What’s Going On In The Middle East?

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Show Notes

The Middle East is an incredibly diverse and complex region, but it’s oftentimes disregarded by Western media as too confusing or too complicated to be “solved”. In order to gain a better understanding of today’s world, Nat covers the Arab Spring, an unprecedented series of pro-democracy uprisings that swept across North Africa and the Middle East in the spring of 2011.

Sources:

The Modern Middle East: A History by William L. Cleveland (5th Edition)

Transcript

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today nat is going to present on

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what are you presenting i’m presenting

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on the arab spring today

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uh have you heard of the arab spring

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before never

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okay so yeah so the reason i chose this

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topic

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uh for the first like episode i wanted

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to cover

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for season two world history i wanted to

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focus on the middle east

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because i really don’t know anything

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about the middle east i have so many

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questions and so many things to learn

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so i knew i wanted to focus on the

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middle east and the

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topic i’m covering today is actually

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super recent like it happened in 2011

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so it’s like i don’t know it’s not like

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super far back in history

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but i think for people who are not

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really sure

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about like they don’t understand korean

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events going on in the middle east today

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this event kind of explains

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what why the middle east looks like it

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does today

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so yeah so okay so do you also like

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what do you what do you know about

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what’s going on what’s happening in the

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middle east today

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like do you know yeah i know a little

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bit because one of my good friends is

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syrian and so he explained to me the

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situation in syria

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yeah um so i think they’re just like a

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bunch of

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like they don’t they didn’t like the

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government in syria and so a bunch of

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different rebel groups or

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did like a coup d’etat but there’s a lot

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of different rebel groups so then

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everyone’s kind of just fighting for

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position of power and control and so

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that has wreaked havoc in syria and

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that’s why it’s like war-torn

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mm-hmm that’s what i know no yeah

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actually like i’ll be talking about

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yeah there’s like a civil war going on

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there and it’s connected to the arab

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spring so i’ll

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like be going into like more detail

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about that but yeah yeah so syria that’s

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like it’s like the biggest refugee

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crisis

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currently so yeah okay so i’m just gonna

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go right in so a brief description of

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what the arab spring is

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basically it was a series of

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pro-democracy revolutions

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that began in the spring of 2011 in

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largely muslim and arabic speaking

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countries

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in north africa and the middle east so

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to list the countries that were affected

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by the arab spring

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there’s a lot so tunisia morocco

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syria libya egypt bahrain

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algeria jordan oman iraq

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sudan and lebanon so it’s like

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a huge amount of countries were

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uh like swept up in this movement there

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were

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widespread protests and revolutions uh

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and it was all like within a very short

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time period

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question is this um so when people talk

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about the middle east conflict

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is this all stemming from that the arab

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spring

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or are they separate things happening

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well the thing is like they’re

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so the middle east there’s a lot of

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conflict

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and war and violence going on um the

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arab spring

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is like one of the events that have

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has stemmed from this conflict so

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the first like uprising revolt

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it was caused by uh

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people who are like unhappy with

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authoritarian governments

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um and like violence that was happening

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in their own country

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but yeah it’s like part and then you’ll

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see that like

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it fuels even more violence in the end

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so it’s kind of just like a

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cycle of like people are really unhappy

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with their government

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they revolt a new government is put in

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power but then

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it falls apart and then they revolt

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again so there’s just been a lot of like

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turmoil in the area

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um yeah does that make sense yeah it

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does

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okay so this the arab spring it all

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began in december

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of 2010 in tunisia when a

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26 year old street vendor named muhammad

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blazizi

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was harassed and publicly humiliated by

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police because he didn’t have a permit

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to sell

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like his fruits and vegetables and

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yeah they like harass him violently and

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he was like obviously really upset

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so he tried to complain about his

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mistreatment

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to local authorities but they like

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wouldn’t listen to him

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they’re like whatever like leave us

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alone and so

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in an act of protest was easy set

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himself

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on fire outside of the local governor’s

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office

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yeah and obviously like he passed away

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um

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and so this yeah so this his death

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sparked outrage amongst the rest of

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people in tunisia because there were

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there was a huge i guess gap between the

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government and the working-class people

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and the working-class people

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were suffering through a lot of economic

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hardships uh and they were so upset

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that this man was treated so poorly just

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because he didn’t have a permit so

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they were like enraged and so protests

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broke out in the streets of the capital

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tunis

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and on january 14th so like

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a few weeks later the authoritarian

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president

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okay um i’m probably going to

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mispronounce all these names so i

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apologize

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okay there’s a lot of difficult names

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but

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[Music]

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he abdicated his position and he fled

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the country

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after 23 years of rule so like this is a

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huge deal

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because they had this awful like

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dictator who had been ruling for decades

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and because of these protests like

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in a matter of like a couple weeks he

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was removed from power

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also okay before i continue just a fair

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warning

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i’m gonna be covering a lot of different

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countries and

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a lot of different names of leaders

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so if you get confused now like just

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interrupt me

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and i could clarify but yeah i’m gonna

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be like bouncing around so

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okay it makes sense so far it’s good

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okay yeah so he’s removed from office

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right and so it was like

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a successful protest right they wanted

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him gone

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and then he left so social media

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because this is 2011 right so social

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media has a huge influence on the

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movement because

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people from tunisia were posting photos

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and videos of their

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successful uprising and these images

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inspired activists in other countries

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nearby

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to fight for more social freedoms and

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more participation

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in the political process so all of a

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sudden

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we see similar movements all across the

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region

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in like a really short period of time so

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again i’m gonna list the countries just

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really quick

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um so we obviously tunisia there’s also

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morocco

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syria libya egypt bahrain algeria

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jordan oman iraq sudan sudan and lebanon

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so a huge amount of countries and

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obviously i don’t have enough time to

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cover

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the protests in every single one of

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these movements

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um so instead i’ll just be focusing on

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a few of these countries especially

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those that had

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regime changes because of the protests

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but i encourage everyone again to do

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further research

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so first i’m going to talk about egypt

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so on january

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2nd mass protests began in

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cairo which is the capital and they

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lasted for 18 days

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and they brought together tens of

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thousands of people so it’s huge crowds

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and then a month later on february 11th

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president

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hosni mubarak is removed from office

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and he had been ruling the country for

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30 years

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so he was a really violent dictator so

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people had been

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having a lot of issues with him they

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obviously do not like his regime

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when the when you say removed is it

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peacefully removed or

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coup d’etat or did they step like did

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they step down

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um yeah he was forcefully removed

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okay yeah yeah by the military

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i believe yeah oh okay hopefully moved

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it’s not

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he doesn’t want to leave but he loses

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public support and then he loses the

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support of the military which is like

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a really big deal and so the military

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takes over

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temporarily because there’s like no

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leader right they had removed mubarak

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from office and now

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they need to step up and in 2012 they

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had

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elections and they voted mohammed morsi

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they voted him into office as president

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however a year after he was sworn into

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office

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he is also removed through a military

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coup

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um so he only was serving for a year and

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then the military

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overthrows him and the

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defense minister at the time his name is

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abdel fattah el-sisi

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and he becomes president and he’s still

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in power today

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so this was in 2012 and he still

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is the president of egypt today and he

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has a very

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he’s a very violent authoritarian leader

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uh the government of egypt is like

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not so great it’s not really great over

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there right now

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and so tens of thousands of peaceful

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activists and critics

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of lcc’s government remain in jail today

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and hundreds of them have been sentenced

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to death so there’s

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virtually like no freedom of speech um

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and yeah so i’m i’m gonna get back into

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the aftermath of egypt later we’ll

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set that aside for now i’m gonna

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continue on to

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some countries that um they

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broke out into civil war because of the

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arab spring so first i’m going to talk

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about libya

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so in the summer of 2011 a civil war

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outbreaks and this is like because of

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all the protests

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that had been inspired by the arab

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spring

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and in october of 2011

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the authoritarian dictator muammar

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gaddafi

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i don’t know if you’ve ever heard of

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qaddafi he’s like talked about a lot

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here but he is overthrown during an

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extremely violent

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civil war he’s tortured and he’s

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literally dragged through the streets um

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and he’s executed by opposition fighters

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and there is because of social media

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like people were recording these

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incidents so video footage of his death

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was shared on social media and was seen

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by millions of people online

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yeah so he’s qaddafi is overthrown

0:11:00.079,0:11:04.480
obviously and then uh even though he was

0:11:03.519,0:11:06.959
overthrown

0:11:04.480,0:11:07.920
libya still remains in a state of civil

0:11:06.959,0:11:11.680
war

0:11:07.920,0:11:13.519
um basically yeah there are two opposing

0:11:11.680,0:11:16.959
there are two rival governments that are

0:11:13.519,0:11:20.160
both claiming authority over the country

0:11:16.959,0:11:23.279
all sides have committed war crimes and

0:11:20.160,0:11:25.600
serious human rights abuses

0:11:23.279,0:11:26.320
and the people of libya have suffered

0:11:25.600,0:11:28.560
terribly

0:11:26.320,0:11:29.360
through political upheaval and they have

0:11:28.560,0:11:31.920
to survive

0:11:29.360,0:11:34.320
like violence on the streets as well as

0:11:31.920,0:11:36.240
limited access to food and resources and

0:11:34.320,0:11:38.000
health care services

0:11:36.240,0:11:39.760
and because of this thousands of people

0:11:38.000,0:11:42.399
have fled the country

0:11:39.760,0:11:42.959
mostly by boat and they are going to

0:11:42.399,0:11:45.519
europe

0:11:42.959,0:11:46.399
to other parts of europe and so it’s

0:11:45.519,0:11:49.760
like an ongoing

0:11:46.399,0:11:51.920
refugee crisis and again i’ll go into

0:11:49.760,0:11:55.120
more detail in a bit

0:11:51.920,0:11:56.079
um yemen is also still currently in a

0:11:55.120,0:11:59.200
civil war

0:11:56.079,0:12:00.720
that has its roots in the area

0:11:59.200,0:12:02.560
isn’t that yemen’s a pretty young

0:12:00.720,0:12:06.320
country aren’t they they’re only like

0:12:02.560,0:12:08.560
50 or 60 years old too i think so yeah

0:12:06.320,0:12:09.440
i just know this because i had a teacher

0:12:08.560,0:12:11.120
whose daughter

0:12:09.440,0:12:14.160
went to yemen and came back and brought

0:12:11.120,0:12:18.240
us hummus and like pita bread and then

0:12:14.160,0:12:21.680
told us about yemen yeah

0:12:18.240,0:12:23.600
but it’s a young country so yeah

0:12:21.680,0:12:25.040
okay i honestly don’t know much about

0:12:23.600,0:12:27.760
the history before

0:12:25.040,0:12:29.120
the year of spring but that’s good yeah

0:12:27.760,0:12:32.560
i didn’t realize it was

0:12:29.120,0:12:35.360
such a young country but yeah so they

0:12:32.560,0:12:37.519
they’re still in a civil war and so

0:12:35.360,0:12:40.240
basically also in 2011

0:12:37.519,0:12:41.360
another long-time authorian president

0:12:40.240,0:12:44.800
his name was ali

0:12:41.360,0:12:47.440
abdullah saleh he’s overthrown

0:12:44.800,0:12:47.440
and then

0:12:48.079,0:12:55.120
oh gosh okay abdullah mansoor

0:12:51.360,0:12:57.839
he assumes power uh and so

0:12:55.120,0:12:58.720
political tensions are they continue to

0:12:57.839,0:13:00.079
grow

0:12:58.720,0:13:02.079
different groups are fighting for

0:13:00.079,0:13:04.399
control over the country

0:13:02.079,0:13:05.519
and one of these groups is known as the

0:13:04.399,0:13:09.360
houthis

0:13:05.519,0:13:11.519
which represent the shia muslim minority

0:13:09.360,0:13:13.920
so just as a refresher there are

0:13:11.519,0:13:14.720
basically two major denominations of

0:13:13.920,0:13:18.079
islam

0:13:14.720,0:13:20.240
it’s shia and sunni and so in a lot of

0:13:18.079,0:13:24.160
these countries in the middle east

0:13:20.240,0:13:27.600
like one there’s one major

0:13:24.160,0:13:29.440
or like one dominant denomination

0:13:27.600,0:13:30.639
does that make sense so yeah

0:13:29.440,0:13:33.279
denomination

0:13:30.639,0:13:36.560
yeah like largely sunni muslim or like

0:13:33.279,0:13:39.839
largely shia muslim um

0:13:36.560,0:13:42.800
the minority shia muslims

0:13:39.839,0:13:44.000
and they started taking control over

0:13:42.800,0:13:47.839
territories

0:13:44.000,0:13:50.079
in yemen and in early 2015 they actually

0:13:47.839,0:13:54.560
overtook the capital of sana

0:13:50.079,0:13:57.760
and so they’re oh gosh

0:13:54.560,0:14:00.560
the houthis the rebel group

0:13:57.760,0:14:02.480
and then security forces like military

0:14:00.560,0:14:04.880
forces who were loyal

0:14:02.480,0:14:05.680
to the original dictator that had been

0:14:04.880,0:14:08.079
overthrown

0:14:05.680,0:14:09.680
saleh so they joined forces forces

0:14:08.079,0:14:12.959
together and they

0:14:09.680,0:14:14.880
forced the current president hadi

0:14:12.959,0:14:17.519
his name was hadi they forced him to

0:14:14.880,0:14:19.279
flee the country in march 2015.

