The Partition of India

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Show Notes

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hello everybody and welcome back to

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another episode of how did we not know

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that

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i’m nat i’m jack

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and today uh jack is talking about india

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i think

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if i remember correctly i think i saw

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your notes

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this is a highly recommended episode by

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two of my friends one of our patrons

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isaac another shout out and

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yeah i’m really excited to cover this

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topic because it’s a huge

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turning point in history for basically

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the rest of the world

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to well maybe not the rest of the world

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i actually counted the us

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it’s a pretty big event i think it

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affects a lot of things and

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the topic i’m talking about today it’s

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the partition of india

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why did i let me just start with that

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talk about the partition of india

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and it’s a significant event because

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it’s the

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first of the

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decolonization efforts of great britain

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like that imperial power this is the

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first

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once we see this yeah when india again

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it’s like a domino

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exactly after that you’ve said about you

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got to yeah

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the partition of india here we go

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just to give a quick overview the

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petition

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to give a quick overview the partition

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of india

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uh happened in 1947 and that was the

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division

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of british india into two independent

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dominion states

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india and pakistan so

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let’s reel it back uh to

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the 1900s okay early 1900s is the end of

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world war one so the current state of

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india

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at that time is it’s still

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under british rule so great britain has

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been ruling india for around 200 years

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at this point

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and the rule started 200 years sorry

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that i didn’t realize it was

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so long yeah well that’s just the

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british so the portuguese actually

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also came in a little earlier so they

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had been under

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um western rule for 300 years

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but the last 200 were british yeah

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i didn’t know that wow it was a while

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um so yeah there you go if you didn’t

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know

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right so the rule started with the

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british east india company which was a

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company

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and then it was later directly ruled by

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the british crown

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and that time period where india is

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ruled directly by the british crown is

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known as the british raj

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people in india are growing very unhappy

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about economic problems that

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were a result of rules put on them by

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the british

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and so some of the things that they

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would do

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is the people or the british would

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tax indians at extremely high rates and

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then they would use the revenue

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from taxes that the indians just paid

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to buy indian goods and then export

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those goods for more

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profit the profit they made from those

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goods that they were exporting would

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then

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go to funding for england

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it wouldn’t get reinvested so they’re

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making all this money from india but

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nothing gets reinvested they were also

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very heavily taxed after world war one

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to pay for the british war efforts and

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reparations

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and um indians were also forced by

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conscription to serve in the british

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indian army

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and if you don’t know what conscription

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is that’s basically a draft so many

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people in india

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felt that they did not want to be ruled

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by the british and they wanted to be

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self-governing

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now there was some tension between

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hindus and muslims throughout history

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that would lead to conflict but for the

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most part hindus and muslims sikhs and

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christians could all live together

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peacefully

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and if anyone doesn’t know what hinduism

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is or

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islam or christianity and sikhism

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those are religions yeah for the most

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part they could live together peaceful

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however

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one of the strategies that the british

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used to conquer india was to actually

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exploit those conflicts between those

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groups because then it would weaken the

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country as a whole

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now wow right so but because of this

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conflict between

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hindus and muslims uh became exacerbated

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and so in order to kind of separate

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those groups and keep them in order the

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british would often

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try to separate them with lines like

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drawing lines on maps

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for example in 1905 there was an event

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known as the partition of bengal

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which was done by lord kurzon who was

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at the time the viceroy of india and if

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anyone doesn’t know what a viceroy is

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that is the governor or a viceroy is a

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governor of a country established by a

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separate sovereign state

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so the vice from india is the governor

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that is usually british um and they’re

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appointed to

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serve and rule over that state and

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that participant of bengal was later

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canceled a few years later due to mass

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political protests

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and then we see many indian organized

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uprisings against the british government

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in the late 19th and early 20th

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centuries

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and this led to the british fearing

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further resistance

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and so they put in harsher policies

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towards indians so

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on april 13 1919 peaceful demonstrators

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came together at a park in the city of

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amritsar

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to protest british rule and

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at this event without warning the

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british general

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reginald dyer who entered the area with

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british indian

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army troops they blocked off the largest

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exit and then opened fire on the unarmed

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crowd

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and then dyer had them continue to fire

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on the crowds

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even when the people started to flee

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and he did not stop until all the

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artillery had been

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exhausted from his troops oh my god

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yeah so this resulted in 376

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deaths and around 1200 injured civilians

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later on dyer was tried for his crimes

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and he

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admitted that he ordered the attack for

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its moral effect

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on the people of the region and when

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they questioned him later as to why he

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didn’t cease fire

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he said that it would have made him look

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weak um

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and then yeah the british government

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later allowed him to resign

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but i don’t think he faced any

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persecution like any

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charges and that was uh

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that angered a lot of people in india

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right so

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um so this event later became known as

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the amritsar

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massacre and that massacre led to an

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increase in nationalist feelings across

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india and it had a profound effect on

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one of the movement’s leaders

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you might have heard of him mohandas

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gandhi who

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was now convinced that india needed to

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seek full independence from great

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britain

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yeah because before then with world war

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one he really supported great britain’s

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war efforts because he thought it would

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lead to

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um india’s independence but then after

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this he realized that

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or it would lead to partial independence

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but then after this mastery yeah we

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realized that no we need to get full

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independence

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uh so like he was thinking like oh like

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if we fight alongside them they’ll like

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give us

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more yeah and then that didn’t happen

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yeah also i have a question um

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it’s kind of like irrelevant but um

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like where does the caste system fall

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into this

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like did the british put that into place

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that was already there i don’t know i

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didn’t do research on that and it didn’t

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come up in my research so i don’t know

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if

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that was a british thing or an indian

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i’m gonna say

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i don’t think it was british introduced

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i would i would

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say my like my guess is probably not

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because you don’t see that in any other

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like british colonies yeah i think that

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that might have been an

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african thing so after world war ii ends

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we’re in the year 1945 and the british

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has lost a lot of money in world war ii

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and just a side note although

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great britain was on the side of the

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allies that won the war great britain

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really didn’t do that much

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um because it was really the soviet

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union in the united states together that

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defeated nazi germany

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and it was almost entirely the united

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states that defeated japan

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so uh it was a bit like world war ii was

0:08:41.440,0:08:46.720
kind of embarrassing for england because

0:08:44.080,0:08:48.399
they suffered greatly financially and

0:08:46.720,0:08:51.120
then

0:08:48.399,0:08:52.480
they also it was just like the british

0:08:51.120,0:08:54.800
imperial power was not

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as strong as they used to be and that

0:08:54.800,0:08:58.480
was very clear after the war

0:08:56.640,0:09:00.080
so they suffered greatly financially and

0:08:58.480,0:09:01.519
we start to see the collapse of the

0:09:00.080,0:09:03.440
british imperial power

0:09:01.519,0:09:04.720
with the growing resistance efforts and

0:09:03.440,0:09:06.399
conflict in india

0:09:04.720,0:09:08.399
they can’t afford to keep control of

0:09:06.399,0:09:09.279
india anymore so they have no choice but

0:09:08.399,0:09:12.320
to withdraw

0:09:09.279,0:09:13.600
in february of 1947 the british

0:09:12.320,0:09:16.959
government announces

0:09:13.600,0:09:19.600
that it will withdraw from india

0:09:16.959,0:09:20.000
and now that the british have agreed to

0:09:19.600,0:09:22.720
leave

0:09:20.000,0:09:24.480
india the reality of what a sovereign

0:09:22.720,0:09:25.680
indian state will look like starts to

0:09:24.480,0:09:29.120
come to reality

0:09:25.680,0:09:33.680
and this is where we see some conflict

0:09:29.120,0:09:37.519
ex like conflict what is it called

0:09:33.680,0:09:40.959
get worse some conflict in this area

0:09:37.519,0:09:43.200
get worse right and then um yeah okay so

0:09:40.959,0:09:46.320
political negotiations between

0:09:43.200,0:09:49.600
british and indian leaders followed

0:09:46.320,0:09:51.839
the announcement so that starts to erase

0:09:49.600,0:09:53.200
and i just wrote these notes very badly

0:09:51.839,0:09:54.399
so that’s why i’m like tripping on my

0:09:53.200,0:09:58.320
words

0:09:54.399,0:10:00.959
so there were two

0:09:58.320,0:10:02.160
main representatives that negotiated

0:10:00.959,0:10:04.640
with the british

0:10:02.160,0:10:05.440
on what like the newly independent india

0:10:04.640,0:10:08.720
would look like

0:10:05.440,0:10:11.760
and one of them was

0:10:08.720,0:10:14.959
here we go javon

0:10:11.760,0:10:18.399
nehru yes um next up

0:10:14.959,0:10:21.760
nice one

0:10:18.399,0:10:24.079
and javar halal nehru who represented

0:10:21.760,0:10:27.760
the indian national congress party

0:10:24.079,0:10:28.560
and muhammad ali jannah serving as

0:10:27.760,0:10:32.160
representative

0:10:28.560,0:10:36.160
of the muslim league so muhammad ali

0:10:32.160,0:10:38.000
jina was concerned with muslims

0:10:36.160,0:10:40.320
was concerned that muslims would be

0:10:38.000,0:10:41.120
politically disenfranchised in a hindu

0:10:40.320,0:10:43.519
majority

0:10:41.120,0:10:44.399
india and he called for a muslim

0:10:43.519,0:10:48.079
homeland

0:10:44.399,0:10:50.240
while javar halal nehru

0:10:48.079,0:10:53.440
insisted upon a united india that

0:10:50.240,0:10:56.240
encompassed the entire subcontinent

0:10:53.440,0:10:57.440
so now the question was not whether or

0:10:56.240,0:10:59.200
not india would become

0:10:57.440,0:11:01.040
independent but as to whether the

0:10:59.200,0:11:02.240
country would become one or more

0:11:01.040,0:11:04.160
independent states

0:11:02.240,0:11:05.920
oh sorry i just have a question like

0:11:04.160,0:11:09.760
before we

0:11:05.920,0:11:11.440
before you keep going i guess i so like

0:11:09.760,0:11:13.279
great britain literally just got up and

0:11:11.440,0:11:14.079
left peacefully or are you gonna get

0:11:13.279,0:11:16.480
into

0:11:14.079,0:11:17.760
that or like they just left peacefully

0:11:16.480,0:11:20.640
what was like

0:11:17.760,0:11:21.920
why did gandhi do like he had all these

0:11:20.640,0:11:24.800
hunger strikes right

0:11:21.920,0:11:25.839
and i thought that’s why yes gandhi led

0:11:24.800,0:11:27.519
a lot of

0:11:25.839,0:11:29.360
hunger strikes and the quit india

0:11:27.519,0:11:30.959
movement and that was really

0:11:29.360,0:11:32.880
great to see all these people coming

0:11:30.959,0:11:36.160
together to protest british rule

0:11:32.880,0:11:37.279
but the reality was that the british

0:11:36.160,0:11:40.480
were leaving because

0:11:37.279,0:11:42.160
economically it just wasn’t like

0:11:40.480,0:11:45.760
continuing to hold their imperial

0:11:42.160,0:11:47.600
powers was not working in combination

0:11:45.760,0:11:51.279
with the uprisings and

0:11:47.600,0:11:54.959
the lack of monetary funds

0:11:51.279,0:11:58.560
the british decided yeah okay okay

0:11:54.959,0:12:03.279
all right cool thanks you’re welcome

0:11:58.560,0:12:03.279
um okay so

0:12:04.480,0:12:09.360
right so hindu muslim antagonism over

0:12:07.279,0:12:13.120
political power started to increase

0:12:09.360,0:12:16.880
in late 1946 killing up to 7 000 people

0:12:13.120,0:12:19.760
this is just leading up to the

0:12:16.880,0:12:20.240
independence of india talking about a

0:12:19.760,0:12:23.440
huge

0:12:20.240,0:12:25.279
number right yeah the rebellions

0:12:23.440,0:12:26.480
yeah not they weren’t even rebellions

0:12:25.279,0:12:28.880
but just the the

0:12:26.480,0:12:30.399
conflict between the two groups was

0:12:28.880,0:12:32.959
really severe and there

0:12:30.399,0:12:35.760
i was reading british documents of

0:12:32.959,0:12:37.200
reports from the viceroy back to

0:12:35.760,0:12:39.519
england and back to the queen or

0:12:37.200,0:12:42.480
whatever back to whatever

0:12:39.519,0:12:42.959
political parliament whatever and yeah

0:12:42.480,0:12:46.240
yeah

0:12:42.959,0:12:47.120
um they would just detail the fights

0:12:46.240,0:12:50.320
between

0:12:47.120,0:12:54.639
muslims and hindus and

0:12:50.320,0:12:58.240
like the antagonism between the groups

0:12:54.639,0:13:00.720
it’s pretty pretty violent so

0:12:58.240,0:13:01.600
anyways by the time the last viceroy

0:13:00.720,0:13:04.639
lord louis

0:13:01.600,0:13:06.240
mountbatten arrives in india it became

0:13:04.639,0:13:09.040
clear that there needed to be a

0:13:06.240,0:13:11.360
partition else they risked a descent

0:13:09.040,0:13:13.440
into chaos and communal war

0:13:11.360,0:13:15.120
before power could even be transferred

0:13:13.440,0:13:18.160
from british to india

0:13:15.120,0:13:20.720
and so right

0:13:18.160,0:13:21.920
and originally prime british prime

0:13:20.720,0:13:23.920
minister

0:13:21.920,0:13:25.600
yeah i’m sorry originally british prime

0:13:23.920,0:13:28.800
minister clement atlee

0:13:25.600,0:13:30.800
set the independence date to be in 1948

0:13:28.800,0:13:32.320
to provide more time to sort out the

0:13:30.800,0:13:33.600
partition and what that was going to

0:13:32.320,0:13:35.839
look like

0:13:33.600,0:13:38.000
however given the growing conflict

0:13:35.839,0:13:38.720
between hindus and muslims over the

0:13:38.000,0:13:41.360
partition

0:13:38.720,0:13:43.680
the british were really eager to get out

0:13:41.360,0:13:45.040
of their subcontinental issues

0:13:43.680,0:13:47.600
and they advanced the date of

0:13:45.040,0:13:50.160
independence to august 1947

0:13:47.600,0:13:52.480
which was about a year earlier than they

0:13:50.160,0:13:55.519
had originally planned

0:13:52.480,0:13:58.880
wow yeah so this

0:13:55.519,0:14:00.839
is going to be messy let’s see how that

0:13:58.880,0:14:02.959
went

0:14:00.839,0:14:05.440
um

0:14:02.959,0:14:08.959
1947 the plans for independence were

0:14:05.440,0:14:12.639
announced over radio to the public

0:14:08.959,0:14:16.320
now partition gets created

0:14:12.639,0:14:19.440
so after the announcement is made

0:14:16.320,0:14:20.480
they left the monumental the british let

0:14:19.440,0:14:22.000
me clarify

0:14:20.480,0:14:23.920
after the announcement was made the

0:14:22.000,0:14:25.519
british left the monumental task of

0:14:23.920,0:14:27.920
mapping up the partition

0:14:25.519,0:14:28.880
to a british lawyer named cyril

0:14:27.920,0:14:31.680
radcliffe

0:14:28.880,0:14:35.199
and he was given about six weeks to

0:14:31.680,0:14:38.959
figure it out and set the new borders

0:14:35.199,0:14:41.120
oh my god yeah that’s it

0:14:38.959,0:14:43.519
that’s very rushed i feel like it’s very

0:14:41.120,0:14:46.560
fast i’ve had school assignments that

0:14:43.519,0:14:46.560
have given me more time

0:14:46.720,0:14:52.320
um so radcliffe

0:14:50.240,0:14:54.639
used outdated maps that showed the

0:14:52.320,0:14:55.199
percentage of muslims and hindus in each

0:14:54.639,0:14:58.320
region

0:14:55.199,0:15:01.040
and then he hastily drew lines on the

0:14:58.320,0:15:03.279
map to roughly form a political border

0:15:01.040,0:15:05.519
where none had existed before and this

0:15:03.279,0:15:08.000
became known as the radcliff line

0:15:05.519,0:15:09.760
so areas with the majority muslim

0:15:08.000,0:15:10.560
population in the northwest and

0:15:09.760,0:15:13.440
northeast

0:15:10.560,0:15:15.120
were designated as pakistan while hindu

0:15:13.440,0:15:17.519
majority areas became

0:15:15.120,0:15:18.959
india now the big problem with that is

0:15:17.519,0:15:21.040
that hindus muslim

0:15:18.959,0:15:22.720
sikhs christians and others had lived

0:15:21.040,0:15:23.839
side by side in all parts of the

0:15:22.720,0:15:26.880
subcontinent

0:15:23.839,0:15:27.199
so many of the areas that he was looking

0:15:26.880,0:15:29.440
at

0:15:27.199,0:15:31.519
would sometimes be sixty percent muslim

0:15:29.440,0:15:35.120
forty percent hindu or vice versa

0:15:31.519,0:15:36.800
and it wasn’t super clear um

0:15:35.120,0:15:39.279
yeah it would fit into because

0:15:36.800,0:15:42.079
everyone’s intermixed

0:15:39.279,0:15:43.759
yeah yeah right so overnight people

0:15:42.079,0:15:47.040
literally overnight like this is

0:15:43.759,0:15:48.720
overnight people’s lives were turned

0:15:47.040,0:15:50.639
upside down and those who had

0:15:48.720,0:15:53.360
potentially grown up in that area for

0:15:50.639,0:15:56.160
centuries became religious minorities

0:15:53.360,0:15:58.959
living on the wrong side of a new border

0:15:56.160,0:16:01.680
so here we go the partition arrives

0:15:58.959,0:16:02.000
oh can you have commentary oh no that’s

0:16:01.680,0:16:05.440
just

0:16:02.000,0:16:07.199
i’m like that’s just i don’t know

0:16:05.440,0:16:08.720
yeah i keep going i’m just like this is

0:16:07.199,0:16:12.160
like ridiculous

0:16:08.720,0:16:15.600
yeah it’s a very realistic british guy

0:16:12.160,0:16:19.120
drew a line yeah yeah also like

0:16:15.600,0:16:22.399
not indian never lived there drew a line

0:16:19.120,0:16:24.000
yeah oh yeah it’s like the same thing

0:16:22.399,0:16:25.759
that happened with like korea

0:16:24.000,0:16:27.519
like it was like just two americans that

0:16:25.759,0:16:28.800
literally just drew a straight line and

0:16:27.519,0:16:32.079
then

0:16:28.800,0:16:35.360
let’s see how this yeah that’s

0:16:32.079,0:16:36.000
so frustrating yeah anyways okay so

0:16:35.360,0:16:39.279
august

0:16:36.000,0:16:41.120
on august 15 1947 india has officially

0:16:39.279,0:16:44.000
won its independence from the british

0:16:41.120,0:16:45.839
and is split into two new states that

0:16:44.000,0:16:47.120
would rule themselves known as india and

0:16:45.839,0:16:50.480
pakistan

0:16:47.120,0:16:52.560
which uh pakistan was actually split

0:16:50.480,0:16:55.279
into an east and west area

0:16:52.560,0:16:57.120
and side note that east pakistan later

0:16:55.279,0:17:00.070
becomes known as bangladesh

0:16:57.120,0:17:01.279
but that’s episode

0:17:00.070,0:17:04.640
[Music]

0:17:01.279,0:17:07.360
yeah wow so many it’s a huge like this

0:17:04.640,0:17:08.720
whole subcontinent is like so big so

0:17:07.360,0:17:11.439
exactly yeah and also

0:17:08.720,0:17:12.000
east and west very far away india the

0:17:11.439,0:17:14.959
country

0:17:12.000,0:17:18.000
india’s right between them so yeah we

0:17:14.959,0:17:21.120
won’t get into it today but

0:17:18.000,0:17:23.439
so the celebration was very short-lived

0:17:21.120,0:17:24.319
because the partition line was announced

0:17:23.439,0:17:25.839
two days later

0:17:24.319,0:17:27.360
and millions of people had to

0:17:25.839,0:17:29.120
frantically scramble to get to the

0:17:27.360,0:17:31.679
correct side

0:17:29.120,0:17:33.440
yeah yeah like so there’s like a huge

0:17:31.679,0:17:36.799
migration you’re like oh crap

0:17:33.440,0:17:40.400
like i’m under the biggest gotta go

0:17:36.799,0:17:42.320
one of them yeah so

0:17:40.400,0:17:44.720
hindus and sikhs fled to india while

0:17:42.320,0:17:47.600
muslims went the other way into pakistan

0:17:44.720,0:17:50.080
and up to 15 million people were

0:17:47.600,0:17:53.440
displaced and had to migrate

0:17:50.080,0:17:56.640
oh oh my god 15

0:17:53.440,0:18:00.640
million people 15 million but

0:17:56.640,0:18:02.720
many never made it so no

0:18:00.640,0:18:04.240
yeah here’s where it gets really really

0:18:02.720,0:18:06.960
really sad

0:18:04.240,0:18:09.200
um so during the migration many people

0:18:06.960,0:18:11.280
on both sides were attacked and killed

0:18:09.200,0:18:14.480
in their homes and neighborhoods

0:18:11.280,0:18:16.720
so people would hide in bushes and then

0:18:14.480,0:18:17.840
attack and kill those who were migrating

0:18:16.720,0:18:20.799
by foot

0:18:17.840,0:18:23.440
trains were packed to the brim with

0:18:20.799,0:18:27.360
refugees and during the journey

0:18:23.440,0:18:31.039
groups would stop the train and massacre

0:18:27.360,0:18:31.679
entire um what is it a carriage is it a

0:18:31.039,0:18:34.720
call to carry

0:18:31.679,0:18:37.200
yeah yeah yeah like a trainer

0:18:34.720,0:18:38.320
yeah they would just massacre an entire

0:18:37.200,0:18:40.240
train car

0:18:38.320,0:18:42.080
um sometimes the entire train and then

0:18:40.240,0:18:43.919
they would spare only the driver

0:18:42.080,0:18:47.120
so that he could bring the carriage of

0:18:43.919,0:18:49.440
corpses to the destination

0:18:47.120,0:18:50.880
terrible absolutely terrible they would

0:18:49.440,0:18:55.039
like

0:18:50.880,0:18:57.039
fire with people in them oh god

0:18:55.039,0:18:58.400
because it was just such conflict

0:18:57.039,0:19:02.160
between the two groups

0:18:58.400,0:19:02.880
and yeah oh yeah women and children were

0:19:02.160,0:19:05.440
assaulted

0:19:02.880,0:19:08.160
kidnapped raped killed and abducted in

0:19:05.440,0:19:10.480
huge numbers

0:19:08.160,0:19:12.480
not a small amount and men were making

0:19:10.480,0:19:14.080
women’s bodies the battleground of

0:19:12.480,0:19:16.400
community identity

0:19:14.080,0:19:17.200
the populations of entire villages were

0:19:16.400,0:19:19.760
executed

0:19:17.200,0:19:21.360
and the corpse were lining the roadsides

0:19:19.760,0:19:24.720
yeah it was bad and the british

0:19:21.360,0:19:26.160
knew that there was a lot of bloodshed

0:19:24.720,0:19:27.919
they knew about the trains they knew

0:19:26.160,0:19:28.640
about the massacres between hindu and

0:19:27.919,0:19:30.880
muslims

0:19:28.640,0:19:33.360
but since they were done with india they

0:19:30.880,0:19:36.160
left it up to them to deal with it

0:19:33.360,0:19:38.400
oh my god right not our problem even

0:19:36.160,0:19:39.919
though we literally changed the last two

0:19:38.400,0:19:43.200
hundred years of your history

0:19:39.919,0:19:46.160
and like right we just were like

0:19:43.200,0:19:47.679
yeah we did this live differences

0:19:46.160,0:19:50.320
between you guys so that we could have

0:19:47.679,0:19:53.120
an easier time ruling

0:19:50.320,0:19:53.679
anyways yeah so in the end this was the

0:19:53.120,0:19:56.080
la

0:19:53.679,0:19:58.160
uh yeah in the end this was the largest

0:19:56.080,0:19:59.200
forced migration of people that has ever

0:19:58.160,0:20:02.400
happened

0:19:59.200,0:20:05.280
and oh wow as a war famine so

0:20:02.400,0:20:07.039
a lot of migration yeah or famine but

0:20:05.280,0:20:10.320
this was

0:20:07.039,0:20:15.679
neither and it was just it was huge

0:20:10.320,0:20:17.840
some guy daniel read spiral

0:20:15.679,0:20:18.880
i know every time you said it though i

0:20:17.840,0:20:21.039
was like

0:20:18.880,0:20:23.919
oh my god what if they’re related i know

0:20:21.039,0:20:27.200
i didn’t i shouldn’t joke about it

0:20:23.919,0:20:30.320
yeah i looked it up i wonder

0:20:27.200,0:20:32.559
um no he’s yeah i think he’s okay but

0:20:30.320,0:20:35.200
anyway so overall an estimated

0:20:32.559,0:20:37.120
500 000 to 2 million people died and

0:20:35.200,0:20:39.200
their partition ranks among the worst

0:20:37.120,0:20:40.320
human tragedies of the 20th century

0:20:39.200,0:20:43.280
pretty sad

0:20:40.320,0:20:44.799
so let’s talk about conflict today

0:20:43.280,0:20:47.200
between

0:20:44.799,0:20:49.039
india and pakistan because there is

0:20:47.200,0:20:52.159
still a lot of conflict after

0:20:49.039,0:20:52.480
the partition they do not yeah they’re

0:20:52.159,0:20:54.799
not

0:20:52.480,0:20:56.159
friends for sure yeah there’s just so

0:20:54.799,0:20:58.559
many issues

0:20:56.159,0:21:00.080
um so since the partition there has been

0:20:58.559,0:21:02.000
conflict between india

0:21:00.080,0:21:04.159
and pakistan both states have had

0:21:02.000,0:21:05.039
multiple wars and border fights over

0:21:04.159,0:21:07.120
territories

0:21:05.039,0:21:10.559
most notably regarding an originally

0:21:07.120,0:21:13.760
autonomous region known as kashmir

0:21:10.559,0:21:15.679
and kashmir during the split they were

0:21:13.760,0:21:18.720
given the choice to become

0:21:15.679,0:21:20.400
to become independent or join

0:21:18.720,0:21:22.480
one or the other side and they decided

0:21:20.400,0:21:24.159
to stay independent but

0:21:22.480,0:21:27.120
yeah that’s another story actually but

0:21:24.159,0:21:29.120
kashmir has been going through a lot and

0:21:27.120,0:21:31.200
yeah they chose to be independent at

0:21:29.120,0:21:34.080
first but now like pakistan and india

0:21:31.200,0:21:36.320
have been fighting over it

0:21:34.080,0:21:37.919
um and technically they’re under indian

0:21:36.320,0:21:40.320
rule but i don’t want to get into it

0:21:37.919,0:21:42.240
so yeah yeah yeah kashmir is now one of

0:21:40.320,0:21:43.039
the most militarized regions of the

0:21:42.240,0:21:45.039
world where

0:21:43.039,0:21:47.200
civilians are subject to a brutal

0:21:45.039,0:21:48.960
occupation by the indian army

0:21:47.200,0:21:50.880
again we could talk about this another

0:21:48.960,0:21:53.360
day because it is a lot

0:21:50.880,0:21:55.200
and in the past 20 years both countries

0:21:53.360,0:21:57.280
have acquired nuclear weapons

0:21:55.200,0:21:58.960
which has become very concerning for the

0:21:57.280,0:22:02.159
united nations

0:21:58.960,0:22:03.280
and today nearly 70 years later there

0:22:02.159,0:22:05.520
are still tensions

0:22:03.280,0:22:07.360
and divisions in the country many

0:22:05.520,0:22:09.280
families have never been able to go back

0:22:07.360,0:22:11.039
to where their ancestors used to live

0:22:09.280,0:22:12.480
and it is very difficult to travel

0:22:11.039,0:22:14.559
between the two countries

0:22:12.480,0:22:15.520
even if you’re trying to visit your

0:22:14.559,0:22:19.600
family and friends

0:22:15.520,0:22:22.460
it’s just not oh my gosh yeah

0:22:19.600,0:22:24.640
well it is possible it’s not that easy

0:22:22.460,0:22:27.120
[Music]

