0:22:16.080
box so John Glenn ends up being the

0:22:12.470,0:22:18.960
first American to go orbit the earth and

0:22:16.080,0:22:23.340
that’s on February 20th of 1962 on the

0:22:18.960,0:22:28.470
friendship 7 mission yeah love John

0:22:23.340,0:22:31.409
Glenn and then in 1963 though USSR sends

0:22:28.470,0:22:32.669
the first woman into space and she also

0:22:31.409,0:22:37.679
orbits the earth

0:22:32.669,0:22:40.679
and her name was valentina Tereshkova

0:22:37.679,0:22:45.600
and she actually orbits the earth 48

0:22:40.679,0:22:49.230
times in his face Vostok 6 yeah so John

0:22:45.600,0:22:50.460
Glenn did I get like three orbits and

0:22:49.230,0:22:53.220
then I think there was like a faulty

0:22:50.460,0:22:57.629
light switch and he had to come back so

0:22:53.220,0:22:59.220
she did it 48 times Hurdle at that point

0:22:57.629,0:23:01.109
it’s just like a rubber you get it right

0:22:59.220,0:23:05.279
there literally was like literally

0:23:01.109,0:23:10.739
running laps around us oh my god

0:23:05.279,0:23:16.049
yeah and then in 1965 on March 18th the

0:23:10.739,0:23:19.499
USSR essence aleksey leonov in his face

0:23:16.049,0:23:22.739
in this like specialized spacesuit in

0:23:19.499,0:23:25.529
the spacecraft bush for two and he does

0:23:22.739,0:23:27.299
the first-ever spacewalk so that’s where

0:23:25.529,0:23:29.279
you like to leave the spacecraft and

0:23:27.299,0:23:31.739
like just walk in outer space and you’re

0:23:29.279,0:23:35.190
like spacesuit and he did that for 12

0:23:31.739,0:23:36.779
minutes little wild like we were the

0:23:35.190,0:23:40.499
first to the moon we weren’t even the

0:23:36.779,0:23:43.919
first like to actually like walk in

0:23:40.499,0:23:49.649
space that’s so did yeah so USSR wind

0:23:43.919,0:23:51.690
that too so yeah at this point the USSR

0:23:49.649,0:23:53.909
is killing it and they’re sending a lot

0:23:51.690,0:23:56.669
of cosmonauts into space which cosmonaut

0:23:53.909,0:23:58.409
is just like a Russian astronaut so we

0:23:56.669,0:24:01.559
call them astronauts but they call them

0:23:58.409,0:24:04.139
cosmonauts and the u.s. is still pretty

0:24:01.559,0:24:08.190
far behind we did send a satellite to

0:24:04.139,0:24:09.869
Mars which is cool awesome but I mean

0:24:08.190,0:24:11.629
it’s just like satellites right like

0:24:09.869,0:24:15.419
what they’re doing a lot of satellites

0:24:11.629,0:24:18.749
it’s not as impressive right and I want

0:24:15.419,0:24:20.460
to talk about at this time like I’m sure

0:24:18.749,0:24:22.830
this is very stressful for a lot of

0:24:20.460,0:24:24.749
Americans because it’s not just a space

0:24:22.830,0:24:28.559
race to them it symbolizes the fight

0:24:24.749,0:24:31.350
between democracy and communism and the

0:24:28.559,0:24:33.359
Cold War is during this time and later

0:24:31.350,0:24:36.720
on like Cuban Missile Crisis happens and

0:24:33.359,0:24:38.580
everything so the tension is really just

0:24:36.720,0:24:40.440
over like proving and pushing themselves

0:24:38.580,0:24:44.159
if they’re smarter than the other side