0:14:17.519,0:14:21.760
and so he still is like ruling over the

0:14:19.279,0:14:24.720
country pretty sure he’s returned

0:14:21.760,0:14:26.160
to yemen but they like forced him to

0:14:24.720,0:14:28.959
flee the country

0:14:26.160,0:14:30.079
um and so the civil war obviously is

0:14:28.959,0:14:32.320
still going on today

0:14:30.079,0:14:34.320
and so foreign powers there’s a lot of

0:14:32.320,0:14:35.600
foreign interference in the civil war

0:14:34.320,0:14:37.760
and basically it’s like different

0:14:35.600,0:14:41.360
countries are either supporting the

0:14:37.760,0:14:41.839
houthi rebels or they’re supporting the

0:14:41.360,0:14:45.519
hadi

0:14:41.839,0:14:46.320
government and throughout all of this

0:14:45.519,0:14:48.320
obviously

0:14:46.320,0:14:49.600
civilians are suffering from not only

0:14:48.320,0:14:52.800
the violence of war

0:14:49.600,0:14:56.480
but also a huge famine in the country

0:14:52.800,0:14:57.440
so it’s really upsetting wow wait so all

0:14:56.480,0:14:59.279
of those

0:14:57.440,0:15:02.480
overthrowing of the leaders that’s

0:14:59.279,0:15:04.480
happening in every country in 2011

0:15:02.480,0:15:05.839
yeah like basically the countries i’m

0:15:04.480,0:15:07.680
highlighting so

0:15:05.839,0:15:09.360
all the countries that i listed earlier

0:15:07.680,0:15:12.399
not all of them had regime

0:15:09.360,0:15:13.600
regime changes uh some of them just like

0:15:12.399,0:15:15.279
weren’t as

0:15:13.600,0:15:17.199
successful they didn’t have as much

0:15:15.279,0:15:19.040
momentum and so there were a lot of

0:15:17.199,0:15:20.720
protests in these countries but not a

0:15:19.040,0:15:22.639
lot of change happened

0:15:20.720,0:15:23.920
but then like the countries i’m talking

0:15:22.639,0:15:25.279
about now

0:15:23.920,0:15:27.680
basically like the whole country was

0:15:25.279,0:15:31.440
flipped upside down the governments were

0:15:27.680,0:15:34.639
overthrown and leaders were changed

0:15:31.440,0:15:36.639
and and like it’s just crazy

0:15:34.639,0:15:39.279
like i think i said this earlier but i

0:15:36.639,0:15:41.360
was 12 at the time this happened so

0:15:39.279,0:15:42.399
i was not paying attention to what was

0:15:41.360,0:15:45.759
going on

0:15:42.399,0:15:48.800
but i just i can’t imagine

0:15:45.759,0:15:50.480
i don’t know like the whole region

0:15:48.800,0:15:52.639
all these governments are changing like

0:15:50.480,0:15:55.680
one after another and

0:15:52.639,0:15:58.079
man like i’m sure the people living

0:15:55.680,0:15:59.279
in the region were just so like scared

0:15:58.079,0:16:00.399
and like paranoid

0:15:59.279,0:16:02.639
you don’t know what’s gonna happen

0:16:00.399,0:16:05.360
tomorrow like everything could change

0:16:02.639,0:16:06.560
in a day yeah can you imagine if we

0:16:05.360,0:16:10.079
found news that

0:16:06.560,0:16:12.639
some violent rebel group overtook like

0:16:10.079,0:16:14.160
our president regardless of how you feel

0:16:12.639,0:16:15.360
about the president i’d still be

0:16:14.160,0:16:18.639
concerned

0:16:15.360,0:16:20.720
about that happening so right

0:16:18.639,0:16:22.800
and like these countries are smaller and

0:16:20.720,0:16:24.240
they’re all clustered so close together

0:16:22.800,0:16:26.000
so it’s almost like

0:16:24.240,0:16:27.440
like i’m in illinois now so it’s like if

0:16:26.000,0:16:29.600
wisconsin and then like

0:16:27.440,0:16:30.959
indiana and iowa like all of a sudden

0:16:29.600,0:16:32.639
like there were

0:16:30.959,0:16:34.320
revolutions in all these states and like

0:16:32.639,0:16:36.240
you just see it one after another it’s

0:16:34.320,0:16:39.279
like spreading like wildfire

0:16:36.240,0:16:42.720
so it like it’s just such a chaotic

0:16:39.279,0:16:45.440
time um and yeah

0:16:42.720,0:16:46.160
so okay so last i’m going to talk about

0:16:45.440,0:16:49.600
syria

0:16:46.160,0:16:50.160
so you kind of gave an overview earlier

0:16:49.600,0:16:52.399
but

0:16:50.160,0:16:53.680
just a little more like details so

0:16:52.399,0:16:56.720
basically in march

0:16:53.680,0:16:59.360
15 of 2011

0:16:56.720,0:17:00.320
their peaceful pro-democracy protests

0:16:59.360,0:17:02.240
began

0:17:00.320,0:17:04.480
but they’re met with government

0:17:02.240,0:17:06.559
opposition so the syrian government

0:17:04.480,0:17:08.400
killed and impr imprisoned these

0:17:06.559,0:17:10.319
peaceful protesters

0:17:08.400,0:17:11.679
yeah it was like an extremely violent

0:17:10.319,0:17:14.000
response and it

0:17:11.679,0:17:15.199
was obviously like horrifying and so

0:17:14.000,0:17:17.520
syria

0:17:15.199,0:17:18.400
quickly split into factions like

0:17:17.520,0:17:21.839
different groups

0:17:18.400,0:17:23.600
and violence broke out and this was like

0:17:21.839,0:17:24.880
the beginning of a civil war that

0:17:23.600,0:17:27.360
continues to this day

0:17:24.880,0:17:28.000
the civil war is still going on um and

0:17:27.360,0:17:30.240
so

0:17:28.000,0:17:32.080
basically with the civil war you have

0:17:30.240,0:17:36.160
the oppressive regime

0:17:32.080,0:17:39.200
of long-time dictator bashar al-assad

0:17:36.160,0:17:40.960
so he’s he was the president or dictator

0:17:39.200,0:17:44.720
i guess um

0:17:40.960,0:17:47.520
leader and he’s still in power today

0:17:44.720,0:17:49.120
and he’s fighting against rebel forces

0:17:47.520,0:17:52.559
who are trying to gain control

0:17:49.120,0:17:54.799
over the country so you have yeah

0:17:52.559,0:17:57.440
bashar al-assad’s government and then

0:17:54.799,0:18:00.400
rebel forces who want to overthrow him

0:17:57.440,0:18:02.080
um and then you also have a lot of

0:18:00.400,0:18:05.360
extremist groups that have come

0:18:02.080,0:18:08.480
into syria and infiltrated the country

0:18:05.360,0:18:09.520
um one of these groups is isis and at

0:18:08.480,0:18:13.280
one point

0:18:09.520,0:18:15.919
isis had gained so much territory in

0:18:13.280,0:18:16.960
northeastern syria that they declared a

0:18:15.919,0:18:19.760
caliphate

0:18:16.960,0:18:20.880
and a caliphate is basically a nation

0:18:19.760,0:18:24.000
that’s governed by

0:18:20.880,0:18:25.280
islamic law so they had had all this

0:18:24.000,0:18:27.039
territory in syria and they were like

0:18:25.280,0:18:31.360
okay this is our

0:18:27.039,0:18:33.679
islamic nation like syria

0:18:31.360,0:18:35.280
is in the news a lot today as it should

0:18:33.679,0:18:36.000
be we should be talking about it more

0:18:35.280,0:18:38.160
because

0:18:36.000,0:18:40.799
it has displaced the civil war has

0:18:38.160,0:18:43.919
displaced more than half of all syrians

0:18:40.799,0:18:45.919
so that’s wow about 11 million people

0:18:43.919,0:18:47.120
and it’s killed up to half a million

0:18:45.919,0:18:49.760
people it’s

0:18:47.120,0:18:50.640
the largest refugee crisis of the 21st

0:18:49.760,0:18:53.600
century

0:18:50.640,0:18:54.160
and syrians have been fleeing to seek

0:18:53.600,0:18:56.559
refuge

0:18:54.160,0:18:57.760
in turkey greece and other parts of

0:18:56.559,0:19:01.039
western europe

0:18:57.760,0:19:04.640
they’re not always met with like

0:19:01.039,0:19:08.320
warm welcoming arms um and so

0:19:04.640,0:19:09.440
yeah even like either if they stay in

0:19:08.320,0:19:11.840
syria

0:19:09.440,0:19:12.960
like they could be killed if they leave

0:19:11.840,0:19:15.919
syria

0:19:12.960,0:19:16.480
they’re like leading a very difficult

0:19:15.919,0:19:20.080
life

0:19:16.480,0:19:21.760
um so yeah and

0:19:20.080,0:19:23.120
again like all these civil wars that i

0:19:21.760,0:19:24.080
just mentioned like they’re still going

0:19:23.120,0:19:25.919
on today

0:19:24.080,0:19:27.919
um i think like with covid we’re all

0:19:25.919,0:19:30.960
kind of preoccupied

0:19:27.919,0:19:31.280
with that like that’s pretty distracting

0:19:30.960,0:19:33.840
but

0:19:31.280,0:19:34.559
it’s also like something to remember too

0:19:33.840,0:19:36.160
uh

0:19:34.559,0:19:38.320
that like this stuff is still going on

0:19:36.160,0:19:40.480
it’s not like it gets put on pause

0:19:38.320,0:19:44.160
because of a pandemic but

0:19:40.480,0:19:47.039
yeah so the aftermath of the arab spring

0:19:44.160,0:19:48.640
um so all these like civil wars broke

0:19:47.039,0:19:51.679
out there were regime changes

0:19:48.640,0:19:52.640
there were successful protests

0:19:51.679,0:19:56.240
unsuccessful

0:19:52.640,0:19:59.440
like revolutions and basically tunisia

0:19:56.240,0:20:01.120
where it started with a street vendor uh

0:19:59.440,0:20:02.080
to use is pretty much seen as one of the

0:20:01.120,0:20:04.000
only

0:20:02.080,0:20:05.840
successful revolutions of the arab

0:20:04.000,0:20:09.039
spring

0:20:05.840,0:20:12.000
because in october of 2011

0:20:09.039,0:20:13.600
they had their first democratic

0:20:12.000,0:20:17.200
parliament elections

0:20:13.600,0:20:20.080
and then um

0:20:17.200,0:20:22.080
they had they drafted a new constitution

0:20:20.080,0:20:23.200
and this new constitution protects

0:20:22.080,0:20:25.600
freedom of speech

0:20:23.200,0:20:28.320
freedom of assembly and it also bans

0:20:25.600,0:20:30.559
torture so it was like a lot of progress

0:20:28.320,0:20:32.000
uh and there are a lot of like major

0:20:30.559,0:20:35.760
human rights improvements

0:20:32.000,0:20:38.960
however it’s not perfect yet um

0:20:35.760,0:20:42.240
like there have still been instances of

0:20:38.960,0:20:45.360
like oh my gosh suppression of

0:20:42.240,0:20:48.400
suppression of speech by like

0:20:45.360,0:20:49.760
political opponents um and there have

0:20:48.400,0:20:52.799
been like journalists

0:20:49.760,0:20:55.120
who have been like arrested so

0:20:52.799,0:20:57.120
it’s not perfect yet but they had a like

0:20:55.120,0:21:00.159
a huge amount of improvement

0:20:57.120,0:21:01.200
um however like the overall movements of

0:21:00.159,0:21:03.600
2011

0:21:01.200,0:21:04.480
and the arab spring in general has been

0:21:03.600,0:21:06.960
seen

0:21:04.480,0:21:09.200
as like kind of a failure because the

0:21:06.960,0:21:09.919
original goals of these uprisings were

0:21:09.200,0:21:12.080
to

0:21:09.919,0:21:14.400
increase social freedom freedoms and

0:21:12.080,0:21:18.159
increase democratic participation

0:21:14.400,0:21:21.679
in their government and sadly protesters

0:21:18.159,0:21:23.840
instead saw more war and violence

0:21:21.679,0:21:25.039
and there are now like stronger

0:21:23.840,0:21:28.320
repercussions for

0:21:25.039,0:21:28.880
people who speak out for a fairer a more

0:21:28.320,0:21:31.919
fair

0:21:28.880,0:21:33.919
and more open society so if you

0:21:31.919,0:21:35.600
like if we ask ourselves like why why

0:21:33.919,0:21:38.400
did these movements fail

0:21:35.600,0:21:39.840
like some people will argue that oh it’s

0:21:38.400,0:21:42.799
like the incompetence

0:21:39.840,0:21:44.240
of the revolutionaries or like the

0:21:42.799,0:21:47.280
transitional leaders so

0:21:44.240,0:21:48.720
the leaders that took over after

0:21:47.280,0:21:51.280
the governments were overthrown they

0:21:48.720,0:21:52.640
were like oh they just like

0:21:51.280,0:21:53.760
they failed like they didn’t do a good

0:21:52.640,0:21:54.480
job they didn’t know what they were

0:21:53.760,0:21:58.320
doing

0:21:54.480,0:21:58.960
um however like myself and a lot of

0:21:58.320,0:22:02.640
other people

0:21:58.960,0:22:04.159
argue that the blame can be placed on

0:22:02.640,0:22:07.360
like the failure of

0:22:04.159,0:22:10.320
institutions and so vox

0:22:07.360,0:22:10.799
uh boxes it’s one of my sources um and

0:22:10.320,0:22:13.440
they

0:22:10.799,0:22:15.760
read they wrote a huge article about

0:22:13.440,0:22:18.400
like how the failure of institutions

0:22:15.760,0:22:20.240
was why the revolutions like weren’t

0:22:18.400,0:22:21.039
successful and so they have a really

0:22:20.240,0:22:23.280
good quote

0:22:21.039,0:22:24.559
so i’m just going to read it so

0:22:23.280,0:22:26.799
democratic transition

0:22:24.559,0:22:29.120
it turns out isn’t about whom you can

0:22:26.799,0:22:31.280
overthrow or whom you replace them with

0:22:29.120,0:22:33.679
it’s about whether or how you change the

0:22:31.280,0:22:34.720
vast network of institutions underneath

0:22:33.679,0:22:36.640
that person

0:22:34.720,0:22:39.360
so no matter how many times you topple

0:22:36.640,0:22:40.640
the dictator no matter how pure and good

0:22:39.360,0:22:43.039
your protesters are

0:22:40.640,0:22:45.039
it won’t be enough um so i really like

0:22:43.039,0:22:46.960
that quote and

0:22:45.039,0:22:48.320
so now yeah like i guess i’m gonna go

0:22:46.960,0:22:48.960
into more detail about like what does

0:22:48.320,0:22:51.039
that mean like

0:22:48.960,0:22:52.000
institutions failed like that’s kind of

0:22:51.039,0:22:54.480
confusing so

0:22:52.000,0:22:55.840
if we look at first let’s look at egypt

0:22:54.480,0:22:57.600
so

0:22:55.840,0:22:59.200
uh this like as a refresher because i

0:22:57.600,0:23:00.080
talked about so many different names and

0:22:59.200,0:23:02.960
countries

0:23:00.080,0:23:04.240
so they protesters had originally

0:23:02.960,0:23:07.360
overthrown

0:23:04.240,0:23:08.320
uh the dictator mubarak right and so he

0:23:07.360,0:23:10.799
had been ruling

0:23:08.320,0:23:12.960
for three decades and over these three

0:23:10.799,0:23:16.320
decades he basically ensured

0:23:12.960,0:23:18.080
that no opposition party or civil

0:23:16.320,0:23:21.120
society institution

0:23:18.080,0:23:24.240
grew strong enough to challenge him

0:23:21.120,0:23:26.000
so for example he staffed the interior

0:23:24.240,0:23:28.480
ministry with his supporters

0:23:26.000,0:23:30.559
rather than like effective leaders so

0:23:28.480,0:23:31.440
like the patronage spoil system like we

0:23:30.559,0:23:34.400
talked about

0:23:31.440,0:23:34.720
um and then this made it easier like

0:23:34.400,0:23:37.600
this

0:23:34.720,0:23:39.840
gave way to corruption right and then he

0:23:37.600,0:23:40.720
stripped the judiciary system of its

0:23:39.840,0:23:42.960
power

0:23:40.720,0:23:45.360
and this weakened the rule of law and

0:23:42.960,0:23:48.000
gave him the power to persecute his

0:23:45.360,0:23:49.440
political opponents and so basically he

0:23:48.000,0:23:52.000
made sure that all these

0:23:49.440,0:23:53.039
institutions in the government were like

0:23:52.000,0:23:55.919
very weak

0:23:53.039,0:23:57.200
and they couldn’t support a transition

0:23:55.919,0:24:00.320
if his like

0:23:57.200,0:24:04.080
if his regime fell the only institution

0:24:00.320,0:24:07.440
that grew stronger was the military he

0:24:04.080,0:24:10.000
um he made the military a lot stronger

0:24:07.440,0:24:12.240
and this kind of backfired because he

0:24:10.000,0:24:13.279
lost public support and then he lost the

0:24:12.240,0:24:15.200
loyalty

0:24:13.279,0:24:16.840
of his military so then the military

0:24:15.200,0:24:21.600
like overthrew him

0:24:16.840,0:24:24.640
um and so yeah so he’s overthrown right

0:24:21.600,0:24:26.480
and then the next guy is elected morsi

0:24:24.640,0:24:29.279
is elected into power

0:24:26.480,0:24:30.840
um but he like he was pretty much set up

0:24:29.279,0:24:34.480
for failure because all of these

0:24:30.840,0:24:35.440
institutions were like he was starting

0:24:34.480,0:24:37.440
from

0:24:35.440,0:24:38.799
below ground zero you know because he

0:24:37.440,0:24:40.559
had to like rebuild all these

0:24:38.799,0:24:42.240
institutions

0:24:40.559,0:24:44.240
like there’s corruption throughout the

0:24:42.240,0:24:46.000
government and so you kind of have to

0:24:44.240,0:24:48.640
rebuild everything

0:24:46.000,0:24:49.120
um and that’s a really difficult task so

0:24:48.640,0:24:52.480
he

0:24:49.120,0:24:54.640
failed and instead of

0:24:52.480,0:24:55.840
like democratically electing a new

0:24:54.640,0:24:58.480
president

0:24:55.840,0:24:59.120
um like there were these institutions

0:24:58.480,0:25:02.400
were too

0:24:59.120,0:25:05.520
weak to prevent further

0:25:02.400,0:25:06.640
revolution so he was overthrown by the

0:25:05.520,0:25:09.840
military in a

0:25:06.640,0:25:11.600
coup so like does that make sense yeah

0:25:09.840,0:25:15.840
we which country is this again

0:25:11.600,0:25:19.600