0:22:24.640,0:22:28.559
yeah that’s so sad like i don’t know i

0:22:27.120,0:22:29.919
guess we didn’t really we were like

0:22:28.559,0:22:31.360
we didn’t talk about this when we

0:22:29.919,0:22:33.280
covered the migration part because we

0:22:31.360,0:22:36.400
were just like so shocked by the

0:22:33.280,0:22:37.360
violence but like yeah imagine like

0:22:36.400,0:22:39.360
you’ve lived

0:22:37.360,0:22:40.799
like your whole family has lived in this

0:22:39.360,0:22:42.880
one area

0:22:40.799,0:22:44.480
for as long as you can remember like all

0:22:42.880,0:22:46.080
your ancestors and everything and then

0:22:44.480,0:22:48.880
you have to move to a completely

0:22:46.080,0:22:49.679
new place and india is huge so i’m sure

0:22:48.880,0:22:52.400
like

0:22:49.679,0:22:52.880
every like province every region is so

0:22:52.400,0:22:55.840
different

0:22:52.880,0:22:56.640
you know yeah so and then if you like

0:22:55.840,0:22:58.880
you can’t

0:22:56.640,0:23:00.240
travel with your whole entire family so

0:22:58.880,0:23:02.000
you’re all separated

0:23:00.240,0:23:03.840
yeah if you’re different religions you

0:23:02.000,0:23:06.880
can’t yeah

0:23:03.840,0:23:08.799
just oh my gosh and it’s

0:23:06.880,0:23:10.440
just if your family’s been in this one

0:23:08.799,0:23:13.600
area for

0:23:10.440,0:23:16.960
generations now that there’s

0:23:13.600,0:23:19.840
you need to migrate that’s so weird to

0:23:16.960,0:23:21.919
feel like an outsider just overnight

0:23:19.840,0:23:22.880
yeah yeah in a matter of days all of a

0:23:21.919,0:23:24.640
sudden

0:23:22.880,0:23:26.799
yeah it’s not just a feeling too it was

0:23:24.640,0:23:29.760
like life-threatening if you stayed

0:23:26.799,0:23:31.440
which is why a lot of people yeah and

0:23:29.760,0:23:33.840
then you were risking your life

0:23:31.440,0:23:36.159
to leave you know so either way like it

0:23:33.840,0:23:39.840
was just so dangerous oh my gosh

0:23:36.159,0:23:44.080
yeah but that is the indian partition

0:23:39.840,0:23:46.240
wow wow oh my gosh i’m really glad

0:23:44.080,0:23:47.360
you did this episode because i like i

0:23:46.240,0:23:48.880
guess like

0:23:47.360,0:23:50.640
reading current events like i always

0:23:48.880,0:23:51.360
knew that pakistan and india had a

0:23:50.640,0:23:53.440
really

0:23:51.360,0:23:55.279
tense relationship but i didn’t know the

0:23:53.440,0:23:58.080
history behind it

0:23:55.279,0:23:58.559
yeah and same with like british rule of

0:23:58.080,0:24:01.039
india

0:23:58.559,0:24:03.120
i didn’t realize they were there for so

0:24:01.039,0:24:05.200
long and then they just left so

0:24:03.120,0:24:06.240
abruptly i really thought it was this

0:24:05.200,0:24:08.400
long

0:24:06.240,0:24:09.360
drawn out process but so i’m really glad

0:24:08.400,0:24:11.440
you covered it

0:24:09.360,0:24:12.720
actually can i look up something really

0:24:11.440,0:24:14.960
quick because

0:24:12.720,0:24:16.000
i remember like last at the end of like

0:24:14.960,0:24:19.919
last year india

0:24:16.000,0:24:22.000
passed this law about like muslim

0:24:19.919,0:24:23.600
citizens and i think there was like that

0:24:22.000,0:24:24.240
they’re revoking their passports or

0:24:23.600,0:24:26.880
something

0:24:24.240,0:24:28.080
oh no and i don’t care about that ah

0:24:26.880,0:24:31.200
yeah yeah okay

0:24:28.080,0:24:34.320
so um sorry

0:24:31.200,0:24:35.840
so in oh this was december 2019. wow why

0:24:34.320,0:24:38.960
did i think this was literally

0:24:35.840,0:24:39.919
last year wow okay but like basically in

0:24:38.960,0:24:42.320
december

0:24:39.919,0:24:43.039
2019 i remember reading this in the news

0:24:42.320,0:24:45.840
um like

0:24:43.039,0:24:47.520
india’s parliament they passed a bill

0:24:45.840,0:24:51.200
saying that like they’re granting

0:24:47.520,0:24:52.799
amnesty to uh illegal immigrants

0:24:51.200,0:24:54.880
from three neighboring countries so

0:24:52.799,0:24:55.360
pakistan bangladesh and afghanistan

0:24:54.880,0:24:56.640
they’re like

0:24:55.360,0:24:59.120
okay you guys could come here as

0:24:56.640,0:25:01.840
refugees only if you’re not

0:24:59.120,0:25:03.039
muslim so if you’re a muslim citizen

0:25:01.840,0:25:06.320
from these countries

0:25:03.039,0:25:08.559
you’re not allowed to migrate to india

0:25:06.320,0:25:10.240
and i this was december 2019 so i don’t

0:25:08.559,0:25:10.960
know if the law is still in place but

0:25:10.240,0:25:13.360
like again

0:25:10.960,0:25:15.520
just like tensions between like hindu

0:25:13.360,0:25:17.600
majority muslim minority like it still

0:25:15.520,0:25:19.919
exists today and it’s really

0:25:17.600,0:25:20.640
frustrating to hear that i don’t know

0:25:19.919,0:25:22.080
like that

0:25:20.640,0:25:24.400
that you said like the conflict was

0:25:22.080,0:25:27.360
exacerbated by the british like how many

0:25:24.400,0:25:27.360
years ago you know so

0:25:27.760,0:25:31.200
and like how do you solve that like

0:25:29.360,0:25:32.799
again like ethnic and religious

0:25:31.200,0:25:34.240
conflicts like that

0:25:32.799,0:25:36.080
how do you solve that especially now

0:25:34.240,0:25:39.600
that there’s a hard border

0:25:36.080,0:25:42.640
like separating the two groups right

0:25:39.600,0:25:44.880
if you can’t no i agree

0:25:42.640,0:25:46.720
and um not to spoil anything but i’m

0:25:44.880,0:25:49.840
gonna cover another

0:25:46.720,0:25:51.200
conflict for my next topic and just

0:25:49.840,0:25:53.840
reading about it you

0:25:51.200,0:25:56.480
i i just i don’t know how it’s gonna get

0:25:53.840,0:26:00.240
resolved i hope it all gets resolved

0:25:56.480,0:26:03.039
i understand kind of how much

0:26:00.240,0:26:04.559
animosity both sides probably hold

0:26:03.039,0:26:05.760
towards each other because of everything

0:26:04.559,0:26:08.799
that’s happened

0:26:05.760,0:26:13.120
so it’s tough

0:26:08.799,0:26:16.480
yeah yeah international easy

0:26:13.120,0:26:18.320
so hard foreign policy is so difficult

0:26:16.480,0:26:19.679
and then again like not to go on a

0:26:18.320,0:26:21.440
tangent but then like

0:26:19.679,0:26:23.279
today it’s like when we look at like

0:26:21.440,0:26:25.840
india pakistan relations

0:26:23.279,0:26:26.960
there are so many other countries that

0:26:25.840,0:26:29.520
want to have a say

0:26:26.960,0:26:31.760
in how the conflict is resolved you know

0:26:29.520,0:26:33.360
so like within the u.n like i know like

0:26:31.760,0:26:35.440
nuclear weapons is like a really big

0:26:33.360,0:26:37.120
deal because both countries are like

0:26:35.440,0:26:39.039
you know like increasing their nuclear

0:26:37.120,0:26:41.279
weapons but then it’s like you have

0:26:39.039,0:26:42.799
all these other like western countries

0:26:41.279,0:26:43.120
and then like neighboring countries who

0:26:42.799,0:26:45.600
all

0:26:43.120,0:26:46.720
like want to put their have their say in

0:26:45.600,0:26:48.240
that matter

0:26:46.720,0:26:50.080
and so it just makes everything even

0:26:48.240,0:26:52.480
more complicated so i don’t know

0:26:50.080,0:26:53.840
hopefully this can be resolved

0:26:52.480,0:26:56.480
diplomatically

0:26:53.840,0:26:57.520
peacefully and no exactly and just to

0:26:56.480,0:26:59.440
add on to that

0:26:57.520,0:27:00.960
it’s yeah can you say that because

0:26:59.440,0:27:02.960
during this time

0:27:00.960,0:27:05.360
um if anyone’s really good with dates

0:27:02.960,0:27:07.120
the cold war is also going on so with

0:27:05.360,0:27:09.919
the decolonization

0:27:07.120,0:27:11.039
of all of these british imperial uh

0:27:09.919,0:27:15.360
territories

0:27:11.039,0:27:17.279
they these newly independent nations

0:27:15.360,0:27:18.760
often feel like they have to choose a

0:27:17.279,0:27:21.120
side uh

0:27:18.760,0:27:22.080
yeah soviet union or the united states

0:27:21.120,0:27:25.279
who were the two

0:27:22.080,0:27:27.279
global superpowers at the time and so

0:27:25.279,0:27:28.320
that introduces a whole another realm of

0:27:27.279,0:27:30.399
conflicts because

0:27:28.320,0:27:31.360
you have to choose a side or statement

0:27:30.399,0:27:32.960
yeah

0:27:31.360,0:27:35.120
and you’re such a tired communist

0:27:32.960,0:27:36.880
capitalist exactly and you’re scared

0:27:35.120,0:27:38.799
about maybe getting invaded

0:27:36.880,0:27:40.240
based on what side you choose so it’s

0:27:38.799,0:27:43.679
just

0:27:40.240,0:27:45.440
complexity wow that’s crazy

0:27:43.679,0:27:46.960
i’m so glad you covered this topic thank

0:27:45.440,0:27:48.080
you so much for sharing you did a great

0:27:46.960,0:27:50.399
job um

0:27:48.080,0:27:52.399
yeah hopefully people learned a lot and

0:27:50.399,0:27:54.320
it puts everything into perspective

0:27:52.399,0:27:56.559
especially like we talked about a couple

0:27:54.320,0:27:59.279
of british former british colonies here

0:27:56.559,0:28:00.399
so this really started the whole domino

0:27:59.279,0:28:02.640
effect

0:28:00.399,0:28:04.799
um and yeah we can learn a lot from it

0:28:02.640,0:28:17.840
so yeah thanks for listening everyone

0:28:04.799,0:28:17.840
yeah bye

The Opium Wars

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Show Notes

0:00:00.000,0:00:03.439
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.159,0:00:06.560
another episode

0:00:03.439,0:00:07.120
of how did we not know that i’m net i’m

0:00:06.560,0:00:10.160
jack

0:00:07.120,0:00:12.320
and today i’m excited

0:00:10.160,0:00:14.320
for jack’s episode do you want to tell

0:00:12.320,0:00:16.960
us what you’re going to be talking about

0:00:14.320,0:00:18.800
yeah today i’m covering the opium wars

0:00:16.960,0:00:19.359
and that and i did not plan for this

0:00:18.800,0:00:21.359
large

0:00:19.359,0:00:23.439
china sequence in the middle of the

0:00:21.359,0:00:24.960
season but it just ended up that way

0:00:23.439,0:00:27.119
but yeah it’ll it’s gonna be really

0:00:24.960,0:00:28.320
interesting this is a war that i always

0:00:27.119,0:00:30.560
heard about in

0:00:28.320,0:00:31.599
light but i never really looked into it

0:00:30.560,0:00:33.760
and i think

0:00:31.599,0:00:35.760
after this episode when you hear about

0:00:33.760,0:00:36.800
the opium war you’ll have a better

0:00:35.760,0:00:39.360
understanding

0:00:36.800,0:00:41.280
about why china has been closed off to

0:00:39.360,0:00:42.239
trade they have been a little less prone

0:00:41.280,0:00:45.440
to trade

0:00:42.239,0:00:47.440
which we discovered in gnats episode and

0:00:45.440,0:00:49.200
you’ll also probably have a better idea

0:00:47.440,0:00:49.600
as to some of the other events that come

0:00:49.200,0:00:51.360
after

0:00:49.600,0:00:53.680
the opium war and why that happened

0:00:51.360,0:00:56.640
because this really sets the stage for

0:00:53.680,0:00:59.120
a lot of the other uh catastrophes that

0:00:56.640,0:01:01.120
happen in china the opium wars

0:00:59.120,0:01:02.320
that’s war is plural so there are two

0:01:01.120,0:01:04.239
wars and

0:01:02.320,0:01:06.000
we’re going to start with the first one

0:01:04.239,0:01:08.640
and basically the opium wars

0:01:06.000,0:01:10.960
were a series of conflicts in china from

0:01:08.640,0:01:11.600
western imperial powers mainly great

0:01:10.960,0:01:13.360
britain

0:01:11.600,0:01:14.960
in their attempt to open up trade in

0:01:13.360,0:01:17.920
china

0:01:14.960,0:01:19.680
so for the first opium war it’s the

0:01:17.920,0:01:22.240
early 1800s

0:01:19.680,0:01:23.439
and great britain is not in great

0:01:22.240,0:01:26.560
financial shape

0:01:23.439,0:01:29.600
in the 1800s they’ve recently

0:01:26.560,0:01:30.400
like 20 years ago um lost the american

0:01:29.600,0:01:32.560
colonies

0:01:30.400,0:01:34.000
which you’ve lost like all that tax

0:01:32.560,0:01:35.439
revenue and you lost

0:01:34.000,0:01:38.560
the cotton production that you get from

0:01:35.439,0:01:40.079
the americas um and the tobacco etc

0:01:38.560,0:01:41.759
and they’ve spent a lot of money on

0:01:40.079,0:01:42.240
their colonization efforts around the

0:01:41.759,0:01:44.560
world

0:01:42.240,0:01:46.240
and their investment in india is not

0:01:44.560,0:01:48.560
paying off like they had hoped

0:01:46.240,0:01:49.600
they spent a lot of money conquering

0:01:48.560,0:01:51.439
india and

0:01:49.600,0:01:53.360
they wanted to grow cotton there but you

0:01:51.439,0:01:55.759
couldn’t really grow cotton as well

0:01:53.360,0:01:56.880
as they were doing in other countries so

0:01:55.759,0:02:00.079
they weren’t

0:01:56.880,0:02:02.240
it wasn’t like successful so at this

0:02:00.079,0:02:04.560
time there are already a lot of european

0:02:02.240,0:02:07.200
imperialist strongholds around asia

0:02:04.560,0:02:08.080
you have the british in india the french

0:02:07.200,0:02:11.200
and vietnam

0:02:08.080,0:02:13.040
cambodia laos and the dutch in

0:02:11.200,0:02:14.239
indonesia also the spanish in the

0:02:13.040,0:02:16.560
philippines so

0:02:14.239,0:02:18.480
it’s just like european powers are

0:02:16.560,0:02:22.480
everywhere around asia

0:02:18.480,0:02:24.480
and so well before this time

0:02:22.480,0:02:26.879
chinese products were in really high

0:02:24.480,0:02:27.760
demand in england such as their silk

0:02:26.879,0:02:30.720
porcelain

0:02:27.760,0:02:32.560
and a lot of tea like the british it’s a

0:02:30.720,0:02:34.480
stereotype but they really did

0:02:32.560,0:02:36.160
love tea all european countries were

0:02:34.480,0:02:37.280
interested in trade with china right but

0:02:36.160,0:02:39.760
great britain was like

0:02:37.280,0:02:40.800
really really liking their products but

0:02:39.760,0:02:42.080
on the flip side

0:02:40.800,0:02:44.160
china didn’t really have a lot of

0:02:42.080,0:02:45.920
interest for great britain’s products or

0:02:44.160,0:02:47.519
like any european products they just

0:02:45.920,0:02:48.239
didn’t think it was interesting or they

0:02:47.519,0:02:49.920
didn’t want it

0:02:48.239,0:02:52.160
can’t make a trade like that with

0:02:49.920,0:02:52.560
products instead england has to trade

0:02:52.160,0:02:55.760
hard

0:02:52.560,0:02:57.440
silver um to get the tea from china

0:02:55.760,0:02:59.200
great britain starts to look for a

0:02:57.440,0:03:01.599
solution to

0:02:59.200,0:03:02.959
that problem and they discover that

0:03:01.599,0:03:05.680
although india

0:03:02.959,0:03:08.560
is not good for growing cotton it is

0:03:05.680,0:03:13.040
really good for growing a plant called

0:03:08.560,0:03:16.400
the opium poppy so

0:03:13.040,0:03:18.400
this we start the opium trade so opium

0:03:16.400,0:03:20.400
which i said comes from this poppy plant

0:03:18.400,0:03:22.239
is a highly addictive drug

0:03:20.400,0:03:24.000
it forms the base of those really hard

0:03:22.239,0:03:27.280
drugs like morphine and heroin

0:03:24.000,0:03:29.040
right so the plan was to get the chinese

0:03:27.280,0:03:30.640
addicted to opium so then they would

0:03:29.040,0:03:32.000
have something to trade and solve the

0:03:30.640,0:03:33.840
trade deficit isn’t that

0:03:32.000,0:03:36.640
terrible but that’s really what they

0:03:33.840,0:03:38.159
were thinking oh my god they’re

0:03:36.640,0:03:39.760
literally like let’s give them the most

0:03:38.159,0:03:41.920
addictive things so then

0:03:39.760,0:03:44.159
here’s the thing though in china the

0:03:41.920,0:03:45.599
chinese emperor believed that western

0:03:44.159,0:03:47.920
powers were corrupt

0:03:45.599,0:03:49.440
and they didn’t want to trade with them

0:03:47.920,0:03:50.239
so they really wanted to strictly

0:03:49.440,0:03:52.080
restrain

0:03:50.239,0:03:53.439
trade with foreigners which can you

0:03:52.080,0:03:56.480
blame the guy like

0:03:53.439,0:03:59.599
i think they had a lot of technological

0:03:56.480,0:04:01.599
advancements too like they were doing

0:03:59.599,0:04:02.879
so much compared to a lot of countries

0:04:01.599,0:04:04.720
at the time i think but they were so

0:04:02.879,0:04:06.000
isolated so like people didn’t actually

0:04:04.720,0:04:09.439
yeah they had like coal

0:04:06.000,0:04:12.799
gun powder porcelain tea silk like

0:04:09.439,0:04:15.120
what do you need so basically the ching

0:04:12.799,0:04:16.720
emperor who is the emperor at the time

0:04:15.120,0:04:17.919
limited trade to something called the

0:04:16.720,0:04:20.639
canton system

0:04:17.919,0:04:22.800
canton is in the south of china so the

0:04:20.639,0:04:24.320
canton system there’s one port in the

0:04:22.800,0:04:27.040
canton region which is in

0:04:24.320,0:04:29.120
guangdong province and the port is in

0:04:27.040,0:04:31.280
guangzhou which is the city

0:04:29.120,0:04:32.880
so there’s only one port all the

0:04:31.280,0:04:35.680
foreigners got to go to this port

0:04:32.880,0:04:38.240
also at this port the trade between

0:04:35.680,0:04:41.280
foreigners has to go through

0:04:38.240,0:04:42.880
licensed chinese merchants and it has to

0:04:41.280,0:04:44.720
be subjected to a lot of government

0:04:42.880,0:04:45.040
regulation and they have to pay tax on

0:04:44.720,0:04:47.759
it

0:04:45.040,0:04:48.400
so it’s really like heavily scrutinized

0:04:47.759,0:04:50.160
trade

0:04:48.400,0:04:51.759
there were already small amounts of

0:04:50.160,0:04:53.919
opium that had been

0:04:51.759,0:04:55.040
in china they were either grown in china

0:04:53.919,0:04:57.360
or they had been

0:04:55.040,0:04:58.720
like smuggled in but they weren’t

0:04:57.360,0:04:59.600
getting caught it was just very small

0:04:58.720,0:05:01.759
amounts

0:04:59.600,0:05:03.680
and even with that small amount the

0:05:01.759,0:05:05.600
chinese government recognized that the

0:05:03.680,0:05:08.000
opium was becoming a really

0:05:05.600,0:05:10.639
serious social problem so in the year

0:05:08.000,0:05:12.400
1800 it banned both the production and

0:05:10.639,0:05:15.919
the importation of opium

0:05:12.400,0:05:18.400
wow legal now and in 2013

0:05:15.919,0:05:19.759
they went a step further and outlawed

0:05:18.400,0:05:22.000
the smoking of opium

0:05:19.759,0:05:23.600
and they imposed a punishment of beating

0:05:22.000,0:05:26.720
offenders a hundred times

0:05:23.600,0:05:27.840
oh my gosh they’re really like ah this

0:05:26.720,0:05:31.759
opium thing

0:05:27.840,0:05:34.880
is not the move yeah

0:05:31.759,0:05:36.960
that’s not fun i know and so in response

0:05:34.880,0:05:39.759
the british east india company

0:05:36.960,0:05:40.240
which was the company in east india that

0:05:39.759,0:05:42.720
was

0:05:40.240,0:05:44.560
producing the opium they hired private

0:05:42.720,0:05:46.400
british and american traders to

0:05:44.560,0:05:48.320
transport the drug to china

0:05:46.400,0:05:49.520
and then they had chinese smugglers

0:05:48.320,0:05:51.199
bring the opium in

0:05:49.520,0:05:52.880
from ships that were anchored off the

0:05:51.199,0:05:55.600
coast of guangzhou which is

0:05:52.880,0:05:58.479
canton area like we said so in less than

0:05:55.600,0:06:01.600
30 years from 1810 to 1838

0:05:58.479,0:06:02.240
opium in china had increased from 4 500

0:06:01.600,0:06:04.400
chests

0:06:02.240,0:06:06.560
which is like the container for opium to

0:06:04.400,0:06:10.160
40 000.