0:24:40.440,0:24:46.050
and like let’s kick my god just must be

0:24:44.159,0:24:47.790
so embarrassing

0:24:46.050,0:24:49.290
amazing and super nerve-wracking because

0:24:47.790,0:24:51.720
you’re here saying like America’s great

0:24:49.290,0:24:53.310
and like we’re like we got democracy and

0:24:51.720,0:24:55.770
capitalism all this is really good but

0:24:53.310,0:24:57.390
then this other countries like with

0:24:55.770,0:25:00.960
everything that we’re fighting against

0:24:57.390,0:25:02.640
is actually doing really well yeah at

0:25:00.960,0:25:04.290
least in the space race I don’t know

0:25:02.640,0:25:07.950
with how the country was doing

0:25:04.290,0:25:10.920
economically yeah so later though in

0:25:07.950,0:25:13.860
1967 actually both countries start to

0:25:10.920,0:25:15.720
struggle a little bit with the space

0:25:13.860,0:25:18.150
race there actually someone fortunate

0:25:15.720,0:25:20.670
deaths we had we lost like three

0:25:18.150,0:25:24.780
astronauts because they were on I think

0:25:20.670,0:25:27.420
was Apollo 7 and a fire broke out like

0:25:24.780,0:25:29.460
in the aircraft or in the spacecraft and

0:25:27.420,0:25:31.440
the doors had been sealed so they

0:25:29.460,0:25:34.200
actually died from a fire inside there

0:25:31.440,0:25:36.210
the spacecraft that was really important

0:25:34.200,0:25:38.850
yeah but then the Russian the Russians

0:25:36.210,0:25:40.800
the Soviet Union also left lost an

0:25:38.850,0:25:44.460
astronaut because his parachute

0:25:40.800,0:25:47.670
malfunction upon landing oh my gosh

0:25:44.460,0:25:49.700
that’s horrifying to me go hold it’s

0:25:47.670,0:25:52.200
awful you make it all the way back and

0:25:49.700,0:25:54.540
that’s like yeah the parachute was the

0:25:52.200,0:26:00.350
issue so that was a bad year for both of

0:25:54.540,0:26:03.750
them but then in 1968 the US aircraft

0:26:00.350,0:26:05.850
Apollo a is the first human crewed

0:26:03.750,0:26:08.490
spacecraft to reach the moon and orbit

0:26:05.850,0:26:11.660
it and then return to Earth so they

0:26:08.490,0:26:13.950
start doing a little better also um the

0:26:11.660,0:26:15.930
USSR didn’t have like a ton of stuff

0:26:13.950,0:26:18.120
that I was seeing during this era so I

0:26:15.930,0:26:19.590
would be interested to know what was

0:26:18.120,0:26:21.390
going on because I feel like there must

0:26:19.590,0:26:25.220
have been something else economically

0:26:21.390,0:26:29.430
preventing them from like good this is

0:26:25.220,0:26:31.740
1968 so like 1967 they’re starting to

0:26:29.430,0:26:35.130
have some space trouble it’s 1968 we

0:26:31.740,0:26:39.090
don’t hear like anything really from the

0:26:35.130,0:26:43.200
USSR and then like the u.s. actually

0:26:39.090,0:26:45.030
starts to do a little more with like

0:26:43.200,0:26:47.760
orbiting the moon and like sending

0:26:45.030,0:26:51.840
people into space and then we finally

0:26:47.760,0:26:56.720
get to 1969 where we have Neil Armstrong

0:26:51.840,0:26:59.180
and Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin

0:26:56.720,0:27:03.050
Aldrin well there is it

0:26:59.180,0:27:05.080
yeah so those three are on the Apollo 11

0:27:03.050,0:27:07.850
and I feel really bad because I did not

0:27:05.080,0:27:11.110
realize Michael calling this was part of

0:27:07.850,0:27:15.380
the crew everyone just remembers yeah

0:27:11.110,0:27:17.630
hmm yeah I know who is because Michael

0:27:15.380,0:27:20.360
Collins actually didn’t walk on the moon

0:27:17.630,0:27:22.520
so Neil Armstrong and Buzz become the

0:27:20.360,0:27:24.200
first men to walk on the moon but their

0:27:22.520,0:27:27.230
crew mate Michael Collins is the one

0:27:24.200,0:27:30.830
that’s orbiting the moon aboard the

0:27:27.230,0:27:32.510
Apollo 11 so he’s like driving it he’s

0:27:30.830,0:27:34.640
just like but doesn’t even check over I

0:27:32.510,0:27:36.140
guess wait there’s a movie

0:27:34.640,0:27:37.790
okay I’m gonna sound really dumb but I

0:27:36.140,0:27:39.020
swear there’s a movie about this and

0:27:37.790,0:27:40.310
it’s probably like really popular but I

0:27:39.020,0:27:46.180
swear I watch it when I was little and

0:27:40.310,0:27:48.920
it really shows really sad about it oh

0:27:46.180,0:27:52.700
I’m a little upset actually like I would

0:27:48.920,0:27:54.920
want to be walking on the moon too you

0:27:52.700,0:27:59.660
just the driver did you guys have fun

0:27:54.920,0:28:03.200
yeah how was it like what was it like we

0:27:59.660,0:28:04.940
don’t even know it’s super sad so a big

0:28:03.200,0:28:07.250
shout out to Michael Collins thank you

0:28:04.940,0:28:09.230
for your service to America and

0:28:07.250,0:28:14.870
everything you did we really appreciate

0:28:09.230,0:28:17.480
you but yeah this is they televised the

0:28:14.870,0:28:20.180
moon landing and that was witnessed

0:28:17.480,0:28:24.590
around the world by 723 million people

0:28:20.180,0:28:26.660
and it was claimed to secure a victory

0:28:24.590,0:28:29.360
for America in the space race but also

0:28:26.660,0:28:30.830
people at least Americans we like to say

0:28:29.360,0:28:35.840
that that was the end of the space race

0:28:30.830,0:28:37.640
and I’ll say Neil Armstrong’s famous

0:28:35.840,0:28:40.370
quote when he took his first step he

0:28:37.640,0:28:42.940
said that’s one small step for man one

0:28:40.370,0:28:45.620
giant leap for mankind

0:28:42.940,0:28:52.610
mmm-hmm those fantastic you know you

0:28:45.620,0:28:55.790
rehearse that yeah I got to come up with

0:28:52.610,0:28:58.700
something good it was like I feel like

0:28:55.790,0:29:00.050
Neil and Buzz probably like rode down

0:28:58.700,0:29:01.880
what they wanted to say and then took a

0:29:00.050,0:29:07.760
vote I’m like you had the better quote

0:29:01.880,0:29:11.240
I’m like drafting together I love that

0:29:07.760,0:29:12.020
yeah okay so after that that’s like a

0:29:11.240,0:29:15.350
huge deal

0:29:12.020,0:29:18.140
awesome time then we do some more moon

0:29:15.350,0:29:21.380
stuff with like throughout the years

0:29:18.140,0:29:25.190
after that the USSR actually launches

0:29:21.380,0:29:26.930
the first space station which is becomes

0:29:25.190,0:29:28.580
like core segments for the International

0:29:26.930,0:29:31.580
Space Station when that gets built in

0:29:28.580,0:29:34.220
the 2000s so I was like maybe the USSR

0:29:31.580,0:29:36.740
is more focused on spacecraft and just

0:29:34.220,0:29:38.570
like getting like things up into space

0:29:36.740,0:29:42.440