this is egypt okay wow

0:25:15.840,0:25:21.200
and so like yeah basically

0:25:19.600,0:25:22.720
all these institutions were weak and

0:25:21.200,0:25:26.320
then now we still have there’s still a

0:25:22.720,0:25:28.080
dictator in egypt and it’s because

0:25:26.320,0:25:30.799
there’s no like checks and balances you

0:25:28.080,0:25:32.640
know because the original dictator had

0:25:30.799,0:25:34.960
erased all these checks and balances so

0:25:32.640,0:25:36.480
it’s hard to

0:25:34.960,0:25:38.000
it doesn’t matter about the people who

0:25:36.480,0:25:39.679
are in power it’s about

0:25:38.000,0:25:41.600
like the setup of the government you

0:25:39.679,0:25:44.240
know yeah yeah

0:25:41.600,0:25:45.840
yeah and so basically the same thing

0:25:44.240,0:25:48.159
happened in libya

0:25:45.840,0:25:49.600
qaddafi had like been weakening

0:25:48.159,0:25:52.880
institutions over his

0:25:49.600,0:25:54.960
20 years of rule 30 years of rule and so

0:25:52.880,0:25:58.080
no one was able to challenge him

0:25:54.960,0:25:58.559
and so that so now libya is in a civil

0:25:58.080,0:26:00.159
war

0:25:58.559,0:26:02.159
like fighting for control because there

0:26:00.159,0:26:03.279
had been no like strong opposition

0:26:02.159,0:26:06.640
parties

0:26:03.279,0:26:08.000
um yeah like you might be asking like oh

0:26:06.640,0:26:09.039
my god like why are there so many

0:26:08.000,0:26:11.360
dictators

0:26:09.039,0:26:12.640
um it’s because there’s like a lot of

0:26:11.360,0:26:14.799
instability

0:26:12.640,0:26:16.799
after these after britain and france

0:26:14.799,0:26:18.000
like pulled out of the middle east

0:26:16.799,0:26:20.159
and then there’s like a strong sense of

0:26:18.000,0:26:23.600
nationalism and like it was easy

0:26:20.159,0:26:27.120
for people to kind of like take power

0:26:23.600,0:26:29.760
by using nationalism as like a uniting

0:26:27.120,0:26:31.200
identity factor and then also like

0:26:29.760,0:26:32.799
because of oil

0:26:31.200,0:26:34.880
oil reserves in the middle east like

0:26:32.799,0:26:36.400
these leaders were able to make

0:26:34.880,0:26:39.039
a lot of money really quick and then

0:26:36.400,0:26:41.760
they were able to like fund

0:26:39.039,0:26:43.440
their like with the money they’re making

0:26:41.760,0:26:46.159
from oil they’re able to like

0:26:43.440,0:26:47.120
pay off different institutions so like

0:26:46.159,0:26:48.640
the military

0:26:47.120,0:26:50.320
and like they will like bribe people and

0:26:48.640,0:26:52.559
basically like fund

0:26:50.320,0:26:53.760
their dictatorship so that’s that’s

0:26:52.559,0:26:56.960
another reason why we see

0:26:53.760,0:27:00.480
a lot of like authoritarian regimes

0:26:56.960,0:27:04.159
in the region some sense yeah

0:27:00.480,0:27:08.080
so yeah and then also like just

0:27:04.159,0:27:10.240
so for syria so the military

0:27:08.080,0:27:11.600
is really really strong and they have

0:27:10.240,0:27:15.279
remained loyal to

0:27:11.600,0:27:17.919
bashar al-assad because he basically

0:27:15.279,0:27:19.520
engineered the military as an instrument

0:27:17.919,0:27:21.279
to rule the country

0:27:19.520,0:27:23.120
so he weakened all the other

0:27:21.279,0:27:25.200
institutions made

0:27:23.120,0:27:26.240
the military stronger but he made sure

0:27:25.200,0:27:28.640
that they would

0:27:26.240,0:27:30.399
like always remain loyal to him and do

0:27:28.640,0:27:33.200
whatever he said

0:27:30.399,0:27:35.840
and because of this syria is pretty much

0:27:33.200,0:27:39.039
the worst case scenario because

0:27:35.840,0:27:40.000
like there’s a brutal evil dictator that

0:27:39.039,0:27:43.279
has

0:27:40.000,0:27:46.080
like a really a good amount of territory

0:27:43.279,0:27:47.360
and he’s attacking civilians and he

0:27:46.080,0:27:50.080
remains in power

0:27:47.360,0:27:52.159
but there’s also a power vacuum in the

0:27:50.080,0:27:55.039
territory that he lost

0:27:52.159,0:27:57.279
and that has opened the door for isis

0:27:55.039,0:27:57.840
and other extremist groups to infiltrate

0:27:57.279,0:28:01.919
the country

0:27:57.840,0:28:03.440
so it’s like that’s why it’s such a

0:28:01.919,0:28:06.720
violent situation and that’s why

0:28:03.440,0:28:07.360
it hasn’t been resolved yet uh it’s just

0:28:06.720,0:28:09.279
like

0:28:07.360,0:28:10.799
literally the worst case scenario and

0:28:09.279,0:28:13.600
then so if you’re asking yourself

0:28:10.799,0:28:15.360
so why did tunisia succeed why were they

0:28:13.600,0:28:17.240
like the only country to succeed

0:28:15.360,0:28:18.880
um basically their first

0:28:17.240,0:28:21.440
post-revolutionary government

0:28:18.880,0:28:21.919
had remained stable and when the people

0:28:21.440,0:28:24.559
started

0:28:21.919,0:28:26.080
disagreeing with their leader they he

0:28:24.559,0:28:28.640
was defeated in the polls

0:28:26.080,0:28:29.520
rather than through a coup like they

0:28:28.640,0:28:32.080
just voted him

0:28:29.520,0:28:32.960
out of office after his term was up and

0:28:32.080,0:28:35.679
yeah did

0:28:32.960,0:28:38.240
sorry did any of the other countries uh

0:28:35.679,0:28:43.360
write constitutions

0:28:38.240,0:28:46.000
um i think bahrain

0:28:43.360,0:28:47.760
they have a constitutional monarchy and

0:28:46.000,0:28:49.600
i think they tried to draft a new

0:28:47.760,0:28:52.000
constitution

0:28:49.600,0:28:54.080
yeah i feel like writing it down helps

0:28:52.000,0:28:56.640
i’m just like studying

0:28:54.080,0:28:58.799
other countries when you have a

0:28:56.640,0:29:00.080
constitution and you write like

0:28:58.799,0:29:02.159
this is how the government should be

0:29:00.080,0:29:03.760
formed um

0:29:02.159,0:29:05.679
but i don’t know that’s not to like

0:29:03.760,0:29:08.399
diminish what happened in

0:29:05.679,0:29:09.120
egypt but i just tunisia had the or

0:29:08.399,0:29:13.200
tunisia

0:29:09.120,0:29:14.880
tunisia yeah i thought it was tunisia

0:29:13.200,0:29:16.720
i’ve been saying it wrong my whole life

0:29:14.880,0:29:18.880
tunisia um

0:29:16.720,0:29:20.320
yeah i feel like the one differing thing

0:29:18.880,0:29:23.520
you told me is that tunisia

0:29:20.320,0:29:26.240
had a constitution that outlawed certain

0:29:23.520,0:29:28.000
elements yeah yeah like they were able

0:29:26.240,0:29:30.000
to draft the constitution but that’s

0:29:28.000,0:29:32.559
because they had

0:29:30.000,0:29:33.919
stronger civil institutions before the

0:29:32.559,0:29:36.640
protest began

0:29:33.919,0:29:38.480
so like they did have a dictator but

0:29:36.640,0:29:41.600
they still had

0:29:38.480,0:29:45.200
um strong like opposition

0:29:41.600,0:29:46.320
and they had like human rights groups

0:29:45.200,0:29:48.480
and like lawyers

0:29:46.320,0:29:50.000
and like clerks like were still strong

0:29:48.480,0:29:50.799
and present and like that’s a really big

0:29:50.000,0:29:53.520
deal

0:29:50.799,0:29:54.640
um because like those people were able

0:29:53.520,0:29:56.960
to

0:29:54.640,0:29:57.679
like come together and diffuse political

0:29:56.960,0:29:58.960
tensions

0:29:57.679,0:30:01.120
they were able to write a new

0:29:58.960,0:30:02.880
constitution and then

0:30:01.120,0:30:04.480
they were able to continue with like

0:30:02.880,0:30:07.120
fair elections because

0:30:04.480,0:30:08.640
they had like these strong institutions

0:30:07.120,0:30:10.640
i know i’m like repeating myself but

0:30:08.640,0:30:13.039
no that makes sense how does one

0:30:10.640,0:30:13.840
diminish the power of an institution do

0:30:13.039,0:30:16.320
you just remove

0:30:13.840,0:30:18.640
funding yeah well like kind of like what

0:30:16.320,0:30:19.600
i i guess like using egypt as an example

0:30:18.640,0:30:22.799
again

0:30:19.600,0:30:24.880
like he just replaced all the government

0:30:22.799,0:30:26.559
officials with his supporters so it was

0:30:24.880,0:30:27.440
like super corrupt so there’s no one

0:30:26.559,0:30:28.799
who’s like

0:30:27.440,0:30:30.720
knows what they’re doing like no one who

0:30:28.799,0:30:32.240
is like an expert at their job it’s not

0:30:30.720,0:30:35.200
like

0:30:32.240,0:30:36.720
like the people who are like leading the

0:30:35.200,0:30:39.200
country

0:30:36.720,0:30:40.880
are not necessarily like the best people

0:30:39.200,0:30:43.679
they’re just like people who

0:30:40.880,0:30:45.279
gave him money right yeah it’s like so

0:30:43.679,0:30:46.240
much corruption and so now it’s like

0:30:45.279,0:30:47.600
okay

0:30:46.240,0:30:49.440
we have to like fill all these

0:30:47.600,0:30:50.159
government roles but like how do we do

0:30:49.440,0:30:54.240
that

0:30:50.159,0:30:57.039
and then he um

0:30:54.240,0:30:58.960
i like i guess if you yeah if you

0:30:57.039,0:31:01.039
replace like all your country’s judges

0:30:58.960,0:31:03.039
with again like supporters or like

0:31:01.039,0:31:05.679
people that you could pay off

0:31:03.039,0:31:07.440
then there’s a judicial system and so

0:31:05.679,0:31:09.279
basically it’s like you’re

0:31:07.440,0:31:10.640
you’re replacing the entire government

0:31:09.279,0:31:13.120
with people

0:31:10.640,0:31:13.679
for you yeah it’s like the patronage

0:31:13.120,0:31:16.880
system

0:31:13.679,0:31:19.360
but like extreme i guess how would you

0:31:16.880,0:31:21.279
even rise up against that

0:31:19.360,0:31:23.840
like as the people there’s not really

0:31:21.279,0:31:27.440
other way than by force

0:31:23.840,0:31:28.640
if and that’s why like a lot

0:31:27.440,0:31:30.320
like if you look at these countries who

0:31:28.640,0:31:32.320
are in civil wars the reason they go

0:31:30.320,0:31:35.600
into civil war wars because they

0:31:32.320,0:31:36.080
like rebel forces gain they join forces

0:31:35.600,0:31:38.480
with

0:31:36.080,0:31:39.840
at least part of the military you know

0:31:38.480,0:31:43.039
because you need that

0:31:39.840,0:31:44.559
physical force like you can’t just like

0:31:43.039,0:31:47.120
protest forever

0:31:44.559,0:31:48.960
yeah peaceful protest is not gonna work

0:31:47.120,0:31:50.640
in that situation

0:31:48.960,0:31:53.039
cause if it did then you wouldn’t be in

0:31:50.640,0:31:55.120
that situation like obviously that’s not

0:31:53.039,0:31:57.120
what the people would want

0:31:55.120,0:31:59.600
exactly so a lot of times it’s like okay

0:31:57.120,0:32:01.919
well when the military

0:31:59.600,0:32:04.320
starts questioning who they’re like

0:32:01.919,0:32:06.399
supporting then that’s when

0:32:04.320,0:32:08.399
like yeah that’s when it goes south you

0:32:06.399,0:32:12.080
know um

0:32:08.399,0:32:13.519
yeah so it’s like super complicated

0:32:12.080,0:32:15.200
and obviously there are a lot of

0:32:13.519,0:32:18.240
different reasons why

0:32:15.200,0:32:20.480
certain countries succeeded and certain

0:32:18.240,0:32:22.159
like most countries didn’t but that’s

0:32:20.480,0:32:22.720
kind of just like my oversimplification

0:32:22.159,0:32:24.480
of like

0:32:22.720,0:32:26.799
oh blame it on the institutions but

0:32:24.480,0:32:29.200
obviously there’s a lot of other factors

0:32:26.799,0:32:30.559
um but basically like what we learned

0:32:29.200,0:32:34.480
and what we saw from the

0:32:30.559,0:32:36.799
uprisings in the spring of 2011 is that

0:32:34.480,0:32:38.000
like there’s mass demonstrations and

0:32:36.799,0:32:40.480
peaceful protests

0:32:38.000,0:32:42.080
are actually really powerful and can

0:32:40.480,0:32:44.240
result in change

0:32:42.080,0:32:45.200
and it really showcased the ability of

0:32:44.240,0:32:48.000
social media

0:32:45.200,0:32:49.600
to fuel protests and like also

0:32:48.000,0:32:52.799
communicate the goals of

0:32:49.600,0:32:55.440
the protesters to the outside world um

0:32:52.799,0:32:56.559
i think that’s kind of why it spread so

0:32:55.440,0:32:58.640
quickly

0:32:56.559,0:33:00.399
and it was so far-reaching was because

0:32:58.640,0:33:02.000
like social media you could reach the

0:33:00.399,0:33:05.919
whole world you know

0:33:02.000,0:33:09.600
and yeah it’s just that’s basically it

0:33:05.919,0:33:11.919
um oh wait no yeah also finally

0:33:09.600,0:33:13.440
it showed autocratic governments and the

0:33:11.919,0:33:14.399
rest of the world that millions of

0:33:13.440,0:33:16.240
people living in

0:33:14.399,0:33:17.679
islamic nations believe in free

0:33:16.240,0:33:20.480
expression and

0:33:17.679,0:33:21.039
democratic governance and yeah basically

0:33:20.480,0:33:24.480
like what

0:33:21.039,0:33:28.159
started as a single active protest from

0:33:24.480,0:33:29.440
like one individual resulted in a huge

0:33:28.159,0:33:33.120
movement that

0:33:29.440,0:33:36.559
like spread across an entire region and

0:33:33.120,0:33:38.880
yeah that’s basically the arab spring

0:33:36.559,0:33:40.240
uh it’s really complicated there’s a lot

0:33:38.880,0:33:42.960
more yeah

0:33:40.240,0:33:44.320
but hopefully that kind of gives people

0:33:42.960,0:33:46.399
like

0:33:44.320,0:33:48.640
some background on what’s going on today

0:33:46.399,0:33:51.600
and a little bit more understanding of

0:33:48.640,0:33:52.080
like why there’s so much unrest yeah no

0:33:51.600,0:33:54.880
definitely

0:33:52.080,0:33:56.399
that’s like the tip of the iceberg into

0:33:54.880,0:34:00.159
what’s happening in the middle

0:33:56.399,0:34:02.080
in the middle east and yeah yeah

0:34:00.159,0:34:03.679
also like i just want to like before we

0:34:02.080,0:34:05.760
end i just want to say like

0:34:03.679,0:34:08.000
i don’t know i feel like the region is

0:34:05.760,0:34:11.040
extremely diverse and they’re

0:34:08.000,0:34:13.440
like the situation varies

0:34:11.040,0:34:15.760
extremely like between each country and

0:34:13.440,0:34:17.679
i i kind of chose to focus on

0:34:15.760,0:34:19.760
countries that like were in similar

0:34:17.679,0:34:22.399
situations with like civil war

0:34:19.760,0:34:23.919
and regime changes but like that’s not

0:34:22.399,0:34:26.639
what all of the middle east looks like

0:34:23.919,0:34:29.679
and it’s not just all like war-torn

0:34:26.639,0:34:32.960
uh yeah it’s not yeah it’s not all

0:34:29.679,0:34:34.079
not everyone is suffering and like in a

0:34:32.960,0:34:36.960
similar way

0:34:34.079,0:34:38.240
um yeah each country is very different

0:34:36.960,0:34:40.480
so

0:34:38.240,0:34:42.000
yeah i didn’t need to oversimplify with

0:34:40.480,0:34:45.200
this but

0:34:42.000,0:34:47.440
yeah yeah no i think you did good

0:34:45.200,0:34:49.440
thank you nat for presenting on the arab

0:34:47.440,0:34:51.440
spring and

0:34:49.440,0:34:52.480
yeah we learned a lot and i hope that we

0:34:51.440,0:34:54.399
can continue

0:34:52.480,0:34:55.679
talking about different events in the

0:34:54.399,0:34:57.680
middle east so we get a

0:34:55.679,0:34:59.520
more diverse perspective on what’s

0:34:57.680,0:35:01.280
happening because i for one

0:34:59.520,0:35:02.640
have a very i think of it as a

0:35:01.280,0:35:05.119
monolithic

0:35:02.640,0:35:05.920
area and it’s definitely not in any

0:35:05.119,0:35:09.520
sense

0:35:05.920,0:35:11.040
so this will be a good opening topic for

0:35:09.520,0:35:13.040
us

0:35:11.040,0:35:14.839
for sure all right thanks for listening

0:35:13.040,0:35:16.550
everyone

0:35:14.839,0:35:36.800
bye

0:35:16.550,0:35:38.880
[Music]

The Partition of Ireland

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! 🎙 The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com 📦 ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnkt  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

Ireland: the home of gorgeous coastal mountains and grassy plains. Yet, despite the beauty and charm, the island of Ireland has a long history of conflict. So much so, that the island is split into two *not physically of course*. In our Season 2, World History premiere, Jac takes us through the conflict between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland .

Sources:

https://www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irish-news/a-history-of-ireland-for-outsiders-from-henry-viii-to-the-troubles-1.3816898

Derry Girls Clip:

Transcript

0:00:00.240,0:00:04.560
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.399,0:00:04.960
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:04.560,0:00:08.960
that