0:06:06.560,0:06:14.319
so like almost 10 times oh my gosh

0:06:10.160,0:06:17.680
and that’s not a long time period i know

0:06:14.319,0:06:19.759
so things are not looking great uh

0:06:17.680,0:06:21.520
and then we get into some conflict

0:06:19.759,0:06:22.400
between the chinese and great britain

0:06:21.520,0:06:25.680
the chinese

0:06:22.400,0:06:27.600
emperor is furious about this

0:06:25.680,0:06:29.600
so he employs quite a few different

0:06:27.600,0:06:31.360
officials over the course of time to

0:06:29.600,0:06:33.919
combat the opium issue

0:06:31.360,0:06:36.160
so one of the officials is lin lindsay

0:06:33.919,0:06:37.840
and he’s ordered to go down to canton

0:06:36.160,0:06:41.120
and destroy all the opium

0:06:37.840,0:06:43.280
that’s his main job so in may of 1839

0:06:41.120,0:06:44.560
lindsay sue does a few things to try and

0:06:43.280,0:06:46.000
combat the trade

0:06:44.560,0:06:47.840
first thing he does is he writes a

0:06:46.000,0:06:48.960
letter to queen victoria and he

0:06:47.840,0:06:50.560
questions

0:06:48.960,0:06:52.880
britain’s political support for the

0:06:50.560,0:06:54.560
trade and the morality of pushing drugs

0:06:52.880,0:06:56.000
but it’s highly unlikely that she

0:06:54.560,0:06:59.599
actually got that letter

0:06:56.000,0:07:01.759
but he wrote it he’s like please stop

0:06:59.599,0:07:03.039
then he rapidly progresses the

0:07:01.759,0:07:05.599
enforcement of the ban

0:07:03.039,0:07:06.960
and he arrests 600 chinese dealers of

0:07:05.599,0:07:10.240
opium

0:07:06.960,0:07:12.080
wow but most importantly he demands that

0:07:10.240,0:07:14.160
the british chief superintendent of

0:07:12.080,0:07:14.720
trade in china whose name was charles

0:07:14.160,0:07:17.199
elliott

0:07:14.720,0:07:17.919
hand over all the stalks of opium at

0:07:17.199,0:07:19.440
canton

0:07:17.919,0:07:20.960
and they were going to give them tea in

0:07:19.440,0:07:22.240
exchange for the opium

0:07:20.960,0:07:23.759
then they were going to destroy all the

0:07:22.240,0:07:24.319
opium they weren’t going to like sell it

0:07:23.759,0:07:26.160
out but

0:07:24.319,0:07:27.759
they wanted all the opium like this is

0:07:26.160,0:07:29.840
my personal status

0:07:27.759,0:07:33.039
yeah he’s like good excellent the

0:07:29.840,0:07:35.599
emperor comes in he’s like smoking

0:07:33.039,0:07:36.560
okay so the british refuse they’re like

0:07:35.599,0:07:39.599
ah no thanks

0:07:36.560,0:07:41.520
so lin jesus stops all foreign trade and

0:07:39.599,0:07:44.240
he confines the foreigners to

0:07:41.520,0:07:46.080
one area wow yeah and then they’re

0:07:44.240,0:07:48.000
quarantined in that area so the

0:07:46.080,0:07:49.039
quarantine time period lasts for six

0:07:48.000,0:07:50.879
weeks and then

0:07:49.039,0:07:53.840
the merchants finally give in and they

0:07:50.879,0:07:58.080
hand over 20 000 chests of opium

0:07:53.840,0:08:00.800
but that’s not enough so lynn’s troops

0:07:58.080,0:08:02.080
then go and they destroy all of those

0:08:00.800,0:08:03.840
chests that they handed over

0:08:02.080,0:08:05.919
but then they also seize and destroy

0:08:03.840,0:08:07.440
opium that was being held on the british

0:08:05.919,0:08:10.560
ships oh my gosh

0:08:07.440,0:08:13.520
like they are hiding so much i know

0:08:10.560,0:08:15.360
i know so the british are not happy

0:08:13.520,0:08:17.039
about this and charles elliot

0:08:15.360,0:08:18.479
claims that these ships were in

0:08:17.039,0:08:20.879
international waters

0:08:18.479,0:08:23.440
but lynn claims that they were anchored

0:08:20.879,0:08:26.400
in and around chinese lands

0:08:23.440,0:08:27.120
whose side are you on you know and then

0:08:26.400,0:08:30.639
lastly

0:08:27.120,0:08:33.919
lynn pressures the portuguese who had a

0:08:30.639,0:08:35.120
colony in nearby macau which i did not

0:08:33.919,0:08:38.320
know but yeah that’s

0:08:35.120,0:08:40.719
they owned my cow i guess

0:08:38.320,0:08:41.519
did they colonize macau no i’m sorry i

0:08:40.719,0:08:44.560
didn’t know i

0:08:41.519,0:08:44.560
didn’t know that wow

0:08:44.800,0:08:48.640
yeah we should cover that because i have

0:08:46.480,0:08:51.760
no idea so he pressures them

0:08:48.640,0:08:52.560
to expel the uncooperative british from

0:08:51.760,0:08:54.399
that area

0:08:52.560,0:08:55.839
and force them to move to the island of

0:08:54.399,0:08:58.480
hong kong

0:08:55.839,0:08:59.120
so i mean lin tried really hard i admire

0:08:58.480,0:09:01.360
this guy

0:08:59.120,0:09:02.160
yeah okay so yeah british are not

0:09:01.360,0:09:05.200
unhappy

0:09:02.160,0:09:07.920
and for them the destruction of

0:09:05.200,0:09:09.360
opium was a violation of britain’s

0:09:07.920,0:09:11.279
concepts of trade

0:09:09.360,0:09:12.720
because britain really believes in the

0:09:11.279,0:09:14.080
concept of free trade like the

0:09:12.720,0:09:14.480
government should not get involved in

0:09:14.080,0:09:16.880
that

0:09:14.480,0:09:19.360
and the politicians in great britain had

0:09:16.880,0:09:21.839
been looking for an excuse to expand

0:09:19.360,0:09:23.600
british imperial interests so they used

0:09:21.839,0:09:24.320
the opium incident to act more

0:09:23.600,0:09:26.160
forcefully

0:09:24.320,0:09:27.760
with china they were they were like

0:09:26.160,0:09:29.440
looking for a reason to go to war and

0:09:27.760,0:09:33.120
then they were like using this

0:09:29.440,0:09:34.959
as the reason okay okay

0:09:33.120,0:09:36.720
that’s sketchy so they’re like they

0:09:34.959,0:09:38.560
wouldn’t have

0:09:36.720,0:09:40.480
it’s not like they were so upset about

0:09:38.560,0:09:42.800
the whole

0:09:40.480,0:09:44.399
opium situation well like them like

0:09:42.800,0:09:46.880
stealing all their opium

0:09:44.399,0:09:49.120
yeah because they knew it was unethical

0:09:46.880,0:09:52.720
i don’t even know if opium was like

0:09:49.120,0:09:54.399
legal in england so they knew what they

0:09:52.720,0:09:56.399
were doing

0:09:54.399,0:09:58.240
and then a lot of the politicians when

0:09:56.399,0:10:00.000
they’re making the arguments in

0:09:58.240,0:10:01.920
court as to whether or not they wanted

0:10:00.000,0:10:03.519
to go to war with china

0:10:01.920,0:10:05.920
a lot of them argued that china was out

0:10:03.519,0:10:08.560
of touch with civilized nations

0:10:05.920,0:10:11.040
which practiced free trade and they also

0:10:08.560,0:10:14.240
often called the chinese barbaric

0:10:11.040,0:10:15.519
and that they needed to go to china

0:10:14.240,0:10:17.760
and have a war with them because they

0:10:15.519,0:10:18.560
were just like savages and barbarians

0:10:17.760,0:10:21.600
and

0:10:18.560,0:10:23.200
wow all right so so there you go there

0:10:21.600,0:10:25.600
you have it

0:10:23.200,0:10:28.480
not great okay so then we have the first

0:10:25.600,0:10:31.200
opium war attack so in june 1840

0:10:28.480,0:10:32.640
16 british warships and opium merchants

0:10:31.200,0:10:35.760
arrive at guangzhou

0:10:32.640,0:10:38.800
and they attack china and

0:10:35.760,0:10:40.959
although there were like 50 000 chinese

0:10:38.800,0:10:43.279
soldiers to 6 000 british

0:10:40.959,0:10:44.320
the british had superior training and

0:10:43.279,0:10:46.320
technology

0:10:44.320,0:10:48.160
from all their colonization efforts so

0:10:46.320,0:10:51.279
they very quickly started seizing

0:10:48.160,0:10:54.399
cities and winning battles it was like

0:10:51.279,0:10:56.320
yeah just really not a chance

0:10:54.399,0:10:58.720
england had like the strongest navy at

0:10:56.320,0:11:00.320
the time so a naval attack like they’re

0:10:58.720,0:11:00.880
gonna win no matter what like that’s

0:11:00.320,0:11:02.160
what they do

0:11:00.880,0:11:04.560
all these countries that they’re

0:11:02.160,0:11:09.040
colonizing they attack them

0:11:04.560,0:11:11.519
through water see yeah and it was like

0:11:09.040,0:11:12.399
yeah even though the gun powder like for

0:11:11.519,0:11:14.720
guns is from

0:11:12.399,0:11:15.600
china the chinese were still using like

0:11:14.720,0:11:18.160
spears

0:11:15.600,0:11:19.920
in the wars and i guess like not very

0:11:18.160,0:11:21.839
high quality guns

0:11:19.920,0:11:24.160
and the british were using like the best

0:11:21.839,0:11:24.160
guns

0:11:24.320,0:11:28.800
i think so yeah it’s pretty bad for the

0:11:27.040,0:11:31.360
chinese lynn

0:11:28.800,0:11:32.480
boylan wins issue he gets sent into

0:11:31.360,0:11:34.480
exile

0:11:32.480,0:11:36.000
um because the emperor is like furious

0:11:34.480,0:11:37.920
that this is happening and then

0:11:36.000,0:11:39.360
lots of chinese generals are committing

0:11:37.920,0:11:43.279
suicide because

0:11:39.360,0:11:46.160
it’s so bad they can’t defeat the forces

0:11:43.279,0:11:47.519
so really sad and this pattern continues

0:11:46.160,0:11:49.600
throughout the war and then they end up

0:11:47.519,0:11:53.040
capturing several major ports

0:11:49.600,0:11:56.399
along the coast then in 1842

0:11:53.040,0:11:58.959
they capture the city of uh jejung

0:11:56.399,0:11:59.600
which allows them to blockade the yancey

0:11:58.959,0:12:02.320
river

0:11:59.600,0:12:04.399
and that is like final straw because

0:12:02.320,0:12:05.040
once they blockade the yancey river that

0:12:04.399,0:12:07.360
means that

0:12:05.040,0:12:10.560
they can’t transport food down to other

0:12:07.360,0:12:13.040
parts of the country anymore

0:12:10.560,0:12:15.680
so that’s regarded as the last major

0:12:13.040,0:12:17.600
battle of the first opium war

0:12:15.680,0:12:19.120
and at this point the chinese have lost

0:12:17.600,0:12:22.160
the war and they need to sign

0:12:19.120,0:12:22.160
a peace treaty

0:12:22.800,0:12:26.480
so the treaty they sign is called the

0:12:25.120,0:12:29.519
treaty of nan king

0:12:26.480,0:12:31.200
and in august of 1842 the war is

0:12:29.519,0:12:32.880
officially ended and the chinese

0:12:31.200,0:12:34.160
officials are forced to sign the treaty

0:12:32.880,0:12:38.320
of nanking

0:12:34.160,0:12:41.040
so this treaty is also the first of what

0:12:38.320,0:12:44.160
china later refers to as the series

0:12:41.040,0:12:47.040
of unequal treaties so they’re like

0:12:44.160,0:12:49.360
wow a series yeah there’s a lot of them

0:12:47.040,0:12:52.639
so this is the first of those

0:12:49.360,0:12:54.480
yikes and so

0:12:52.639,0:12:57.040
here’s what the treaty of nanking does

0:12:54.480,0:12:59.040
it ends the canton system of trading

0:12:57.040,0:13:00.320
and then the treaty provided the british

0:12:59.040,0:13:03.120
with a few

0:13:00.320,0:13:04.959
a few benefits the first was a deep

0:13:03.120,0:13:07.360
water port in hong kong

0:13:04.959,0:13:09.040
second was monetary composition for all

0:13:07.360,0:13:10.720
of the opium that was destroyed in

0:13:09.040,0:13:13.279
reparation for the war

0:13:10.720,0:13:14.320
then they opened five new chinese treaty

0:13:13.279,0:13:16.240
ports

0:13:14.320,0:13:18.320
yeah then they also granted everyone

0:13:16.240,0:13:19.440
extra territoriality for british

0:13:18.320,0:13:21.760
citizens

0:13:19.440,0:13:24.480
so that means that they were subject to

0:13:21.760,0:13:26.480
the british not the chinese laws

0:13:24.480,0:13:27.839
extra territory i think of it like

0:13:26.480,0:13:30.800
diplomatic immunity

0:13:27.839,0:13:32.720
because you know diplomats get that too

0:13:30.800,0:13:34.399
yeah so it’s like the same as that but

0:13:32.720,0:13:37.200
then they’re giving it to like

0:13:34.399,0:13:37.920
people like just they’re just giving it

0:13:37.200,0:13:41.040
to everyone

0:13:37.920,0:13:44.320
and so i’m sure that got abused

0:13:41.040,0:13:47.279
like crazy yeah definitely

0:13:44.320,0:13:48.160
so um another thing that was in the

0:13:47.279,0:13:50.959
treaty was

0:13:48.160,0:13:52.880
the most favored nation clause which

0:13:50.959,0:13:54.320
states that any rights gained by

0:13:52.880,0:13:56.240
other foreign nations would

0:13:54.320,0:14:00.320
automatically apply to great britain

0:13:56.240,0:14:02.240
as well so this allows westerners to

0:14:00.320,0:14:05.360
start building churches and spreading

0:14:02.240,0:14:07.120
christianity in china

0:14:05.360,0:14:08.959
and then on the china side they got

0:14:07.120,0:14:11.760
nothing

0:14:08.959,0:14:14.720
wow so it’s like really interesting

0:14:11.760,0:14:16.639
because i feel like there’s so many

0:14:14.720,0:14:17.839
like it’s almost like they partly colin

0:14:16.639,0:14:19.680
like you know

0:14:17.839,0:14:21.680
it sounds like a lot of rules that would

0:14:19.680,0:14:23.440
be set in place if they like colonize

0:14:21.680,0:14:25.680
the entire

0:14:23.440,0:14:27.199
country but it’s like they i don’t know

0:14:25.680,0:14:28.639
they did it

0:14:27.199,0:14:30.240
sorry i’m now i’m just like thinking out

0:14:28.639,0:14:32.880
loud but it’s like they’re colonizing

0:14:30.240,0:14:34.560
it but without having to set up like the

0:14:32.880,0:14:35.920
government that has to like

0:14:34.560,0:14:37.839
rule the country they’re just like

0:14:35.920,0:14:40.320
getting some of the

0:14:37.839,0:14:41.360
benefits you know yeah no that’s a great

0:14:40.320,0:14:43.519
way to say it

0:14:41.360,0:14:44.639
i think this is my friend that i’m going

0:14:43.519,0:14:46.959
to ask later

0:14:44.639,0:14:48.399
she was telling me about this i didn’t

0:14:46.959,0:14:50.560
even understand like what she was saying

0:14:48.399,0:14:52.399
but basically like during this time

0:14:50.560,0:14:54.560
period it was like all european powers

0:14:52.399,0:14:56.320
were like trying to get a bite of china

0:14:54.560,0:14:58.480
if that makes sense and she’s like

0:14:56.320,0:15:00.480
it’s like a dog trying to like bite a

0:14:58.480,0:15:02.480
beach ball like everyone wants a piece

0:15:00.480,0:15:05.279
of it but it’s like too big

0:15:02.480,0:15:06.959
so you can’t take it over so every like

0:15:05.279,0:15:08.399
this was like their way of like taking a

0:15:06.959,0:15:09.839
bite almost

0:15:08.399,0:15:11.760
yeah well yeah because you were saying

0:15:09.839,0:15:14.240
like england wasn’t doing or

0:15:11.760,0:15:16.160
the uk great britain wasn’t doing like

0:15:14.240,0:15:17.600
well financially at the time

0:15:16.160,0:15:19.040
and they knew that there was no way they

0:15:17.600,0:15:21.519
could like successfully colonize the

0:15:19.040,0:15:24.639
entire country so this is just like

0:15:21.519,0:15:27.040
economically they’re colonizing it

0:15:24.639,0:15:28.639
i guess this marks the end of the first

0:15:27.040,0:15:31.839
opium war

0:15:28.639,0:15:34.720
and yeah not a great time for china

0:15:31.839,0:15:36.480
then we enter the second opium war time

0:15:34.720,0:15:39.920
period

0:15:36.480,0:15:41.279
so after the end of the first opium war

0:15:39.920,0:15:42.480
in 1842

0:15:41.279,0:15:44.720
with the signing of the treaty of

0:15:42.480,0:15:48.000
nanking um

0:15:44.720,0:15:49.680
the great britain obviously received a

0:15:48.000,0:15:51.519
lot of enormous benefits over

0:15:49.680,0:15:53.040
china but the british were still

0:15:51.519,0:15:55.839
unsatisfied

0:15:53.040,0:15:57.759
so trade did not expand as much as

0:15:55.839,0:15:59.199
foreign merchants had hoped and they

0:15:57.759,0:16:01.920
continued to blame the chinese

0:15:59.199,0:16:05.360
government for this

0:16:01.920,0:16:07.920
to be fair though the chinese court

0:16:05.360,0:16:09.920
did keep finding excuses to not accept

0:16:07.920,0:16:10.720
foreign diplomats at the capital city of

0:16:09.920,0:16:12.240
beijing

0:16:10.720,0:16:14.240
and it’s compliant with the treaties

0:16:12.240,0:16:16.240
fell far short with western countries

0:16:14.240,0:16:19.199
expectations

0:16:16.240,0:16:19.839
um yeah which anyone who’s not familiar

0:16:19.199,0:16:21.920
with

0:16:19.839,0:16:24.720
the diplomatic system in china you have

0:16:21.920,0:16:25.680
to present your cases to like the high

0:16:24.720,0:16:28.800
imperial

0:16:25.680,0:16:29.920
court before they get heard and that all

0:16:28.800,0:16:32.079
happens in the north

0:16:29.920,0:16:32.079
but

0:16:33.040,0:16:40.399
how do we not know but what

0:16:36.800,0:16:43.519
where am i okay so at this time

0:16:40.399,0:16:45.920
the qing dynasty of china is also still

0:16:43.519,0:16:48.079
very weakened from the first opium war

0:16:45.920,0:16:50.959
so the british decide that they want to

0:16:48.079,0:16:53.440
extract even more concessions from china

0:16:50.959,0:16:54.959
and this time france wants a piece of

0:16:53.440,0:16:57.519
the action

0:16:54.959,0:16:58.320
what i really don’t have to do with

0:16:57.519,0:17:01.120
anything

0:16:58.320,0:17:02.720
france was like let’s go france really

0:17:01.120,0:17:05.679
wanted to do trade with china

0:17:02.720,0:17:06.319
um and they were looking for a way in so

0:17:05.679,0:17:09.520
they’re like

0:17:06.319,0:17:10.799
yeah i’ll take that so in october of

0:17:09.520,0:17:13.520
1856

0:17:10.799,0:17:14.480
chinese authorities arrest the chinese

0:17:13.520,0:17:16.720
crew of a ship

0:17:14.480,0:17:18.000
operated by the british they’re chinese

0:17:16.720,0:17:20.799
citizens that’s within their

0:17:18.000,0:17:22.480
rights it’s not against the treaty um

0:17:20.799,0:17:24.720
but then the british used this as an

0:17:22.480,0:17:25.360
excuse to start using military forces

0:17:24.720,0:17:29.440
against

0:17:25.360,0:17:32.880
china again to open up more trade

0:17:29.440,0:17:34.080
wow okay yeah so france teams up with

0:17:32.880,0:17:36.480
britain this time

0:17:34.080,0:17:40.080
and they also invite the united states

0:17:36.480,0:17:42.640
and russia to get in on it

0:17:40.080,0:17:44.240
um but both the usa and russia opted out

0:17:42.640,0:17:46.160
because they were both recovering from

0:17:44.240,0:17:48.320
wars but in 1856

0:17:46.160,0:17:49.200
joint french and british forces captured

0:17:48.320,0:17:51.200
guangzhou

0:17:49.200,0:17:52.799
again which is that that point in the

0:17:51.200,0:17:54.240
south and they move north towards the

0:17:52.799,0:17:56.960
capital beijing

0:17:54.240,0:17:58.080
on the way they capture a city called

0:17:56.960,0:18:00.720
tianjin

0:17:58.080,0:18:02.480
and get the treaty of tianjin sign which

0:18:00.720,0:18:04.720
was supposed to be the end of the war

0:18:02.480,0:18:06.640
but the treaty never gets ratified

0:18:04.720,0:18:07.840
and i didn’t know what ratified meant

0:18:06.640,0:18:09.600
before i looked this up so

0:18:07.840,0:18:11.840
ratified is like it gets signed but

0:18:09.600,0:18:15.200
ratified like we accept it as the law

0:18:11.840,0:18:17.840
and we actually in response to it

0:18:15.200,0:18:18.640
um and then in 1860 they finally capture

0:18:17.840,0:18:20.320
beijing

0:18:18.640,0:18:23.120
and they destroy the imperial summer

0:18:20.320,0:18:24.080
palace and then the emperor flees to

0:18:23.120,0:18:26.720
manchuria

0:18:24.080,0:18:28.960
and they force his brother to sign a new

0:18:26.720,0:18:32.080
round of unequal treaties

0:18:28.960,0:18:33.280
oh my gosh it’s really sad to read about

0:18:32.080,0:18:34.559
this stuff

0:18:33.280,0:18:36.480
the signing of these treaties is

0:18:34.559,0:18:37.200
referred to as the convention of pecking

0:18:36.480,0:18:39.840
because

0:18:37.200,0:18:41.039
it resulted in the signing of three

0:18:39.840,0:18:43.200
different treaties

0:18:41.039,0:18:45.440
for great britain france and the russian

0:18:43.200,0:18:47.520
empire so britain and france

0:18:45.440,0:18:49.120
allowed russia to join in on the treaty

0:18:47.520,0:18:50.960
even though they didn’t do anything

0:18:49.120,0:18:53.360
because they wanted more military

0:18:50.960,0:18:55.280
pressure on china to uphold the treaties

0:18:53.360,0:18:57.120
and face repercussions

0:18:55.280,0:19:00.000
if they backed out because now there’s

0:18:57.120,0:19:03.360
three of them oh my god this is awful

0:19:00.000,0:19:05.840
i know russia got a free ride from this

0:19:03.360,0:19:07.360
yeah and like just the reasoning behind

0:19:05.840,0:19:10.720
it like it’s

0:19:07.360,0:19:13.840
really i don’t want to say smart

0:19:10.720,0:19:16.640
but like that’s strategically like

0:19:13.840,0:19:17.679
that sounds like it’s a sound plan but

0:19:16.640,0:19:20.000
like it’s evil

0:19:17.679,0:19:20.960
more the merrier to harass so this

0:19:20.000,0:19:22.960
treaty

0:19:20.960,0:19:25.120
well okay the all of the treaties

0:19:22.960,0:19:27.200
because there’s three of them this time

0:19:25.120,0:19:29.120
and like collectively some of the things

0:19:27.200,0:19:30.000
that they stated were that the territory

0:19:29.120,0:19:32.240
of hong kong

0:19:30.000,0:19:34.000
is now completely lost to british rule

0:19:32.240,0:19:35.039
so that’s when hong kong gets handed

0:19:34.000,0:19:38.640
over

0:19:35.039,0:19:40.320
okay opium is legalized so

0:19:38.640,0:19:42.320
after the first opium war it still

0:19:40.320,0:19:44.799
wasn’t legalized

0:19:42.320,0:19:45.679
but now it’s like officially legalized

0:19:44.799,0:19:48.559
then they open up

0:19:45.679,0:19:48.960
11 more ports for trade and then they

0:19:48.559,0:19:51.200
allow

0:19:48.960,0:19:52.160
more christian missionaries to come in

0:19:51.200,0:19:55.360
to the country

0:19:52.160,0:19:57.760
they give russia a lot more land in the

0:19:55.360,0:19:59.919
north it’s if you look at the map

0:19:57.760,0:20:00.960
like before and after this the second

0:19:59.919,0:20:03.360
war like

0:20:00.960,0:20:05.280
the entire top part of china is just

0:20:03.360,0:20:06.080
like cut off it’s tons of land that’s

0:20:05.280,0:20:09.600
given to

0:20:06.080,0:20:11.200
russia does it never get returned or

0:20:09.600,0:20:13.520
i don’t think so i think china’s still

0:20:11.200,0:20:15.520
the same size so they it solidified the

0:20:13.520,0:20:17.600
1859 treaty of nan king

0:20:15.520,0:20:19.280
which was the treaty that they signed

0:20:17.600,0:20:21.600
from the first opium war

0:20:19.280,0:20:23.919
and then it also contains terms from the

0:20:21.600,0:20:26.159
treaty of tianjin which they

0:20:23.919,0:20:28.559
had signed but didn’t ratify and that

0:20:26.159,0:20:29.600
allows russia great britain france and

0:20:28.559,0:20:32.799
the usa to do

0:20:29.600,0:20:35.039
trade with china so then now we go into

0:20:32.799,0:20:37.280
what are the consequences in china

0:20:35.039,0:20:38.480
because of the opium wars because can

0:20:37.280,0:20:41.840
you imagine

0:20:38.480,0:20:44.559
like it has been isolated for centuries

0:20:41.840,0:20:46.080
and then all of a sudden like all these

0:20:44.559,0:20:48.480
countries are coming in

0:20:46.080,0:20:49.760
and they do not have good intentions it

0:20:48.480,0:20:51.919
sounds like

0:20:49.760,0:20:53.039
literally their first introduction to

0:20:51.919,0:20:55.840
like dealing with

0:20:53.039,0:20:56.480
like western powers is them like force

0:20:55.840,0:21:01.200
feeding them

0:20:56.480,0:21:01.200
opio opioids yeah opium

0:21:02.400,0:21:06.640
yeah so after the opium wars opium

0:21:05.760,0:21:08.559
floods

0:21:06.640,0:21:11.200
into the country and it continues to

0:21:08.559,0:21:13.840
undermine the social fabric of society

0:21:11.200,0:21:16.080
and then historians believe that the

0:21:13.840,0:21:16.640
increase in opium flooding into the

0:21:16.080,0:21:19.440
country

0:21:16.640,0:21:20.880
and the qing dynasty’s concessions to

0:21:19.440,0:21:21.840
the french and the british after the

0:21:20.880,0:21:24.320
opium wars

0:21:21.840,0:21:25.200
contributed to the taiping rebellion

0:21:24.320,0:21:28.480
which was

0:21:25.200,0:21:30.000
an event that lasted in china from 1815

0:21:28.480,0:21:32.240
to 1864.

0:21:30.000,0:21:33.840
and this was one of the longest and most

0:21:32.240,0:21:36.240
bloody civil wars

0:21:33.840,0:21:37.200
ever in the country and that was led by

0:21:36.240,0:21:39.440
christians

0:21:37.200,0:21:41.679
who believed it was their sole purpose

0:21:39.440,0:21:46.000
to overthrow the qing dynasty

0:21:41.679,0:21:50.400
and 20 million people died in that wow

0:21:46.000,0:21:52.559
yeah and the opium wars are also

0:21:50.400,0:21:54.559
oh go ahead what do you say that just

0:21:52.559,0:21:58.720
hit me like 20 million people

0:21:54.559,0:22:00.640
right right oh holy cow it’s a huge

0:21:58.720,0:22:02.559
amount that’s really sad

0:22:00.640,0:22:04.559
yeah and then the opium wars are

0:22:02.559,0:22:05.760
actually also heavily cited by the

0:22:04.559,0:22:09.600
japanese

0:22:05.760,0:22:11.520
as their reason for industrializing

0:22:09.600,0:22:13.360
it’s like their reason and need to

0:22:11.520,0:22:13.840
industrialize and become an imperial

0:22:13.360,0:22:16.080
power

0:22:13.840,0:22:18.000
so they don’t suffer the way china did

0:22:16.080,0:22:20.000
at the hands of europeans

0:22:18.000,0:22:21.360
wow that’s really interesting okay so

0:22:20.000,0:22:22.880
they are they’re like looking at what

0:22:21.360,0:22:26.640
happened in china and they’re like

0:22:22.880,0:22:30.240
uh okay we gotta do something right

0:22:26.640,0:22:32.880
wow okay and then yeah

0:22:30.240,0:22:33.679
and china is greatly weakened of course

0:22:32.880,0:22:35.360
after

0:22:33.679,0:22:37.440
this event and they start to rethink

0:22:35.360,0:22:39.600
their relations to the outside world

0:22:37.440,0:22:41.120
and their need to industrialize and

0:22:39.600,0:22:44.240
modernize the military

0:22:41.120,0:22:46.320
politics and economic structures

0:22:44.240,0:22:48.240
political military political and

0:22:46.320,0:22:51.760
economic structures

0:22:48.240,0:22:52.960
yes so like everything they’re like wait

0:22:51.760,0:22:56.000
what are we doing

0:22:52.960,0:22:57.440
the controversy of the opium wars so i

0:22:56.000,0:23:00.880
do want to include this

0:22:57.440,0:23:01.520
because although great britain claimed

0:23:00.880,0:23:03.440
that

0:23:01.520,0:23:04.799
what they were doing was in the name of

0:23:03.440,0:23:07.360
free trade it

0:23:04.799,0:23:08.960
is at the expense of the destruction of

0:23:07.360,0:23:10.960
chinese society

0:23:08.960,0:23:13.200
and the opium wars were really

0:23:10.960,0:23:14.799
controversial in europe and america

0:23:13.200,0:23:16.400
as well any all the countries that took

0:23:14.799,0:23:17.679
part like they knew that it was a really

0:23:16.400,0:23:19.919
controversial war

0:23:17.679,0:23:21.679
they knew it was a bad idea and it was

0:23:19.919,0:23:23.520
driven by money and greed

0:23:21.679,0:23:25.200
and i just want to share one of the

0:23:23.520,0:23:26.720
politicians at the time his name was

0:23:25.200,0:23:29.840
william gladstone

0:23:26.720,0:23:32.159
he’s a english politician and his sister

0:23:29.840,0:23:34.159
had actually become addicted to opium

0:23:32.159,0:23:35.520
and so he gave a famous speech on the

0:23:34.159,0:23:38.480
corruptness of the war

0:23:35.520,0:23:40.400
saying quote i am not competent to judge

0:23:38.480,0:23:42.320
how long this war may last

0:23:40.400,0:23:43.679
but this i can say that a war more

0:23:42.320,0:23:46.240
unjust in its origin

0:23:43.679,0:23:47.760
a war more calculated in its progress to

0:23:46.240,0:23:48.400
cover this country with permanent

0:23:47.760,0:23:50.480
disgrace

0:23:48.400,0:23:51.440
i do not know and i have not read of

0:23:50.480,0:23:54.320
unquote

0:23:51.440,0:23:56.000
and then as we know great britain still

0:23:54.320,0:23:57.039
went forward with the war and a few days

0:23:56.000,0:23:58.880
later he writes

0:23:57.039,0:24:01.279
quote i am in dread of the judgments of

0:23:58.880,0:24:04.559
god upon england for our national

0:24:01.279,0:24:07.200
iniquity iniquity inequity and

0:24:04.559,0:24:09.200
it’s not in equity iniquity is like

0:24:07.200,0:24:10.799
immoral or grossly unfair behavior

0:24:09.200,0:24:13.440
towards china

0:24:10.799,0:24:15.760
so i’m in dread of the judge yeah so he

0:24:13.440,0:24:18.400
says that unquote

0:24:15.760,0:24:20.880
wow so yeah i don’t know if that’s like

0:24:18.400,0:24:23.760
better or worse that like

0:24:20.880,0:24:24.799
i don’t know it’s frustrating that like

0:24:23.760,0:24:27.279
maybe there are a lot of

0:24:24.799,0:24:28.720
people in those countries that didn’t

0:24:27.279,0:24:30.880
support the war that like knew

0:24:28.720,0:24:32.559
how evil it was but then like they’re

0:24:30.880,0:24:34.960
not able to stop it you know

0:24:32.559,0:24:36.720
yeah it doesn’t excuse great britain or

0:24:34.960,0:24:39.840
like the european powers at all

0:24:36.720,0:24:40.559
but um it kind of makes you understand

0:24:39.840,0:24:43.360
that there’s

0:24:40.559,0:24:44.320
always two sides in history and it just

0:24:43.360,0:24:46.159
depends on i guess

0:24:44.320,0:24:48.400
who is in power at the time to make

0:24:46.159,0:24:51.360
those decisions and

0:24:48.400,0:24:52.159
yeah they wanted money more than like

0:24:51.360,0:24:54.080
being ethical

0:24:52.159,0:24:56.000
i have a question like do you know

0:24:54.080,0:24:58.640
anything about opium use

0:24:56.000,0:24:59.200
today in china like is it still a really

0:24:58.640,0:25:01.360
big

0:24:59.200,0:25:02.559
issue that is a great question i don’t

0:25:01.360,0:25:04.559
know if it’s still

0:25:02.559,0:25:06.159
legal i think it’s probably still legal

0:25:04.559,0:25:08.320
but opium

0:25:06.159,0:25:09.840
of course floods in after the wars it

0:25:08.320,0:25:12.080
reaches like peak use

0:25:09.840,0:25:14.400
the imports of opium decline and then

0:25:12.080,0:25:15.840
they end during the first world war so

0:25:14.400,0:25:18.240
opioid abuse

0:25:15.840,0:25:19.200
like re-emerges in the late 1980s in

0:25:18.240,0:25:22.400
china

0:25:19.200,0:25:24.000
um but it has declined a lot since the

0:25:22.400,0:25:25.919
1800s

0:25:24.000,0:25:27.279
okay wow but that’s gonna affect like

0:25:25.919,0:25:29.520
the entire society

0:25:27.279,0:25:30.559
and even the economy i feel like i don’t

0:25:29.520,0:25:33.679
know

0:25:30.559,0:25:34.799
yeah and like that’s gonna affect the

0:25:33.679,0:25:36.159
country yeah you like

0:25:34.799,0:25:38.000
you’re saying at the beginning of the

0:25:36.159,0:25:39.360
episode like this is this kind of

0:25:38.000,0:25:42.799
explains

0:25:39.360,0:25:45.679
like why china in the past has been so

0:25:42.799,0:25:46.880
like wary of entering trade agreements

0:25:45.679,0:25:48.799
with countries like

0:25:46.880,0:25:52.159
in the previous episode like we talked

0:25:48.799,0:25:55.200
about how they were isolated again

0:25:52.159,0:25:56.720
after the communist revolution and

0:25:55.200,0:25:58.240
yeah it took them a while to open up

0:25:56.720,0:26:00.799
their doors but yeah they now

0:25:58.240,0:26:02.240
make sense like they didn’t have great

0:26:00.799,0:26:04.480
experiences

0:26:02.240,0:26:05.840
and and they don’t have to do trade

0:26:04.480,0:26:09.360
actually i forgot to

0:26:05.840,0:26:12.480
add to with the opium declining so

0:26:09.360,0:26:13.520
opium imports decline but also china can

0:26:12.480,0:26:15.760
grow opium

0:26:13.520,0:26:17.840
so they they start growing their own

0:26:15.760,0:26:19.600
opium to like

0:26:17.840,0:26:20.960
so it’s like china didn’t need to do

0:26:19.600,0:26:22.080
trade with people they’re really

0:26:20.960,0:26:23.679
self-sufficient

0:26:22.080,0:26:26.159
it’s crazy because like the country is

0:26:23.679,0:26:29.039
so huge and they have so many different

0:26:26.159,0:26:30.159
like climates and what do you call it

0:26:29.039,0:26:31.919
like topography

0:26:30.159,0:26:33.919
like i don’t know it’s like really

0:26:31.919,0:26:36.400
beneficial i think it

0:26:33.919,0:26:37.120
is so self-sufficient they can grow

0:26:36.400,0:26:48.159
anything

0:26:37.120,0:26:48.159
produce anything

The Night Witches of WW2

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Show Notes

0:00:00.480,0:00:04.720
hello everybody and welcome back to

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another episode of how did we not know

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that

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i’m nat i’m jack

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and today jack has a super interesting

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topic to discuss

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a special episode so we’re doing a

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special bonus episode chosen by our

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friends

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over at women of her story women of her

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story

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is a podcast that focuses on important

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women in history that

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often go overlooked but they do a really

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good job of bringing those stories to

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light so i

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really encourage you guys to check that

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out if you’re interested

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alright so today’s topic is on the night

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which is a world war

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ii this was specifically chosen by the

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women of her story podcast

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so let’s just get right into it the

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night witches were an all-female

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a 588th night bomber regiment from the

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soviet union

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they were so feared and hated by the

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nazis that if a german airman could take

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one of them down

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then they were automatically awarded the

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prestigious iron cross medal

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just similar to the purple heart for us

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yeah yeah yeah yeah it’s a very high

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honor for germans i believe

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wow um yeah so they’re very feared so

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this is their story

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so the night witches dropped more than

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23

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000 tons of bombs on nazi targets and in

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doing so

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we’re a very crucial soviet asset to

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winning the war

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and for those of you who don’t know the

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soviets and the

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americans ended up teaming up as well so

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this is

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really cool to hear about um the types

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of regiments inside the soviet union’s

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army because we did end up becoming

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allies in order to defeat the nazis for

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world war ii

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so the germans gave them the nickname of

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night witches

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because of the whooshing noise that

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their wooden planes made

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resembled a sweeping broom so that

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whooshing noise

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was the only warning germans had because

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the planes were so

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small that they never used radios and so

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they wouldn’t show up on any of their

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radars

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oh my gosh very stealthy

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yeah spooky and they didn’t have lights

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on the planes i’ll get into it but their

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planes were very ill-equipped

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so they’re they’re just like flying dark

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basically and they can’t

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you can’t see them like no one can see

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them they probably can’t even see you

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themselves like that does not suck

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yeah it wasn’t that safe but they did a

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good job

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in june 1941 adolf hitler launched

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operation barbarossa which was a massive

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invasion of the soviet union

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by the fall of that year the germans

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were successfully pressing on moscow

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which is

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is that the capital of russia yeah it’s

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the capital of russia

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okay so the soviets were desperate but

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on june 28

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1942 the night witches had their first

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mission to bomb

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the headquarters of the invading nazis

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and that was a success

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so going back to the backstory of the

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night witches

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they were led by marina roskova who was

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famous for being the first

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female navigator in the soviet air force

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she had received letters from women

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across the soviet union

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who wanted to join the world war ii

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effort many of them had lost loved ones

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or had their villages destroyed and

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wanted to be in combat and fly their own

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planes

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ruskova petitioned to joseph stalin the

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dictator of the soviet union at the time

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for an all-female fighting squadron

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before

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she sent the letter women weren’t

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allowed to serve in the

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army good question yes they were allowed

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to serve in the army but they were not

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allowed to do

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combat oh so just like as like medical

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care and like those yeah like maybe

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moving supplies around

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similar to the harlem hell fighters

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which was a mini set episode we did in

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season one

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but they weren’t they weren’t doing

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combat and a lot of these women wanted

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to fight

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on october 8 1941 stalin gave orders to

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deploy

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three all-female air force units and the

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women would not only fly missions and

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drop bombs but they would return

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fire making the soviet union the first

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nation to officially allow women to

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engage in combat

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wow okay i did not

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me neither that’s what they don’t tell

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you about the soviet union

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so ruskova who’s the leader

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quickly started to fill out her teams

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for more than 2000 applications

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she selected 400 women for each of the

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three units

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most of them were students ranging in

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age from 17 to 26

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those selected moved to engels which is

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a small town north of stalingrad

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to begin training at the engel school of

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aviation

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so during training they underwent a

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highly compressed education

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and were expected to learn in a few

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months what it took most soldiers

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several years to grasp

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each recruit had to train and perform as

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pilots navigators maintenance and ground

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crew

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wow beyond their steep learning curve

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the women face

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skepticism from some of the male

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military personnel who believe they

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added no value to the combat effort

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yeah oh my god not surprising

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yeah of course there’s always some

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background noise

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um yeah so ruskova did her best to

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prepare her women

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for these attitudes but they still face

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sexual harassment

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long nights and grueling conditions

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basically the men didn’t like

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the little girls going to the front line

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that was considered a man’s thing

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so the military um who were unprepared

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for women pilots

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offered them meager resources so flyers

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received hand-me-down uniforms from mail

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soldiers including oversized boots so

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they would have to tear up their bedding

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and stuff them in their boots to get

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them to fit

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oh my god yeah which i’ve done before

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because i ordered the wrong size and

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they did not have a return policy or

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exchange policy

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you took your bed linens not bed linens

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but like cotton you know

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similar so i know what these girls are

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going to just kidding

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the military provided them with outdated

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1920s crop duster planes

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that have been used as training vehicles

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crop duster planes are

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literally the small planes that you

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carry fertilizer in

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and you fly over farms and you dust the

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crops with them

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it just it makes it like a faster

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process so they’re not meant for combat

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no not at all like they’re probably

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super slow

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and like not stealthy

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not safe like yeah they are

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that’s exactly it they were made out of

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plywood with a very thin

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canvas pulled over them which provided

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no protection from the elements so think

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about that you’re literally in the

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atmosphere

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with no protection from the elements

0:06:55.440,0:07:00.560
it’s cold in the ozone layer

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but it’s freezing i can’t even imagine

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like how scary that is i’m already so

0:07:02.880,0:07:06.080
scared

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i could never go i never want to go in

0:07:06.080,0:07:10.240
like a tiny plane or like a helicopter

0:07:08.000,0:07:12.240
like i hate turbulence and like oh it’s

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just so loud and cold

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and then you’re in the literal like a

0:07:14.840,0:07:18.240
war

0:07:16.479,0:07:20.400
yeah you’re fighting in a war in this

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little like it was made of plywood you

0:07:20.400,0:07:24.000
said

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yes plywood wouldn’t wouldn’t crime

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dusting plate

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with no light right it’s yeah they

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didn’t have a lot going for them but

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[Music]

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i can’t oh my god at night um

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especially the pilots had to endure

0:07:38.160,0:07:43.039
freezing temperatures wind

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and frostbite that’s cool um

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in the harsh soviet winters the planes

0:07:44.960,0:07:48.000
were so cold

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that if you touch them with bare skin it

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would rip your skin off

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what the heck oh my god i forgot we’re

0:07:53.840,0:07:56.560
in

0:07:54.560,0:07:59.759
so like oh my god it’s like you’re in

0:07:56.560,0:08:02.400
russia it’s not the caribbean

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oh my god why would you oh my god how

0:08:02.400,0:08:07.520
can you

0:08:04.240,0:08:09.759
low funds all right so due to both the

0:08:07.520,0:08:12.240
plane’s limited weight capacity and the

0:08:09.759,0:08:15.599
military’s limited funds the pilots

0:08:12.240,0:08:18.160
also lacked other luxury items uh their

0:08:15.599,0:08:19.280
male counterparts enjoyed so instead of

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parachutes

0:08:19.280,0:08:25.680
which were too heavy to carry radars

0:08:23.280,0:08:27.840
guns and radios they were forced to use

0:08:25.680,0:08:31.039
more rudimentary tools such as

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rulers stop watches flashlights

0:08:31.039,0:08:35.200
pencils maps and compasses are you

0:08:34.080,0:08:36.959
serious

0:08:35.200,0:08:38.959
yeah this is like impossible i don’t

0:08:36.959,0:08:41.519
know how you did this like

0:08:38.959,0:08:42.399
just like my school supply list for like

0:08:41.519,0:08:44.720
elementary

0:08:42.399,0:08:48.399
school like okay you got your ruler you

0:08:44.720,0:08:51.839
got here’s your protractor like go ahead

0:08:48.399,0:08:54.560
like how far off are we okay

0:08:51.839,0:08:56.720
let me get my protractor out really yeah

0:08:54.560,0:08:59.040
they didn’t even have parachutes

0:08:56.720,0:09:01.600
yeah from my source they didn’t have

0:08:59.040,0:09:05.120
their parachutes which is a big yikes

0:09:01.600,0:09:07.440
um so basically hope you land

0:09:05.120,0:09:08.880
yeah actually i don’t know if i covered

0:09:07.440,0:09:09.279
how they dealt with that i think they

0:09:08.880,0:09:10.800
just

0:09:09.279,0:09:13.200
try not to have to jump out of your

0:09:10.800,0:09:16.320
plane i guess

0:09:13.200,0:09:17.920
all right but i said mess it up right

0:09:16.320,0:09:20.480
just do your job

0:09:17.920,0:09:22.080
so the upside though to the aircrafts

0:09:20.480,0:09:24.959
was that their maximum speed

0:09:22.080,0:09:26.160
was still slower than the stall speed of

0:09:24.959,0:09:28.000
nazi planes

0:09:26.160,0:09:30.000
which means that the wooden planes were

0:09:28.000,0:09:31.360
actually able to maneuver faster than

0:09:30.000,0:09:33.200
the nazis

0:09:31.360,0:09:35.519
so that made them harder to target

0:09:33.200,0:09:37.920
because it’s like if your stall speed

0:09:35.519,0:09:38.560
is still faster than someone else’s turn

0:09:37.920,0:09:40.720
speed

0:09:38.560,0:09:42.880
then you can’t like slow down enough to

0:09:40.720,0:09:44.080
turn which means that the the smaller

0:09:42.880,0:09:47.519
planes are able to

0:09:44.080,0:09:50.800
move faster wow oh my god

0:09:47.519,0:09:51.600
so that was good however since there was

0:09:50.800,0:09:54.160
no defense

0:09:51.600,0:09:54.640
ammunition in the planes they would just

0:09:54.160,0:09:57.839
have to

0:09:54.640,0:10:00.480
duck whenever the enemy opened fire so

0:09:57.839,0:10:02.480
if the plane was hit by a tracer bullet

0:10:00.480,0:10:04.240
it would burst into flames because of

0:10:02.480,0:10:07.280
the wood

0:10:04.240,0:10:10.409
oh my god

0:10:07.280,0:10:10.409
[Music]