that you could like continually go back

0:29:38.570,0:29:45.050
and forth Jim while the u.s. seemed to

0:29:42.440,0:29:48.410
be more focused on the moon but anyways

0:29:45.050,0:29:51.080
by 1975 that’s the end of the space race

0:29:48.410,0:29:53.300
so like 1969 is another landing a little

0:29:51.080,0:29:56.150
bit stuff goes on but then 1975 is the

0:29:53.300,0:29:57.440
official end and that was really result

0:29:56.150,0:29:59.840
because the relations between the

0:29:57.440,0:30:04.030
countries started to improve and were

0:29:59.840,0:30:08.090
negotiated by the Soviet liyan Leonid

0:30:04.030,0:30:10.910
Brezhnev I hope probably not and US

0:30:08.090,0:30:13.100
President Nixon so they start to move

0:30:10.910,0:30:15.410
forward into cooperation over

0:30:13.100,0:30:19.130
competition with space exploration I

0:30:15.410,0:30:22.730
think it’s beautiful the beautiful thing

0:30:19.130,0:30:25.130
that happened to ADA yeah it’s like a

0:30:22.730,0:30:28.340
happy ending so the mission started to

0:30:25.130,0:30:31.820
die down and the I guess the final

0:30:28.340,0:30:35.510
mission is in 1975 us-soviet relations

0:30:31.820,0:30:37.520
improved and they created a joint

0:30:35.510,0:30:41.650
program between the two powers called

0:30:37.520,0:30:46.580
Apollo Soyuz Sawyer’s mission

0:30:41.650,0:30:49.370
apollo-soyuz mission and that basically

0:30:46.580,0:30:51.410
was they would send three US astronauts

0:30:49.370,0:30:54.500
aboard an Apollo spacecraft and dock it

0:30:51.410,0:30:57.890
in orbit with the Soviet Soyuz vehicle

0:30:54.500,0:30:59.300
so they had like a spacecraft already in

0:30:57.890,0:31:02.210
space so we’re gonna send three

0:30:59.300,0:31:05.300
Americans to that spacecraft and when

0:31:02.210,0:31:07.370
they got to the spacecraft they shook

0:31:05.300,0:31:10.190
hands and I was like the first handshake

0:31:07.370,0:31:13.790
between nations and space and exchanged

0:31:10.190,0:31:17.090
gifts and like celebrated so that was

0:31:13.790,0:31:20.330
really really cool to read about then

0:31:17.090,0:31:22.010
that’s like the message if you want to

0:31:20.330,0:31:24.590
advance technology we got to work

0:31:22.010,0:31:25.890
together we should write being right

0:31:24.590,0:31:28.260
hey it’s all

0:31:25.890,0:31:31.650
like let’s just explore together let’s

0:31:28.260,0:31:34.220
be collaborative but yeah that

0:31:31.650,0:31:37.620
symbolizes the final into the space race

0:31:34.220,0:31:39.690
okay and like they’re saying lots of

0:31:37.620,0:31:41.880
benefits happen from the space race I

0:31:39.690,0:31:44.130
think that the greatest benefit where

0:31:41.880,0:31:46.950
was like the funding and research and

0:31:44.130,0:31:49.440
education and the general improved

0:31:46.950,0:31:52.200
interest in like science and technology

0:31:49.440,0:31:53.640
and engineering and math like imagine

0:31:52.200,0:31:55.290
seeing like you know how much we

0:31:53.640,0:31:56.400
glamorize like celebrities and

0:31:55.290,0:31:58.830
everyone’s like I really want to be a

0:31:56.400,0:32:00.840
singer but at the time like astronauts

0:31:58.830,0:32:03.240
for the coolest thing and so everyone

0:32:00.840,0:32:05.460
wanted to go into like stem and be a

0:32:03.240,0:32:08.100
part of that and everyone want to be

0:32:05.460,0:32:11.700
like astronauts and stuff so that was

0:32:08.100,0:32:14.429
really cool and I’m excited that we are

0:32:11.700,0:32:16.830