0:00:04.960,0:00:12.000
i’m Nat i’m jack and we’re back

0:00:08.960,0:00:12.000
with season two

0:00:12.480,0:00:17.039
so exciting so exciting um yeah it’s

0:00:15.280,0:00:17.600
season two this season we’re going to be

0:00:17.039,0:00:21.119
talking

0:00:17.600,0:00:24.080
about world history so we have a lot of

0:00:21.119,0:00:24.560
fun and exciting topics coming your way

0:00:24.080,0:00:27.279
so

0:00:24.560,0:00:28.320
today jack i i actually don’t know what

0:00:27.279,0:00:30.160
you’re going to talk about

0:00:28.320,0:00:32.480
today i’m going to talk about ireland

0:00:30.160,0:00:34.800
for our irish viewers who are so

0:00:32.480,0:00:37.920
dedicated we see you

0:00:34.800,0:00:40.079
wow shout out to our irish viewers

0:00:37.920,0:00:41.600
yeah so actually i’m gonna talk about

0:00:40.079,0:00:42.399
let’s just get right into it happy

0:00:41.600,0:00:45.680
season two

0:00:42.399,0:00:48.000
missed you guys very excited so

0:00:45.680,0:00:50.480
nat did you know that ireland is

0:00:48.000,0:00:53.520
actually split

0:00:50.480,0:00:57.039
isn’t it like northern southern ireland

0:00:53.520,0:00:59.280
but i honestly like i hear about

0:00:57.039,0:01:01.440
like issues going on with north north

0:00:59.280,0:01:04.559
and south ireland today but i don’t know

0:01:01.440,0:01:09.600
the history behind it yeah me neither

0:01:04.559,0:01:09.600
i never knew i yeah i knew that um

0:01:09.920,0:01:13.520
actually no i really didn’t know much i

0:01:11.360,0:01:14.640
thought i heard that like ireland was

0:01:13.520,0:01:16.640
part of the uk

0:01:14.640,0:01:18.000
and it wasn’t part of the uk and then i

0:01:16.640,0:01:21.119
wasn’t sure

0:01:18.000,0:01:23.680
what was going on there and so actually

0:01:21.119,0:01:24.720
ireland like is an island like the

0:01:23.680,0:01:26.799
actual

0:01:24.720,0:01:28.080
just like the name of the island is

0:01:26.799,0:01:30.880
called ireland

0:01:28.080,0:01:31.600
and that’s an island for our viewers who

0:01:30.880,0:01:34.079
are like

0:01:31.600,0:01:35.360
not familiar of the location of ireland

0:01:34.079,0:01:38.479
it’s an island that’s off

0:01:35.360,0:01:39.520
western europe and it’s in the atlantic

0:01:38.479,0:01:43.920
sea so it’s like

0:01:39.520,0:01:43.920
north west from europe

0:01:44.000,0:01:47.040
europe it’s like the northwest section

0:01:45.680,0:01:50.240
it’s not in like

0:01:47.040,0:01:51.920
yeah is it closest to england like is it

0:01:50.240,0:01:54.320
like right off the coast or is it yeah

0:01:51.920,0:01:58.320
it’s like right off the coast of england

0:01:54.320,0:02:00.479
okay and um yeah so

0:01:58.320,0:02:02.320
that island is split into two parts with

0:02:00.479,0:02:04.880
the south being called

0:02:02.320,0:02:07.040
ireland like what we we formally know is

0:02:04.880,0:02:09.360
ireland or the republic of ireland

0:02:07.040,0:02:12.560
and then the north is northern ireland

0:02:09.360,0:02:16.640
and it’s actually part of the uk

0:02:12.560,0:02:19.440
okay yeah so then records of like

0:02:16.640,0:02:20.080
the island of ireland date back to

0:02:19.440,0:02:23.520
forever

0:02:20.080,0:02:24.640
like ten 000 a.d prehistoric times

0:02:23.520,0:02:28.000
there’s records

0:02:24.640,0:02:29.040
and then they’re like it’s very well

0:02:28.000,0:02:32.160
recorded

0:02:29.040,0:02:34.959
everything that happened in ireland so

0:02:32.160,0:02:37.040
we’re actually going to start in 500 bc

0:02:34.959,0:02:40.319
with the arrival of celts

0:02:37.040,0:02:42.959
so around 500 bc

0:02:40.319,0:02:43.840
people immigrated to ireland and that

0:02:42.959,0:02:45.760
group of people

0:02:43.840,0:02:47.360
were called celtic people was like

0:02:45.760,0:02:50.480
celtic heritage

0:02:47.360,0:02:54.160
and that was that later became known

0:02:50.480,0:02:57.519
as the dominant irish ethnic group

0:02:54.160,0:02:59.040
okay and so the religion uh

0:02:57.519,0:03:01.120
well actually do you know why i like

0:02:59.040,0:03:03.200
ireland split can you take a guess

0:03:01.120,0:03:05.200
isn’t it like one half of it they’re

0:03:03.200,0:03:06.159
protestants and then the other half is

0:03:05.200,0:03:09.680
like catholic

0:03:06.159,0:03:11.280
yeah literally so it’s a it’s a witch

0:03:09.680,0:03:13.599
yeah okay we’ll talk about it it’s

0:03:11.280,0:03:15.760
really interesting um

0:03:13.599,0:03:17.040
but yeah i know basically it’s like a

0:03:15.760,0:03:20.159
religious

0:03:17.040,0:03:21.680
difference and

0:03:20.159,0:03:24.239
we’re gonna go back but the celts that

0:03:21.680,0:03:27.599
like um settled ireland

0:03:24.239,0:03:29.760
had religious beliefs that were not the

0:03:27.599,0:03:32.159
same as the main world and so

0:03:29.760,0:03:34.080
any time that you have differing like

0:03:32.159,0:03:36.720
beliefs at least back then

0:03:34.080,0:03:37.200
from like the dominant religions you’re

0:03:36.720,0:03:39.360
called

0:03:37.200,0:03:42.879
pagan so that religion that celtics

0:03:39.360,0:03:42.879
practiced was called paganism

0:03:42.959,0:03:47.360
and it wasn’t until the 5th century so

0:03:45.680,0:03:50.319
that’s 400 bc

0:03:47.360,0:03:51.120
when a 16 year old boy from roman

0:03:50.319,0:03:54.560
britain

0:03:51.120,0:03:57.519
was kidnapped and roman britain is not

0:03:54.560,0:03:59.920
like england it’s like another i can’t

0:03:57.519,0:04:01.280
really describe it that well but it’s

0:03:59.920,0:04:04.400
he’s kidnapped from

0:04:01.280,0:04:04.879
like a different area the 16 year old

0:04:04.400,0:04:07.599
boy

0:04:04.879,0:04:10.080
this is just like a fun fact and he um

0:04:07.599,0:04:13.280
he’s taken to ireland as a slave

0:04:10.080,0:04:16.799
and then he escapes ireland and

0:04:13.280,0:04:17.120
he goes and like studies catholicism so

0:04:16.799,0:04:19.359
the

0:04:17.120,0:04:20.479
okay the major religion at the time is

0:04:19.359,0:04:22.720
catholicism

0:04:20.479,0:04:23.919
at least like that form of christianity

0:04:22.720,0:04:25.040
there’s like judaism

0:04:23.919,0:04:27.280
i know you’re not religious so i’m

0:04:25.040,0:04:29.840
trying to break it down

0:04:27.280,0:04:30.880
yeah so like basically okay rough

0:04:29.840,0:04:33.600
religious

0:04:30.880,0:04:35.040
like religion history lesson there’s

0:04:33.600,0:04:38.560
like judaism

0:04:35.040,0:04:41.680
and judaism is like jewish and then

0:04:38.560,0:04:43.120
jesus who is i don’t know if anyone’s

0:04:41.680,0:04:46.080
heard of jesus christ

0:04:43.120,0:04:48.800
he’s like the head of christianity but

0:04:46.080,0:04:52.880
jesus was originally a jew so he studied

0:04:48.800,0:04:57.280
he practiced judaism and then when jesus

0:04:52.880,0:05:00.000
um was he became known as the son of

0:04:57.280,0:05:00.800
god in the eyes of christians and he

0:05:00.000,0:05:04.479
died

0:05:00.800,0:05:07.280
for our sins and everything and so jesus

0:05:04.479,0:05:10.479
then like if you believe that jesus is

0:05:07.280,0:05:12.400
like the coming of christ then that is

0:05:10.479,0:05:14.639
christianity so you believe in jesus

0:05:12.400,0:05:18.000
christ you believe in

0:05:14.639,0:05:19.120
like god and everything does that make

0:05:18.000,0:05:20.560
sense i feel like i need to bring a

0:05:19.120,0:05:21.280
whiteboard out here and like sketch it

0:05:20.560,0:05:23.680
out

0:05:21.280,0:05:25.120
like draw lines so like the difference

0:05:23.680,0:05:27.840
like the main difference between

0:05:25.120,0:05:30.000
judaism and christianity is that

0:05:27.840,0:05:31.039
christians believe that jesus is the son

0:05:30.000,0:05:34.800
of god

0:05:31.039,0:05:36.400
but judaism doesn’t necessarily

0:05:34.800,0:05:38.880
believe that he’s the son of god yeah

0:05:36.400,0:05:41.120
they don’t they believe he’s like a guy

0:05:38.880,0:05:42.960
um but like not that he was like the

0:05:41.120,0:05:46.400
coming of christ or anything

0:05:42.960,0:05:47.280
okay um i hope that’s right i’m not fact

0:05:46.400,0:05:51.039
check myself

0:05:47.280,0:05:54.479
but um yeah so anyway so

0:05:51.039,0:05:56.319
jesus forms this branch it’s

0:05:54.479,0:05:58.400
christianity and like

0:05:56.319,0:06:00.160
the biggest first branch of christianity

0:05:58.400,0:06:03.199
is actually catholicism

0:06:00.160,0:06:05.680
so that’s the roman catholic faith and

0:06:03.199,0:06:06.800
that was the only form of christianity

0:06:05.680,0:06:09.680
back then so you’re

0:06:06.800,0:06:10.560
like it’s catholic you’re like okay

0:06:09.680,0:06:12.960
catholic

0:06:10.560,0:06:13.680
um if you believe in jesus christ and

0:06:12.960,0:06:16.960
like god you’re

0:06:13.680,0:06:20.319
you would be a catholic so um

0:06:16.960,0:06:22.240
the boy he flees and he’s catholic and

0:06:20.319,0:06:24.720
then he comes back to ireland

0:06:22.240,0:06:26.639
to convert the irish to christianity

0:06:24.720,0:06:29.919
because again the irish at this time

0:06:26.639,0:06:31.440
um celtic heritage was paganism and

0:06:29.919,0:06:34.639
paganism was a religion

0:06:31.440,0:06:37.120
and um so he converts the irish to

0:06:34.639,0:06:39.919
christianity specifically catholicism

0:06:37.120,0:06:41.520
and that boy later becomes known as the

0:06:39.919,0:06:44.319
patron saint of ireland

0:06:41.520,0:06:46.160
aka st patrick so that’s how we have st

0:06:44.319,0:06:49.280
patrick’s day

0:06:46.160,0:06:51.360
oh okay yeah so that’s what that’s about

0:06:49.280,0:06:53.680
and then the big quote with

0:06:51.360,0:06:56.319
st patrick is that he’s credited with

0:06:53.680,0:06:59.360
driving the snakes out of ireland

0:06:56.319,0:07:00.800
and that’s a metaphor because ireland

0:06:59.360,0:07:03.440
never had snakes

0:07:00.800,0:07:04.960
the snakes are a metaphor for pagans

0:07:03.440,0:07:07.520
long story short ireland

0:07:04.960,0:07:09.120
has turned completely catholic by about

0:07:07.520,0:07:12.479
480

0:07:09.120,0:07:15.039
and ireland and england during this time

0:07:12.479,0:07:16.080
are all catholic and that lasts for

0:07:15.039,0:07:19.520
centuries

0:07:16.080,0:07:21.919
and eventually we hit the 16th century

0:07:19.520,0:07:24.160
and then something big happens with

0:07:21.919,0:07:26.160
religion and do you remember what that

0:07:24.160,0:07:30.720
was

0:07:26.160,0:07:32.880
um i’m guessing that there’s like a like

0:07:30.720,0:07:33.840
division oh then i have to do like pokes

0:07:32.880,0:07:36.160
there’s two popes

0:07:33.840,0:07:38.000
am i thinking well tell me what you’re

0:07:36.160,0:07:40.960
thinking with the popes

0:07:38.000,0:07:43.440
like a division in christianity so like

0:07:40.960,0:07:45.840
there’s catholics and then like a new

0:07:43.440,0:07:47.759
division yeah there’s a they weren’t

0:07:45.840,0:07:49.199
hopes but it’s um you’re right that

0:07:47.759,0:07:52.560
there is a division

0:07:49.199,0:07:53.919
in christianity so there is a man called

0:07:52.560,0:07:56.720
martin luther

0:07:53.919,0:07:58.560
and he was a monk and he posted like a

0:07:56.720,0:07:59.360
bunch of complaints about the catholic

0:07:58.560,0:08:03.039
church

0:07:59.360,0:08:06.240
on a door i believe the story goes and

0:08:03.039,0:08:08.319
that was when then he he broke off from

0:08:06.240,0:08:09.919
catholicism and formed his own branch of

0:08:08.319,0:08:13.280
christianity called luther

0:08:09.919,0:08:15.199
lutheranism lutheranism

0:08:13.280,0:08:16.960
so that’s one that’s one break off of

0:08:15.199,0:08:19.039
catholicism and then also

0:08:16.960,0:08:21.280
king henry viii wanted a divorce from

0:08:19.039,0:08:22.720
his wife and in catholicism you’re not

0:08:21.280,0:08:25.520
allowed to get a divorce

0:08:22.720,0:08:26.080
i mean nowadays you can if it’s a very

0:08:25.520,0:08:28.560
serious

0:08:26.080,0:08:29.599
issue like abuse or anything that’s you

0:08:28.560,0:08:31.199