0:10:10.640,0:10:14.480
hey did they all survive i guess you’ll

0:10:13.600,0:10:16.880
get into it

0:10:14.480,0:10:18.000
no they did not but i think they did a

0:10:16.880,0:10:20.480
good job but no

0:10:18.000,0:10:21.760
not all of them survived so because the

0:10:20.480,0:10:23.519
bombs were so heavy

0:10:21.760,0:10:26.079
they would be forced to fly at lower

0:10:23.519,0:10:27.279
altitudes making them an easier target

0:10:26.079,0:10:29.040
for nazis

0:10:27.279,0:10:31.040
which is why they could only fly at

0:10:29.040,0:10:32.240
night hence the term night witches

0:10:31.040,0:10:34.800
because

0:10:32.240,0:10:35.519
they couldn’t fly high enough so they’re

0:10:34.800,0:10:37.519
always like

0:10:35.519,0:10:39.040
very close like you can easily see them

0:10:37.519,0:10:40.079
so they have no choice but to go at

0:10:39.040,0:10:43.040
night

0:10:40.079,0:10:44.880
um and then the planes would fly with a

0:10:43.040,0:10:45.600
pilot in the front and a navigator in

0:10:44.880,0:10:47.839
the back

0:10:45.600,0:10:48.880
they also traveled in packs and the

0:10:47.839,0:10:51.360
first planes

0:10:48.880,0:10:52.880
would go in as bait which would attract

0:10:51.360,0:10:55.120
german spotlights

0:10:52.880,0:10:57.360
and they needed the german spotlights to

0:10:55.120,0:10:59.680
help illuminate where the target was

0:10:57.360,0:11:00.800
because again the planes did not have

0:10:59.680,0:11:03.279
light

0:11:00.800,0:11:04.000
um which is really smart that they did

0:11:03.279,0:11:06.160
that

0:11:04.000,0:11:08.399
and then the planes would release a

0:11:06.160,0:11:08.959
flare light to light up the intended

0:11:08.399,0:11:11.279
target

0:11:08.959,0:11:13.680
and then the last plane would idle its

0:11:11.279,0:11:15.360
engines and glide into the darkness

0:11:13.680,0:11:16.560
which created the signature witch’s

0:11:15.360,0:11:18.000
broom sound

0:11:16.560,0:11:19.519
yeah and then that’s when they would

0:11:18.000,0:11:20.240
strike that’s when they dropped their

0:11:19.519,0:11:22.480
bomb because

0:11:20.240,0:11:23.920
you would like you become quiet and then

0:11:22.480,0:11:25.040
you just like glide in so they don’t

0:11:23.920,0:11:26.000
know where you are and then you drop the

0:11:25.040,0:11:28.800
bomb

0:11:26.000,0:11:29.200
well that’s really clever like that’s

0:11:28.800,0:11:31.839
really

0:11:29.200,0:11:33.680
that’s a really smart tactic especially

0:11:31.839,0:11:35.279
okay how do we make this work we have

0:11:33.680,0:11:38.640
literally nothing going for us

0:11:35.279,0:11:42.000
like this is gonna be easy but

0:11:38.640,0:11:44.079
that’s smart super creative who god

0:11:42.000,0:11:45.760
like who’s the one who gets picked as

0:11:44.079,0:11:48.000
bait like that

0:11:45.760,0:11:49.279
that sounds awful yeah that sucks are

0:11:48.000,0:11:51.680
probably the ones that don’t make it

0:11:49.279,0:11:53.200
so there were 12 commandments that the

0:11:51.680,0:11:54.959
night witches followed

0:11:53.200,0:11:57.600
some for strategy but also for

0:11:54.959,0:11:59.360
empowerment and the first one was be

0:11:57.600,0:12:02.160
proud you are a woman

0:11:59.360,0:12:04.160
so marina the leader who created the

0:12:02.160,0:12:06.160
night witches never wanted any of them

0:12:04.160,0:12:07.920
to apologize for being women

0:12:06.160,0:12:10.480
or to take pity on themselves for the

0:12:07.920,0:12:12.720
treatment they were going to receive i

0:12:10.480,0:12:13.920
love that i think that’s so great that

0:12:12.720,0:12:15.440
that was a commandment

0:12:13.920,0:12:17.519
because it’s true why would why should

0:12:15.440,0:12:18.320
you be ashamed of like who you are you

0:12:17.519,0:12:21.120
know

0:12:18.320,0:12:22.560
yeah and they’re amazing so so their

0:12:21.120,0:12:25.760
last flight took place

0:12:22.560,0:12:28.160
on may 4th 1945 when the night witches

0:12:25.760,0:12:30.959
flew within 60 kilometers

0:12:28.160,0:12:32.160
of berlin three days later germany

0:12:30.959,0:12:36.079
officially surrendered

0:12:32.160,0:12:38.560
whoa so the germans had two theories

0:12:36.079,0:12:40.079
about why these women were so successful

0:12:38.560,0:12:42.000
the first theory

0:12:40.079,0:12:43.600
was they were all criminals who were

0:12:42.000,0:12:45.839
masters at stealing

0:12:43.600,0:12:47.040
and had been sent to the front line as

0:12:45.839,0:12:49.839
punishment

0:12:47.040,0:12:52.000
or number two they had been given

0:12:49.839,0:12:54.959
special injections that allowed them

0:12:52.000,0:12:56.000
to see in the night oh my god they’re

0:12:54.959,0:12:58.320
like

0:12:56.000,0:13:00.000
oh what’s in their little mutant people

0:12:58.320,0:13:01.600
yeah they’re like no way they’re just

0:13:00.000,0:13:03.839
regular women

0:13:01.600,0:13:03.839
like

0:13:04.880,0:13:08.959
all together the night witches flew more

0:13:06.560,0:13:11.200
than 30 000 missions in total or about

0:13:08.959,0:13:14.160
800 per pilot and navigator

0:13:11.200,0:13:16.240
they lost a total of 30 pilots and 24 of

0:13:14.160,0:13:18.399
the flyers were awarded the title

0:13:16.240,0:13:20.320
hero of the soviet union which is

0:13:18.399,0:13:22.560
awesome to hear then

0:13:20.320,0:13:25.760
raskova the mother of the movement died

0:13:22.560,0:13:27.279
on january 4th 1943 when she was finally

0:13:25.760,0:13:29.360
sent to the front line

0:13:27.279,0:13:30.720
and her plane did not make it back so

0:13:29.360,0:13:33.839
she was given

0:13:30.720,0:13:34.480
yeah she was given the very first state

0:13:33.839,0:13:36.959
funeral

0:13:34.480,0:13:38.240
of world war ii and her ashes were

0:13:36.959,0:13:40.079
buried in the kremlin

0:13:38.240,0:13:41.279
kremlin is like isn’t that like their

0:13:40.079,0:13:44.959
like white house

0:13:41.279,0:13:48.160
is it probably

0:13:44.959,0:13:50.320
the kremlin oh it is the moscow kremlin

0:13:48.160,0:13:52.320
yeah the florida it’s a fortified

0:13:50.320,0:13:54.000
complex in the center of moscow

0:13:52.320,0:13:56.320
so despite being the most highly

0:13:54.000,0:13:57.839
decorated unit in the soviet air force

0:13:56.320,0:14:00.079
during the war the night witch’s

0:13:57.839,0:14:01.279
regiment was disbanded six months after

0:14:00.079,0:14:03.760
the end of world war

0:14:01.279,0:14:05.199
ii and when it came to the big victory

0:14:03.760,0:14:07.279
day parade in moscow

0:14:05.199,0:14:10.320
they weren’t included because it was

0:14:07.279,0:14:13.360
decided their planes were too slow

0:14:10.320,0:14:15.199
and yeah that’s that’s all

0:14:13.360,0:14:17.600
these always end like this right like

0:14:15.199,0:14:20.240
that was the harlem hellfire same thing

0:14:17.600,0:14:21.519
so it’s unfortunate but this is that’s

0:14:20.240,0:14:23.440
the world

0:14:21.519,0:14:25.120
and that’s basically the story of the

0:14:23.440,0:14:27.760
night which is sorry

0:14:25.120,0:14:28.160
it is not a happier ending but i am very

0:14:27.760,0:14:29.839
proud

0:14:28.160,0:14:31.760
to hear about their story and to be able

0:14:29.839,0:14:33.360
to present this piece of history to you

0:14:31.760,0:14:34.399
all so that we can remember these

0:14:33.360,0:14:38.000
amazing women

0:14:34.399,0:14:40.720
and find strength in their story wow

0:14:38.000,0:14:41.519
i i can’t believe i’ve never heard of

0:14:40.720,0:14:43.120
this before

0:14:41.519,0:14:44.639
first of all like this would be an

0:14:43.120,0:14:46.560
amazing movie plot

0:14:44.639,0:14:47.839
like they should make not a plot but

0:14:46.560,0:14:48.959
like you know they should make a movie

0:14:47.839,0:14:50.560
out of it

0:14:48.959,0:14:52.959
i really because like whenever i learn

0:14:50.560,0:14:53.279
about world war ii it’s like oh my god i

0:14:52.959,0:14:57.120
think

0:14:53.279,0:15:00.399
the soviet union lost like like

0:14:57.120,0:15:02.480
millions of there were like millions of

0:15:00.399,0:15:04.639
casualties like soldier military

0:15:02.480,0:15:06.320
casualties

0:15:04.639,0:15:07.920
but then like so i was always like oh

0:15:06.320,0:15:09.360
i’m dang like somebody

0:15:07.920,0:15:10.880
they’re not doing their military’s not

0:15:09.360,0:15:12.560
doing well but then you have like this

0:15:10.880,0:15:14.959
team of women

0:15:12.560,0:15:16.000
you said each pilot had like around 800

0:15:14.959,0:15:20.160
missions

0:15:16.000,0:15:22.399
yeah how do you do that 800 times how

0:15:20.160,0:15:23.760
first of all how do you not like you

0:15:22.399,0:15:27.440
okay first of all the ads

0:15:23.760,0:15:29.920
are so tiny that you’re going to survive

0:15:27.440,0:15:30.480
like you do it 800 times instead and

0:15:29.920,0:15:33.040
make it

0:15:30.480,0:15:34.000
like that now i’m starting to think like

0:15:33.040,0:15:36.320
yeah maybe they were

0:15:34.000,0:15:37.839
mutant yeah no they did really well

0:15:36.320,0:15:40.959
because they were like

0:15:37.839,0:15:43.120
what 1200 of them and only 30 no

0:15:40.959,0:15:44.160
i mean 30 passing away is very sad and

0:15:43.120,0:15:47.279
that’s still a loss

0:15:44.160,0:15:49.360
but 30 out of that’s a pretty good given

0:15:47.279,0:15:52.079
like everything they had to overcome

0:15:49.360,0:15:53.120
most of them did survive so like when

0:15:52.079,0:15:57.120
did the us

0:15:53.120,0:15:59.360
allow women to like fight like

0:15:57.120,0:16:02.639
hold combat positions in the military

0:15:59.360,0:16:02.639
that’s a great question

0:16:02.880,0:16:06.880
yeah i going off of like your earlier

0:16:05.120,0:16:10.560
point

0:16:06.880,0:16:13.360
um i feel like

0:16:10.560,0:16:15.120
the narrative of the us military and

0:16:13.360,0:16:19.040
army is mostly

0:16:15.120,0:16:21.680
around men and i’ve i know that a lot of

0:16:19.040,0:16:22.320
like people always like oh for equality

0:16:21.680,0:16:24.480
like

0:16:22.320,0:16:26.160
forget equal pay like women need to do

0:16:24.480,0:16:28.800
the draft which like

0:16:26.160,0:16:30.800
sure if you want sure like if you want

0:16:28.800,0:16:33.040
that but i think that that’s a false

0:16:30.800,0:16:35.120
narrative that you put on everyone that

0:16:33.040,0:16:38.720
they don’t want to serve

0:16:35.120,0:16:42.000
in the military um because some women do

0:16:38.720,0:16:42.880
like for some women it’s not like a huge

0:16:42.000,0:16:44.639
blessing that

0:16:42.880,0:16:46.639
we don’t sign up for the draft i know

0:16:44.639,0:16:48.000
like no one wants to die but you’re not

0:16:46.639,0:16:50.399
guaranteed

0:16:48.000,0:16:51.920
to die and if you serve in the military

0:16:50.399,0:16:55.040
you serve it in the army you know

0:16:51.920,0:16:57.199
so women always get excluded from that

0:16:55.040,0:16:59.120
and a lot of women probably did want to

0:16:57.199,0:17:02.000
serve during that time

0:16:59.120,0:17:02.320
yeah that’s always so frustrating i’m

0:17:02.000,0:17:03.920
like

0:17:02.320,0:17:05.839
just getting flashbacks to like high

0:17:03.920,0:17:07.760
school history class and like they’re

0:17:05.839,0:17:08.640
like oh let’s debate about like women’s

0:17:07.760,0:17:11.120
rights

0:17:08.640,0:17:12.640
oh you want equal pay like you don’t

0:17:11.120,0:17:14.480
even get drafted

0:17:12.640,0:17:16.319
right right it’s like okay well if you

0:17:14.480,0:17:20.000
draft me are we gonna be paid the same

0:17:16.319,0:17:22.480
cause i feel like that’s the issue

0:17:20.000,0:17:24.880
um first of all i’d like to have equal

0:17:22.480,0:17:24.880
rights

0:17:26.000,0:17:30.320
my life yeah i don’t know exactly no

0:17:28.559,0:17:32.880
it’s that’s literally they always pull

0:17:30.320,0:17:35.120
the draft card and it’s like

0:17:32.880,0:17:36.640
sure if you want me to register for the

0:17:35.120,0:17:38.960
draft let’s do it

0:17:36.640,0:17:40.400
like is that are you gonna pay me the

0:17:38.960,0:17:43.520
same then

0:17:40.400,0:17:46.720
yeah but yeah so to answer your question

0:17:43.520,0:17:49.840
the it says that

0:17:46.720,0:17:53.679
the 1994 rescinding of the okay so in

0:17:49.840,0:17:57.039
1988 there was a risk rule

0:17:53.679,0:18:00.080
and that rule i think is what

0:17:57.039,0:18:01.520
prevented women from being able oh it

0:18:00.080,0:18:04.400
was a combat man

0:18:01.520,0:18:04.400
wait a second

0:18:05.679,0:18:10.160
yeah i feel like pretty recent because

0:18:07.840,0:18:13.679
they weren’t fighting in like vietnam

0:18:10.160,0:18:16.080
yeah it says in 1994 the rescinding of

0:18:13.679,0:18:18.640
the 1988 risk rule

0:18:16.080,0:18:19.200
allowed women to serve in all positions

0:18:18.640,0:18:22.400
except

0:18:19.200,0:18:23.280
those engaged in direct ground combat

0:18:22.400,0:18:25.440
roles

0:18:23.280,0:18:27.440
subsequently women have been able to

0:18:25.440,0:18:28.240
serve in almost all air force and navy

0:18:27.440,0:18:31.760
positions

0:18:28.240,0:18:35.039
since the mid-1990s okay so

0:18:31.760,0:18:38.480
they still wait can they not serve in

0:18:35.039,0:18:40.320
on the ground combat still no yeah they

0:18:38.480,0:18:44.400
can

0:18:40.320,0:18:44.400
for sure only since 2016.

0:18:44.640,0:18:49.120
no yes i’m reading it right here women

0:18:47.600,0:18:51.440
have been training to become marines for

0:18:49.120,0:18:53.280
decades but only since 2016 have they

0:18:51.440,0:18:56.480
been able to serve in combat roles

0:18:53.280,0:18:59.520
alongside men

0:18:56.480,0:19:01.919
huh are you kidding me

0:18:59.520,0:19:01.919
is that

0:19:02.640,0:19:07.440
because that the 1994 rescinding of the

0:19:06.160,0:19:09.280
risk rule

0:19:07.440,0:19:10.880
only allowed them to serve in the air

0:19:09.280,0:19:14.799
force of the navy they still weren’t

0:19:10.880,0:19:14.799
allowed to serve in on-the-ground combat

0:19:16.160,0:19:18.480
what

0:19:19.200,0:19:26.880
how do we not know that literally

0:19:22.480,0:19:26.880
i i thought they were like female

0:19:28.400,0:19:33.280
maybe recently in the past four years

0:19:30.559,0:19:37.520
that’s insane

0:19:33.280,0:19:43.440
that’s crazy i literally did not realize

0:19:37.520,0:19:43.440
how recent that was that’s wild yeah

0:19:43.840,0:19:47.600
i’m looking who is the highest ranking

0:19:45.520,0:19:50.240
female military officer

0:19:47.600,0:19:53.520
and then it says u.s air force general

0:19:50.240,0:19:57.440
lori robinson is um

0:19:53.520,0:20:01.280
and she served from 2016 to 2018.

0:19:57.440,0:20:03.280
that’s like two years ago wow

0:20:01.280,0:20:04.480
yeah they have been allowed in

0:20:03.280,0:20:09.120
submarines

0:20:04.480,0:20:09.120
since 2014. are you kidding me

0:20:09.280,0:20:15.360
that’s so recent

0:20:12.320,0:20:18.159
that’s literally i had no clue i

0:20:15.360,0:20:18.640
thought we like i thought women could

0:20:18.159,0:20:20.720
just

0:20:18.640,0:20:21.840
hold any position and i thought it was

0:20:20.720,0:20:23.280
like

0:20:21.840,0:20:24.880
but now that i think of it like how did

0:20:23.280,0:20:25.520
i not realize it wasn’t recent because

0:20:24.880,0:20:28.559
like

0:20:25.520,0:20:31.039
they’re not fighting in like vietnam

0:20:28.559,0:20:33.360
they weren’t fighting in like the 80s

0:20:31.039,0:20:34.240
yeah they’re like not allowed actually

0:20:33.360,0:20:38.080
it’s like a

0:20:34.240,0:20:40.400
ban hmm

0:20:38.080,0:20:43.039
let me read this pentagon now says yeah

0:20:40.400,0:20:45.120
that’s a 2015 article

0:20:43.039,0:20:46.320
process yeah no they literally started

0:20:45.120,0:20:49.679
the process to open

0:20:46.320,0:20:52.480
combat jobs to women in january of 2013.

0:20:49.679,0:20:53.280
started the process so it wasn’t even

0:20:52.480,0:20:56.720
done

0:20:53.280,0:20:59.919
holy moly wow disappointed that i

0:20:56.720,0:21:00.799
did not know that i mean she has a bit

0:20:59.919,0:21:04.240
of a bummer

0:21:00.799,0:21:06.159
um for this episode

0:21:04.240,0:21:07.679
wow it looks like we got a lot of work

0:21:06.159,0:21:11.039
to do and

0:21:07.679,0:21:11.600
yeah for women who are serving thank you

0:21:11.039,0:21:14.080
to

0:21:11.600,0:21:14.080
anyone

0:21:18.640,0:21:22.480
no no no thanks to all our veterans and

0:21:21.200,0:21:23.570
i’m proud to be

0:21:22.480,0:21:25.679
an american

0:21:23.570,0:21:27.520
[Music]

0:21:25.679,0:21:29.200
i remember were you the one that told me

0:21:27.520,0:21:30.559
that your gym teacher made you watch

0:21:29.200,0:21:34.320
that like every

0:21:30.559,0:21:36.960
better here the size of the

0:21:34.320,0:21:36.960
marines

0:21:38.320,0:21:42.320
i love that song anyways yeah last thing

0:21:41.200,0:21:45.760
before we go though

0:21:42.320,0:21:47.360
yeah the 1988 in 1988 there was a rule

0:21:45.760,0:21:50.480
called the risk rule

0:21:47.360,0:21:52.320
and it excluded women from non-combat

0:21:50.480,0:21:53.120
units or missions so they like

0:21:52.320,0:21:56.320
completely

0:21:53.120,0:21:59.039
not allowed to be in the at all

0:21:56.320,0:22:00.159
really yeah okay so there you go if you

0:21:59.039,0:22:02.559
ever have the debate

0:22:00.159,0:22:04.880
about women’s right to pull that on them

0:22:02.559,0:22:07.280
wow okay now i’m like

0:22:04.880,0:22:09.600
someone someone try me someone text me

0:22:07.280,0:22:13.760
say something say something

0:22:09.600,0:22:15.919
i got my dates lined up like i’m ready

0:22:13.760,0:22:17.600
all right well yeah that is the night

0:22:15.919,0:22:20.240
which is thank you

0:22:17.600,0:22:22.559
for watching be sure to check out our

0:22:20.240,0:22:27.840
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Health Care Around the World

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! 🎙 The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com 📦 ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnkt  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
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Show Notes

Healthcare systems around the world: 

What is a healthcare system? 

1. Providers, 2. Population/People, 3. Insurers 

Insurers:

Health Maintenance Organization (HMO): they cover your care by integrating with the providers (KaiserPermanente) but you still pay them a premium. A set list of doctors that you can see. If you don’t see these doctors, you pay out of pocket. 

Preferred Provider Organization (PPO). You will still get a list but the flexibility is greater. The list isn’t mandatory and the insurance should still cover a portion of it. 

“A nation as prosperous and successful as ours must guarantee the health of all its men and women. Safeguarding healthcare for every American is not a sentimental wish, it’s a matter of justice” Woodrow Wilson (1912 election for president)

The American Medical Association wanted government separate from healthcare back then and still what we have now. 

All other rich countries provide healthcare for all their people and spend half of what we do in the U.S. 

The unanswered question: Why has the richest country in the world never made the commitment to provide healthcare for everyone? 

Utilization of healthcare systems. Regional board or national board to decide what the prices are and what procedures are covered. It’s a rationing program. Over utilization in Britain sets age limits. They won’t pay for dialysis beyond 88-90, but you know the money is going back into the system. In the U.S., the money goes to investors. 

American’s spend more on hospitals, whereas other countries spend less on these types of facilities. They shaft doctors and hospitals in Japan. 

T.R. Reid’s Models and Explanations: 

U.S. strengths: best medical education in the world, most innovative scientific research, and best equipped hospitals. 

Who pays for it and who provides it? 

Beveridge Model: (UK, Spain, New Zealand) (William Beveridge…British man)

Universal healthcare coverage; financed by the government through tax payments and the government owns everything. 

Winston Churchill employed Lord Beveridge to investigate social services. They decided it’s the government’s responsibility to cover everyone. 

Bismarck Model: (Germany, France, Japan, and many other European countries)

Otto Van Bismarck (1871/2 unified Prussia as Germany). He created the welfare state and started to send everyone money from the government. Social security, workman’s compensation, 1881 universal healthcare system through insurance companies. 

Insurance system financed by employers and employees through payroll deductions. Everything is split with the employer. In contrast to the U.S. these insurance companies are non-profit and must enroll all citizens, and the government will step in when someone is unemployed. 

All the hospitals and practices are private practice. Not run by the government. People like their health insurance companies. Insurance companies have to pay doctors within a certain amount of days as well as patients. They have really strict regulation of insurance companies. They also can’t deny claims. 

Unemployed or self-employed individuals do not lose health insurance! Government pays the half of your premium or the whole premium. 

National Health Insurance Model: (Canada, South Korea, Taiwan)

Combines a bit of both the Beveridge and Bismarck model systems where services are provided via private healthcare providers but payments are processed through a government-run insurance program funded via taxes or a premium paid through employers. Limit costs by limiting treatments that are paid for and/or making patients wait for elective surgeries. 

Everyone pays a tax or premium and everyone can go to the doctor for free. They have limited the number of surgeons, scans, etc to save money. For acute care, everyone is treated, but if the medical problem can wait, you must wait. *Especially in Canada

Out-Of-Pocket Model: (Developing countries, only about 50 countries have programs and the rest have this one)

Only those who have money for healthcare can afford to access and pay for it. 

Why is America’s healthcare costs so expensive? 

We employ all of these types of models in various ways for different classes of people leading to a disjointed and costly system. On top of this, depending on where you fall in American society and healthcare providers, you receive different treatment and care. This disorganization of our national healthcare system leads to higher spending per capita and worse health outcomes compared to other developed countries. For example, we don’t go to the doctor as much as other countries for preventative healthcare treatments and with each visit, we pay more. 

To expand a bit about how the U.S. healthcare system employees all of these models, we can take a look a some of the types of people treated in each sector. 

Native Americans, Veterans, Active Duty Military Personnel: The Beveridge Model of healthcare like the NHS in Britain. You never receive a bill for the treatment, you’re treated by government hospitals and employees. Government buys the pills. 

Working person splitting your insurance premium with employer: The Bismarck Model of healthcare similar to countries like France and Germany. About 150-160 million Americans receive care through this route. 

Over 65 and you get insurance through a government run program called Medicare: you are a person experiencing the National Health Insurance Model similar to Canada. More than 40 million American’s are on this model in our system. 

If you’re part of the 30 million uninsured Americans, then you’re like a person living in a developing country in rural Africa, South America, etc. 

So what’s the main difference between us and other countries around the globe? All other countries have decided to pursue one fundamental model. Not a mix of all of these systems and rules and models. 

aOne size fits all medicine. Why would anyone want to do that?

A. Simpler and cheaper to manage (set of rules, prices, etc)

B. Cost and transparency (U.S. idk vs. France who has a charge, what insurance will pay you back, etc)

C. American health insurance companies have the highest administrative costs in the world (18-25% cost to every bill they pay). Canada has a 5% admin cost. Britain has 5%. France has 3%. 

D. Economic incentive for preventive care. U.S. insurance companies pay monthly dividends to investors instead of economic incentives to people buying health insurance. 

Preventive health breakthroughs. Cancer warning on tobacco products. Britain and Europe have made it more successful. 

You must make the moral determination that everyone has access to healthcare and medicine. If you don’t make this decision, those with money can afford to see doctors while the others cannot. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3596027/#:~:text=Reid%20compared%204%20different%20health,out%2Dof%2Dpocket%20model.

How many American’s are not covered by health insurance? 

According to the census.gov statistics, 8.5 percent of people or nearly 27.5 million did not have health insurance at any point during the year. 

https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2019/demo/p60-267.html#:~:text=In%202018%2C%208.5%20percent%20of,7.9%20percent%20or%2025.6%20million).

When people think about socialized healthcare system, I think the United Kingdom comes to mind for me. (BEVERIDGE)

The government runs the entire thing and is essentially the closest model to when someone in the U.S. screams about socialized medicine. Not only is this model overall cheaper, but it provides better health outcomes for people compared to the U.S. 

Let’s talk about some statistics: (The Organization for Economic Co-operation, OECD)

Healthcare spending per person (2018): $4070 vs $10,586

Healthcare spending by percent of GDP (2018): UK 9.8% vs U.S. 16.9%

Life expectancy at birth (2017): UK 81.3 vs U.S. 78.6

Infant mortality per 1000 births (2017): UK 3.9 vs U.S. 5.8

It’s a service you use and never get a bill. Everyone pays into it through taxes so when you need to use it, you can. The more money you earn, the more taxes you pay and the better you contribute to the system. Some services are paid out of pocket like dental, eyes, and some prescription drugs, but these costs are low compared to the US (57% less than the U.S.). Most GPs are contractors with the NHS. They establish contracts with how  much they can earn for services. There is also a private healthcare sector by private health insurance companies and out of pocket spending. Very strong support for the NHS in the United Kingdom and something that all British people are proud of. 

How does Germany’s universal healthcare system compare? (BISMARCK)

Health spending per person (2017): Germany $5800 vs U.S. $10200

Percent of GDP on healthcare (2017): Germany 11.2% vs U.S. 17.1%

Percent of people covered (2017): Germany 100% vs U.S. 91.2% (about 28 million uninsured)

Avoidable deaths per 100,000 people (2013): Germany 83/100k people vs US 112/100k

Life expectancy at birth (2017): Germany 81.1 vs U.S. 78.6

Infant mortality per 1000 births (2017): Germany 3.2 vs U.S. 6.0

Everyone buys health insurance from a private health insurance company and then the hospitals and labs are almost all private. It works better because everyone is covered and required to be in the system. Everyone has to be covered and cannot be denied coverage and has access to the same treatment from any doctor or hospital. 

There are two sectors labeled Statutory Heath Insurance (SHI) and Private Health Insurance (PHI). Germans are only eligible for PHI if they make over 60k per year or are self-employed. Everyone else pays into SHI companies which are all not-for-profit companies where dependents are covered for free and maximum monthly costs are capped at 840 euros per month. SHI companies are heavily regulated by the government in what they can charge, what procedures they can fund, and other heavy rules. Employers share most of the cost for paying into these programs similar to the U.S. However, the government will also pay into SHI for people who are unemployed. They compete for people using small perks. Something like offering bonuses for going to the gym, getting annual check-ups. They’re small vouchers but they ensure people are proactive about their health. 

Some potential issues include concerns about wait times for specialists. But citizens like that they can predict costs and that everyone is covered. Insurance companies have to pay for every claim and can’t deny it. They also love that they can go to any doctor. They have decided to commit to covering everyone. 

What about France? (BISMARCK)

France was recognized as the best healthcare system across the globe by the World Health Organization in 2000 and provides universal coverage at a lower cost with comparable and even better health outcome than the U.S. 

Let’s talk about some statistics: 

Infant mortality per 1000 births (2017): France 3.5 vs U.S. 6.0

Life expectancy at birth (2017): France 82.5 vs U.S. 78.6

French systems gives every citizen health coverage from birth which leads to preventative care. They call it social security. Just government financed but not government run. Doctors are not restricted or hospitals, labs, or clinics. America is the only place where insurance companies dictate where you can go. The system covers about 70-80% of medical costs with the remaining out of pocket. Also has voluntary supplementary insurance provided by private insurance companies. Also legally requires price transparency and no waiting lists for specialist treatment or referrals. 

Healthcare spending per person (2017): $4900 vs $10,200. They keep these costs low by minimizing administrative costs. (must be less than 5%) Carte vitale. An electronic health card with medical records to save time and money. The French parliament sets a social security expenditures to stay within a budget. 

French employers and citizens pay more in income taxes but Americans end up paying more with copays and out of pocket drug expenses. Medical school is nearly free in France vs U.S. cost of medical school. 

What about Canada? (NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE)

Can you guys guess the next country? It’s usually characterized by basic universal coverage, cheaper drug prices and reported longer lines?

Single payer healthcare system sort of like the proposed Medicare for all program in the U.S. Let’s review some statistics compared to the U.S. 

Healthcare spending by percent of GDP (2017): Canada 10.4% vs U.S. 17.2%

Healthcare spending per person (2017): $4500 vs $10,200

Out of pocket spending per person (2017): $650 vs $1100

Canada has basic universal healthcare coverage with comparable or better health outcomes compared to the U.S. 

Avoidable deaths per 100,000 people (2013): Canada 78/100k people vs US 112/100k

Life expectancy at birth (2017): Canada 82.47 vs U.S. 78.6

Infant mortality per 1000 births (2017): Canada 4.8 vs U.S. 6.0

Publicly funded model with private providers. Established to ensure health equity among citizens regardless of people’s ability to pay and keeps administrative costs low. The health ministry determined what is covered, what pills will be paid for, which procedures will be allowed. In the U.S., these are decisions made by individual insurance companies in the U.S. Canada values equity so everyone receives the same care. Medicare in Canada does not cover everything though. Things like dental, mental health, etc. can be covered by supplemental private insurance through employers. However, they can’t use private insurance to cover things that are covered under the government plan. 

What are some problems? 

Longer wait times for Canadians within 48 hours, to see specialists, and elective surgeries. Flooded emergency rooms because private care practices do not have out of regular hours. Not all things are covered including most prescription drugs that need to be paid for out-of-pocket. Some social drug programs or province specific help for certain age groups. Per capita out of pocket spending on prescription drugs was about $670 vs the U.S. $1000. 

The model needs some reform, but Canadians are still very proud of their healthcare system. They know it’s still better than the U.S. system. Lower costs, higher health outcomes. 

One system is the solution: 

ASIDE: 

We don’t have a set price list of how much the bill will be. We need a master price list. The thing about a single payer healthcare system in the U.S. is that lobbying groups and healthcare companies can set those prices making a single payer system just as expensive as what it is right now. One system allows you to create a transparent cost and charge schedule. 

One potential solution is to expand Medicare for all covering all adults 65+ and 18- and allowing adults to buy in to it. It would maintain coverage at many participating hospitals and allow for easier access to healthcare options. Might not reduce costs immediately. 