starting a new Space Age because it’s

0:32:14.429,0:32:18.960
gonna inspire a lot of new scientists

0:32:16.830,0:32:19.320
and engineers and that’s really good for

0:32:18.960,0:32:21.750
us

0:32:19.320,0:32:23.280
ya know that’s super exciting this

0:32:21.750,0:32:25.470
weekend who was really exciting I didn’t

0:32:23.280,0:32:28.830
realize it had been so long since we had

0:32:25.470,0:32:32.790
sent like an American open to space I’ve

0:32:28.830,0:32:34.890
been really thinking about it’s not

0:32:32.790,0:32:36.660
something that we would invest in either

0:32:34.890,0:32:39.990
because it is really like space

0:32:36.660,0:32:41.340
exploration ain’t cheap and we’re

0:32:39.990,0:32:44.820
literally doing it because we were

0:32:41.340,0:32:46.890
terrified of like a nuclear war so yeah

0:32:44.820,0:32:51.960
yeah it’s good that I pushed us forward

0:32:46.890,0:32:54.330
but yeah I do want to add one thing I

0:32:51.960,0:32:56.730
might sound stupid saying this I want to

0:32:54.330,0:32:59.820
publicly state like I am NOT a fake

0:32:56.730,0:33:00.360
moonkin spirit like slamming conspiracy

0:32:59.820,0:33:03.390
theorists

0:33:00.360,0:33:07.230
however like while you’re talking about

0:33:03.390,0:33:10.169
like how far behind me were and like we

0:33:07.230,0:33:14.280
were just really lagging I’m like hmm I

0:33:10.169,0:33:16.140
could kind of see why the government

0:33:14.280,0:33:20.630
would want to say that not saying they

0:33:16.140,0:33:23.070
did no that’s all I’m gonna say I

0:33:20.630,0:33:24.809
promise I’m not I believe the moon

0:33:23.070,0:33:27.419
landing was real but I just didn’t

0:33:24.809,0:33:29.940
realize how far we were and I’m there

0:33:27.419,0:33:34.169
must have been so much pressure and all

0:33:29.940,0:33:37.500
of these like American like uh oh my

0:33:34.169,0:33:40.650
gosh whistle we’re just scientists yeah

0:33:37.500,0:33:42.690
and astronauts like thank you so much

0:33:40.650,0:33:45.390
all the people all the Americans who

0:33:42.690,0:33:47.250
worked to help us get to the moon

0:33:45.390,0:33:50.220
because they must have been under so

0:33:47.250,0:33:52.530
much pressure right it’s definitely very

0:33:50.220,0:33:54.420
stressful very admirable I’m just like I

0:33:52.530,0:33:56.940
don’t even know where I would start like

0:33:54.420,0:34:00.890
I studied stem and I’m like if you told

0:33:56.940,0:34:00.890
me just good man to the moon I’d be like

0:34:02.450,0:34:09.690
huge huge gains we also from it had a

0:34:06.900,0:34:11.370
lot of innovations in technology because

0:34:09.690,0:34:13.980
of like our quest for space so like

0:34:11.370,0:34:16.860
freeze-dried foods memory foam

0:34:13.980,0:34:19.919
mattresses cancer treatments satellites

0:34:16.860,0:34:21.419
that we use for gps’s and like our

0:34:19.919,0:34:24.679
phones a call because of the space race

0:34:21.419,0:34:27.179
like Oh a lights are really useful

0:34:24.679,0:34:29.129
that’s really interesting I also have a

0:34:27.179,0:34:32.100
question for you I don’t know you know

0:34:29.129,0:34:36.840
this but so I guess like our next big

0:34:32.100,0:34:40.230
goal is to colonize Mars to get to Mars

0:34:36.840,0:34:43.620
right is that like so it’s pretty much

0:34:40.230,0:34:47.100
headed by SpaceX right right it’s like

0:34:43.620,0:34:49.679
NASA in partnership with SpaceX and so

0:34:47.100,0:34:53.280
is it an international effort or is it