can get a divorce

0:08:29.599,0:08:33.599
but i think he wanted it because his

0:08:31.199,0:08:35.919
wife was not birthing boys

0:08:33.599,0:08:37.039
um so he wanted a divorce and the pope

0:08:35.919,0:08:40.080
would not allow it

0:08:37.039,0:08:42.399
so he broke off from

0:08:40.080,0:08:44.000
the he broke out he created his own

0:08:42.399,0:08:44.880
religion so he could get a divorce and

0:08:44.000,0:08:48.160
it was like another

0:08:44.880,0:08:48.880
branch of christianity and so anglican i

0:08:48.160,0:08:51.680
believe

0:08:48.880,0:08:52.560
um is that religion now started by king

0:08:51.680,0:08:55.360
henry viii

0:08:52.560,0:08:55.839
so the main thing to get from that is

0:08:55.360,0:08:57.680
that

0:08:55.839,0:08:58.959
we now have these other branches of

0:08:57.680,0:09:02.399
christianity

0:08:58.959,0:09:05.120
so those anything that’s not catholic

0:09:02.399,0:09:06.000
is known as protestant so that includes

0:09:05.120,0:09:10.720
baptists

0:09:06.000,0:09:12.880
that includes um what other is there

0:09:10.720,0:09:13.839
yeah there’s did i write them down yeah

0:09:12.880,0:09:16.399
like lutherism

0:09:13.839,0:09:17.360
anglican baptist presbyterian all these

0:09:16.399,0:09:19.760
christian

0:09:17.360,0:09:20.720
terms that you may or may not have heard

0:09:19.760,0:09:22.080
of

0:09:20.720,0:09:24.160
all those branches are known as

0:09:22.080,0:09:25.760
protestant branches and then catholicism

0:09:24.160,0:09:29.040
is its own branch

0:09:25.760,0:09:30.480
okay yeah catholicism was the main one

0:09:29.040,0:09:32.160
and then everyone else broke off from

0:09:30.480,0:09:34.959
catholicism so

0:09:32.160,0:09:36.240
okay so just to clarify so christianity

0:09:34.959,0:09:38.959
and then there’s like two

0:09:36.240,0:09:39.760
it splits up into two groups catholic

0:09:38.959,0:09:42.959
protestant

0:09:39.760,0:09:43.920
and then there’s like all these other

0:09:42.959,0:09:46.080
branches

0:09:43.920,0:09:47.279
yeah which i don’t know i like to think

0:09:46.080,0:09:50.320
of it as like

0:09:47.279,0:09:51.519
christianity okay this is just me being

0:09:50.320,0:09:52.240
picky and it’s probably because i’m

0:09:51.519,0:09:54.320
catholic

0:09:52.240,0:09:56.160
but like i think it’s like christianity

0:09:54.320,0:09:57.839
and catholic there’s like one branches

0:09:56.160,0:10:01.279
catholicism right so like

0:09:57.839,0:10:03.760
like judaism christianity right yeah

0:10:01.279,0:10:06.399
judaism then we get christianity and

0:10:03.760,0:10:08.640
then for christianity we get catholicism

0:10:06.399,0:10:09.760
and then from under catholicism it

0:10:08.640,0:10:11.760
breaks out

0:10:09.760,0:10:13.440
now your example’s probably better that

0:10:11.760,0:10:13.920
like out of christianity breaks these

0:10:13.440,0:10:15.279
other ones

0:10:13.920,0:10:17.760
but they really broke off from

0:10:15.279,0:10:20.079
catholicism yeah like

0:10:17.760,0:10:21.200
chronologically it goes catholic to

0:10:20.079,0:10:23.920
catholicism to

0:10:21.200,0:10:25.279
all the other ones yeah but yeah they

0:10:23.920,0:10:29.760
did they broke off

0:10:25.279,0:10:32.880
so that’s huge so basically now

0:10:29.760,0:10:34.959
um england which is

0:10:32.880,0:10:36.560
they had the king of england everything

0:10:34.959,0:10:39.920
uh england’s now

0:10:36.560,0:10:41.680
protestant and maybe not everyone’s

0:10:39.920,0:10:42.160
protestant yet but now there’s like a

0:10:41.680,0:10:45.440
push

0:10:42.160,0:10:47.600
for you to be protestant in england

0:10:45.440,0:10:49.680
because that’s like the king’s religion

0:10:47.600,0:10:52.560
and so now you’re under

0:10:49.680,0:10:54.399
the king and you follow the king’s form

0:10:52.560,0:10:57.760
of christianity

0:10:54.399,0:11:00.720
okay so

0:10:57.760,0:11:03.040
then we will go into so that’s important

0:11:00.720,0:11:06.000
to know is that

0:11:03.040,0:11:07.120
ireland’s catholic and england was

0:11:06.000,0:11:09.200
catholic but now

0:11:07.120,0:11:11.360
england has broken off into these little

0:11:09.200,0:11:13.760
forms of christianity called

0:11:11.360,0:11:14.480
that or like protestantism we’ll call it

0:11:13.760,0:11:18.560
protestants

0:11:14.480,0:11:20.000
gotcha now to talk about like the actual

0:11:18.560,0:11:23.760
border in ireland

0:11:20.000,0:11:24.800
we have to start with the 17th century

0:11:23.760,0:11:26.399
so there’s something called the

0:11:24.800,0:11:29.839
plantations of ulster

0:11:26.399,0:11:31.279
in the 17th century so that’s when the

0:11:29.839,0:11:34.079
border starts to begin

0:11:31.279,0:11:35.680
since the 12th century british had been

0:11:34.079,0:11:37.360
present in ireland like they’re just

0:11:35.680,0:11:39.040
doing trade they’re hanging out in

0:11:37.360,0:11:42.160
ireland anyways

0:11:39.040,0:11:44.640
and the english we’re doing

0:11:42.160,0:11:46.079
like their regular oppressive practices

0:11:44.640,0:11:48.399
as they’re while they’re present like

0:11:46.079,0:11:50.160
they’re always doing this i feel like

0:11:48.399,0:11:51.760
england just has a checklist like go to

0:11:50.160,0:11:56.160
a new place um

0:11:51.760,0:11:59.279
forbid marriage between the locals

0:11:56.160,0:12:01.519
their language so they did all of that

0:11:59.279,0:12:03.519
when they came to ireland and they’re

0:12:01.519,0:12:05.120
just living on the coast too it’s like

0:12:03.519,0:12:07.760
one or two people trying to do this

0:12:05.120,0:12:10.959
whole thing to like an entire country

0:12:07.760,0:12:13.680
and yeah they banned

0:12:10.959,0:12:15.120
gaelic irish which is actually like

0:12:13.680,0:12:18.399
native

0:12:15.120,0:12:21.360
language of irish people is gaelic

0:12:18.399,0:12:23.040
ulster is a province in ireland and it’s

0:12:21.360,0:12:24.079
the most gaelic irish province in

0:12:23.040,0:12:27.040
ireland

0:12:24.079,0:12:28.720
and basically there was a war between

0:12:27.040,0:12:33.120
protestant english

0:12:28.720,0:12:35.440
and the catholic lords in that area

0:12:33.120,0:12:36.639
and the protestant english ended up

0:12:35.440,0:12:40.160
defeating the catholic

0:12:36.639,0:12:43.040
like the irish catholics and

0:12:40.160,0:12:44.320
so then the irish lord the irish the

0:12:43.040,0:12:46.800
irish catholic lords

0:12:44.320,0:12:47.760
in that area fled and they left behind

0:12:46.800,0:12:49.760
the land

0:12:47.760,0:12:52.000
so the protestant settlers just took

0:12:49.760,0:12:53.519
over that land and those protestant

0:12:52.000,0:12:56.720
settlers were from scotland

0:12:53.519,0:13:00.480
and england and

0:12:56.720,0:13:02.639
they just settled in ulster so after

0:13:00.480,0:13:04.000
that war was fought okay does that make

0:13:02.639,0:13:08.320
sense you look confused

0:13:04.000,0:13:08.320
no but so wait this is ulcer

0:13:08.639,0:13:11.839
ulcers in the south or you said it was

0:13:10.800,0:13:14.880
east where

0:13:11.839,0:13:15.600
no dublin so okay the the english come

0:13:14.880,0:13:17.279
and they’re like

0:13:15.600,0:13:19.360
they settle in this area known as the

0:13:17.279,0:13:21.120
pale and like they didn’t experiment on

0:13:19.360,0:13:22.399
that but the pale is like on the east

0:13:21.120,0:13:23.120
coast so that’s just like they’ve

0:13:22.399,0:13:25.680
arrived

0:13:23.120,0:13:27.200
from like trades okay and then ulster is

0:13:25.680,0:13:31.040
oh i don’t even have my world map

0:13:27.200,0:13:32.839
but also ulster is like um

0:13:31.040,0:13:34.399
like a province in the north like

0:13:32.839,0:13:38.160
northeast okay

0:13:34.399,0:13:41.440
yeah and then right

0:13:38.160,0:13:43.279
in the north it’s not protestant yet

0:13:41.440,0:13:46.320
there’s like english settlers

0:13:43.279,0:13:48.079
and then ulster was still catholic

0:13:46.320,0:13:50.000
irish catholic but you have all these

0:13:48.079,0:13:50.720
english protestants that are settling

0:13:50.000,0:13:54.240
there

0:13:50.720,0:13:56.639
and then they had this war between them

0:13:54.240,0:13:57.760
yeah because you know the english are

0:13:56.639,0:13:59.920
like kind of

0:13:57.760,0:14:01.279
pushing them around and like taking land

0:13:59.920,0:14:02.720
and banning

0:14:01.279,0:14:05.600
or trying to ban these things and

0:14:02.720,0:14:07.600
enforce these laws and so

0:14:05.600,0:14:08.800
they have a they have a war and then the

0:14:07.600,0:14:11.440
irish catholics

0:14:08.800,0:14:12.240
lose the war and then they flee the area

0:14:11.440,0:14:14.959
and

0:14:12.240,0:14:16.160
the english protestants just take over

0:14:14.959,0:14:18.720
the area and like

0:14:16.160,0:14:19.760
claim it as theirs right they’re fleeing

0:14:18.720,0:14:23.279
the north area

0:14:19.760,0:14:26.079
so they’re going to okay that’s not

0:14:23.279,0:14:28.000
clear so they they did flee but i think

0:14:26.079,0:14:31.519
some things said that they split

0:14:28.000,0:14:34.560
they fleed they flew fled i think

0:14:31.519,0:14:36.240
they fled yes they fled to england or

0:14:34.560,0:14:38.480
they fled to the south either way

0:14:36.240,0:14:39.760
long story short they like left the area

0:14:38.480,0:14:42.720
like they’re gone

0:14:39.760,0:14:44.240
yeah so then that’s when they took over

0:14:42.720,0:14:47.279
the protestant english takeover

0:14:44.240,0:14:49.519
and then okay

0:14:47.279,0:14:52.720
so now there’s a lot of protestants in

0:14:49.519,0:14:55.839
that area of ulster

0:14:52.720,0:14:57.120
so although and it’s a province right so

0:14:55.839,0:14:59.279
the province is quite big

0:14:57.120,0:15:01.199
but although there are still some native

0:14:59.279,0:15:04.639
irish catholics in the area

0:15:01.199,0:15:06.720
now the province is now dominated by

0:15:04.639,0:15:08.800
protestants and the protestants are all

0:15:06.720,0:15:14.079
loyal to the british crown

0:15:08.800,0:15:15.920
okay so then we go to 1641

0:15:14.079,0:15:17.199
and we have something called the irish

0:15:15.920,0:15:19.600
confederate wars

0:15:17.199,0:15:20.639
so it’s a war between ireland scotland

0:15:19.600,0:15:22.800
and england

0:15:20.639,0:15:24.079
and i don’t know if this is clear i kind

0:15:22.800,0:15:26.079
of mentioned it but

0:15:24.079,0:15:28.639
uh the protestant settlers were actually

0:15:26.079,0:15:30.720
scottish and english

0:15:28.639,0:15:31.839
okay so keep that in mind too it’s

0:15:30.720,0:15:33.920
really irish is

0:15:31.839,0:15:35.600
the irish are still catholic but and i

0:15:33.920,0:15:38.160
don’t know the history of scotland but

0:15:35.600,0:15:40.240
it’s just from history it was scotland

0:15:38.160,0:15:41.120
and england together that were the

0:15:40.240,0:15:44.639
protestant

0:15:41.120,0:15:47.920
invaders um yeah

0:15:44.639,0:15:50.639
yeah so basically

0:15:47.920,0:15:52.399
1641 irish confederate wars between

0:15:50.639,0:15:54.320
ireland scotland and england

0:15:52.399,0:15:56.480
and it’s really scotland and england

0:15:54.320,0:15:58.399
together against ireland so ireland

0:15:56.480,0:16:01.440
tries to push back against the

0:15:58.399,0:16:05.120
anti-catholic protestant countries

0:16:01.440,0:16:07.839
scotland and um yeah england

0:16:05.120,0:16:08.560
the english end up winning that as well

0:16:07.839,0:16:11.519
again

0:16:08.560,0:16:14.480
and now the catholic majority ireland is

0:16:11.519,0:16:18.320
run by a protestant minority

0:16:14.480,0:16:21.440
okay sounds a lot like the states

0:16:18.320,0:16:24.639
yeah yeah so

0:16:21.440,0:16:26.800
so then we’ll go to 1798 there’s

0:16:24.639,0:16:30.079
something known as the irish rebellion

0:16:26.800,0:16:31.600
so this was inspired by the french and

0:16:30.079,0:16:33.759
american revolutions

0:16:31.600,0:16:36.959
and it was an uprising of the irish

0:16:33.759,0:16:38.560
against british rule in ireland

0:16:36.959,0:16:40.399