Transcript

0:00:00.080,0:00:05.040
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.639,0:00:05.759
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:05.040,0:00:09.679
that

0:00:05.759,0:00:12.799
i’m nat i’m jack and i’m esteban

0:00:09.679,0:00:14.880
yay hi everyone today we have a very

0:00:12.799,0:00:18.000
special guest it’s my very good friend

0:00:14.880,0:00:20.880
esteban and he will be presenting on

0:00:18.000,0:00:21.520
healthcare around the world right that’s

0:00:20.880,0:00:22.880
right yeah

0:00:21.520,0:00:24.960
talking a little bit about different

0:00:22.880,0:00:25.840
healthcare systems across the globe and

0:00:24.960,0:00:28.400
especially something that’s like

0:00:25.840,0:00:31.679
relevant to the united states as well so

0:00:28.400,0:00:33.120
okay yeah so i guess um we can start at

0:00:31.679,0:00:33.440
the very beginning for people who don’t

0:00:33.120,0:00:35.680
know

0:00:33.440,0:00:36.640
sort of what a healthcare system is um

0:00:35.680,0:00:38.559
so

0:00:36.640,0:00:40.079
uh just doing some basic research and

0:00:38.559,0:00:41.760
sort of my own background knowledge

0:00:40.079,0:00:43.840
uh so healthcare system really is

0:00:41.760,0:00:45.120
composed of really three things and so

0:00:43.840,0:00:46.399
first you have providers

0:00:45.120,0:00:48.640
or medical providers who are actually

0:00:46.399,0:00:50.079
providing your care the second is really

0:00:48.640,0:00:51.760
the population of the people who are

0:00:50.079,0:00:54.239
taking advantage of that care

0:00:51.760,0:00:55.039
and then three is really insurers or

0:00:54.239,0:00:57.520
who’s paying

0:00:55.039,0:00:59.440
for uh your health care um so those

0:00:57.520,0:01:02.399
those three things really make up

0:00:59.440,0:01:02.960
a comprehensive health care system and

0:01:02.399,0:01:04.479
um

0:01:02.960,0:01:06.479
i guess something off the bat that

0:01:04.479,0:01:08.320
people might be familiar with seeing on

0:01:06.479,0:01:10.720
health insurance cards um are the

0:01:08.320,0:01:13.280
abbreviations hmo and ppo

0:01:10.720,0:01:14.640
um so in the united states we have um

0:01:13.280,0:01:15.600
those two abbreviations for insurer

0:01:14.640,0:01:17.680
providers

0:01:15.600,0:01:19.280
uh but i can just sort of go into the

0:01:17.680,0:01:22.479
the basics of what those two

0:01:19.280,0:01:24.400
uh differences mean um so

0:01:22.479,0:01:25.759
uh if you’ve ever seen hmo written on

0:01:24.400,0:01:26.799
your health insurance card it really

0:01:25.759,0:01:27.920
stands for health maintenance

0:01:26.799,0:01:30.320
organization

0:01:27.920,0:01:31.840
um and so they actually uh cover your

0:01:30.320,0:01:34.159
care by integrating with

0:01:31.840,0:01:35.280
uh private providers so an example is

0:01:34.159,0:01:37.439
like kaiser

0:01:35.280,0:01:39.040
uh an insurance company but you still

0:01:37.439,0:01:40.320
you pay them the premium

0:01:39.040,0:01:42.079
and they sort of like give you a set

0:01:40.320,0:01:43.759
list of doctors that you can see

0:01:42.079,0:01:45.680
but if you don’t see these doctors you

0:01:43.759,0:01:47.759
have to pay out of pocket for your care

0:01:45.680,0:01:49.200
um and then the other sort of big

0:01:47.759,0:01:51.119
insurance type of company

0:01:49.200,0:01:53.439
in the united states is a preferred

0:01:51.119,0:01:55.280
provider organization or ppo

0:01:53.439,0:01:56.719
um so you still get that list of doctors

0:01:55.280,0:01:58.719
that you can

0:01:56.719,0:02:00.240
try to see but your flexibility is

0:01:58.719,0:02:02.399
greater so the list isn’t

0:02:00.240,0:02:03.920
mandatory and the insurance would still

0:02:02.399,0:02:05.360
cover a portion of it if you do decide

0:02:03.920,0:02:06.479
to go to a physician that’s really not

0:02:05.360,0:02:08.560
on their list of

0:02:06.479,0:02:10.640
of doctors so those are really like to

0:02:08.560,0:02:11.760
the big differences in the insurer types

0:02:10.640,0:02:13.760
that we have in the united states and

0:02:11.760,0:02:16.000
what composes our own health care system

0:02:13.760,0:02:20.640
so it’s just a brief introduction

0:02:16.000,0:02:23.280
okay um with like the ppo versus hmo

0:02:20.640,0:02:24.720
when you get to decide which type you

0:02:23.280,0:02:27.360
have is it just based on what your

0:02:24.720,0:02:29.120
employer chose for you

0:02:27.360,0:02:30.480
great question yeah and i think it’s

0:02:29.120,0:02:32.720
really based on

0:02:30.480,0:02:34.720
um what your employer is willing to pay

0:02:32.720,0:02:36.879
or help pay the premium for

0:02:34.720,0:02:38.800
so i think it really depends on employer

0:02:36.879,0:02:39.200
but also i mean if you’re self-employed

0:02:38.800,0:02:40.640
or

0:02:39.200,0:02:42.400
even unemployed and looking for health

0:02:40.640,0:02:45.760
insurance um these are two

0:02:42.400,0:02:45.760
two different types that you might see

0:02:46.640,0:02:50.400
so what is medicaid under is that gonna

0:02:48.480,0:02:51.760
be hmo or ppo

0:02:50.400,0:02:55.280
oh my gosh that’s a good question i

0:02:51.760,0:02:57.440
don’t know probably ppo right because

0:02:55.280,0:02:58.319
yeah so actually these are i think more

0:02:57.440,0:03:01.440
relevant to

0:02:58.319,0:03:02.640
um insurance providers so like medicare

0:03:01.440,0:03:04.000
medicaid is actually

0:03:02.640,0:03:06.480
something that we can get into a little

0:03:04.000,0:03:07.200
bit in the future of talking together

0:03:06.480,0:03:08.640
because

0:03:07.200,0:03:10.239
that’s almost like a completely

0:03:08.640,0:03:11.360
different model of providing healthcare

0:03:10.239,0:03:13.680
so these are really like

0:03:11.360,0:03:14.480
insurance companies provide care right

0:03:13.680,0:03:16.959
uh

0:03:14.480,0:03:18.640
and pay for it um sort of the connection

0:03:16.959,0:03:20.480
between the people and the providers

0:03:18.640,0:03:21.920
but medicare and medicaid are sort of

0:03:20.480,0:03:23.280
related directly just to the government

0:03:21.920,0:03:23.760
so the government is the one actually

0:03:23.280,0:03:26.959
paying

0:03:23.760,0:03:28.640
not the insurance company okay so then

0:03:26.959,0:03:31.920
is this unique to the united

0:03:28.640,0:03:32.799
states health care system yeah great

0:03:31.920,0:03:36.000
question so

0:03:32.799,0:03:38.159
uh we can talk about some

0:03:36.000,0:03:39.360
models that i’ve read a lot about in the

0:03:38.159,0:03:40.720
new book uh

0:03:39.360,0:03:43.040
that i recently read called the healing

0:03:40.720,0:03:45.680
of america by t.r reed so

0:03:43.040,0:03:47.040
he gives a great sort of overview of

0:03:45.680,0:03:48.000
different healthcare systems across the

0:03:47.040,0:03:49.680
globe

0:03:48.000,0:03:50.720
but no this isn’t really i guess unique

0:03:49.680,0:03:52.080
to the united states like there are

0:03:50.720,0:03:53.200
definitely insurance companies in other

0:03:52.080,0:03:54.720
countries

0:03:53.200,0:03:56.319
and we can talk about how they’ve sort

0:03:54.720,0:03:58.000
of integrated that into a healthcare

0:03:56.319,0:03:59.200
system and model for their own countries

0:03:58.000,0:04:00.879
and how it works

0:03:59.200,0:04:02.640
oh yeah i mentioned uh the book the

0:04:00.879,0:04:04.799
healing of america by t.r reed

0:04:02.640,0:04:07.599
um and if if you look up tr read on

0:04:04.799,0:04:09.200
youtube i mean he’s a great sort of

0:04:07.599,0:04:11.040
speaker about health care systems across

0:04:09.200,0:04:12.720
the globe and and really

0:04:11.040,0:04:14.080
sort of helping you gain a better

0:04:12.720,0:04:15.120
perspective of what you think is the

0:04:14.080,0:04:17.759
best choice for

0:04:15.120,0:04:19.359
america going forward but he started one

0:04:17.759,0:04:20.560
of his recent videos that i watched with

0:04:19.359,0:04:22.800
a quote from

0:04:20.560,0:04:24.080
a president who won election and the

0:04:22.800,0:04:25.919
quote goes

0:04:24.080,0:04:27.520
a nation as prosperous and successful as

0:04:25.919,0:04:28.080
ours must guarantee the health of all of

0:04:27.520,0:04:30.080
its men

0:04:28.080,0:04:32.240
and women safeguarding health care for

0:04:30.080,0:04:35.520
every american is not a sentimental wish

0:04:32.240,0:04:37.280
it’s a matter of justice and you may

0:04:35.520,0:04:39.280
think that that sounds like

0:04:37.280,0:04:40.320
a presidential candidate that i mean

0:04:39.280,0:04:42.560
should should have been

0:04:40.320,0:04:43.759
in the running really recently but that

0:04:42.560,0:04:46.160
was actually said by woodward

0:04:43.759,0:04:47.600
woodrow wilson in 1912 um in his

0:04:46.160,0:04:50.080
election for president

0:04:47.600,0:04:51.759
so it’s like not common that i mean

0:04:50.080,0:04:54.000
sorry not uncommon that um

0:04:51.759,0:04:55.840
americans have sort of been vying for a

0:04:54.000,0:04:57.120
health care system that covers every

0:04:55.840,0:04:58.880
single person

0:04:57.120,0:05:00.639
um in trying to recognize that it’s sort

0:04:58.880,0:05:02.639
of a moral dilemma that everyone

0:05:00.639,0:05:05.919
deserves access to health care

0:05:02.639,0:05:07.360
um but there are a series of uh

0:05:05.919,0:05:10.000
different associations that have sort of

0:05:07.360,0:05:11.039
hindered that over time in history and

0:05:10.000,0:05:13.360
one of those

0:05:11.039,0:05:14.160
um has been really the american medical

0:05:13.360,0:05:15.759
associate

0:05:14.160,0:05:17.440
association wanted government sort of

0:05:15.759,0:05:19.600
separate from health care back then

0:05:17.440,0:05:21.039
and so it sort of snowballed into what

0:05:19.600,0:05:22.720
we have now a little bit more of that

0:05:21.039,0:05:24.639
separation

0:05:22.720,0:05:25.759
but i guess what he he talks about a lot

0:05:24.639,0:05:27.600
in his book and

0:05:25.759,0:05:30.080
some like of my own opinions on it is

0:05:27.600,0:05:30.479
that um all other rich countries in the

0:05:30.080,0:05:31.759
world

0:05:30.479,0:05:33.680
provide health care for all of their

0:05:31.759,0:05:35.919
people so everyone is covered but they

0:05:33.680,0:05:37.600
spend half of what we do in the u.s

0:05:35.919,0:05:38.960
um and so the unanswered question is

0:05:37.600,0:05:40.320
really why has

0:05:38.960,0:05:41.600
the richest country in the world never

0:05:40.320,0:05:42.639
made the commitment to provide health

0:05:41.600,0:05:44.479
care for everyone

0:05:42.639,0:05:45.919
i mean i think that’s what a lot of

0:05:44.479,0:05:47.360
voters who um

0:05:45.919,0:05:48.880
prioritize health care is one of their

0:05:47.360,0:05:49.759
their main voting issues today in the

0:05:48.880,0:05:51.280
united states

0:05:49.759,0:05:54.000
um is worried about and wants to know

0:05:51.280,0:05:56.240
more about um so

0:05:54.000,0:05:58.319
i guess i can go over an overview of

0:05:56.240,0:05:59.840
sort of tr reads models and explanations

0:05:58.319,0:06:01.520
because it’ll help explain a lot about

0:05:59.840,0:06:03.120
how other rich countries

0:06:01.520,0:06:04.720
around the globe are dealing with health

0:06:03.120,0:06:07.520
care systems

0:06:04.720,0:06:08.000
but i guess to start off is the us is

0:06:07.520,0:06:09.600
definitely

0:06:08.000,0:06:11.120
sort of on the top in terms of strengths

0:06:09.600,0:06:13.039
with uh we’re able to

0:06:11.120,0:06:14.880
provide the best medical education in

0:06:13.039,0:06:16.639
the world uh we have some of the most

0:06:14.880,0:06:18.479
innovative scientific research and

0:06:16.639,0:06:19.199
development of new therapeutics in the

0:06:18.479,0:06:20.560
world

0:06:19.199,0:06:22.880
and we have some of the best equipped

0:06:20.560,0:06:24.160
hospitals but we are spending tons of

0:06:22.880,0:06:26.639
money on health care

0:06:24.160,0:06:28.080
um and obviously there needs to be some

0:06:26.639,0:06:29.759
sort of change going forward for a

0:06:28.080,0:06:31.120
healthcare system to be able to pay for

0:06:29.759,0:06:32.080
people who are also left out of our

0:06:31.120,0:06:34.479
system

0:06:32.080,0:06:35.840
and so i guess i’ll go over four models

0:06:34.479,0:06:38.080
and if you guys have questions

0:06:35.840,0:06:39.360
i hope i i’m able to answer them uh but

0:06:38.080,0:06:42.160
i can also sort of

0:06:39.360,0:06:43.440
give a little brief history of um where

0:06:42.160,0:06:44.720
these models come from

0:06:43.440,0:06:46.800
and sort of the countries that are

0:06:44.720,0:06:50.400
utilizing these models

0:06:46.800,0:06:53.440
so really these models focus on uh

0:06:50.400,0:06:55.440
two main i guess uh categories so really

0:06:53.440,0:06:58.000
it’s who’s paying for health care

0:06:55.440,0:06:59.680
and who’s providing health care um and

0:06:58.000,0:07:00.960
so in one of the first models that

0:06:59.680,0:07:03.759
that’s spoken

0:07:00.960,0:07:05.599
it’s termed the beverage model and

0:07:03.759,0:07:08.400
william beveridge was

0:07:05.599,0:07:10.000
a british man uh and i believe that the

0:07:08.400,0:07:11.199
history here is that uh winston

0:07:10.000,0:07:13.840
churchill after world war

0:07:11.199,0:07:15.759
ii actually employed uh lord william

0:07:13.840,0:07:17.759
beveridge to investigate sort of social

0:07:15.759,0:07:20.240
services for the united kingdom

0:07:17.759,0:07:21.440
and uh based on his investigation they

0:07:20.240,0:07:23.199
decided that it was the government’s

0:07:21.440,0:07:24.560
responsibility to cover everyone in

0:07:23.199,0:07:26.400
health care so it was decided pretty

0:07:24.560,0:07:28.400
early on for the united kingdom

0:07:26.400,0:07:30.319
um and the beverage model uh to

0:07:28.400,0:07:31.840
summarize it’s it’s universal healthcare

0:07:30.319,0:07:33.280
coverage that’s financed by the

0:07:31.840,0:07:34.560
government so they are the ones who are

0:07:33.280,0:07:37.360
paying for it

0:07:34.560,0:07:39.199
um and the government owns uh everything

0:07:37.360,0:07:41.919
that’s provided for people so they own

0:07:39.199,0:07:43.199
um the physicians and uh all the other

0:07:41.919,0:07:44.879
things that go with providing health

0:07:43.199,0:07:46.080
care for these people

0:07:44.879,0:07:49.919
and it’s financed by the government

0:07:46.080,0:07:49.919
through tax payments

0:07:50.080,0:07:54.240
and other heavy leverages but the

0:07:52.720,0:07:55.440
british people are very happy with the

0:07:54.240,0:07:57.280
system so

0:07:55.440,0:07:59.039
this is actually a model that’s used in

0:07:57.280,0:08:01.360
the uk where it was sort of

0:07:59.039,0:08:03.199
invented and and sort of kinked out and

0:08:01.360,0:08:04.560
then also in other countries like spain

0:08:03.199,0:08:05.280
and new zealand have sort of adopted

0:08:04.560,0:08:07.599
this

0:08:05.280,0:08:08.720
more um socialized medicine which

0:08:07.599,0:08:10.400
actually i think a lot of people

0:08:08.720,0:08:12.000
stereotype that like all of europe had

0:08:10.400,0:08:13.039
socialized medicine right

0:08:12.000,0:08:14.720
but if you’re thinking about that

0:08:13.039,0:08:15.280
stereotypical socialized medicine i

0:08:14.720,0:08:16.879
think this

0:08:15.280,0:08:18.160
is definitely found in the uk and they

0:08:16.879,0:08:18.879
tournament uh the national health

0:08:18.160,0:08:21.840
service is

0:08:18.879,0:08:22.160
who provides all of that uh the second

0:08:21.840,0:08:23.759
oh

0:08:22.160,0:08:26.160
sorry before you go ahead so under the

0:08:23.759,0:08:29.759
beverage model how does that affect

0:08:26.160,0:08:31.039
the wages of um like medical workers

0:08:29.759,0:08:33.039
like healthcare workers because

0:08:31.039,0:08:34.399
one of the main arguments i hear against

0:08:33.039,0:08:36.719
socialized medicine

0:08:34.399,0:08:38.719
as americans like to put it is that it

0:08:36.719,0:08:39.519
would decrease the wages for healthcare

0:08:38.719,0:08:41.919
workers

0:08:39.519,0:08:43.760
so like what does that look like in the

0:08:41.919,0:08:45.760
uk

0:08:43.760,0:08:47.360
yeah great question so like what i know

0:08:45.760,0:08:49.279
from um just some background

0:08:47.360,0:08:51.120
reading and talking to friends in the uk

0:08:49.279,0:08:52.880
so i i lived in the uk for

0:08:51.120,0:08:54.480
a little bit and got to experience the

0:08:52.880,0:08:55.920
nhs

0:08:54.480,0:08:57.600
but but something that they they have

0:08:55.920,0:08:58.720
struggled is yeah celery does come down

0:08:57.600,0:09:00.399
for specialized

0:08:58.720,0:09:02.240
areas of medicine so something like i

0:09:00.399,0:09:03.680
don’t know a neurosurgeon is paid

0:09:02.240,0:09:05.279
much less in the uk than they would be

0:09:03.680,0:09:07.040
paid in the united states health care

0:09:05.279,0:09:08.880
system

0:09:07.040,0:09:11.440
i know that there’s this is an anecdotal

0:09:08.880,0:09:12.800
story but i know that sort of in history

0:09:11.440,0:09:14.800
i mean every country struggles with

0:09:12.800,0:09:16.800
providing family care physicians

0:09:14.800,0:09:18.240
um and the way that the uk has done this

0:09:16.800,0:09:20.000
is that they’ve decided to pay

0:09:18.240,0:09:22.399
family care practice positions in the uk

0:09:20.000,0:09:23.920
more so i believe like their workforce

0:09:22.399,0:09:26.080
is made up of over 60

0:09:23.920,0:09:27.839
family care practice physicians who make

0:09:26.080,0:09:28.320
twice of what a specialty doctor would

0:09:27.839,0:09:30.640
make

0:09:28.320,0:09:32.640
and it sort of has i mean with this

0:09:30.640,0:09:33.680
control by the nhs they’ve sort of been

0:09:32.640,0:09:35.839
able to

0:09:33.680,0:09:37.279
change um what types of physicians

0:09:35.839,0:09:37.920
people want to be in the uk and practice

0:09:37.279,0:09:39.680
as

0:09:37.920,0:09:41.680
but has also sort of covered that

0:09:39.680,0:09:42.480
shortage for them um so i think when you

0:09:41.680,0:09:44.560
have

0:09:42.480,0:09:45.760
a system where the government is running

0:09:44.560,0:09:48.800
both payments and

0:09:45.760,0:09:50.480
sort of providers they have so much more

0:09:48.800,0:09:52.080
control and regulation over

0:09:50.480,0:09:53.760
um how they want to switch the the

0:09:52.080,0:09:55.200
dynamic instead of it being very slow

0:09:53.760,0:09:57.920
and sort of like this free market type

0:09:55.200,0:09:57.920
of exchange

0:09:58.320,0:10:01.839
oh also i have like sorry i have a

0:10:00.720,0:10:04.240
question about

0:10:01.839,0:10:05.279
just like european healthcare in general

0:10:04.240,0:10:07.200
because

0:10:05.279,0:10:09.600
so i know like because of brexit like

0:10:07.200,0:10:14.000
england is like no longer part of the eu

0:10:09.600,0:10:17.519
but um as a part of the eu isn’t there

0:10:14.000,0:10:20.800
like their healthcare

0:10:17.519,0:10:22.399
isn’t it also like if you live in the eu

0:10:20.800,0:10:22.959
and you visit another country that’s in

0:10:22.399,0:10:25.440
the eu

0:10:22.959,0:10:26.880
isn’t your like healthcare covered if

0:10:25.440,0:10:28.800
you need to go to the hospital

0:10:26.880,0:10:30.480
in another eu country like do you know

0:10:28.800,0:10:32.399
how that works

0:10:30.480,0:10:34.079
yeah no that’s a great question i don’t

0:10:32.399,0:10:36.880
actually know the answer to

0:10:34.079,0:10:38.560
to to that but i mean um i guess you can

0:10:36.880,0:10:39.920
share a personal experience of just

0:10:38.560,0:10:42.079
going from like the united states to the

0:10:39.920,0:10:44.160
uk um not within europe

0:10:42.079,0:10:45.760
exactly but i essentially just paid a

0:10:44.160,0:10:47.920
health surcharge fee

0:10:45.760,0:10:49.279
when i sort of i guess immigrated to the

0:10:47.920,0:10:50.720
uk for school

0:10:49.279,0:10:52.480
um and the health search engine fee was

0:10:50.720,0:10:54.720
not that much money it was 1200

0:10:52.480,0:10:55.920
but i was covered in the nhs system so i

0:10:54.720,0:10:58.000
mean if i had

0:10:55.920,0:11:00.320
um come down with something very severe

0:10:58.000,0:11:01.920
like breaking my leg in a bike accident

0:11:00.320,0:11:03.920
i would never receive a bill for that by

0:11:01.920,0:11:05.600
the nhs and it was all covered by just

0:11:03.920,0:11:07.040
that international surcharge

0:11:05.600,0:11:09.120
fee that i paid for health insurance to

0:11:07.040,0:11:11.920
be covered for the year that i was there

0:11:09.120,0:11:13.839
um so i think that’s a also something

0:11:11.920,0:11:15.839
that my friends in the uk sort of

0:11:13.839,0:11:17.279
are always shocked about when i talk to

0:11:15.839,0:11:19.519
them about like co-pays

0:11:17.279,0:11:21.200
uh my friends are like what’s a copay i

0:11:19.519,0:11:23.200
never pay anything for health care so i

0:11:21.200,0:11:25.120
mean it’s it’s covered by the government

0:11:23.200,0:11:27.040
and with that they’ve had to cut a

0:11:25.120,0:11:29.040
little bit

0:11:27.040,0:11:30.560
for costs and things like that so they

0:11:29.040,0:11:32.480
also do decide

0:11:30.560,0:11:34.320
um they do have to make some i guess

0:11:32.480,0:11:35.839
harder decisions later on about who can

0:11:34.320,0:11:37.440
receive what type of care

0:11:35.839,0:11:39.279
or what type of care is necessary for

0:11:37.440,0:11:41.600
someone to receive so

0:11:39.279,0:11:43.120
um another story that i have from a

0:11:41.600,0:11:46.000
friend who’s in britain

0:11:43.120,0:11:46.480
um is her wisdom teeth are growing out

0:11:46.000,0:11:48.160
but

0:11:46.480,0:11:50.800
because they’re not causing her any pain

0:11:48.160,0:11:53.279
nhs doesn’t cover wisdom teeth removal

0:11:50.800,0:11:56.240
um so until they start to cause her pain

0:11:53.279,0:11:58.079
the nhs won’t step in to pay for that

0:11:56.240,0:12:00.399
and so there are like various other

0:11:58.079,0:12:01.279
things that they control and decide to

0:12:00.399,0:12:04.079
pay for

0:12:01.279,0:12:05.600
um trv talks about a really funny one um

0:12:04.079,0:12:07.440
is that the british healthcare system

0:12:05.600,0:12:09.360
covers the viagra pill

0:12:07.440,0:12:10.800
uh and viagra is like a very expensive

0:12:09.360,0:12:12.320
drug in the united states

0:12:10.800,0:12:13.920
and so everyone’s wondering like okay if

0:12:12.320,0:12:14.880
the nhs is pressed for money why are

0:12:13.920,0:12:16.320
they covering such

0:12:14.880,0:12:17.920
uh i mean a drug that seems like a

0:12:16.320,0:12:19.120
luxury or something that you would pay

0:12:17.920,0:12:21.120
out of pocket for

0:12:19.120,0:12:22.639
um and they’re very proud that i think

0:12:21.120,0:12:24.399
um i’ve read this

0:12:22.639,0:12:25.920
uh or i’ve seen it on a video but

0:12:24.399,0:12:27.040
they’re very proud that the inventor of

0:12:25.920,0:12:30.480
viagra was british

0:12:27.040,0:12:33.920
so they’re sort of that additional pride

0:12:30.480,0:12:36.000
yeah that’s literally so funny

0:12:33.920,0:12:37.920
yeah so i mean they have control over

0:12:36.000,0:12:39.360
what they’re willing to pay for and who

0:12:37.920,0:12:41.600
can receive the care

0:12:39.360,0:12:43.200
uh but it’s a little bit always sort of

0:12:41.600,0:12:45.120
a tug and pull balance there

0:12:43.200,0:12:46.560
yeah so uh i guess while we’re talking

0:12:45.120,0:12:47.680
about the uk and sort of the beverage

0:12:46.560,0:12:50.720
model

0:12:47.680,0:12:51.600
um i i can talk about some statistics so

0:12:50.720,0:12:53.760
sort of

0:12:51.600,0:12:54.720
uh health outcomes of what their system

0:12:53.760,0:12:56.639
provides for their people

0:12:54.720,0:12:58.000
compared to the us so we can talk about

0:12:56.639,0:13:00.320
some statistics now

0:12:58.000,0:13:02.079
um and i’ll quickly give an overview of

0:13:00.320,0:13:04.079
sort of health care spending

0:13:02.079,0:13:06.000
so in terms of health care spending per

0:13:04.079,0:13:08.959
person in 2018

0:13:06.000,0:13:11.440
the average um british person spends

0:13:08.959,0:13:13.279
four thousand and seventy dollars versus

0:13:11.440,0:13:14.720
the average person in the united states

0:13:13.279,0:13:16.720
is spending ten thousand five hundred

0:13:14.720,0:13:18.880
and eighty six dollars so we’re spending

0:13:16.720,0:13:20.480
more than double of what um people in

0:13:18.880,0:13:22.959
the uk do per person

0:13:20.480,0:13:24.079
uh with our our different systems uh and

0:13:22.959,0:13:25.680
then if you want to

0:13:24.079,0:13:27.839
use another metric there’s healthcare

0:13:25.680,0:13:29.920
spending by percent of gdp so

0:13:27.839,0:13:32.160
total gdp of the country in 2018 in the

0:13:29.920,0:13:34.320
uk they spend about 9.8

0:13:32.160,0:13:35.920
of their total gdp on health care and in

0:13:34.320,0:13:39.040
the united states that’s much

0:13:35.920,0:13:41.519
much higher at 16.9 percent in 2018

0:13:39.040,0:13:43.040
when that was last calculated um also

0:13:41.519,0:13:45.440
health outcomes for people

0:13:43.040,0:13:46.560
in these systems uh there are huge

0:13:45.440,0:13:48.320
differences

0:13:46.560,0:13:51.199
life expectancy at birth in the uk in

0:13:48.320,0:13:53.839
2017 was on average 81.3

0:13:51.199,0:13:54.959
uh versus the united states around 78.6

0:13:53.839,0:13:56.959
so you have a huge

0:13:54.959,0:13:58.720
uh difference in life expectancy for

0:13:56.959,0:14:00.720
people also the infor

0:13:58.720,0:14:02.079
infant mortality rate per 1000 births

0:14:00.720,0:14:03.839
which is sort of a measure of how well

0:14:02.079,0:14:06.160
the system is doing

0:14:03.839,0:14:08.720
for people there in the uk was 3.9 in

0:14:06.160,0:14:10.000
2017 and in the us it was 5.8 so we have

0:14:08.720,0:14:13.199
a much higher

0:14:10.000,0:14:14.560
mortality rate in the us as well so

0:14:13.199,0:14:16.079
you do see that they’re spending nearly

0:14:14.560,0:14:17.040
half of what we spend in healthcare in

0:14:16.079,0:14:18.880
the united states

0:14:17.040,0:14:20.560
but also having at least comparable or

0:14:18.880,0:14:23.440
even greater health outcomes

0:14:20.560,0:14:23.760
than we are um and just to summarize i

0:14:23.440,0:14:26.079
mean

0:14:23.760,0:14:27.279
it’s a service you use and you never get

0:14:26.079,0:14:28.480
a bill but you are paying it through

0:14:27.279,0:14:30.079
higher income taxes

0:14:28.480,0:14:31.279
but again if people want to argue and

0:14:30.079,0:14:31.920
say like oh i don’t want to be taxed

0:14:31.279,0:14:34.880
more

0:14:31.920,0:14:37.680
um health care spending per person that

0:14:34.880,0:14:40.240
that statistic sort of brings

0:14:37.680,0:14:41.680
back back the reality that people in the

0:14:40.240,0:14:43.360
united states maybe you’re not paying

0:14:41.680,0:14:45.040
more in income taxes but you are paying

0:14:43.360,0:14:46.399
more out of pocket for drugs

0:14:45.040,0:14:48.240
and for procedures that aren’t covered

0:14:46.399,0:14:49.279
by health insurance companies or even

0:14:48.240,0:14:51.680
a different thing that you’re covered by

0:14:49.279,0:14:54.160
like medicare medicaid um and so

0:14:51.680,0:14:55.839
i think that’s uh where the discussion

0:14:54.160,0:14:58.800
starts with that sort of argument

0:14:55.839,0:15:00.480
um and yeah so the way that that people

0:14:58.800,0:15:02.320
pay for it if that’s a question

0:15:00.480,0:15:03.519
uh that you guys have uh so the more

0:15:02.320,0:15:05.199
money you earn of course

0:15:03.519,0:15:06.800
the more taxes you pay and the better

0:15:05.199,0:15:08.959
you contribute to the system

0:15:06.800,0:15:10.399
um and like i mentioned some some

0:15:08.959,0:15:12.720
services are paid out of pocket like

0:15:10.399,0:15:14.480
dental eyes and some prescription drugs

0:15:12.720,0:15:16.320
um but these lo these costs are still

0:15:14.480,0:15:18.000
low compared to the us so

0:15:16.320,0:15:20.160
um i think the statistic was that they

0:15:18.000,0:15:21.519
still pay 57 percent less than the u.s

0:15:20.160,0:15:25.040
and sort of these terms of

0:15:21.519,0:15:25.360
health care um uh in terms of providing

0:15:25.040,0:15:27.120
this

0:15:25.360,0:15:28.639
this sort of health care so for dental

0:15:27.120,0:15:31.440
prescription drugs

0:15:28.639,0:15:32.720
um and then again most of the general

0:15:31.440,0:15:34.880
practitioners or family practice

0:15:32.720,0:15:36.160
physicians are contractors with nhs

0:15:34.880,0:15:38.959
so they kind of contract with the

0:15:36.160,0:15:40.399
government and establish contracts with

0:15:38.959,0:15:41.920
how much they can earn for their

0:15:40.399,0:15:42.800
services so the government sets that

0:15:41.920,0:15:44.399
price list

0:15:42.800,0:15:46.079
of how many patients they see and what

0:15:44.399,0:15:49.759
they pay