0:34:49.679,0:34:55.679
mostly American I don’t know let me

0:34:53.280,0:35:00.210
check it out actually because I’d be

0:34:55.679,0:35:03.270
really interested because I feel like

0:35:00.210,0:35:05.070
that’s kind of the new era or at least

0:35:03.270,0:35:09.260
one of the aspects of the new era we’re

0:35:05.070,0:35:11.210
entering yeah I would

0:35:09.260,0:35:13.610
I feel it could be more collaborative

0:35:11.210,0:35:16.220
but honestly the most I hear from which

0:35:13.610,0:35:18.880
is I mean where are Americans so like

0:35:16.220,0:35:23.240
most of our news is like skewed with

0:35:18.880,0:35:25.310
American news but I like here the most

0:35:23.240,0:35:30.610
of it from like Elon Musk so I don’t

0:35:25.310,0:35:34.700
know so congratulations on your new son

0:35:30.610,0:35:38.230
he just just have a baby like that’s a

0:35:34.700,0:35:43.310
big month for him yeah why is it was

0:35:38.230,0:35:46.040
celebratory time right yeah that’s also

0:35:43.310,0:35:48.470
I wanted to say yeah I kinda I don’t

0:35:46.040,0:35:50.720
think they staged the moon landing like

0:35:48.470,0:35:54.980
I watched a conspiracy on it and I was

0:35:50.720,0:35:57.410
like no I don’t think so um but you’re

0:35:54.980,0:35:59.720
right they were really far behind and I

0:35:57.410,0:36:01.430
also just kind of feel like the u.s. was

0:35:59.720,0:36:02.810
like you know like when you’re in

0:36:01.430,0:36:04.160
elementary school and there’s like that

0:36:02.810,0:36:06.050
kid on the playground he’s like do you

0:36:04.160,0:36:08.540
want to race with me and you’re like

0:36:06.050,0:36:10.490
sure we can race and they’re like okay

0:36:08.540,0:36:12.230
like first went to the tree wins and

0:36:10.490,0:36:13.700
then they’ll be like you’ll like start

0:36:12.230,0:36:15.590
running and they’ll be like no I didn’t

0:36:13.700,0:36:16.880
say go yet and then they’ll view like

0:36:15.590,0:36:18.920
way I said you have to cross the finish

0:36:16.880,0:36:20.660
line like hopping on one foot so it

0:36:18.920,0:36:22.460
doesn’t count so I would like I just

0:36:20.660,0:36:25.250
feel like the u.s. is like that kid on

0:36:22.460,0:36:27.680
the playground it’s so true or – if

0:36:25.250,0:36:41.180
you’re playing like rock-paper-scissors

0:36:27.680,0:36:44.360
it’s like oh no that’s out of three love

0:36:41.180,0:36:47.570
being American but y’all we were not I

0:36:44.360,0:36:50.630
don’t think we won that yeah I think

0:36:47.570,0:36:54.620
it’s important to know like about the

0:36:50.630,0:36:56.090
space race as a whole and maybe we

0:36:54.620,0:36:58.780
should still be I’m so really proud of

0:36:56.090,0:37:01.910
all the achievements we made but yeah

0:36:58.780,0:37:04.550
important to recognize it and it made us

0:37:01.910,0:37:06.980
better right like we really focused more

0:37:04.550,0:37:09.320
on technology because of it so I think

0:37:06.980,0:37:11.360
overall it’s like a good thing to have

0:37:09.320,0:37:11.600
two countries pushing each other like

0:37:11.360,0:37:14.150
that

0:37:11.600,0:37:16.910
yes because without that we would

0:37:14.150,0:37:17.330
probably be a lot farther behind than we

0:37:16.910,0:37:19.010
are today

0:37:17.330,0:37:20.140
we would not have been as motivated to

0:37:19.010,0:37:26.320
spend all that

0:37:20.140,0:37:29.910
and time yay well thank you so much jack

0:37:26.320,0:37:29.910
for saying that that was really fun

0:37:30.230,0:37:51.300
[Music]