but then the french tried to help the

0:16:38.560,0:16:43.600
irish in the uprising

0:16:40.399,0:16:45.360
and again the uprising was suppressed by

0:16:43.600,0:16:48.240
the british crown so the irish

0:16:45.360,0:16:48.880
lost it was really really violent too so

0:16:48.240,0:16:52.000
they lost

0:16:48.880,0:16:55.440
10 000 to 30 000 lives

0:16:52.000,0:16:57.440
wow that’s a that’s a lot

0:16:55.440,0:16:59.120
and i’m sure like the population is like

0:16:57.440,0:17:02.399
really tiny at the time

0:16:59.120,0:17:05.600
yeah oh then that happens in 1781

0:17:02.399,0:17:08.079
again it’s still protestant english

0:17:05.600,0:17:09.520
rural ireland and then we have the

0:17:08.079,0:17:13.520
active union in

0:17:09.520,0:17:14.720
1800s so in the in the year 1800 the

0:17:13.520,0:17:17.199
united kingdom

0:17:14.720,0:17:19.439
which at the time just consisted of

0:17:17.199,0:17:21.360
england and scotland

0:17:19.439,0:17:24.720
because i don’t know are you familiar

0:17:21.360,0:17:28.559
with like the history of the uk

0:17:24.720,0:17:32.240
um no i’d say like isn’t just the uk

0:17:28.559,0:17:36.640
scotland part of ireland and then

0:17:32.240,0:17:39.120
wales is whales in the uk yeah it’s like

0:17:36.640,0:17:40.240
is england not in no england just okay

0:17:39.120,0:17:42.400
england yeah it’s like

0:17:40.240,0:17:43.600
england scotland part of ireland and

0:17:42.400,0:17:46.080
then

0:17:43.600,0:17:47.919
wales yeah i didn’t know what it was

0:17:46.080,0:17:49.520
either but like the

0:17:47.919,0:17:51.280
when i was doing research they showed

0:17:49.520,0:17:54.640
the animation of

0:17:51.280,0:17:56.480
each part joining the uk so it was

0:17:54.640,0:17:59.280
england and then the first country to

0:17:56.480,0:18:02.320
join england and form the uk was

0:17:59.280,0:18:06.720
scotland so

0:18:02.320,0:18:09.360
uh sure um so 1800’s

0:18:06.720,0:18:11.120
uk has been formed and now they’re

0:18:09.360,0:18:11.440
concerned that ireland is going to break

0:18:11.120,0:18:13.440
off

0:18:11.440,0:18:14.480
and join with france in fighting against

0:18:13.440,0:18:16.960
the british again

0:18:14.480,0:18:19.520
because this is only two years after the

0:18:16.960,0:18:23.200
irish rebellion

0:18:19.520,0:18:26.960
so because of this fear the uk absorbs

0:18:23.200,0:18:30.640
ireland into them as well in the active

0:18:26.960,0:18:32.799
union 1800 or 1801 it’s called vote

0:18:30.640,0:18:34.559
um so there’s a lot of opposition to

0:18:32.799,0:18:37.039
this obviously

0:18:34.559,0:18:39.919
and throughout the 1800s there was

0:18:37.039,0:18:42.480
horizon violent rebellions to oppose it

0:18:39.919,0:18:45.120
and demand self-governing

0:18:42.480,0:18:46.400
wow okay so this is like sorry i’m like

0:18:45.120,0:18:47.200
just trying to like think about it this

0:18:46.400,0:18:50.000
is like a big

0:18:47.200,0:18:50.480
a really big deal because at this time

0:18:50.000,0:18:53.280
like

0:18:50.480,0:18:54.799
britain has colonies all over the world

0:18:53.280,0:18:56.000
but then that’s just considered like the

0:18:54.799,0:18:58.400
british empire

0:18:56.000,0:18:59.039
but the fact that ireland was acquired

0:18:58.400,0:19:01.360
into the

0:18:59.039,0:19:02.559
united kingdom that’s saying like you’re

0:19:01.360,0:19:05.760
not just a colony

0:19:02.559,0:19:08.799
you’re like one of us

0:19:05.760,0:19:10.160
you’re the united kingdom so right like

0:19:08.799,0:19:12.960
that’s a lot more significant

0:19:10.160,0:19:14.080
than just having them as a part of the

0:19:12.960,0:19:17.600
empire

0:19:14.080,0:19:19.200
right yeah well how do the empires work

0:19:17.600,0:19:20.720
though because

0:19:19.200,0:19:22.400
like even though they’re they didn’t

0:19:20.720,0:19:25.600
absorb them into the uk

0:19:22.400,0:19:28.080
it’s still like territory and

0:19:25.600,0:19:29.120
rule i think that’s just known as like

0:19:28.080,0:19:30.799
great britain then

0:19:29.120,0:19:32.559
right like because there’s like there’s

0:19:30.799,0:19:33.039
so many terms oh my god it’s like united

0:19:32.559,0:19:34.720
kingdom

0:19:33.039,0:19:36.400
great britain and then england england

0:19:34.720,0:19:37.440
is just like the country i think great

0:19:36.400,0:19:38.880
britain is like

0:19:37.440,0:19:40.640
the whole british empire all the

0:19:38.880,0:19:41.679
colonies they have and then the united

0:19:40.640,0:19:45.600
kingdom

0:19:41.679,0:19:48.559
is just like those few oh

0:19:45.600,0:19:50.880
that they’re like okay but this is like

0:19:48.559,0:19:53.919
that makes so much more sense

0:19:50.880,0:19:55.760
okay i was using england uk

0:19:53.919,0:19:57.440
and great britain all interchangeably

0:19:55.760,0:19:58.080
but that makes so much sense because

0:19:57.440,0:20:01.200
great britain

0:19:58.080,0:20:02.720
is like the great like everything and

0:20:01.200,0:20:05.280
then kingdom is like

0:20:02.720,0:20:06.480
texas but i’m pretty sure okay yeah i’ll

0:20:05.280,0:20:08.559
look into that too i

0:20:06.480,0:20:10.640
never knew i i just called them all the

0:20:08.559,0:20:13.919
same thing

0:20:10.640,0:20:15.919
okay well yeah it’s a pretty big deal so

0:20:13.919,0:20:18.960
ireland is now part of the uk

0:20:15.919,0:20:20.000
okay and uh yeah they’re not having a

0:20:18.960,0:20:22.640
good time they don’t like

0:20:20.000,0:20:23.679
it and well i shouldn’t say that

0:20:22.640,0:20:27.679
northern ireland’s

0:20:23.679,0:20:29.679
having a ball ulster protestant english

0:20:27.679,0:20:31.600
and then the rest of ireland not really

0:20:29.679,0:20:38.080
liking it so

0:20:31.600,0:20:41.039
then in 1920 the official border happens

0:20:38.080,0:20:42.080
under the government of ireland act the

0:20:41.039,0:20:44.000
british government

0:20:42.080,0:20:45.840
made an attempt to reconcile the two

0:20:44.000,0:20:48.480
demands of both areas of ireland

0:20:45.840,0:20:49.120
because north part of ireland which is

0:20:48.480,0:20:50.720
also

0:20:49.120,0:20:52.720
well not just ulster but the north part

0:20:50.720,0:20:54.159
of ireland is like protestant and the

0:20:52.720,0:20:56.000
south part is catholic

0:20:54.159,0:20:57.919
and there’s all these fights and

0:20:56.000,0:21:01.280
uprisings and rebellions and

0:20:57.919,0:21:02.640
civil wars trying to like push for

0:21:01.280,0:21:06.159
independent rule so

0:21:02.640,0:21:09.039
to reconcile the demands they

0:21:06.159,0:21:10.320
create a partition between the parts of

0:21:09.039,0:21:13.039
ireland

0:21:10.320,0:21:14.720
so the irish nationalist which is known

0:21:13.039,0:21:17.520
as southern ireland demands

0:21:14.720,0:21:18.960
for the separation of ireland from

0:21:17.520,0:21:19.360
britain so they don’t want to be a part

0:21:18.960,0:21:21.280
of

0:21:19.360,0:21:22.480
the uk they don’t want to be associated

0:21:21.280,0:21:24.159
with britain

0:21:22.480,0:21:26.240
like they just want to be ireland and

0:21:24.159,0:21:27.440
then the unionist which is the northern

0:21:26.240,0:21:29.360
part of ireland

0:21:27.440,0:21:30.480
demands to remain part of the united

0:21:29.360,0:21:32.880
kingdom so they

0:21:30.480,0:21:33.760
they want to be a part of the uk they

0:21:32.880,0:21:37.039
like it

0:21:33.760,0:21:38.960
and they’re in conflict

0:21:37.039,0:21:41.039
okay oh wait okay i have two questions

0:21:38.960,0:21:42.320
really quick okay first

0:21:41.039,0:21:44.240
this is like a stupid question this

0:21:42.320,0:21:45.679
partition is it just like

0:21:44.240,0:21:47.919
invisible is there like a physical

0:21:45.679,0:21:50.000
structure that’s actually like is there

0:21:47.919,0:21:52.080
a wall or like a fence or something or

0:21:50.000,0:21:56.000
is it just like

0:21:52.080,0:21:57.520
no so uh

0:21:56.000,0:22:00.000
you’re asking a good question there’s

0:21:57.520,0:22:03.039
not i’m sure there’s like a gate

0:22:00.000,0:22:04.960
maybe but it’s not like a physical wall

0:22:03.039,0:22:05.360
yet but in northern ireland which i’ll

0:22:04.960,0:22:08.080
get to

0:22:05.360,0:22:08.720
later is like there’s actually walls

0:22:08.080,0:22:11.919
between

0:22:08.720,0:22:13.360
protestant and catholics like they build

0:22:11.919,0:22:14.799
they’re called peace walls but they

0:22:13.360,0:22:16.240
literally build them separating the

0:22:14.799,0:22:17.039
neighborhoods because there’s so much

0:22:16.240,0:22:20.480
violence

0:22:17.039,0:22:21.360
like it’s really bad um and then but

0:22:20.480,0:22:23.520
between like

0:22:21.360,0:22:25.520
the partition that we’re talking about

0:22:23.520,0:22:26.880
where there’s an official border now

0:22:25.520,0:22:28.799
i don’t know if they built an actual

0:22:26.880,0:22:31.360
wall for that yeah

0:22:28.799,0:22:32.799
okay yeah okay probably yeah i’m

0:22:31.360,0:22:34.320
guessing there’s not like a

0:22:32.799,0:22:36.880
yeah along the entire border but

0:22:34.320,0:22:39.919
probably around parts but maybe because

0:22:36.880,0:22:41.600
it’s not a huge island so that’s true

0:22:39.919,0:22:42.000
and if they hate each other that much

0:22:41.600,0:22:44.240
like

0:22:42.000,0:22:46.240
yeah if it gets that violent then yeah

0:22:44.240,0:22:48.000
and then okay like this my second it’s

0:22:46.240,0:22:49.280
mostly like just a remark but like i

0:22:48.000,0:22:51.840
guess

0:22:49.280,0:22:53.200
so like in 1920 this is like after world

0:22:51.840,0:22:56.960
war one

0:22:53.200,0:22:57.760
so like the whole everyone in ireland

0:22:56.960,0:23:00.000
probably had to

0:22:57.760,0:23:01.120
fight world war one under the british

0:23:00.000,0:23:04.480
flag so i’m sure

0:23:01.120,0:23:06.799
that’s like kind of what caused

0:23:04.480,0:23:09.600
uh like the this is what really like

0:23:06.799,0:23:11.039
flared the argument into

0:23:09.600,0:23:12.559
like people actually like declaring

0:23:11.039,0:23:13.440
themselves as like unit versus

0:23:12.559,0:23:15.840
nationalists

0:23:13.440,0:23:16.559
right am i that’s just like no you are

0:23:15.840,0:23:18.640
literally

0:23:16.559,0:23:20.240
spot on like you really know your

0:23:18.640,0:23:23.679
history because

0:23:20.240,0:23:25.120
that’s exactly like what happened okay

0:23:23.679,0:23:28.240
i’m just gonna go right into it

0:23:25.120,0:23:29.840
so in 1922 we

0:23:28.240,0:23:31.600
there was the irish free state

0:23:29.840,0:23:34.240
constitution act

0:23:31.600,0:23:35.120
and that established that island was a

0:23:34.240,0:23:36.799
free state

0:23:35.120,0:23:38.640
but a dominion of the british

0:23:36.799,0:23:41.919
commonwealth so that

0:23:38.640,0:23:43.039
is like canada australia new zealand

0:23:41.919,0:23:45.360
south africa

0:23:43.039,0:23:48.320
they’re their own country but they also

0:23:45.360,0:23:51.039
the queen is technically their queen too

0:23:48.320,0:23:52.320
yeah okay i don’t know how it works

0:23:51.039,0:23:55.520
because we’re american

0:23:52.320,0:23:57.919
of like u.s territories

0:23:55.520,0:24:00.000
like we talked about in our minisones

0:23:57.919,0:24:02.240
where they have their

0:24:00.000,0:24:03.039
own local governments but then they’re

0:24:02.240,0:24:04.799
under the

0:24:03.039,0:24:08.480
ultimate jurisdiction of the president

0:24:04.799,0:24:12.080
of the united states kind of similar

0:24:08.480,0:24:15.200
but yeah okay and so yeah

0:24:12.080,0:24:16.480
ireland ireland becomes one of those in

0:24:15.200,0:24:18.480
this treaty

0:24:16.480,0:24:20.000
or is it a treaty in the irish free

0:24:18.480,0:24:23.200
state constitution act

0:24:20.000,0:24:26.000
they gave the north part of ireland a

0:24:23.200,0:24:28.480
clause that allowed them to opt out of

0:24:26.000,0:24:30.240
the agreement and stay part of the uk

0:24:28.480,0:24:32.799
and they took that immediately like they

0:24:30.240,0:24:35.919