0:15:46.079,0:15:52.240
these health care physicians

0:15:49.759,0:15:53.680
and i guess just to end there with the

0:15:52.240,0:15:54.720
uk there’s very strong support for the

0:15:53.680,0:15:56.560
nhs

0:15:54.720,0:15:58.560
and the united kingdom and i think all

0:15:56.560,0:16:00.079
british people are very proud of their

0:15:58.560,0:16:00.639
system because i think they know that it

0:16:00.079,0:16:03.519
works

0:16:00.639,0:16:04.320
better than the us’s uh and there’s and

0:16:03.519,0:16:05.600
i mean

0:16:04.320,0:16:07.199
they really don’t know what it’s like to

0:16:05.600,0:16:08.240
just get a bill for healthcare because

0:16:07.199,0:16:10.639
it’s something that they use

0:16:08.240,0:16:12.639
as a service um provided for everyone

0:16:10.639,0:16:15.600
must be nice also can you define

0:16:12.639,0:16:16.800
nhs for everyone oh sorry yeah i’m so

0:16:15.600,0:16:18.560
sorry that means the national health

0:16:16.800,0:16:20.560
service so that’s uh what what britain

0:16:18.560,0:16:23.040
has termed yeah their health care system

0:16:20.560,0:16:24.399
oh okay so that’s just like britain’s

0:16:23.040,0:16:28.079
healthcare system is what they

0:16:24.399,0:16:31.120
just bring yeah the nhs

0:16:28.079,0:16:33.920
wow i can’t imagine like

0:16:31.120,0:16:35.600
never having a copay and just like you

0:16:33.920,0:16:37.199
just walk out

0:16:35.600,0:16:38.959
yeah i was listening to a podcast the

0:16:37.199,0:16:41.680
other day and it was from

0:16:38.959,0:16:43.680
i think like npr life kit and they were

0:16:41.680,0:16:45.680
saying like this is how you negotiate

0:16:43.680,0:16:47.920
your way out of a medical bill

0:16:45.680,0:16:49.279
i was like the fact that we need to have

0:16:47.920,0:16:50.639
like informational

0:16:49.279,0:16:53.040
and there’s like a whole system of how

0:16:50.639,0:16:55.120
to do it um and all these terrible

0:16:53.040,0:16:56.639
stories of people who have been slammed

0:16:55.120,0:16:57.519
with like a hundred thousand dollars in

0:16:56.639,0:16:59.440
bills for like

0:16:57.519,0:17:01.680
emergency surgery i was like we

0:16:59.440,0:17:03.120
shouldn’t have to have this discussion

0:17:01.680,0:17:06.240
anyways this wouldn’t be something

0:17:03.120,0:17:07.839
as part of the life kit from npr that

0:17:06.240,0:17:09.600
you need to know

0:17:07.839,0:17:11.760
yeah it’s it’s really crazy and i think

0:17:09.600,0:17:13.520
um i mean i’ll get into talking about

0:17:11.760,0:17:15.039
sort of health insurance companies and

0:17:13.520,0:17:16.319
other european european countries around

0:17:15.039,0:17:18.400
the world but like they are different

0:17:16.319,0:17:19.600
from the ones we have in the u.s because

0:17:18.400,0:17:21.280
here in the u.s like you can still have

0:17:19.600,0:17:21.760
a health insurance company deny your

0:17:21.280,0:17:23.600
claim

0:17:21.760,0:17:25.120
so they can say like oh i’m not going to

0:17:23.600,0:17:26.000
cover that like you got treated for it

0:17:25.120,0:17:27.919
but i won’t cover it

0:17:26.000,0:17:29.919
um and elsewhere in other richer

0:17:27.919,0:17:31.440
countries like there’s regulation where

0:17:29.919,0:17:32.720
insurance companies can never deny a

0:17:31.440,0:17:34.559
health claim so they have to pay you

0:17:32.720,0:17:36.320
back even in a certain amount of time

0:17:34.559,0:17:38.080
or your premiums free the next month or

0:17:36.320,0:17:39.679
something like that so

0:17:38.080,0:17:41.440
there’s just so much more regulation i

0:17:39.679,0:17:43.919
think even in health insurance companies

0:17:41.440,0:17:45.200
in other in other richer countries

0:17:43.919,0:17:47.440
around the world

0:17:45.200,0:17:48.960
so i guess that’s a great overview of

0:17:47.440,0:17:51.360
what um

0:17:48.960,0:17:53.360
the i i guess i’m i’m stereotyping here

0:17:51.360,0:17:54.080
too but like most of what americans

0:17:53.360,0:17:56.720
think

0:17:54.080,0:17:57.919
um healthcare is like in in europe but

0:17:56.720,0:18:01.280
the truth of matter is

0:17:57.919,0:18:03.760
um other countries in europe also have

0:18:01.280,0:18:04.799
um different healthcare models and and

0:18:03.760,0:18:06.799
the second one that i’m talking about

0:18:04.799,0:18:08.720
today is called the bismarck model

0:18:06.799,0:18:10.559
uh yeah no so the second model that uh

0:18:08.720,0:18:11.360
tree talks about in his book the healing

0:18:10.559,0:18:13.360
of america

0:18:11.360,0:18:15.120
um and explains a lot of what other

0:18:13.360,0:18:15.840
countries do is called the bismarck

0:18:15.120,0:18:18.160
model

0:18:15.840,0:18:19.280
um so the bismarck model is uh used by

0:18:18.160,0:18:22.640
countries like germany

0:18:19.280,0:18:23.440
france uh japan um and other european

0:18:22.640,0:18:25.679
countries

0:18:23.440,0:18:28.080
and so some history on that the bismarck

0:18:25.679,0:18:29.440
model is actually named after otto van

0:18:28.080,0:18:31.280
bismark

0:18:29.440,0:18:34.480
who was sort of one of the first people

0:18:31.280,0:18:37.760
i think in the 1870s to sort of

0:18:34.480,0:18:39.120
unified sorry unified all of these uh

0:18:37.760,0:18:41.200
german-speaking countries i think

0:18:39.120,0:18:42.080
prussia was one into one country called

0:18:41.200,0:18:46.640
germany

0:18:42.080,0:18:48.000
um and he created many sort of um

0:18:46.640,0:18:49.520
well i guess what i’m trying to say is

0:18:48.000,0:18:50.240
he created the welfare state and started

0:18:49.520,0:18:51.679
to send

0:18:50.240,0:18:53.679
everyone money from the government so

0:18:51.679,0:18:55.440
sort of this more like prominent role of

0:18:53.679,0:18:57.440
the government and the people

0:18:55.440,0:18:58.960
he was one of the first people to think

0:18:57.440,0:19:01.039
about things like social security

0:18:58.960,0:19:03.919
workman’s compensation

0:19:01.039,0:19:04.320
and then by the late 1800s i think is

0:19:03.919,0:19:06.640
when

0:19:04.320,0:19:08.960
a universal healthcare system through

0:19:06.640,0:19:11.120
insurance companies was established by

0:19:08.960,0:19:12.559
ottoman bismarck and so it’s termed sort

0:19:11.120,0:19:14.640
of the bismarck model

0:19:12.559,0:19:15.919
uh first developed then and still used

0:19:14.640,0:19:18.640
in germany today

0:19:15.919,0:19:19.280
um so again going back to organizing how

0:19:18.640,0:19:21.360
these

0:19:19.280,0:19:23.919
models differ it’s really who’s paying

0:19:21.360,0:19:26.240
for it and who’s providing care right

0:19:23.919,0:19:27.039
so in the bismarck model who’s paying

0:19:26.240,0:19:29.440
for it so the

0:19:27.039,0:19:30.799
the system is actually financed by

0:19:29.440,0:19:34.000
insurance companies

0:19:30.799,0:19:35.760
um with employers and employees

0:19:34.000,0:19:37.919
um sort of splitting the cost through

0:19:35.760,0:19:39.760
payroll deductions

0:19:37.919,0:19:41.440
sort of what might sound very familiar

0:19:39.760,0:19:44.000
to what we have in the u.s

0:19:41.440,0:19:44.880
and what many or even a majority of

0:19:44.000,0:19:47.919
americans

0:19:44.880,0:19:50.559
have health and insurance and

0:19:47.919,0:19:53.440
through but in contrast to the us these

0:19:50.559,0:19:55.600
insurance companies are all non-profit

0:19:53.440,0:19:57.039
they are regulated and must enroll all

0:19:55.600,0:20:00.080
citizens regardless of

0:19:57.039,0:20:01.840
pre-existing health conditions and also

0:20:00.080,0:20:04.080
in contrast to the us the government

0:20:01.840,0:20:05.360
will step in when someone is unemployed

0:20:04.080,0:20:07.440
and pay

0:20:05.360,0:20:08.880
for someone to have uh insurance through

0:20:07.440,0:20:10.240
one of these healthcare companies so i

0:20:08.880,0:20:11.679
mean in the u.s if you’re laid off from

0:20:10.240,0:20:12.480
your job you lose your health insurance

0:20:11.679,0:20:15.360
because

0:20:12.480,0:20:16.320
your premium is paid pretty much through

0:20:15.360,0:20:18.720
through them as well as

0:20:16.320,0:20:20.240
your own income but in other countries

0:20:18.720,0:20:22.159
especially germany the government steps

0:20:20.240,0:20:23.679
in when someone becomes unemployed to

0:20:22.159,0:20:25.600
cover their care

0:20:23.679,0:20:26.720
um and then again going back to that

0:20:25.600,0:20:28.559
second part of the question so who’s

0:20:26.720,0:20:30.400
providing the care in the bizmark model

0:20:28.559,0:20:31.919
so all the hospitals and practices are

0:20:30.400,0:20:33.520
actually private practice

0:20:31.919,0:20:35.039
so they’re not run by the government

0:20:33.520,0:20:36.559
like the national health service in the

0:20:35.039,0:20:40.400
uk

0:20:36.559,0:20:42.799
um and really generally germans and

0:20:40.400,0:20:44.640
other people who use this system really

0:20:42.799,0:20:46.400
like their health insurance companies

0:20:44.640,0:20:48.240
uh because insurance companies have to

0:20:46.400,0:20:49.919
pay doctors within a certain amount of

0:20:48.240,0:20:51.679
time so i mean i think it’s even a few

0:20:49.919,0:20:52.880
days in germany um

0:20:51.679,0:20:54.320
where the doctor can build the insurance

0:20:52.880,0:20:54.960
company and they have to pay them within

0:20:54.320,0:20:57.200
a like

0:20:54.960,0:20:58.000
three day period um also on top of that

0:20:57.200,0:20:59.679
if patients pay

0:20:58.000,0:21:00.960
out of pocket for care they have to be

0:20:59.679,0:21:02.880
reimbursed within something like a

0:21:00.960,0:21:04.559
two-week period

0:21:02.880,0:21:06.400
or your premium is free the next month

0:21:04.559,0:21:07.679
so there’s a lot of these sort of

0:21:06.400,0:21:09.760
checks and balances with insurance

0:21:07.679,0:21:11.840
companies and people using

0:21:09.760,0:21:13.360
them in bismarck model countries but

0:21:11.840,0:21:14.559
they also have really strict regulation

0:21:13.360,0:21:16.080
of insurance companies

0:21:14.559,0:21:17.600
um so like i mentioned previously they

0:21:16.080,0:21:21.360
can’t deny health claims

0:21:17.600,0:21:23.280
so they have to cover everything um also

0:21:21.360,0:21:24.960
you may ask like how do unemployed or

0:21:23.280,0:21:28.159
self-employed individuals

0:21:24.960,0:21:29.440
um not lose health insurance or how do

0:21:28.159,0:21:30.240
they deal with that in countries like

0:21:29.440,0:21:31.679
this and

0:21:30.240,0:21:33.520
the government will still step in and

0:21:31.679,0:21:35.679
pay half of your premium or the whole

0:21:33.520,0:21:37.840
premium depending on your income level

0:21:35.679,0:21:38.799
um so even people who are unemployed or

0:21:37.840,0:21:40.480
self-employed

0:21:38.799,0:21:42.559
uh still have some of the help from the

0:21:40.480,0:21:43.840
government but for the most part the

0:21:42.559,0:21:47.120
government sort of has

0:21:43.840,0:21:49.360
a lot of insurance companies to finance

0:21:47.120,0:21:50.400
health care in these countries but it

0:21:49.360,0:21:52.799
works well because they have great

0:21:50.400,0:21:55.679
regulation of insurance companies

0:21:52.799,0:21:57.520
okay question on that is there a cut off

0:21:55.679,0:21:58.080
on your salary range where they will

0:21:57.520,0:22:00.159
stop

0:21:58.080,0:22:01.919
helping you pay so let’s say you’re

0:22:00.159,0:22:05.200
making like six figures

0:22:01.919,0:22:06.640
and then you lost your job like you have

0:22:05.200,0:22:08.159
this whole family and everything does

0:22:06.640,0:22:12.480
the government still come in or do you

0:22:08.159,0:22:14.960
make too much for them to come help you

0:22:12.480,0:22:16.640
yeah good question i think um based off

0:22:14.960,0:22:18.400
of what i know i think that

0:22:16.640,0:22:20.559
premiums are paid on sort of an income

0:22:18.400,0:22:22.080
level uh sort of gradient so if you do

0:22:20.559,0:22:23.360
have a higher income level you’re going

0:22:22.080,0:22:24.640
to be paying the highest premium for

0:22:23.360,0:22:27.200
that insurance company

0:22:24.640,0:22:27.919
whereas if you make not a lot of money

0:22:27.200,0:22:29.760
um

0:22:27.919,0:22:31.679
or you’re sort of low income you get

0:22:29.760,0:22:34.240
more more help from the government and

0:22:31.679,0:22:35.600
that sort of i guess equitable way of

0:22:34.240,0:22:38.480
distributing

0:22:35.600,0:22:39.760
uh what they do for for keeping people

0:22:38.480,0:22:40.960
insured

0:22:39.760,0:22:42.559
but i think what’s really important is

0:22:40.960,0:22:44.480
that the government makes sure that

0:22:42.559,0:22:46.880
everyone in the country is employed

0:22:44.480,0:22:47.919
um because they have either they don’t

0:22:46.880,0:22:49.919
have the money or they have the money to

0:22:47.919,0:22:53.120
pay for health insurance

0:22:49.919,0:22:55.600
wow yeah actually um like i

0:22:53.120,0:22:57.360
so when i was studying abroad in japan i

0:22:55.600,0:23:00.240
was required to

0:22:57.360,0:23:01.200
enroll in health insurance there and as

0:23:00.240,0:23:04.080
a student i

0:23:01.200,0:23:04.559
only paid like ten dollars a month i

0:23:04.080,0:23:07.919
think for

0:23:04.559,0:23:11.200
health insurance and they are for 70

0:23:07.919,0:23:13.280
of my bill so i i never

0:23:11.200,0:23:15.600
actually like ended up going to the

0:23:13.280,0:23:18.720
doctors or like hospital there but

0:23:15.600,0:23:19.280
yeah the monthly cost was so cheap as a

0:23:18.720,0:23:22.320
student

0:23:19.280,0:23:23.600
so it was really nice yeah so i guess i

0:23:22.320,0:23:24.000
mean to keep along the same lines if you

0:23:23.600,0:23:26.799
guys

0:23:24.000,0:23:28.480
want to try to visually compare how

0:23:26.799,0:23:30.559
germany and the uk compared to the us in

0:23:28.480,0:23:31.679
terms of health statistics and spending

0:23:30.559,0:23:33.600
um i can give you some of the same

0:23:31.679,0:23:35.919
statistics and even add a few but health

0:23:33.600,0:23:36.320
spending per person in germany is still

0:23:35.919,0:23:39.440
uh

0:23:36.320,0:23:41.120
kept to 5800 dollars isn’t 17 again

0:23:39.440,0:23:42.640
compared to the us which is over ten

0:23:41.120,0:23:44.559
thousand dollars per person

0:23:42.640,0:23:46.159
um and then percent percent of gdp is

0:23:44.559,0:23:47.039
also a little bit higher than the uk so

0:23:46.159,0:23:49.919
germany spends

0:23:47.039,0:23:51.440
about 11.2 there 11.2 percent of their

0:23:49.919,0:23:54.000
gdp on health care

0:23:51.440,0:23:55.440
um also compared to the us which is over

0:23:54.000,0:23:58.480
16 percent

0:23:55.440,0:24:00.559
um and then again uh i think

0:23:58.480,0:24:02.080
going back to what the benefit of this

0:24:00.559,0:24:04.080
this model is is that the percent of

0:24:02.080,0:24:06.840
people covered by germany is 100

0:24:04.080,0:24:08.640
in the us it’s i think still only around

0:24:06.840,0:24:11.279
91.2

0:24:08.640,0:24:12.559
um that was in 2017 um so even in the

0:24:11.279,0:24:14.320
united states today i’m sure there’s

0:24:12.559,0:24:15.360
more than 28 million people who are

0:24:14.320,0:24:17.440
uninsured

0:24:15.360,0:24:18.400
um or don’t have any health insurance

0:24:17.440,0:24:19.760
but

0:24:18.400,0:24:22.559
this country is able to provide that

0:24:19.760,0:24:22.559
care for everyone

0:24:22.640,0:24:25.679
and then also in comparison i guess

0:24:24.720,0:24:28.400
there are just better

0:24:25.679,0:24:30.000
or comparable health outcomes as well um

0:24:28.400,0:24:32.559
in terms of statistics so

0:24:30.000,0:24:34.240
they do have a longer life expectancy um

0:24:32.559,0:24:37.360
than americans and

0:24:34.240,0:24:38.480
uh a lower um infant mortality rate as

0:24:37.360,0:24:41.440
well

0:24:38.480,0:24:42.960
i’m jealous yeah we pay so much money

0:24:41.440,0:24:46.960
and we’re still gonna die

0:24:42.960,0:24:50.159
first yeah so

0:24:46.960,0:24:50.640
um you asked about south korea uh and

0:24:50.159,0:24:52.080
sort of

0:24:50.640,0:24:53.440
how south korea deals with with health

0:24:52.080,0:24:54.159
insurance and that leads sort of into

0:24:53.440,0:24:56.640
the third type

0:24:54.159,0:24:58.480
the third model that tree discusses and

0:24:56.640,0:25:00.159
going back to those two questions

0:24:58.480,0:25:02.400
um who pays for it and who’s providing

0:25:00.159,0:25:03.760
it so the national

0:25:02.400,0:25:05.440
health insurance model is what it’s

0:25:03.760,0:25:07.679
called it’s used by um

0:25:05.440,0:25:09.279
i mean the main example of the national

0:25:07.679,0:25:11.360
health insurance model is canada

0:25:09.279,0:25:13.039
uh but it’s also by used by smaller

0:25:11.360,0:25:14.480
countries in asia like south korea and

0:25:13.039,0:25:15.840
taiwan

0:25:14.480,0:25:18.720
but it combines a bit of both the

0:25:15.840,0:25:20.880
beverage and bismarck model systems

0:25:18.720,0:25:22.320
where services are provided via private

0:25:20.880,0:25:23.840
health care providers

0:25:22.320,0:25:25.440
but payments are processed through a

0:25:23.840,0:25:27.679
government-run insurance program

0:25:25.440,0:25:29.440
which is funded via taxes or a premium

0:25:27.679,0:25:32.480
paid through employers

0:25:29.440,0:25:34.720
um so you have both like a mix of

0:25:32.480,0:25:36.159
uh who’s paying for it it’s a government

0:25:34.720,0:25:37.760
but who’s providing it it’s actually

0:25:36.159,0:25:39.279
private healthcare providers so it’s

0:25:37.760,0:25:40.880
it’s mixing a little bit of those two

0:25:39.279,0:25:42.720
different model types

0:25:40.880,0:25:44.159
we’ve we’ve talked about the beverage

0:25:42.720,0:25:45.039
model in the uk the bismarck model in

0:25:44.159,0:25:46.400
germany

0:25:45.039,0:25:48.240
uh and then the national health

0:25:46.400,0:25:50.720
insurance model is what we would term

0:25:48.240,0:25:53.200
for canada or south korea and taiwan

0:25:50.720,0:25:53.840
oh the national health insurance model

0:25:53.200,0:25:57.120
okay

0:25:53.840,0:26:01.039
nhi i was like nhs

0:25:57.120,0:26:02.720
no insurance doesn’t start with an s

0:26:01.039,0:26:04.480
but i mean even within these countries

0:26:02.720,0:26:05.039
they’ve termed it their this is sort of

0:26:04.480,0:26:08.080
like

0:26:05.039,0:26:09.520
tr reads umbrella term um and each

0:26:08.080,0:26:11.760
country has its own term for it so like

0:26:09.520,0:26:14.400
in canada they actually term

0:26:11.760,0:26:15.200
their health insurance system as

0:26:14.400,0:26:17.200
medicare

0:26:15.200,0:26:18.720
um talking about the national health

0:26:17.200,0:26:20.880
insurance model in canada

0:26:18.720,0:26:22.080
um they’re able to sort of limit costs

0:26:20.880,0:26:24.000
by limiting treatments

0:26:22.080,0:26:25.440
that are paid for and or making patients

0:26:24.000,0:26:26.799
wait for elective surgeries so you

0:26:25.440,0:26:28.400
always hear about people in the u.s

0:26:26.799,0:26:30.240
maybe complaining that

0:26:28.400,0:26:31.600
people in canada have to wait so long to

0:26:30.240,0:26:34.400
be seen right

0:26:31.600,0:26:35.760
um i mean they they have limited the

0:26:34.400,0:26:37.919
number of surgeons

0:26:35.760,0:26:38.799
um types of medical scans and specialty

0:26:37.919,0:26:41.600
care that they

0:26:38.799,0:26:42.480
that they um are able to use for people

0:26:41.600,0:26:44.240
in canada

0:26:42.480,0:26:46.000
to save money so you will end up on a

0:26:44.240,0:26:47.440
longer waiting list if you need

0:26:46.000,0:26:49.840
to take care of like a shoulder that’s

0:26:47.440,0:26:52.159
just bothering you because of arthritis

0:26:49.840,0:26:53.760
but for acute care everyone is treated

0:26:52.159,0:26:54.880
um but if the medical problem can wait

0:26:53.760,0:26:56.480
then you kind of

0:26:54.880,0:26:58.799
also end up waiting in these in the

0:26:56.480,0:27:01.919
system um and especially in canada

0:26:58.799,0:27:02.320
but again like i mentioned um it’s paid

0:27:01.919,0:27:03.840
for

0:27:02.320,0:27:06.799
through a government-run insurance

0:27:03.840,0:27:09.360
program so sort of like a single-payer

0:27:06.799,0:27:11.360
system so everyone pays a tax uh i think

0:27:09.360,0:27:13.440
they call it a premium in canada

0:27:11.360,0:27:15.520
um where everyone can go to the doctor

0:27:13.440,0:27:16.720
for free uh but they pay into the system

0:27:15.520,0:27:18.480
that pays out to

0:27:16.720,0:27:20.159
all of the privately owned healthcare

0:27:18.480,0:27:21.360
healthcare providers

0:27:20.159,0:27:23.200
so that’s sort of the system and how it

0:27:21.360,0:27:25.039
works in canada

0:27:23.200,0:27:27.120
and how they’ve sort of tried to limit

0:27:25.039,0:27:29.679
costs with it but also make it

0:27:27.120,0:27:30.559
uh work in their own country and then i

0:27:29.679,0:27:33.120
guess

0:27:30.559,0:27:36.080
like jumping to canada and the us since

0:27:33.120,0:27:38.320
we’re sort of comparing statistics here

0:27:36.080,0:27:39.760
they still do have comparable or even

0:27:38.320,0:27:42.799
greater health outcomes than

0:27:39.760,0:27:46.159
what’s being used in the u.s

0:27:42.799,0:27:49.039
they also have cheaper drug prices

0:27:46.159,0:27:50.000
but uh i guess a comparison you can make

0:27:49.039,0:27:52.080
off the bat between

0:27:50.000,0:27:53.679
canada and the us is uh it’s a

0:27:52.080,0:27:55.360
single-payer health care system sort of

0:27:53.679,0:27:56.640
like the proposed medicare for all

0:27:55.360,0:27:58.960
program in the u.s by

0:27:56.640,0:28:00.720
candidates like bernie sanders um that

0:27:58.960,0:28:02.960
you may have heard of and used

0:28:00.720,0:28:03.919
um and i guess in terms of statistics

0:28:02.960,0:28:05.679
health care spending

0:28:03.919,0:28:07.600
five percent of gdp canada spends about

0:28:05.679,0:28:09.919
10 of their gdp

0:28:07.600,0:28:11.279
um in the us is again over 16 to 17

0:28:09.919,0:28:13.440
percent of gdp

0:28:11.279,0:28:15.279
um and in healthcare spending per person

0:28:13.440,0:28:17.279
the system ends up costing people about

0:28:15.279,0:28:19.440
forty five hundred dollars per person

0:28:17.279,0:28:20.399
versus the us which is over ten thousand

0:28:19.440,0:28:23.279
dollars

0:28:20.399,0:28:25.200
um and then even out of pocket spending

0:28:23.279,0:28:25.919
per person is less in canada than it is

0:28:25.200,0:28:27.360
in the us

0:28:25.919,0:28:30.159
uh for other things that aren’t covered

0:28:27.360,0:28:31.520
by uh medicare in canada like certain

0:28:30.159,0:28:31.919
prescription drugs or something like

0:28:31.520,0:28:33.679
that

0:28:31.919,0:28:36.399
they still end up paying less out of

0:28:33.679,0:28:39.039
pocket per person than people in the us

0:28:36.399,0:28:40.240
um and again i guess talking about

0:28:39.039,0:28:41.679
health outcomes

0:28:40.240,0:28:43.679
their basic universal health care

0:28:41.679,0:28:44.159
coverage still has comparable or better

0:28:43.679,0:28:47.200
health

0:28:44.159,0:28:48.880
outcomes compared to us um so

0:28:47.200,0:28:51.200
life expectancy at birth in canada is

0:28:48.880,0:28:53.440
almost 83 uh in the us is

0:28:51.200,0:28:54.320
uh nearing 79 but it’s it’s not quite

0:28:53.440,0:28:56.000
there yet

0:28:54.320,0:28:58.240
um and then even the infor infant

0:28:56.000,0:29:01.760
mortality per 1000 bursts is about 4.8

0:28:58.240,0:29:01.760
in canada in the u.s it’s six

0:29:02.080,0:29:08.080
so i guess just to summarize um

0:29:06.399,0:29:09.840
what what canada is following is sort of

0:29:08.080,0:29:10.960
a publicly funded model with private

0:29:09.840,0:29:13.120
providers

0:29:10.960,0:29:14.960
but it was really i guess canadians take

0:29:13.120,0:29:16.399
a lot of pride in this system because

0:29:14.960,0:29:18.080
it was established to ensure health

0:29:16.399,0:29:19.760
equity among citizens regardless of

0:29:18.080,0:29:21.600
people’s ability regardless of people’s

0:29:19.760,0:29:22.640
ability to pay and keep

0:29:21.600,0:29:24.320
and they do this by keeping

0:29:22.640,0:29:25.520
administrative costs low and sort of

0:29:24.320,0:29:26.399
making those checks and balances in the

0:29:25.520,0:29:29.440
system

0:29:26.399,0:29:31.440
um but i guess you might be asking like

0:29:29.440,0:29:33.440
how do these countries determine what’s

0:29:31.440,0:29:36.240
covered what pills will be paid for

0:29:33.440,0:29:37.919
what procedures are allowed um and in

0:29:36.240,0:29:39.279
canada i mean it’s all determined by the

0:29:37.919,0:29:42.240
health ministry

0:29:39.279,0:29:43.120
um who makes these larger decisions and

0:29:42.240,0:29:44.399
i don’t know where they’re based in

0:29:43.120,0:29:46.720
canada maybe it’s auto

0:29:44.399,0:29:47.760
uh you know actually otto was the

0:29:46.720,0:29:49.600
capital isn’t it

0:29:47.760,0:29:51.120
yeah i think it might be in ottawa where

0:29:49.600,0:29:52.399
the ministry actually meets and decides

0:29:51.120,0:29:53.919
what’s covered every year

0:29:52.399,0:29:55.440
what new pills that have come onto the

0:29:53.919,0:29:58.399
market are paid for

0:29:55.440,0:30:00.240
and which procedures are allowed for um

0:29:58.399,0:30:02.000
basic universal health care coverage

0:30:00.240,0:30:03.360
and then i guess in comparison to the us

0:30:02.000,0:30:05.760
these decisions are made really by

0:30:03.360,0:30:08.960
individual insurance companies so i mean

0:30:05.760,0:30:11.600
say uh nat and jaclyn have different

0:30:08.960,0:30:12.159
uh insurance companies in the us they

0:30:11.600,0:30:14.960
each

0:30:12.159,0:30:16.159
can decide like what sort of healthcare

0:30:14.960,0:30:17.919
procedures are covered

0:30:16.159,0:30:19.360
um so one of you guys may have one

0:30:17.919,0:30:19.919
that’s covered by your own company but

0:30:19.360,0:30:21.279
the other

0:30:19.919,0:30:22.960
won’t and so there’s no really like

0:30:21.279,0:30:24.720
centralized system regulating

0:30:22.960,0:30:26.480
what insurance companies are deciding to

0:30:24.720,0:30:29.039
cover in the us

0:30:26.480,0:30:30.159
but i think like what characterizes

0:30:29.039,0:30:32.640
canada’s system

0:30:30.159,0:30:35.840
uh is really that they’re valuing equity

0:30:32.640,0:30:37.919
so that everyone receives the same care

0:30:35.840,0:30:39.279
although medicare in canada isn’t able

0:30:37.919,0:30:42.799
to cover everything

0:30:39.279,0:30:46.159
like dental and other uh

0:30:42.799,0:30:48.080
healthcare uh costs i think

0:30:46.159,0:30:49.360
one of the other things that uh hasn’t

0:30:48.080,0:30:50.480
been incorporated into the system is

0:30:49.360,0:30:52.640
like

0:30:50.480,0:30:54.240
paying for things like mental health so

0:30:52.640,0:30:55.760
i think therapy

0:30:54.240,0:30:58.480
and things like that isn’t covered by

0:30:55.760,0:31:00.000
the medicare system um but you can

0:30:58.480,0:31:02.000
buy supplemental private insurance

0:31:00.000,0:31:04.399
through employers which do cover things

0:31:02.000,0:31:06.320
like dental insurance

0:31:04.399,0:31:07.679
eyesight and other things like mental

0:31:06.320,0:31:10.640
health services

0:31:07.679,0:31:11.919
um so i guess those are some of the

0:31:10.640,0:31:14.399
problems that a lot of people might talk

0:31:11.919,0:31:17.600
about with canada

0:31:14.399,0:31:21.360
yeah actually like um i

0:31:17.600,0:31:24.559
when i was in ottawa there was like um

0:31:21.360,0:31:28.080
i was interning at uh the parliament

0:31:24.559,0:31:30.240
house of commons and like the mp i was

0:31:28.080,0:31:31.760
interning for he was on the health

0:31:30.240,0:31:35.039
committee and so that was like

0:31:31.760,0:31:37.039
we focused so much about uh providing

0:31:35.039,0:31:39.600
like universal dental care for

0:31:37.039,0:31:40.399
canadians that was like his really that

0:31:39.600,0:31:42.960
was his big

0:31:40.399,0:31:44.640
issue that he was focusing on and so

0:31:42.960,0:31:48.240
yeah i think they’ve been

0:31:44.640,0:31:51.519
really pushing for universal dental care

0:31:48.240,0:31:53.679
in canada because yeah then uh the

0:31:51.519,0:31:54.960
supplemental like private insurance i

0:31:53.679,0:31:58.399
think is really

0:31:54.960,0:32:00.960
expensive um so yeah that’s just like

0:31:58.399,0:32:02.399
something you might see on the news yeah

0:32:00.960,0:32:04.880
no definitely

0:32:02.399,0:32:07.039
oh yeah like i because like you

0:32:04.880,0:32:10.640
mentioned earlier like the really long

0:32:07.039,0:32:12.640
wait times um i’ve also

0:32:10.640,0:32:14.559
yeah that is a complaint that i’ve heard

0:32:12.640,0:32:15.600
like from my canadian friends and then

0:32:14.559,0:32:18.640
also

0:32:15.600,0:32:22.399
i think like sometimes the i guess the

0:32:18.640,0:32:23.760
quality of uh yeah like the quality of

0:32:22.399,0:32:26.559
health services

0:32:23.760,0:32:28.640
can sometimes vary like depending on the

0:32:26.559,0:32:31.360
region of canada you’re living in or

0:32:28.640,0:32:33.120
um i guess like yeah the province um and

0:32:31.360,0:32:34.320
so i guess some canadians like if they

0:32:33.120,0:32:37.760
have a severe

0:32:34.320,0:32:40.320
medical condition that requires like a

0:32:37.760,0:32:43.200
uh what would you call it like a

0:32:40.320,0:32:45.279
specialized physician um

0:32:43.200,0:32:47.519
a lot of canadians like will go to the

0:32:45.279,0:32:48.480
us actually to get like specialized care

0:32:47.519,0:32:51.840
just because

0:32:48.480,0:32:54.159
the quality is i guess a little

0:32:51.840,0:32:54.960
a little better in their opinion but

0:32:54.159,0:32:58.000
yeah

0:32:54.960,0:32:59.200
yeah yeah no i definitely have heard

0:32:58.000,0:33:00.880
about canadians coming

0:32:59.200,0:33:02.799
across the border to get health care um

0:33:00.880,0:33:05.039
for some of those sort of i guess

0:33:02.799,0:33:06.399
uh different like elective or more

0:33:05.039,0:33:08.000
advanced procedures

0:33:06.399,0:33:09.519
um and i guess like something that also

0:33:08.000,0:33:11.679
limits them in canada is that

0:33:09.519,0:33:13.279
because canada has sort of decided on

0:33:11.679,0:33:15.279
health equity as sort of like

0:33:13.279,0:33:16.480
their big decision defining this model

0:33:15.279,0:33:18.559
um

0:33:16.480,0:33:20.880
you can’t even through like supplemental

0:33:18.559,0:33:22.880
private insurance in canada you can’t

0:33:20.880,0:33:24.799
have them pay for a procedure that’s

0:33:22.880,0:33:25.600
covered by medicare in canada so they

0:33:24.799,0:33:27.440
don’t want like

0:33:25.600,0:33:29.360
someone who has a ton of money being

0:33:27.440,0:33:31.200
able to purchase private supplemental

0:33:29.360,0:33:32.960
insurance and then being able to go to

0:33:31.200,0:33:35.039
a better physician when that procedure

0:33:32.960,0:33:36.240
is covered under medicare

0:33:35.039,0:33:38.320
because they want everyone to have the

0:33:36.240,0:33:39.200
same care that’s paid for by the

0:33:38.320,0:33:40.399
government system

0:33:39.200,0:33:42.559
so if you have supplemental private

0:33:40.399,0:33:43.760
insurance in canada it can only pay for

0:33:42.559,0:33:45.519
procedures that aren’t covered by

0:33:43.760,0:33:49.120
medicare

0:33:45.519,0:33:50.840
oh that’s interesting also

0:33:49.120,0:33:53.279
with the canadians that come to the

0:33:50.840,0:33:53.600
states isn’t that really expensive for

0:33:53.279,0:33:55.600
them

0:33:53.600,0:33:56.799
because they wouldn’t have american

0:33:55.600,0:33:59.840
health insurance

0:33:56.799,0:34:00.240
right like it doesn’t transfer over yeah

0:33:59.840,0:34:02.240
i mean

0:34:00.240,0:34:03.440
i’m just assuming that uh they’re maybe

0:34:02.240,0:34:04.799
paying out of pocket for

0:34:03.440,0:34:07.120
some of the procedures that they that

0:34:04.799,0:34:07.679
they get but what like what what type of

0:34:07.120,0:34:09.520
person

0:34:07.679,0:34:10.800
do we have examples because i’m just

0:34:09.520,0:34:12.560
thinking of like

0:34:10.800,0:34:14.159
if you wanted to come over maybe it’s

0:34:12.560,0:34:15.760
something extreme like open heart

0:34:14.159,0:34:18.000
surgery that’s

0:34:15.760,0:34:19.040
could be upwards of like a hundred grand

0:34:18.000,0:34:21.119
do you really wanna

0:34:19.040,0:34:23.280
come to the states and pay a hundred

0:34:21.119,0:34:27.679
grand i guess if it’s life or death yes

0:34:23.280,0:34:29.599
but like you’re uninsured that’s all out

0:34:27.679,0:34:31.280
of pocket

0:34:29.599,0:34:32.879
yeah i mean i think something that comes

0:34:31.280,0:34:34.960
to mind and something i’ve heard of

0:34:32.879,0:34:36.800
is um i don’t know maybe like you you

0:34:34.960,0:34:40.240
have a lousy shoulder

0:34:36.800,0:34:41.520
um and it kind of hurts when you’re like

0:34:40.240,0:34:42.720
trying to grab a cup from the top

0:34:41.520,0:34:44.560
cupboard but

0:34:42.720,0:34:45.599
uh in canada’s system it might take you

0:34:44.560,0:34:46.320
eight to twelve months to get an

0:34:45.599,0:34:48.320
appointment

0:34:46.320,0:34:50.159
to be seen by a specialty care person

0:34:48.320,0:34:51.760
for that sort of like ailment

0:34:50.159,0:34:53.280
um and then it might take another four

0:34:51.760,0:34:55.040
to five months to actually have a

0:34:53.280,0:34:57.119
procedure done where you can

0:34:55.040,0:34:58.880
get that shoulder worked on or fixed so

0:34:57.119,0:35:00.800
like i think something like

0:34:58.880,0:35:02.079
chronic pain and issues that sort of get

0:35:00.800,0:35:03.760
like pushed to the end

0:35:02.079,0:35:05.040
um and something that maybe a canadian

0:35:03.760,0:35:06.480
might come across the border to seek

0:35:05.040,0:35:08.640
care for if they have the money

0:35:06.480,0:35:11.599
okay that makes more sense instead of

0:35:08.640,0:35:13.280
like open heart surgery

0:35:11.599,0:35:16.720
yeah i would hope that’s uh covered by

0:35:13.280,0:35:19.119
medicare and care here right

0:35:16.720,0:35:20.320
yeah i mean but i mean sort of like it’s

0:35:19.119,0:35:22.800
characterized

0:35:20.320,0:35:24.560
i mean okay i’ll start here yeah i mean

0:35:22.800,0:35:25.200
the model might need some reform in the

0:35:24.560,0:35:27.359
future

0:35:25.200,0:35:28.880
um but canadians are still very proud of

0:35:27.359,0:35:30.560
their healthcare system and i think

0:35:28.880,0:35:32.000
a lot of canadians i’ve spoken to and

0:35:30.560,0:35:33.680
maybe not also

0:35:32.000,0:35:35.040
is that they’re very proud because they

0:35:33.680,0:35:36.720
know that it provides sort of

0:35:35.040,0:35:38.079
health care for everyone on an equal

0:35:36.720,0:35:39.200
level but they

0:35:38.079,0:35:40.880
also know that it’s still better than

0:35:39.200,0:35:42.640
the us system there’s lower costs and

0:35:40.880,0:35:45.200
higher health outcomes so

0:35:42.640,0:35:47.440
uh canadians are very proud of that is

0:35:45.200,0:35:48.800
it just is the pride stemming from that

0:35:47.440,0:35:52.400
they’re better than us

0:35:48.800,0:35:56.800
like yeah i mean i think so

0:35:52.400,0:35:56.800
yeah war of 1812 throwback

0:35:57.119,0:35:59.839
right yeah

0:36:00.240,0:36:06.720
i guess enough about canada uh

0:36:03.280,0:36:08.480
and yeah enough about them we don’t need

0:36:06.720,0:36:09.839
that

0:36:08.480,0:36:11.760
and the national health insurance model

0:36:09.839,0:36:12.560
but the last sort of model that tree

0:36:11.760,0:36:14.400
discusses

0:36:12.560,0:36:16.640
is the out-of-pocket model so i mean

0:36:14.400,0:36:18.960
it’s it’s very transparent and

0:36:16.640,0:36:19.680
mostly available in developing countries

0:36:18.960,0:36:22.160
um

0:36:19.680,0:36:23.920
and i think i mean there’s only about 50

0:36:22.160,0:36:24.560
richer countries across the world that

0:36:23.920,0:36:26.880
have

0:36:24.560,0:36:28.240
actually established healthcare systems

0:36:26.880,0:36:30.000
but really most of the countries in the

0:36:28.240,0:36:31.760
world have an out-of-pocket model so i

0:36:30.000,0:36:33.280
mean it’s as simple as it sounds

0:36:31.760,0:36:35.520
only those who have money for healthcare

0:36:33.280,0:36:36.960
can afford to access and pay for it

0:36:35.520,0:36:39.119
um so who’s paying for it it’s out of

0:36:36.960,0:36:42.000
pocket and who’s providing it

0:36:39.119,0:36:43.440
really a combination of private private

0:36:42.000,0:36:44.720
care providers

0:36:43.440,0:36:47.839
so this is something you might see in

0:36:44.720,0:36:50.240
like a rural african country

0:36:47.839,0:36:52.000
and i guess really not great health

0:36:50.240,0:36:54.640
equity there

0:36:52.000,0:36:55.119
i have a question um do you know the

0:36:54.640,0:36:58.960
model

0:36:55.119,0:37:02.320
for specifically like senegal and china

0:36:58.960,0:37:04.079
because i got health care in senegal and

0:37:02.320,0:37:06.400
china and i thought

0:37:04.079,0:37:07.760
first off china was a trip that was like

0:37:06.400,0:37:10.800
the emergency room

0:37:07.760,0:37:13.440
um but it was like affordable

0:37:10.800,0:37:14.880
and i did get the care i needed it just

0:37:13.440,0:37:18.560
was inefficient

0:37:14.880,0:37:20.400
and not as clean as the

0:37:18.560,0:37:23.200
united states but senegal was really

0:37:20.400,0:37:24.720
good um

0:37:23.200,0:37:26.480
yeah so i don’t know and it was like

0:37:24.720,0:37:28.880
very affordable

0:37:26.480,0:37:30.480
like is what model do they have is that

0:37:28.880,0:37:32.400
out of pocket maybe

0:37:30.480,0:37:34.800
yeah i think i think like up the top my

0:37:32.400,0:37:37.680
head um i don’t think china has

0:37:34.800,0:37:39.359
um a system a healthcare system uh that

0:37:37.680,0:37:40.800
is able to or like has even decided to

0:37:39.359,0:37:42.320
try to cover everyone in the country so

0:37:40.800,0:37:43.599
it’s more of an out-of-pocket model so i

0:37:42.320,0:37:45.760
mean if you can provide

0:37:43.599,0:37:47.200
so maybe the healthcare costs are lower

0:37:45.760,0:37:48.480
um but you need the money to pay for

0:37:47.200,0:37:49.839
them because there’s no sort of

0:37:48.480,0:37:52.160
government

0:37:49.839,0:37:53.440
association or even insurance companies

0:37:52.160,0:37:55.200
that are super established with

0:37:53.440,0:37:57.680
providing care for everyone

0:37:55.200,0:37:58.960
um and then senegal i would uh think the

0:37:57.680,0:37:59.680
same but i don’t know off the top of my

0:37:58.960,0:38:03.520
head

0:37:59.680,0:38:06.320
okay yeah i can’t imagine like

0:38:03.520,0:38:08.240
especially china there’s so many people

0:38:06.320,0:38:08.960
there’s like 1.3 billion people so i

0:38:08.240,0:38:11.599
can’t imagine

0:38:08.960,0:38:12.079
like them being able to use like any

0:38:11.599,0:38:14.960
other

0:38:12.079,0:38:16.240
model to like cover every citizen that

0:38:14.960,0:38:18.400
would be yeah right yeah

0:38:16.240,0:38:20.160
yeah definitely i think people talk a

0:38:18.400,0:38:22.960
lot about um

0:38:20.160,0:38:24.640
like the large like brazil india china

0:38:22.960,0:38:26.160
and russia who are all going to surpass

0:38:24.640,0:38:28.079
this a lot in population and how they’re

0:38:26.160,0:38:30.640
going to deal with health care systems

0:38:28.079,0:38:31.680
um but a lot of it right now is sort of

0:38:30.640,0:38:32.480
up in the air and sort of out of the

0:38:31.680,0:38:33.920
pocket

0:38:32.480,0:38:36.560
sort of the out-of-pocket model for most

0:38:33.920,0:38:39.359
people is that kind of why

0:38:36.560,0:38:41.280
i guess the united states healthcare

0:38:39.359,0:38:43.839
compared to other developed countries

0:38:41.280,0:38:46.560
is lacking could it be due to our

0:38:43.839,0:38:48.800
population size yeah so

0:38:46.560,0:38:50.079
you’re i mean that’s like the ultimate

0:38:48.800,0:38:51.040
question right like why is america’s

0:38:50.079,0:38:52.560
health care costs

0:38:51.040,0:38:54.079
so expensive even though we’re the

0:38:52.560,0:38:57.599
richest country in the world

0:38:54.079,0:38:59.680
and um i mean like why is america

0:38:57.599,0:39:01.040
have why does america have worse health

0:38:59.680,0:39:02.160
outcomes in other countries that we’ve

0:39:01.040,0:39:03.920
talked about today

0:39:02.160,0:39:05.200
um and i think the answer to that is

0:39:03.920,0:39:06.800
that we employ

0:39:05.200,0:39:08.560
all of these types of models in various

0:39:06.800,0:39:10.240
ways or different class um

0:39:08.560,0:39:11.920
i’m sorry i’ll go back so like the

0:39:10.240,0:39:13.440
reason really is that america employs

0:39:11.920,0:39:14.240
all these types of models in various

0:39:13.440,0:39:17.119
ways

0:39:14.240,0:39:17.520
um so i think it’s just a regulation of

0:39:17.119,0:39:19.359
i mean

0:39:17.520,0:39:21.040
or really like an organization of using

0:39:19.359,0:39:23.119
so many different models in the u.s

0:39:21.040,0:39:24.960
that it ends up being very expensive in

0:39:23.119,0:39:27.280
administrative costs

0:39:24.960,0:39:28.960
but also there are people who are left

0:39:27.280,0:39:30.240
or falling into different gaps and

0:39:28.960,0:39:31.760
trying to organize so many different

0:39:30.240,0:39:34.720
models for one country

0:39:31.760,0:39:36.160
um so it’s not a one size fit all in the

0:39:34.720,0:39:37.200
us and i think that’s why it’s so

0:39:36.160,0:39:40.480
expensive

0:39:37.200,0:39:42.079
um so depending really where you fall in

0:39:40.480,0:39:44.640
american society

0:39:42.079,0:39:45.920
and trying to get access to healthcare

0:39:44.640,0:39:47.200
providers you receive different

0:39:45.920,0:39:48.640
treatment and care

0:39:47.200,0:39:50.160
and i really think it’s this

0:39:48.640,0:39:51.680
disorganization of our national

0:39:50.160,0:39:53.440
healthcare system that leads to

0:39:51.680,0:39:54.640
high spending per capita and also

0:39:53.440,0:39:55.839
eventually worse health outcomes

0:39:54.640,0:39:56.640
compared to other developed countries

0:39:55.839,0:39:57.920
because you have

0:39:56.640,0:40:00.320
millions of people being left behind

0:39:57.920,0:40:01.520
without health insurance that um

0:40:00.320,0:40:03.760
really speak to a lot in those

0:40:01.520,0:40:05.359
statistics um

0:40:03.760,0:40:06.880
and i mean even for example like we

0:40:05.359,0:40:09.040
don’t go to the doctor as much as

0:40:06.880,0:40:10.319
uh people do in other in other richer

0:40:09.040,0:40:12.480
countries

0:40:10.319,0:40:13.440
for preventative health care treatments

0:40:12.480,0:40:15.839
um and

0:40:13.440,0:40:16.480
even with each visit that we do we pay

0:40:15.839,0:40:20.000
more

0:40:16.480,0:40:21.280
um so i guess it might be helpful to

0:40:20.000,0:40:22.800
expand a bit about how the u.s

0:40:21.280,0:40:23.760
healthcare system employs all of these

0:40:22.800,0:40:25.280
models

0:40:23.760,0:40:26.800
so we can take a look at some of the

0:40:25.280,0:40:28.400
types of people treated in each sector

0:40:26.800,0:40:29.920
and i mean maybe even some listeners

0:40:28.400,0:40:31.760
might be able to identify where they

0:40:29.920,0:40:34.400
they fit in here

0:40:31.760,0:40:36.240
so the first model we talked about the

0:40:34.400,0:40:38.800
beverage model of healthcare

0:40:36.240,0:40:40.480
so native americans in the u.s veterans

0:40:38.800,0:40:41.200
and active duty military personnel are

0:40:40.480,0:40:43.040
covered by

0:40:41.200,0:40:44.160
the beverage model of health care

0:40:43.040,0:40:45.599
similar to what you would find by the

0:40:44.160,0:40:46.880
national health service in britain so

0:40:45.599,0:40:47.599
you never receive a bill for your

0:40:46.880,0:40:49.119
treatment

0:40:47.599,0:40:51.280
you’re treated by the government by

0:40:49.119,0:40:54.160
government hospitals and employees

0:40:51.280,0:40:54.720
and the government buys the pills uh and

0:40:54.160,0:40:56.960
they

0:40:54.720,0:40:58.160
really cover sort of the cost and the

0:40:56.960,0:41:01.200
providing the the care

0:40:58.160,0:41:02.560
so um that’s sort of maybe the type of

0:41:01.200,0:41:03.839
people that you might find

0:41:02.560,0:41:06.079
utilizing the beverage model of

0:41:03.839,0:41:07.760
healthcare in the us whereas the

0:41:06.079,0:41:09.440
bismarck model which is what we talked

0:41:07.760,0:41:10.960
about second in germany

0:41:09.440,0:41:13.119
provided by health insurance companies

0:41:10.960,0:41:15.040
so this is really mostly the majority of

0:41:13.119,0:41:16.400
americans so sort of the working person

0:41:15.040,0:41:18.640
splitting your insurance premium with

0:41:16.400,0:41:20.079
your employer if that sounds familiar

0:41:18.640,0:41:22.160
or if you’re self-employed and buying

0:41:20.079,0:41:24.079
into a health insurance program

0:41:22.160,0:41:26.000
um these are sort of more similar to the

0:41:24.079,0:41:28.960
bismarck model of health care similar to

0:41:26.000,0:41:31.040
france and germany um i think about 150

0:41:28.960,0:41:32.640
to 160 million americans received care

0:41:31.040,0:41:34.400
through this route

0:41:32.640,0:41:35.760
but again the big difference here is

0:41:34.400,0:41:36.880
that our insurance companies aren’t

0:41:35.760,0:41:38.560
heavily regulated

0:41:36.880,0:41:40.400
we even have for-profit insurance

0:41:38.560,0:41:42.560
companies in the u.s still which

0:41:40.400,0:41:44.560
sort of blows my mind i mean uh are you

0:41:42.560,0:41:46.000
putting the money back into

0:41:44.560,0:41:47.760
providing the best care for people or

0:41:46.000,0:41:49.280
are you providing dividends for people

0:41:47.760,0:41:50.880
on a monthly basis so i mean

0:41:49.280,0:41:52.400
the regulation in america really lacks

0:41:50.880,0:41:53.440
in terms of health insurance companies

0:41:52.400,0:41:55.440
compared to

0:41:53.440,0:41:56.880
countries like france and germany um and

0:41:55.440,0:41:58.560
then talking about i mean if you’re over

0:41:56.880,0:41:58.960
65 and you’re getting insurance in the

0:41:58.560,0:42:01.119
us

0:41:58.960,0:42:02.480
through a government-run program called

0:42:01.119,0:42:04.560
medicare

0:42:02.480,0:42:06.079
you’re a person experiencing something

0:42:04.560,0:42:07.839
similar to canada like the national

0:42:06.079,0:42:09.760
health insurance model

0:42:07.839,0:42:10.960
and i think more than 40 million

0:42:09.760,0:42:12.560
americans are on this model in our

0:42:10.960,0:42:16.000
system sort of the aging

0:42:12.560,0:42:16.720
population and then uh if you’re part of

0:42:16.000,0:42:18.640
the

0:42:16.720,0:42:20.240
nearly 30 million uninsured americans in

0:42:18.640,0:42:21.839
the us right now you’re like a person

0:42:20.240,0:42:23.359
living in a developing country in rural

0:42:21.839,0:42:24.800
africa or south america

0:42:23.359,0:42:27.760
because you’re using sort of the out of

0:42:24.800,0:42:30.800
pocket model that we discussed earlier

0:42:27.760,0:42:32.319
um so i guess what tree talks about a

0:42:30.800,0:42:34.480
lot in his book and i’m like

0:42:32.319,0:42:35.520
a huge plug for this book jacqueline

0:42:34.480,0:42:37.760
said it was boring

0:42:35.520,0:42:39.920
yeah you don’t have to bring that in

0:42:37.760,0:42:39.920
there

0:42:40.960,0:42:44.560
i’ll say yeah so i mean another big plug

0:42:43.119,0:42:46.000
for this book the healing of america by

0:42:44.560,0:42:48.880
t.o reid is that

0:42:46.000,0:42:50.400
he is able to i mean bring up like

0:42:48.880,0:42:52.400
what’s the main difference between us

0:42:50.400,0:42:54.720
and other countries around the globe

0:42:52.400,0:42:56.160
um and he mentions that all other

0:42:54.720,0:42:58.319
countries have decided to pursue one

0:42:56.160,0:43:00.240
fundamental model so it’s not a mix of

0:42:58.319,0:43:00.720
all these systems and rules and models

0:43:00.240,0:43:02.079
and

0:43:00.720,0:43:04.079
administrative costs like trying to

0:43:02.079,0:43:06.480
figure out um

0:43:04.079,0:43:08.880
what sort of who’s providing your care

0:43:06.480,0:43:10.880
and who’s going to pay for it

0:43:08.880,0:43:12.640
so i think like that’s the advantage of

0:43:10.880,0:43:14.880
using a one-size-fits-all

0:43:12.640,0:43:16.720
healthcare system especially in the u.s

0:43:14.880,0:43:18.319
um because it becomes

0:43:16.720,0:43:20.160
simpler and cheaper to manage there’s a

0:43:18.319,0:43:22.319
set of rules and prices that are set by

0:43:20.160,0:43:23.760
a governing body there’s cost and

0:43:22.319,0:43:25.359
transparency

0:43:23.760,0:43:27.520
um so if you you go to the doctor and

0:43:25.359,0:43:29.119
you you want a medical procedure

0:43:27.520,0:43:30.800
uh done they can tell you how much it’s

0:43:29.119,0:43:34.079
gonna cost because right now i mean

0:43:30.800,0:43:35.520
if i went to the emergency room um and

0:43:34.079,0:43:36.800
i don’t know needed stitches and asked

0:43:35.520,0:43:38.400
how much it would cost they would say

0:43:36.800,0:43:39.520
well i don’t know like who do you who’s

0:43:38.400,0:43:40.800
your health insurance provider i don’t

0:43:39.520,0:43:42.560
know how much they’re going to cover

0:43:40.800,0:43:44.240
um they won’t be able to tell you versus

0:43:42.560,0:43:45.760
like having a system where you have that

0:43:44.240,0:43:46.880
that price schedule

0:43:45.760,0:43:48.319
and they can tell you exactly how much

0:43:46.880,0:43:50.000
it’s going to cost who they’re going to

0:43:48.319,0:43:52.160
charge who’s going to pay for it

0:43:50.000,0:43:54.640
um and then also i i’ve mentioned

0:43:52.160,0:43:57.359
administrative costs so that’s sort of a

0:43:54.640,0:43:57.680
vague term um but i guess to expand on

0:43:57.359,0:43:59.200
that

0:43:57.680,0:44:01.200
it’s a lot of like the paperwork in the

0:43:59.200,0:44:02.000
back side of deciding who has health

0:44:01.200,0:44:03.440
insurance

0:44:02.000,0:44:05.440
who’s charging their health insurance

0:44:03.440,0:44:07.440
company um and in the us i mean the

0:44:05.440,0:44:09.839
statistic is that

0:44:07.440,0:44:11.520
there’s about an 18 to 25 percent cost

0:44:09.839,0:44:13.040
and just administrative costs to every

0:44:11.520,0:44:14.400
bill that they pay for medical

0:44:13.040,0:44:15.839
procedures

0:44:14.400,0:44:17.839
and what other countries have found

0:44:15.839,0:44:19.520
using one single model is they are able

0:44:17.839,0:44:20.400
to keep these administrative costs low

0:44:19.520,0:44:22.079
so i mean

0:44:20.400,0:44:23.920
canada has a five percent administrative

0:44:22.079,0:44:26.560
costs britain is five percent

0:44:23.920,0:44:28.480
um france is three percent and i think

0:44:26.560,0:44:30.160
taiwan keeps it below two percent of

0:44:28.480,0:44:31.760
administrative costs versus

0:44:30.160,0:44:33.599
the us who is spending a lot more money

0:44:31.760,0:44:35.040
in these terms of in terms of just

0:44:33.599,0:44:36.079
trying to organize and balance all these

0:44:35.040,0:44:39.359
different

0:44:36.079,0:44:41.520
systems yeah it seems like like how i

0:44:39.359,0:44:43.359
can’t even imagine trying to

0:44:41.520,0:44:44.640
regulate everything in our healthcare

0:44:43.359,0:44:46.079
system because there’s

0:44:44.640,0:44:48.079
like there’s so many different models

0:44:46.079,0:44:51.680
and it’s like i guess

0:44:48.079,0:44:54.400
uh it just your healthcare and your

0:44:51.680,0:44:56.240
like health insurance experience depends

0:44:54.400,0:44:58.319
on where you are in society and like

0:44:56.240,0:45:00.000
it’s so different for each person

0:44:58.319,0:45:01.440
it’s like how can you expect to regulate

0:45:00.000,0:45:04.480
that if there’s like

0:45:01.440,0:45:08.800
four different models i guess um

0:45:04.480,0:45:10.240
definitely i think just like one of the

0:45:08.800,0:45:11.920
i mean what’s what’s crazy about our

0:45:10.240,0:45:12.960
healthcare system right now is i mean if

0:45:11.920,0:45:13.680
you’re covered under something like

0:45:12.960,0:45:15.280
medicare

0:45:13.680,0:45:19.119
i mean you’re receiving the same exact

0:45:15.280,0:45:22.319
procedure um

0:45:19.119,0:45:24.160
doctors receive less for the procedure

0:45:22.319,0:45:25.599
when your provider is medicare because

0:45:24.160,0:45:27.680
it’s being paid out by the government

0:45:25.599,0:45:28.880
but if you have private health insurance

0:45:27.680,0:45:30.240
they’re able to charge your private

0:45:28.880,0:45:31.440
health insurance company more so the

0:45:30.240,0:45:33.359
private health insurance company is

0:45:31.440,0:45:36.160
paying more for the same procedure than

0:45:33.359,0:45:37.839
um a government paid out version of

0:45:36.160,0:45:41.599
medicare

0:45:37.839,0:45:45.119
interesting wow yeah that’s wild

0:45:41.599,0:45:46.560
can you talk about um

0:45:45.119,0:45:48.720
like not to get too volatile but yeah

0:45:46.560,0:45:50.319
can you talk about kind of the pros and

0:45:48.720,0:45:52.960
cons of obamacare

0:45:50.319,0:45:54.240
because one of my friends from spain was

0:45:52.960,0:45:57.520
talking to me

0:45:54.240,0:45:59.200
and he was talking about healthcare this

0:45:57.520,0:46:00.720
is before i had any idea about

0:45:59.200,0:46:03.119
like what the healthcare system is like

0:46:00.720,0:46:04.960
in america he was complaining about the

0:46:03.119,0:46:05.359
american healthcare system and he was

0:46:04.960,0:46:08.480
like

0:46:05.359,0:46:10.720
obamacare i mean spain had that like way

0:46:08.480,0:46:13.760
back in the 1800s

0:46:10.720,0:46:15.520
you guys are so far behind so what was

0:46:13.760,0:46:16.400
obamacare he was saying it was like a

0:46:15.520,0:46:18.400
first step

0:46:16.400,0:46:20.160
towards getting better health care what

0:46:18.400,0:46:22.160
are the pros and cons

0:46:20.160,0:46:24.400
yeah why do people complain about it

0:46:22.160,0:46:25.920
yeah no i think every american has this

0:46:24.400,0:46:26.720
question and obamacare is always thrown

0:46:25.920,0:46:29.200
out there you know

0:46:26.720,0:46:30.640
um and not i mean even i i’m not an

0:46:29.200,0:46:30.960
expert on obamacare i can just sort of

0:46:30.640,0:46:32.960
share

0:46:30.960,0:46:34.880
my own perspective of what obamacare

0:46:32.960,0:46:37.440
brought to the system for us

0:46:34.880,0:46:38.960
but i think like the biggest parts of

0:46:37.440,0:46:42.400
the affordable care act

0:46:38.960,0:46:44.640
is that it expanded coverage

0:46:42.400,0:46:46.720
to i believe over 20 million more

0:46:44.640,0:46:49.599
americans who are uninsured

0:46:46.720,0:46:50.480
were able to apply for health insurance

0:46:49.599,0:46:53.520
coverage

0:46:50.480,0:46:57.280
um because they they

0:46:53.520,0:46:59.680
across all income levels uh

0:46:57.280,0:47:00.640
tried to expand um i think it was

0:46:59.680,0:47:03.599
medicaid

0:47:00.640,0:47:04.160
um and other health insurance uh i guess

0:47:03.599,0:47:07.280
private

0:47:04.160,0:47:08.560
coverages um sorry let me

0:47:07.280,0:47:12.319
back up because i’m trying to like

0:47:08.560,0:47:12.319
organize my thoughts there okay

0:47:12.480,0:47:16.000
yeah that was too wordy um

0:47:16.400,0:47:20.000
oh you got it you’re doing well it’s

0:47:18.400,0:47:21.200
like a lot of good information and i

0:47:20.000,0:47:22.160
think you’re explaining it really well

0:47:21.200,0:47:24.640
too

0:47:22.160,0:47:25.359
okay thank you yeah way better than the

0:47:24.640,0:47:30.400
book oh

0:47:25.359,0:47:30.400
reading the book was like honestly

0:47:31.119,0:47:34.960
okay so i’ll talk about okay yeah i yeah

0:47:34.000,0:47:36.880
so i mean um

0:47:34.960,0:47:38.400
yeah i’m definitely not an expert on the

0:47:36.880,0:47:39.440
affordable care act or obamacare but i

0:47:38.400,0:47:41.280
can just share a little bit of my own

0:47:39.440,0:47:42.400
perspectives on like what it brought

0:47:41.280,0:47:44.240
um and maybe what your friend was

0:47:42.400,0:47:45.839
mentioning in europe so i mean off the

0:47:44.240,0:47:47.599
bat something that comes to mind is

0:47:45.839,0:47:48.880
um i’ve mentioned private health care

0:47:47.599,0:47:52.000
insurance companies

0:47:48.880,0:47:53.440
in germany and france can’t deny

0:47:52.000,0:47:55.920
you coverage based on pre-existing

0:47:53.440,0:47:58.800
conditions um so in the u.s before

0:47:55.920,0:48:00.480
the affordable care act was passed um i

0:47:58.800,0:48:01.920
mean here’s an anecdotal story that was

0:48:00.480,0:48:03.839
shared in tierra reed’s book and

0:48:01.920,0:48:05.119
something that was like very vivid and i

0:48:03.839,0:48:06.480
remember so well because

0:48:05.119,0:48:08.480
it took like i mean i was just like

0:48:06.480,0:48:09.920
blown away that this existed in the us

0:48:08.480,0:48:12.480
but before the affordable care act so

0:48:09.920,0:48:14.720
there was um this woman who was working

0:48:12.480,0:48:15.920
uh she had a great job just outside of

0:48:14.720,0:48:17.280
um just

0:48:15.920,0:48:19.200
outside of undergrad like she was i

0:48:17.280,0:48:22.160
think 23 or 24

0:48:19.200,0:48:24.640
um so she wasn’t covered by her health

0:48:22.160,0:48:26.880
by her parents health care insurance

0:48:24.640,0:48:28.640
she had just gotten a new job so she was

0:48:26.880,0:48:31.359
getting health insurance for her new job

0:48:28.640,0:48:32.960
uh but she was off of her parents health

0:48:31.359,0:48:34.319
insurance so i mean that’s another

0:48:32.960,0:48:36.319
edition of the affordable care act it

0:48:34.319,0:48:38.160