were yes opt me out i don’t want to be

0:24:32.799,0:24:37.919
like i want to be part of the uk so

0:24:35.919,0:24:39.760
now there are two british parliaments

0:24:37.919,0:24:41.440
because of this there’s one in dublin

0:24:39.760,0:24:44.559
for the south and then there’s one

0:24:41.440,0:24:47.279
in belfast for the north

0:24:44.559,0:24:49.600
and some of the people in the south are

0:24:47.279,0:24:52.080
okay with the treaty because

0:24:49.600,0:24:54.159
it’s they’re an irish free state so

0:24:52.080,0:24:56.080
they’re like wow like we’re

0:24:54.159,0:24:57.440
we’re free we’re irish we’re like

0:24:56.080,0:24:59.120
independent and

0:24:57.440,0:25:01.360
other people are against the treaty

0:24:59.120,0:25:03.679
because they’re like no we’re still

0:25:01.360,0:25:04.400
under the british crown we’re like a

0:25:03.679,0:25:06.640
formerly

0:25:04.400,0:25:07.919
a territory you know like we don’t like

0:25:06.640,0:25:09.840
it it’s not good enough we want to be

0:25:07.919,0:25:14.720
fully independent

0:25:09.840,0:25:15.200
so that leads to a civil war oh also too

0:25:14.720,0:25:17.679
so

0:25:15.200,0:25:19.679
and also people who are anti-treaty felt

0:25:17.679,0:25:22.080
that no we’re also entitled to

0:25:19.679,0:25:23.840
the whole country of ireland not just a

0:25:22.080,0:25:24.799
part of it like northern ireland is ours

0:25:23.840,0:25:26.640
as well

0:25:24.799,0:25:28.320
oh so that’s okay so as the nationalists

0:25:26.640,0:25:31.919
they’re not just like oh

0:25:28.320,0:25:33.760
like southern ireland will secede

0:25:31.919,0:25:35.440
from like the uk like will be our own

0:25:33.760,0:25:38.559
thing they want everyone

0:25:35.440,0:25:40.720
in the whole island to yeah so i mean

0:25:38.559,0:25:42.080
because it but right the south has like

0:25:40.720,0:25:43.440
split ideas too right

0:25:42.080,0:25:45.360
some of the south people are like it’s

0:25:43.440,0:25:47.279
cool it’s fine

0:25:45.360,0:25:49.440
like everything’s fine and then like

0:25:47.279,0:25:52.159
we’re free and the other part is like

0:25:49.440,0:25:53.840
no we get all of it i’m sure within that

0:25:52.159,0:25:55.360
there’s arguments too like no maybe we

0:25:53.840,0:25:56.559
don’t get all of it but like no we don’t

0:25:55.360,0:25:58.480
want to be a part of

0:25:56.559,0:25:59.760
like a free state anyways it should just

0:25:58.480,0:26:01.840
be independent

0:25:59.760,0:26:03.679
um so obviously there’s differing

0:26:01.840,0:26:07.440
opinions on

0:26:03.679,0:26:09.679
the treaty gotcha but that

0:26:07.440,0:26:12.159
disagreement led to a civil war in the

0:26:09.679,0:26:14.960
south which was pro and anti-treaty

0:26:12.159,0:26:16.400
the pro-treaty side wins and solidifies

0:26:14.960,0:26:19.360
the irish free state as

0:26:16.400,0:26:19.360
british dominion

0:26:19.440,0:26:26.880
so then in 1937

0:26:23.840,0:26:29.440
there they held a vote in

0:26:26.880,0:26:31.440
i think south ireland so in 1937 a vote

0:26:29.440,0:26:34.159
was held for a new constitution

0:26:31.440,0:26:35.840
to remove all british ties from ireland

0:26:34.159,0:26:37.760
and 56 percent

0:26:35.840,0:26:39.679
of people who voted in that were in

0:26:37.760,0:26:42.159
favor of the new constitution

0:26:39.679,0:26:44.559
and renaming the country to ireland or

0:26:42.159,0:26:47.200
the republic of ireland to differentiate

0:26:44.559,0:26:50.400
itself from the island ireland

0:26:47.200,0:26:52.960
and so

0:26:50.400,0:26:53.600
south of ireland is all cool they’re

0:26:52.960,0:26:56.400
like yeah

0:26:53.600,0:26:58.000
let’s remove like all british ties and

0:26:56.400,0:27:00.799
because they removed

0:26:58.000,0:27:02.400
their british ties from it or because

0:27:00.799,0:27:04.000
like you mentioned the war right and

0:27:02.400,0:27:07.120
like how they had to fight under the

0:27:04.000,0:27:09.600
crown so after this constitution passed

0:27:07.120,0:27:11.840
ireland’s now its own country and they

0:27:09.600,0:27:13.600
used that to exercise their right to

0:27:11.840,0:27:17.440
remain neutral in world war

0:27:13.600,0:27:20.399
ii oh okay yeah

0:27:17.440,0:27:22.000
so anyways south island is peachy keen

0:27:20.399,0:27:24.480
it’s just ireland now

0:27:22.000,0:27:26.000
and now we go to northern ireland

0:27:24.480,0:27:27.679
because remember there are still irish

0:27:26.000,0:27:30.480
catholics in northern ireland

0:27:27.679,0:27:31.520
so then we enter a time period known as

0:27:30.480,0:27:35.279
the troubles

0:27:31.520,0:27:37.679
so this started in 1969 and it was

0:27:35.279,0:27:38.320
like a lot of violence in northern

0:27:37.679,0:27:41.360
ireland

0:27:38.320,0:27:42.640
ireland in 1969 violence broke out in

0:27:41.360,0:27:44.720
northern ireland

0:27:42.640,0:27:46.720
because although a majority of northern

0:27:44.720,0:27:48.559
ireland is protestant there is still a

0:27:46.720,0:27:50.080
minority of irish catholics and

0:27:48.559,0:27:52.399
nationalists

0:27:50.080,0:27:53.919
so the catholic minority surprise

0:27:52.399,0:27:56.240
surprise

0:27:53.919,0:27:58.320
not really it’s not a surprise um they

0:27:56.240,0:27:58.880
were subjected to discrimination when it

0:27:58.320,0:28:01.679
came to

0:27:58.880,0:28:03.840
employment housing and education like

0:28:01.679,0:28:08.399
routine british oppression

0:28:03.840,0:28:11.600
we we know the story as americans and

0:28:08.399,0:28:13.679
the result um of that was

0:28:11.600,0:28:15.279
violent conflict for three decades

0:28:13.679,0:28:16.720
between the irish

0:28:15.279,0:28:19.520
and the british catholics and

0:28:16.720,0:28:22.559
protestants wow three decades

0:28:19.520,0:28:24.960
oh yeah it was very bad and uh

0:28:22.559,0:28:26.640
like we just said a little earlier the

0:28:24.960,0:28:29.039
like physical it was so bad that

0:28:26.640,0:28:30.240
physical walls got put up between

0:28:29.039,0:28:31.919
neighborhoods

0:28:30.240,0:28:34.399
because separating catholics and

0:28:31.919,0:28:37.760
protestants because the violence was

0:28:34.399,0:28:41.039
very bad it was actually quote unquote

0:28:37.760,0:28:42.480
um spoken about as mild warfare like

0:28:41.039,0:28:44.960
that’s how bad it was maybe not like a

0:28:42.480,0:28:46.960
full-on war but like bullets are going

0:28:44.960,0:28:50.240
off and everything

0:28:46.960,0:28:53.279
wow that’s crazy

0:28:50.240,0:28:54.960
it’s bad actually yeah okay this is just

0:28:53.279,0:28:56.320
i guess i know but i was gonna take a

0:28:54.960,0:28:58.720
class on terrorism

0:28:56.320,0:29:00.080
at osu and i was like so i was like

0:28:58.720,0:29:02.159
reading the description and it was like

0:29:00.080,0:29:03.440
focusing on ireland and i remember

0:29:02.159,0:29:06.799
reading it being like

0:29:03.440,0:29:08.640
terrorism in ireland and then i get it

0:29:06.799,0:29:10.720
but it’s like just not something you

0:29:08.640,0:29:12.880
would think of i guess

0:29:10.720,0:29:14.640
yeah no i was surprised because i was

0:29:12.880,0:29:15.120
like i wonder why ireland’s separate and

0:29:14.640,0:29:17.360
it’s a

0:29:15.120,0:29:18.559
big deal this has been this has lasted

0:29:17.360,0:29:20.799
since

0:29:18.559,0:29:21.840
like the english have come to ireland

0:29:20.799,0:29:25.679
they’ve been having

0:29:21.840,0:29:29.600
this issue right it’s still ongoing

0:29:25.679,0:29:32.960
so that you know the violence

0:29:29.600,0:29:37.200
lasts until 1995 so it’s literally

0:29:32.960,0:29:40.399
like 25 years long and 3 500

0:29:37.200,0:29:44.240
people lose their lives wow

0:29:40.399,0:29:46.080
so to end the troubles there

0:29:44.240,0:29:48.080
or the troubles was resolved through the

0:29:46.080,0:29:51.520
signing of the good friday agreement

0:29:48.080,0:29:55.039
also known as the belfast agreement

0:29:51.520,0:29:56.960
and ireland okay so what what it said in

0:29:55.039,0:29:59.120
this like agreement was that ireland has

0:29:56.960,0:29:59.760
to remove their claim over northern

0:29:59.120,0:30:02.159
ireland

0:29:59.760,0:30:03.520
because their constitution was like yeah

0:30:02.159,0:30:06.080
we’re independent and

0:30:03.520,0:30:07.840
we get all of ireland and so that’s why

0:30:06.080,0:30:08.880
there’s a lot of conflict too because

0:30:07.840,0:30:11.679
the nationalists are like

0:30:08.880,0:30:12.399
no like we’re this is all ireland and

0:30:11.679,0:30:14.559
then

0:30:12.399,0:30:15.840
the protestants are like no like we’re

0:30:14.559,0:30:18.480
the uk

0:30:15.840,0:30:20.240
you know and so ireland has to remove

0:30:18.480,0:30:22.240
their claim over northern ireland

0:30:20.240,0:30:23.360
in the constitution and the british and

0:30:22.240,0:30:26.720
irish governments

0:30:23.360,0:30:29.520
agreed that if the time comes that

0:30:26.720,0:30:31.200
the majority of northern ireland ever

0:30:29.520,0:30:33.279
wants to break off

0:30:31.200,0:30:34.399
and become independent or rejoin

0:30:33.279,0:30:36.720
southern ireland

0:30:34.399,0:30:38.159
then it will be allowed to do so like

0:30:36.720,0:30:42.080
peacefully

0:30:38.159,0:30:42.799
okay yeah cool yeah i know it’s a good

0:30:42.080,0:30:44.559
resolution

0:30:42.799,0:30:46.240
granted i don’t know if that’s ever

0:30:44.559,0:30:47.520
gonna happen since the majority is

0:30:46.240,0:30:50.559
protestant

0:30:47.520,0:30:52.159
um so basically northern ireland is not

0:30:50.559,0:30:53.600
going to become a part of ireland until

0:30:52.159,0:30:56.159
a majority decide to

0:30:53.600,0:30:57.919
and it has kept the peace so far between

0:30:56.159,0:31:00.000
the regions there hasn’t been

0:30:57.919,0:31:02.080
there’s still mild violence and conflict

0:31:00.000,0:31:05.279
between the two but it’s not as bad as

0:31:02.080,0:31:06.799
it was during the troubles era okay oh

0:31:05.279,0:31:08.240
so okay i don’t know if you’re like

0:31:06.799,0:31:11.039
about to talk about this but are you

0:31:08.240,0:31:12.720
gonna talk about brexit at any point

0:31:11.039,0:31:14.480
that’s a good question i was i had a

0:31:12.720,0:31:15.120
feeling you’re gonna ask about brexit do

0:31:14.480,0:31:17.200
you

0:31:15.120,0:31:19.360
like do you have questions on it yeah

0:31:17.200,0:31:22.000
because i’m just confused because i know

0:31:19.360,0:31:26.000
there was a lot of confusion when

0:31:22.000,0:31:28.720
england originally voted to um

0:31:26.000,0:31:30.559
to remove themselves from the european

0:31:28.720,0:31:34.320
union right because then it was like

0:31:30.559,0:31:35.840
oh northern ire would northern ireland

0:31:34.320,0:31:37.440
go with them and then like would

0:31:35.840,0:31:38.960
scotland go with them

0:31:37.440,0:31:41.120
and then i think in like the rest of the

0:31:38.960,0:31:42.559
uk like is it just england or is it all

0:31:41.120,0:31:46.240
of the uk

0:31:42.559,0:31:48.399
um and then i think oh

0:31:46.240,0:31:49.760
i would try to check this but i think

0:31:48.399,0:31:52.080
also like scotland

0:31:49.760,0:31:54.399
they had a vote to see if they wanted to

0:31:52.080,0:31:57.360
uh remove themselves from the uk

0:31:54.399,0:31:58.240
but then it was like it was like 55 or

0:31:57.360,0:32:00.159
like 45

0:31:58.240,0:32:02.240
but basically they voted to stay in the

0:32:00.159,0:32:03.760
uk so i think

0:32:02.240,0:32:06.159
they’re no longer part of the european

0:32:03.760,0:32:07.519
union but honestly i don’t know brexit

0:32:06.159,0:32:09.120
is very confusing

0:32:07.519,0:32:11.039
and europe is really not like my

0:32:09.120,0:32:13.039
fortitude yeah

0:32:11.039,0:32:14.640
no i didn’t i tried to look a little

0:32:13.039,0:32:16.240
into brexit with it because i didn’t

0:32:14.640,0:32:18.080
understand what that was about

0:32:16.240,0:32:19.360
but it really what i got from the

0:32:18.080,0:32:22.080
research was

0:32:19.360,0:32:24.240
yeah like england wanted to remove

0:32:22.080,0:32:25.760
themselves from the european or uk

0:32:24.240,0:32:28.320
the uk wanted to remove themselves from

0:32:25.760,0:32:30.960
the european union and

0:32:28.320,0:32:31.919
the main concerns with that with ireland

0:32:30.960,0:32:33.760
is because

0:32:31.919,0:32:35.919
like right now it’s a soft border

0:32:33.760,0:32:37.039
between northern ireland and southern

0:32:35.919,0:32:39.360
ireland but

0:32:37.039,0:32:41.440
if you were to leave that’s a hard

0:32:39.360,0:32:44.000
border now because it it’s not just

0:32:41.440,0:32:46.480
a border between ireland and the uk it’s

0:32:44.000,0:32:48.080
a border between like the eu

0:32:46.480,0:32:50.720
and then this country that’s not a part

0:32:48.080,0:32:53.200
of it you would need a visa right

0:32:50.720,0:32:54.320
to like go because like you’re not like

0:32:53.200,0:32:56.480
if you have a

0:32:54.320,0:32:58.799
eu visa then you could just travel

0:32:56.480,0:33:01.440
freely freely to any eu country

0:32:58.799,0:33:03.519
but if there’s a hard border there half

0:33:01.440,0:33:05.039
of it is in the eu half of it isn’t like

0:33:03.519,0:33:06.240
yeah then you would i mean

0:33:05.039,0:33:07.279
i don’t know if that actually happened

0:33:06.240,0:33:09.519
but like yeah you’re right like

0:33:07.279,0:33:12.080
immigration would be like restricted

0:33:09.519,0:33:13.919
or like it’d be filtered you know also

0:33:12.080,0:33:16.480
don’t they have different currencies

0:33:13.919,0:33:17.200
like yeah the eu has the same currencies

0:33:16.480,0:33:19.679
and then

0:33:17.200,0:33:20.720
but then again do they we have to ask a

0:33:19.679,0:33:23.440
european friend

0:33:20.720,0:33:24.080
because i’m pretty sure isn’t sweden in

0:33:23.440,0:33:28.240
the eu

0:33:24.080,0:33:30.320
they are aren’t they um

0:33:28.240,0:33:32.080
i i don’t think so actually oh okay

0:33:30.320,0:33:33.200
never mind that because sweden uses they

0:33:32.080,0:33:36.159
don’t use like

0:33:33.200,0:33:37.200
the same do they use the pound in the eu

0:33:36.159,0:33:39.600
i’m gonna

0:33:37.200,0:33:41.039
i’m gonna look up i’m gonna pick up

0:33:39.600,0:33:43.600
ireland currency

0:33:41.039,0:33:46.000
and then i’m gonna look up who’s in the

0:33:43.600,0:33:49.039
eat you

0:33:46.000,0:33:50.720
like is sweden let me see okay sorry i

0:33:49.039,0:33:55.039
think you cut out for a second

0:33:50.720,0:33:55.039
sorry european union country

0:33:55.440,0:33:58.350
yeah swedenborg but sweden doesn’t use

0:33:57.760,0:33:59.679
the same

0:33:58.350,0:34:06.320
[Music]

0:33:59.679,0:34:08.480
currency what is uh

0:34:06.320,0:34:09.760
um okay so the republic of ireland is

0:34:08.480,0:34:11.760
the euro

0:34:09.760,0:34:13.599
and then northern ireland they use the

0:34:11.760,0:34:16.879
british pound

0:34:13.599,0:34:19.520
did the uk already split

0:34:16.879,0:34:20.000
yeah didn’t brexit like already happen

0:34:19.520,0:34:23.200
yeah

0:34:20.000,0:34:26.480
so i can’t believe that you

0:34:23.200,0:34:28.800
i think so oh no it says

0:34:26.480,0:34:30.079
the you oh the uk has left the eu and

0:34:28.800,0:34:32.879
the transition period

0:34:30.079,0:34:36.320
after brexit comes to an end this year

0:34:32.879,0:34:39.440
in january 2020.

0:34:36.320,0:34:42.000
so why are they wow so i wonder what’s

0:34:39.440,0:34:44.399
going on with ireland

0:34:42.000,0:34:45.520
to our irish viewers please let us know

0:34:44.399,0:34:48.240
what’s up

0:34:45.520,0:34:48.639
send us a message at how did we not know

0:34:48.240,0:34:51.919
that

0:34:48.639,0:34:53.679
gmail.com let us know how you’re doing

0:34:51.919,0:34:55.760
and what what’s going on over there

0:34:53.679,0:34:58.079
what’s it like do you do you need a visa

0:34:55.760,0:35:02.480
to go to northern ireland

0:34:58.079,0:35:04.800
yeah that was a good question and

0:35:02.480,0:35:07.040
basically yeah i talked about yeah signs

0:35:04.800,0:35:10.320
of the conflict can still be seen today

0:35:07.040,0:35:12.160
especially in belfast and uh

0:35:10.320,0:35:13.760
yeah there are physical walls separating

0:35:12.160,0:35:15.599
the communities

0:35:13.760,0:35:17.839
and there’s still occasional violence

0:35:15.599,0:35:20.160
but the government has a goal to remove

0:35:17.839,0:35:23.359
all of these so-called peace walls

0:35:20.160,0:35:25.440
by 2023. wow

0:35:23.359,0:35:27.040
okay interesting i also okay just

0:35:25.440,0:35:29.359
another remark i was just

0:35:27.040,0:35:31.119
like thinking about i wonder for the

0:35:29.359,0:35:33.520
brexit vote

0:35:31.119,0:35:35.599
i i’d be really interested to see what

0:35:33.520,0:35:38.880
the breakdown was like what each

0:35:35.599,0:35:41.040
region and like um what each

0:35:38.880,0:35:44.560
like country within the uk like voted

0:35:41.040,0:35:48.079
for like i wonder if like ireland

0:35:44.560,0:35:49.680
voted like strongly in favor or against

0:35:48.079,0:35:52.000
it compared to like yeah i wonder if

0:35:49.680,0:35:55.440
like the vote percentage is

0:35:52.000,0:35:58.160
like differed between

0:35:55.440,0:35:59.520
like england ireland scotland rails

0:35:58.160,0:36:02.640
that’d be really interesting

0:35:59.520,0:36:03.760
yeah let me see i will see if it breaks

0:36:02.640,0:36:07.119
down yeah it does break down

0:36:03.760,0:36:09.599
okay so the

0:36:07.119,0:36:11.040
wow this is so interesting i never

0:36:09.599,0:36:14.000
understood it and now

0:36:11.040,0:36:15.119
i’m like okay that’s what’s going on so

0:36:14.000,0:36:19.040
england

0:36:15.119,0:36:23.200
wow it was very close well okay scotland

0:36:19.040,0:36:26.960
um basically so england voted to leave

0:36:23.200,0:36:30.720
by 53 percent so close

0:36:26.960,0:36:32.640
northern ireland voted to stay by 55

0:36:30.720,0:36:35.440
percent

0:36:32.640,0:36:35.920
super close as well scotland voted to

0:36:35.440,0:36:38.960
stay

0:36:35.920,0:36:41.040
for 62 percent and then wales voted to

0:36:38.960,0:36:44.560
leave for 52

0:36:41.040,0:36:47.119
wow so it’s really close all

0:36:44.560,0:36:47.839
wow those like aren’t really big margins

0:36:47.119,0:36:49.760
you know

0:36:47.839,0:36:50.880
yeah it’s very close just scotland’s

0:36:49.760,0:36:53.200
like okay

0:36:50.880,0:36:54.720
it’s pretty clear you want to stay but

0:36:53.200,0:36:57.119
they lost still

0:36:54.720,0:36:59.200
because most people wanted to leave

0:36:57.119,0:37:00.880
after that then they had to vote like oh

0:36:59.200,0:37:02.560
should we stay in the uk

0:37:00.880,0:37:05.200
and then they were like yeah let’s stay

0:37:02.560,0:37:07.119
in the uk but then that vote was also

0:37:05.200,0:37:10.240
like very slim

0:37:07.119,0:37:13.839
yeah wow that’s so interesting

0:37:10.240,0:37:16.640
yeah i like never realized how

0:37:13.839,0:37:18.240
yeah the history of the uk was the

0:37:16.640,0:37:21.359
history of the uk is

0:37:18.240,0:37:21.920
a lot there’s a lot of stuff i have a

0:37:21.359,0:37:24.240
bias

0:37:21.920,0:37:26.400
towards european history but i’m going

0:37:24.240,0:37:29.119
to like challenge myself in season two

0:37:26.400,0:37:29.839
to become more aware and more informed

0:37:29.119,0:37:34.000
of

0:37:29.839,0:37:36.960
the history oh that’s nice i’m not

0:37:34.000,0:37:38.320
printing press i’m done that was enough

0:37:36.960,0:37:40.640
european history

0:37:38.320,0:37:42.000
that’s true but i guess like okay here’s

0:37:40.640,0:37:43.680
the thing it’s like even when we talked

0:37:42.000,0:37:46.720
about european history

0:37:43.680,0:37:47.359
in you like in the us in history class

0:37:46.720,0:37:48.880
and high school

0:37:47.359,0:37:50.400
like i feel like we didn’t talk about

0:37:48.880,0:37:52.800
this like

0:37:50.400,0:37:53.440
like uh just how the british came into

0:37:52.800,0:37:54.880
ireland

0:37:53.440,0:37:55.839
and like how there’s this huge division

0:37:54.880,0:37:57.280
and we didn’t like talk about like

0:37:55.839,0:38:00.240
minority voices

0:37:57.280,0:38:01.599
within the uk so i think true also

0:38:00.240,0:38:04.800
that’s really good to know

0:38:01.599,0:38:06.400
because for our viewers who aren’t aware

0:38:04.800,0:38:09.440
or even our american viewers

0:38:06.400,0:38:10.400
anytime you want to talk about racism in

0:38:09.440,0:38:12.880
the states

0:38:10.400,0:38:15.200
there’s always a white irish person

0:38:12.880,0:38:17.200
irish-american person who says

0:38:15.200,0:38:18.560
look at how the irish were treated and

0:38:17.200,0:38:20.240
this shows you

0:38:18.560,0:38:22.000
right now if you look into the history

0:38:20.240,0:38:24.400
of ireland that

0:38:22.000,0:38:25.520
the discrimination against irish was not

0:38:24.400,0:38:28.240
because they’re white

0:38:25.520,0:38:29.920
it’s because they were catholic so next

0:38:28.240,0:38:31.200
time you hear someone say that you can

0:38:29.920,0:38:33.440
say

0:38:31.200,0:38:35.200
it’s catholics versus protestants

0:38:33.440,0:38:36.640
because for people who don’t know about

0:38:35.200,0:38:37.280
the history of the united states if you

0:38:36.640,0:38:40.800
missed

0:38:37.280,0:38:42.560
season one um the

0:38:40.800,0:38:44.640
i guess biggest bullies in american

0:38:42.560,0:38:47.680
history are the protestant

0:38:44.640,0:38:49.359
english that came over well yeah and

0:38:47.680,0:38:52.160
like that’s the whole thing is like even

0:38:49.359,0:38:53.839
irish catholics in america were like

0:38:52.160,0:38:55.359
discriminated against

0:38:53.839,0:38:56.560
when they first came like you can’t

0:38:55.359,0:38:57.920
argue against that there’s a lot of

0:38:56.560,0:39:01.280
discrimination

0:38:57.920,0:39:04.720
however like yes irish catholics

0:39:01.280,0:39:07.599
in the us were paid less than american

0:39:04.720,0:39:08.480
like them protestant christians in the

0:39:07.599,0:39:10.400
us

0:39:08.480,0:39:12.400
but they were still paid more than

0:39:10.400,0:39:15.599
people of color within the u.s

0:39:12.400,0:39:16.560
and then once irish catholics started

0:39:15.599,0:39:19.760
unionizing

0:39:16.560,0:39:22.079
they did not include people of color

0:39:19.760,0:39:23.040
in their union protests and yeah they

0:39:22.079,0:39:26.160
like

0:39:23.040,0:39:28.560
so right there is intersectionality

0:39:26.160,0:39:30.240
between oppressions right it’s like

0:39:28.560,0:39:32.320
muslims who come to the states

0:39:30.240,0:39:34.160
especially from african countries

0:39:32.320,0:39:35.599
you’re discriminated on religion you’re

0:39:34.160,0:39:37.599
discriminated against by

0:39:35.599,0:39:40.000
color you’re discriminated against by

0:39:37.599,0:39:40.400
gender if you identify as transgender or

0:39:40.000,0:39:44.000
you

0:39:40.400,0:39:45.520
are female yeah like which country

0:39:44.000,0:39:46.960
you’re coming from like which continent

0:39:45.520,0:39:49.440
like yeah i know it’s like

0:39:46.960,0:39:50.079
there’s a lot of different degrees and

0:39:49.440,0:39:52.560
like

0:39:50.079,0:39:54.320
various layers yeah but yeah that that’s

0:39:52.560,0:39:57.599
the partition of ireland

0:39:54.320,0:40:00.720
wow that’s really interesting um i

0:39:57.599,0:40:02.480
really had no idea how intense their

0:40:00.720,0:40:04.400
history was so i’m really glad

0:40:02.480,0:40:05.599
we learned about that and now i got to

0:40:04.400,0:40:08.079
pay attention

0:40:05.599,0:40:09.599
to what’s going on in ireland like today

0:40:08.079,0:40:12.800
i really know nothing about

0:40:09.599,0:40:16.319
it so yeah thank you so much jack for

0:40:12.800,0:40:18.560
sharing this and for starting off season

0:40:16.319,0:40:19.520
two i’m so excited for the rest of

0:40:18.560,0:40:25.130
season two

0:40:19.520,0:40:35.860
yes of course yes bye

0:40:25.130,0:40:35.860
[Music]