extended coverage on your parents

0:48:36.319,0:48:39.839
health insurance until you’re 26 but

0:48:38.160,0:48:41.599
before it used to be much younger

0:48:39.839,0:48:43.440
um so you dealt with a lot of young

0:48:41.599,0:48:45.680
people who were uninsured

0:48:43.440,0:48:48.000
but anyway so she got this new job but

0:48:45.680,0:48:51.440
then she came down with symptoms

0:48:48.000,0:48:53.680
of lupus and because lupus took a really

0:48:51.440,0:48:55.359
heavy toll on her life she lost her job

0:48:53.680,0:48:57.680
so losing her job she lost her health

0:48:55.359,0:48:58.640
insurance and in europe like i mentioned

0:48:57.680,0:48:59.839
in france and germany

0:48:58.640,0:49:01.440
if this happened to you the government

0:48:59.839,0:49:02.400
would step in and pay your premium for

0:49:01.440,0:49:03.760
you so that you still have health

0:49:02.400,0:49:06.480
insurance for health care

0:49:03.760,0:49:07.200
but in her case she couldn’t be um she

0:49:06.480,0:49:09.040
didn’t have a

0:49:07.200,0:49:10.800
health insurance um so she was paying

0:49:09.040,0:49:14.640
everything out of pocket for care

0:49:10.800,0:49:16.240
um until she was uh or actually so

0:49:14.640,0:49:17.599
sorry the the story she shared is that

0:49:16.240,0:49:18.319
she wasn’t making anything because she

0:49:17.599,0:49:21.839
was laid off

0:49:18.319,0:49:24.880
so she applied for um medicaid

0:49:21.839,0:49:26.240
for low income uh in the u.s and she was

0:49:24.880,0:49:27.200
getting some basic coverage through

0:49:26.240,0:49:29.040
medicaid

0:49:27.200,0:49:30.720
but she was having to go to particular

0:49:29.040,0:49:31.280
doctors who could treat lupus which

0:49:30.720,0:49:33.599
weren’t her

0:49:31.280,0:49:34.400
initial physicians that she was getting

0:49:33.599,0:49:36.000
through

0:49:34.400,0:49:37.440
her employer paid insurance so she had

0:49:36.000,0:49:40.079
to change um

0:49:37.440,0:49:42.000
her provider which had a huge toll on

0:49:40.079,0:49:44.480
sort of figuring out her problem

0:49:42.000,0:49:46.079
and also in her care but once she

0:49:44.480,0:49:47.119
started feeling better she was getting

0:49:46.079,0:49:48.240
the right drugs you know through

0:49:47.119,0:49:51.280
medicaid

0:49:48.240,0:49:52.720
um she ends up getting a job and then

0:49:51.280,0:49:54.559
she makes too much to qualify for

0:49:52.720,0:49:56.079
medicaid so now she’s uninsured again

0:49:54.559,0:49:57.839
so she starts looking for insurance

0:49:56.079,0:49:59.119
companies in the us and and before the

0:49:57.839,0:50:01.119
affordable care act

0:49:59.119,0:50:02.800
um they could deny her coverage based on

0:50:01.119,0:50:04.319
her pre-existing condition of lupus so

0:50:02.800,0:50:06.079
she had to say like i have lupus

0:50:04.319,0:50:07.440
i’m looking to be covered um and the

0:50:06.079,0:50:08.640
insurance company could say i don’t want

0:50:07.440,0:50:09.680
to take you because you’re going to cost

0:50:08.640,0:50:10.960
money

0:50:09.680,0:50:12.000
and so they denied her coverage she

0:50:10.960,0:50:13.119
couldn’t find a private healthcare

0:50:12.000,0:50:14.640
insurance company

0:50:13.119,0:50:16.880
um and i believe she ended up dying very

0:50:14.640,0:50:18.240
young uh before her before she turned

0:50:16.880,0:50:20.800

  1. but i mean like

0:50:18.240,0:50:22.319
something like this um one of the

0:50:20.800,0:50:23.359
european models i don’t think ever would

0:50:22.319,0:50:24.160
have happened because there’s at least

0:50:23.359,0:50:26.079
that basic

0:50:24.160,0:50:27.680
um universal coverage for people to have

0:50:26.079,0:50:29.040
covered those drug costs

0:50:27.680,0:50:30.720
but i mean this is a story before the

0:50:29.040,0:50:31.920
affordable care act so i mean one

0:50:30.720,0:50:33.839
she couldn’t get health insurance

0:50:31.920,0:50:34.480
through her parents because she was too

0:50:33.839,0:50:36.960
old

0:50:34.480,0:50:38.400
uh the affordable care act extended that

0:50:36.960,0:50:40.800
um but also

0:50:38.400,0:50:41.760
now you uh if you can pay for private

0:50:40.800,0:50:43.440
healthcare insurance companies they

0:50:41.760,0:50:45.839
cannot deny you based on pre-existing

0:50:43.440,0:50:47.920
conditions

0:50:45.839,0:50:49.359
the other thing that the affordable care

0:50:47.920,0:50:51.839
act did was expand

0:50:49.359,0:50:53.119
medicaid for tons of lower income

0:50:51.839,0:50:55.119
individuals so i think it may

0:50:53.119,0:50:56.559
expanded for more than 20 million people

0:50:55.119,0:50:58.800
who were uninsured

0:50:56.559,0:51:00.000
um when they applied for the affordable

0:50:58.800,0:51:03.440
care act and

0:51:00.000,0:51:04.880
um were able to to have a marketplace

0:51:03.440,0:51:07.520
for health insurance

0:51:04.880,0:51:08.400
um covering like purchasing their own

0:51:07.520,0:51:10.800
coverage

0:51:08.400,0:51:12.960
i have a question too so i hear a lot of

0:51:10.800,0:51:15.920
complaints over obamacare on an

0:51:12.960,0:51:17.520
increase in taxes for people because

0:51:15.920,0:51:18.640
they feel like they’re paying out for

0:51:17.520,0:51:21.280
obamacare

0:51:18.640,0:51:23.200
now is that true or is the issue lying

0:51:21.280,0:51:25.040
in the fact that there’s privatized

0:51:23.200,0:51:26.960
health insurance companies that can

0:51:25.040,0:51:27.920
control your premium so if they now have

0:51:26.960,0:51:30.240
to cover

0:51:27.920,0:51:31.359
more people who have um higher health

0:51:30.240,0:51:33.040
risks then they

0:51:31.359,0:51:36.079
increase the premium for everyone else

0:51:33.040,0:51:37.520
under the insurance

0:51:36.079,0:51:39.119
yeah that’s i mean that’s a great

0:51:37.520,0:51:39.920
question i always like i think a common

0:51:39.119,0:51:42.319
complaint

0:51:39.920,0:51:43.599
um i don’t know the answer off the top

0:51:42.319,0:51:46.000
my head

0:51:43.599,0:51:47.920
um of how directly they’re impacted by

0:51:46.000,0:51:50.240
like increased taxes for

0:51:47.920,0:51:51.839
the affordable care act uh but i do know

0:51:50.240,0:51:53.359
like when it expanded coverage

0:51:51.839,0:51:54.880
i mean more people are being covered

0:51:53.359,0:51:56.400
under this this program that’s being

0:51:54.880,0:51:59.440
paid out by the government

0:51:56.400,0:52:01.440
uh but i mean i think the response my

0:51:59.440,0:52:04.800
own response is just my opinion

0:52:01.440,0:52:05.440
um is that like i’d rather pay higher

0:52:04.800,0:52:07.680
taxes

0:52:05.440,0:52:09.760
now um than have to pay out of pocket

0:52:07.680,0:52:11.200
later uh when you do need the care so i

0:52:09.760,0:52:12.319
mean if you have like a system that is

0:52:11.200,0:52:13.520
covering that

0:52:12.319,0:52:15.359
might as well pay it all up front

0:52:13.520,0:52:17.040
because us still ends up paying

0:52:15.359,0:52:19.040
nearly twice of what other countries are

0:52:17.040,0:52:21.119
paying per person

0:52:19.040,0:52:22.000
uh every year but it’s in hidden costs

0:52:21.119,0:52:23.599
that you don’t think about like

0:52:22.000,0:52:26.800
prescription drugs or

0:52:23.599,0:52:27.200
um co-pays and things like that yeah i

0:52:26.800,0:52:29.359
agree

0:52:27.200,0:52:31.280
i think i’m already paying a ridiculous

0:52:29.359,0:52:34.160
amount for my health care and it’s

0:52:31.280,0:52:35.680
if i were to lose my job and if before

0:52:34.160,0:52:37.359
the affordable care act and i lost

0:52:35.680,0:52:38.319
insurance as well and i lost health

0:52:37.359,0:52:39.920
coverage it’s like

0:52:38.319,0:52:43.040
what was all that money that i was

0:52:39.920,0:52:47.839
paying before like where did that go

0:52:43.040,0:52:47.839
yeah yeah that’s frustrating

0:52:48.400,0:52:53.839
yeah i would like man like

0:52:51.839,0:52:55.200
i think you mentioned it earlier but i

0:52:53.839,0:52:57.839
think just a lot of

0:52:55.200,0:52:59.520
americans don’t really go to the doctors

0:52:57.839,0:53:03.200
or go to the hospital

0:52:59.520,0:53:05.359
um like for preventative measures uh

0:53:03.200,0:53:06.720
like i only go to the doctors like if

0:53:05.359,0:53:08.400
it’s an emergency

0:53:06.720,0:53:11.040
and that was the biggest culture shock

0:53:08.400,0:53:12.960
for me coming to south korea

0:53:11.040,0:53:14.720
like here it’s just so much more

0:53:12.960,0:53:16.240
affordable so people just go to the

0:53:14.720,0:53:18.960
hospital like

0:53:16.240,0:53:21.119
all the time i know a really common

0:53:18.960,0:53:22.160
thing is people will go to the hospital

0:53:21.119,0:53:24.000
to get like iv

0:53:22.160,0:53:26.000
treatment if they’re really hungover and

0:53:24.000,0:53:28.240
like it’s like

0:53:26.000,0:53:29.680
anything so like yeah i would just like

0:53:28.240,0:53:31.280
my friends would just be like oh yeah i

0:53:29.680,0:53:33.920
was in the hospital this morning and

0:53:31.280,0:53:36.240
it’s like to me like that’s just such a

0:53:33.920,0:53:38.480
it was just really shocking to see how

0:53:36.240,0:53:41.920
convenient and how affordable

0:53:38.480,0:53:43.040
healthcare is yeah no i totally agree my

0:53:41.920,0:53:45.119
friend in the uk

0:53:43.040,0:53:46.960
um yeah i know she’s shocked when she

0:53:45.119,0:53:48.319
says like you receive a bill for your

0:53:46.960,0:53:50.000
emergency room visit

0:53:48.319,0:53:51.440
like i’ve never received a bill in my

0:53:50.000,0:53:52.880
life for health care but

0:53:51.440,0:53:54.319
i mean she says it does lead to like

0:53:52.880,0:53:55.200
overuse of the system sometimes where

0:53:54.319,0:53:58.079
people just show up in

0:53:55.200,0:53:59.680
um sort of like the comparable to our

0:53:58.079,0:54:01.440
urgent care with things that i mean

0:53:59.680,0:54:04.640
could be taken care of at home

0:54:01.440,0:54:06.400
um but for the most part i mean

0:54:04.640,0:54:08.480
uh everyone is covered so i mean

0:54:06.400,0:54:09.119
something like that anecdote i just

0:54:08.480,0:54:10.559
shared

0:54:09.119,0:54:11.920
of the woman with lupus like that

0:54:10.559,0:54:14.319
probably would never have happened in

0:54:11.920,0:54:15.520
somewhere like the uk

0:54:14.319,0:54:16.720
um and you know talking about

0:54:15.520,0:54:17.680
preventative care in the u.s i think

0:54:16.720,0:54:20.000
that’s one of our biggest

0:54:17.680,0:54:21.200
issues um right now in our health care

0:54:20.000,0:54:23.920
system is that

0:54:21.200,0:54:25.440
um it’s it sort of like limits access

0:54:23.920,0:54:26.880
for a lot of people but i mean even

0:54:25.440,0:54:27.839
people with health insurance companies i

0:54:26.880,0:54:29.440
mean co-pays that’s what they’re

0:54:27.839,0:54:30.559
supposed to do deter you from overusing

0:54:29.440,0:54:33.520
the system

0:54:30.559,0:54:33.839
um but you have people who i mean have a

0:54:33.520,0:54:35.920
an

0:54:33.839,0:54:37.040
um i mean they have an ear infection and

0:54:35.920,0:54:37.680
they’re like i don’t really want to pay

0:54:37.040,0:54:38.960
the 40

0:54:37.680,0:54:40.880
copay i want to go to urgent care right

0:54:38.960,0:54:42.559
now it’ll get better i mean i’ve seen

0:54:40.880,0:54:43.760
this i mean even shadowing physicians

0:54:42.559,0:54:45.359
where a woman who had an

0:54:43.760,0:54:47.119
ear infection didn’t go because she

0:54:45.359,0:54:48.960
didn’t want to pay the 40 copay

0:54:47.119,0:54:51.280
um it ended up turning into a septic

0:54:48.960,0:54:53.440
infection which is lethal

0:54:51.280,0:54:54.640
and had to get like tens of thousands of

0:54:53.440,0:54:56.319
dollars in care

0:54:54.640,0:54:58.240
um when she could have just paid the 40

0:54:56.319,0:55:00.400
copay gotten some antibiotics

0:54:58.240,0:55:02.319
um and likely killed the infection

0:55:00.400,0:55:04.480
before it it uh

0:55:02.319,0:55:06.000
was infecting her bloodstream so i mean

0:55:04.480,0:55:06.640
there are cases like this in the us

0:55:06.000,0:55:08.480
where yeah

0:55:06.640,0:55:09.680
preventative care really isn’t at the

0:55:08.480,0:55:12.480
forefront of

0:55:09.680,0:55:13.440
our values or or something like that but

0:55:12.480,0:55:14.480
i mean

0:55:13.440,0:55:16.400
since we’re comparing all these

0:55:14.480,0:55:17.599
countries uh it’s it’s important to

0:55:16.400,0:55:19.599
mention too i mean like even health

0:55:17.599,0:55:21.440
insurance companies in germany in in

0:55:19.599,0:55:23.040
france so germany’s like competition

0:55:21.440,0:55:24.640
between insurance companies is

0:55:23.040,0:55:26.000
sort of benefits of what they can offer

0:55:24.640,0:55:27.680
people who join their insurance company

0:55:26.000,0:55:29.680
so in germany i feel like

0:55:27.680,0:55:31.119
i think they they offer perks based on

0:55:29.680,0:55:33.040
your preventative care so if you

0:55:31.119,0:55:34.799
go to the doctor at least once a year

0:55:33.040,0:55:36.240
you reserve a certain amount of reward

0:55:34.799,0:55:39.280
points or something

0:55:36.240,0:55:39.920
um which are paid out in like uh i don’t

0:55:39.280,0:55:41.680
know maybe

0:55:39.920,0:55:42.960
some sort of gift card compensation or

0:55:41.680,0:55:45.040
something like that

0:55:42.960,0:55:46.400
um but yeah but i mean for the

0:55:45.040,0:55:47.680
healthcare insurance company it’s very

0:55:46.400,0:55:48.319
low you’re paying a i mean you’re paying

0:55:47.680,0:55:50.799
like a

0:55:48.319,0:55:52.160
600 premium a month and they’re giving

0:55:50.799,0:55:53.440
out these small incentives but i mean

0:55:52.160,0:55:54.079
it’s all preventative care so they’re

0:55:53.440,0:55:55.920
going to catch

0:55:54.079,0:55:58.559
they’re going to catch something before

0:55:55.920,0:55:59.839
you end up developing a septic infection

0:55:58.559,0:56:01.359
and the health insurance company has to

0:55:59.839,0:56:02.240
pay out thousands of dollars for that

0:56:01.359,0:56:03.520
versus just

0:56:02.240,0:56:04.720
getting you those antibiotics when you

0:56:03.520,0:56:06.240
need them so i mean it keeps costs slow

0:56:04.720,0:56:08.400
for them as well

0:56:06.240,0:56:09.359
wait tea on that have you guys seen the

0:56:08.400,0:56:12.640
tlc show

0:56:09.359,0:56:14.559
dr pimple popper yes i love that show

0:56:12.640,0:56:16.559
bruh like i was thinking about it the

0:56:14.559,0:56:17.680
reason why these people are coming in

0:56:16.559,0:56:19.680
with

0:56:17.680,0:56:20.880
um for lack of a better word like these

0:56:19.680,0:56:24.079
extreme

0:56:20.880,0:56:26.000
skin problems is because they were

0:56:24.079,0:56:27.680
probably uninsured or they were scared

0:56:26.000,0:56:29.760
to go to the doctor to get it figured

0:56:27.680,0:56:30.000
out when it was a small issue and now

0:56:29.760,0:56:33.599
it’s

0:56:30.000,0:56:33.920
like huge and yeah but i mean that’s how

0:56:33.599,0:56:36.880
we

0:56:33.920,0:56:38.720
got dr ripple popper so yeah so i guess

0:56:36.880,0:56:41.680
like what is the solution

0:56:38.720,0:56:44.720
to the healthcare issue in the us yeah

0:56:41.680,0:56:46.480
what’s your opinion

0:56:44.720,0:56:47.920
great question something i’m like always

0:56:46.480,0:56:49.920
thinking about and

0:56:47.920,0:56:51.520
um i mean solutions are offered by t

0:56:49.920,0:56:53.040
read in his book the healing of america

0:56:51.520,0:56:54.000
as well which a lot of my opinions come

0:56:53.040,0:56:56.559
from

0:56:54.000,0:56:57.520
um but i think i mean the main issues in

0:56:56.559,0:57:00.160
the us right now is

0:56:57.520,0:57:01.440
we we have lower health outcomes um in

0:57:00.160,0:57:02.880
comparison to these other

0:57:01.440,0:57:05.280
richer countries who have other health

0:57:02.880,0:57:06.799
care systems um and we also are paying

0:57:05.280,0:57:07.359
twice of what they’re paying so it’s

0:57:06.799,0:57:09.119
like

0:57:07.359,0:57:11.359
how do we reduce costs and how do we

0:57:09.119,0:57:12.880
extend um

0:57:11.359,0:57:14.160
health outcomes in our own system when

0:57:12.880,0:57:15.040
we’re one of the richest countries with

0:57:14.160,0:57:16.799
the best

0:57:15.040,0:57:18.240
medical providers the best sort of

0:57:16.799,0:57:20.079
scientific research going on in

0:57:18.240,0:57:23.040
innovation and therapeutics

0:57:20.079,0:57:24.480
um and i think i think it just plays

0:57:23.040,0:57:26.559
back to the beginning where like it’s

0:57:24.480,0:57:27.599
very expensive maintaining so many

0:57:26.559,0:57:31.440
different systems

0:57:27.599,0:57:31.920
in the us um where it creates a system

0:57:31.440,0:57:33.839
that’s

0:57:31.920,0:57:34.720
kind of like a mystery like you don’t

0:57:33.839,0:57:35.920
know how much you’re going to pay for a

0:57:34.720,0:57:37.440
procedure you don’t know

0:57:35.920,0:57:38.960
who’s covered by what procedure because

0:57:37.440,0:57:41.839
it’s just very confusing

0:57:38.960,0:57:42.960
on who’s providing the care um and who’s

0:57:41.839,0:57:46.240
paying for it

0:57:42.960,0:57:47.839
um so i mean i think going forward um

0:57:46.240,0:57:49.680
it’s very important that we have like a

0:57:47.839,0:57:50.960
set priceless of how much the bill will

0:57:49.680,0:57:51.920
be so there’s like that that

0:57:50.960,0:57:53.839
standardized

0:57:51.920,0:57:55.280
cost and transparency transparency

0:57:53.839,0:57:56.319
aspect um

0:57:55.280,0:57:59.040
this is something that’s been rolled

0:57:56.319,0:58:02.480
down in countries like france and japan

0:57:59.040,0:58:04.400
um and i guess uh just the thing about

0:58:02.480,0:58:05.680
going toward like a single-payer

0:58:04.400,0:58:07.040
healthcare system in the us which is a

0:58:05.680,0:58:08.000
lot of what’s talked about in politics

0:58:07.040,0:58:09.760
right now

0:58:08.000,0:58:11.680
um is that lobbying groups and

0:58:09.760,0:58:14.319
healthcare companies set priorities

0:58:11.680,0:58:15.839
right now for a single-payer system so

0:58:14.319,0:58:16.640
it’s maybe something that we won’t see

0:58:15.839,0:58:18.720
very soon

0:58:16.640,0:58:20.400
um but i think just one system that

0:58:18.720,0:58:21.599
allows you to create a transparent cost

0:58:20.400,0:58:26.000
and charge schedule

0:58:21.599,0:58:27.680
as well as um making the like

0:58:26.000,0:58:29.040
decision that we want to cover every

0:58:27.680,0:58:30.160
single person living in the united

0:58:29.040,0:58:33.440
states one way or one

0:58:30.160,0:58:34.960
like somewhere somehow is very important

0:58:33.440,0:58:36.559
um and i think what’s very important for

0:58:34.960,0:58:37.680
me in healthcare is really expanding

0:58:36.559,0:58:39.520
coverage to everyone

0:58:37.680,0:58:41.599
at least having a system that’s able to

0:58:39.520,0:58:42.960
provide universal healthcare coverage

0:58:41.599,0:58:45.119
across the board

0:58:42.960,0:58:46.000
um and i think one of the the solutions

0:58:45.119,0:58:47.440
in politics

0:58:46.000,0:58:50.000
talked about right now is to expand

0:58:47.440,0:58:52.240
medicare for all you may hear that a lot

0:58:50.000,0:58:54.640
that’s essentially uh having the

0:58:52.240,0:58:57.760
government cover all adult 65 plus

0:58:54.640,0:58:59.040
and below 18 but then allowing adults to

0:58:57.760,0:59:00.880
buy into the program

0:58:59.040,0:59:04.160
so the government would be essentially

0:59:00.880,0:59:06.079
paying for your your care

0:59:04.160,0:59:08.079
but i assume that care would still go on

0:59:06.079,0:59:09.359
being provided by private

0:59:08.079,0:59:10.480
physicians and things like that but

0:59:09.359,0:59:11.760
there would be a more transparent

0:59:10.480,0:59:13.359
schedule

0:59:11.760,0:59:14.960
so it would maintain coverage at a lot

0:59:13.359,0:59:16.480
of participating hospitals

0:59:14.960,0:59:19.520
but it would also allow for easier

0:59:16.480,0:59:21.760
access to health care options

0:59:19.520,0:59:22.799
and i think it’s just like a transition

0:59:21.760,0:59:25.680
to one sort of

0:59:22.799,0:59:26.960
system or model so it might not reduce

0:59:25.680,0:59:27.520
costs immediately but i guess we won’t

0:59:26.960,0:59:30.559
know

0:59:27.520,0:59:31.839
until it’s in practice

0:59:30.559,0:59:34.079
i think that’s the hard thing about the

0:59:31.839,0:59:37.119
us health care reform is that

0:59:34.079,0:59:38.640
no one knows really what to do

0:59:37.119,0:59:39.920
just final thoughts i give a lot of my

0:59:38.640,0:59:41.440
background knowledge and a lot of like

0:59:39.920,0:59:43.119
my opinions sort of on

0:59:41.440,0:59:45.040
the book by tree and a lot of what i’ve

0:59:43.119,0:59:45.599
watched him uh talk because he travels

0:59:45.040,0:59:46.640
across

0:59:45.599,0:59:49.040
the world you know to learn these

0:59:46.640,0:59:51.200
systems um so if you want to know more

0:59:49.040,0:59:52.400
highly recommend the book um and highly

0:59:51.200,0:59:54.400
recommend just looking up on

0:59:52.400,0:59:55.920
looking him up on youtube you may have

0:59:54.400,0:59:58.480
you’ll hear an overlap of a lot of what

0:59:55.920,0:59:58.480
i’ve said today

0:59:59.359,1:00:02.720
well thank you so much for sharing that

1:00:01.520,1:00:04.640
was like really

1:00:02.720,1:00:06.400
really incredible you did a really great

1:00:04.640,1:00:07.359
job at giving us such a comprehensive

1:00:06.400,1:00:10.319
overview of

1:00:07.359,1:00:12.480
literally healthcare around the entire

1:00:10.319,1:00:14.799
entire world it’s like

1:00:12.480,1:00:16.079
man yeah that was really good thank you

1:00:14.799,1:00:18.079
so much for

1:00:16.079,1:00:19.680
sharing because it makes more sense now

1:00:18.079,1:00:20.480
i always thought like healthcare like oh

1:00:19.680,1:00:22.720
it’s

1:00:20.480,1:00:23.520
so confusing i don’t understand anything

1:00:22.720,1:00:26.799
but

1:00:23.520,1:00:28.880
yeah the problem i feel like the

1:00:26.799,1:00:30.559
healthcare issue in the u.s is really

1:00:28.880,1:00:33.280
complex but when you break it down

1:00:30.559,1:00:34.079
into just like the basics it’s a lot

1:00:33.280,1:00:37.280
easier to

1:00:34.079,1:00:38.640
understand and digest absolutely i think

1:00:37.280,1:00:41.119
this is a big

1:00:38.640,1:00:42.960
how did we not know that episode like

1:00:41.119,1:00:44.079
how did we literally not know

1:00:42.960,1:00:46.000
and it’s one of those things that i

1:00:44.079,1:00:47.520
don’t think like we know growing up as

1:00:46.000,1:00:48.160
children because we don’t worry about it

1:00:47.520,1:00:50.400
but

1:00:48.160,1:00:52.160
after i got my first job and then i’m

1:00:50.400,1:00:53.359
paying for my healthcare and i’m paying

1:00:52.160,1:00:54.880
for my care now

1:00:53.359,1:00:56.720
it’s just ridiculous and i was

1:00:54.880,1:00:58.240
complaining to my mom about how

1:00:56.720,1:00:59.920
expensive health care is

1:00:58.240,1:01:02.240
she was like what do you think our

1:00:59.920,1:01:03.839
premium was per month like what did you

1:01:02.240,1:01:07.280
think our deductible was it’s

1:01:03.839,1:01:09.200
thousands of dollars was like

1:01:07.280,1:01:10.559
this is why like i tell you if you’re

1:01:09.200,1:01:12.640
sick taking a leave

1:01:10.559,1:01:13.839
and sleep like you’re not going to the

1:01:12.640,1:01:15.280
doctors

1:01:13.839,1:01:16.480
yeah no i totally agree it’s something

1:01:15.280,1:01:17.839
that you don’t start to think about

1:01:16.480,1:01:19.280
until you’re sort of like

1:01:17.839,1:01:20.720
making the transition to adulthood and

1:01:19.280,1:01:22.079
then you’re like oh this is slapping me

1:01:20.720,1:01:24.480
in the face like i didn’t know any of

1:01:22.079,1:01:26.799
this existed or how it works right yeah

1:01:24.480,1:01:29.760
esteban thank you so much for being our

1:01:26.799,1:01:31.920
guest we really are happy to have you

1:01:29.760,1:01:33.520
thank you guys for having me um i hope i

1:01:31.920,1:01:36.559
was qualified enough to

1:01:33.520,1:01:37.599
talk a lot about the topics today oh

1:01:36.559,1:01:41.280
absolutely i’m

1:01:37.599,1:01:41.280
excited to have been here so thanks for

1:01:47.000,1:01:50.000
that

Did Rasputin Have Magical Powers?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! 🎙 The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com 📦 ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnkt  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
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  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

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Show Notes

An evil sorcerer, undercover spy, and the secret lover of the Empress. A man of great mystery and intrigue, the infamous Rasputin has been called all these names and more. But do we really know the full story? In this episode, Nat uncovers the unbelievable life of Grigory Rasputin and the last Russian emperor. Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Sources:

Transcript

0:00:00.240,0:00:04.640
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.480,0:00:05.120
another episode of how did we not know

0:00:04.640,0:00:08.240
that

0:00:05.120,0:00:12.000
my name’s jack and i’m nat

0:00:08.240,0:00:13.200
and today nat is going to tell us about

0:00:12.000,0:00:15.360
the history of

0:00:13.200,0:00:17.440
russia i believe because i peeked at

0:00:15.360,0:00:20.640
your docs

0:00:17.440,0:00:24.320
yeah today i’m talking about rasputin

0:00:20.640,0:00:27.920
and the last russian emperor

0:00:24.320,0:00:31.359
is it rasputin or rasputin

0:00:27.920,0:00:34.559
oh i thought it was rice putin

0:00:31.359,0:00:37.360
putin i only asked because

0:00:34.559,0:00:38.000
in just dance three there’s that song

0:00:37.360,0:00:41.920
called

0:00:38.000,0:00:45.840
rasputin and it goes ra ra rasputin

0:00:41.920,0:00:45.840
lover of the russian queen

0:00:46.239,0:00:51.199
his name is rasputin in that

0:00:49.280,0:00:52.480
wait okay actually i’m gonna like check

0:00:51.199,0:00:55.600
this really quick

0:00:52.480,0:00:58.559
okay apparently that’s putin rasputin

0:00:55.600,0:00:59.840
okay okay disputing um they were just

0:00:58.559,0:01:01.440
like

0:00:59.840,0:01:03.440
raspberry tea they probably just tried

0:01:01.440,0:01:05.519
to make it rhyme it’s fine

0:01:03.440,0:01:07.520
because poutine is like the food the

0:01:05.519,0:01:13.840
canadian food it’s very good but

0:01:07.520,0:01:13.840
oh i do like putin or number one

0:01:15.759,0:01:19.680
is going to come back for me during my

0:01:17.200,0:01:19.680
campaign

0:01:20.320,0:01:28.080
okay so so besides the just dance 3

0:01:24.640,0:01:31.600
song what have you heard about rasputin

0:01:28.080,0:01:33.439
so from the song he is um

0:01:31.600,0:01:36.320
no actually i do know a little bit i

0:01:33.439,0:01:39.040
think he was a shaman

0:01:36.320,0:01:40.799
as the people would say so he was like a

0:01:39.040,0:01:44.000
medicine man

0:01:40.799,0:01:44.720
and a bit of a psychic and i think he

0:01:44.000,0:01:46.560
was

0:01:44.720,0:01:47.759
guiding or giving guidance to the

0:01:46.560,0:01:50.799
russian family

0:01:47.759,0:01:54.399
and he said if you ever betray me

0:01:50.799,0:01:56.880
or don’t listen to me you will all

0:01:54.399,0:01:59.600
die or something like that he gave a

0:01:56.880,0:02:02.079
prophecy like that and then sure enough

0:01:59.600,0:02:04.000
i think something happened to him and

0:02:02.079,0:02:06.799
then the entire family

0:02:04.000,0:02:08.080
met like it’s downfall so wow that’s

0:02:06.799,0:02:11.680
exactly that’s the whole story

0:02:08.080,0:02:12.319
okay thank you i’m totally just kidding

0:02:11.680,0:02:13.760
no yeah

0:02:12.319,0:02:15.599
but you really got it like exactly

0:02:13.760,0:02:18.879
correct like um

0:02:15.599,0:02:20.560
he yeah he was like this weird not sorry

0:02:18.879,0:02:22.720
not weird but like he had this very like

0:02:20.560,0:02:25.599
mysterious aura to him

0:02:22.720,0:02:27.440
and he was like this mystical healer um

0:02:25.599,0:02:30.640
and yeah he did reward the

0:02:27.440,0:02:31.840
russian imperial family that they yeah

0:02:30.640,0:02:34.319
that if they ever left him

0:02:31.840,0:02:36.239
they would die and yeah so let’s see how

0:02:34.319,0:02:39.519
that turned but

0:02:36.239,0:02:41.599
um so yeah so you know a lot because

0:02:39.519,0:02:43.200
he’s like a really big figure i feel

0:02:41.599,0:02:44.879
like in

0:02:43.200,0:02:46.800
not like pop culture but i feel like a

0:02:44.879,0:02:47.920
lot of people know about rasputin even

0:02:46.800,0:02:50.879
if they don’t know

0:02:47.920,0:02:52.160
a lot about russian history um yeah i

0:02:50.879,0:02:54.720
think you’ve heard the name

0:02:52.160,0:02:55.760
shirley yeah yeah cause just because

0:02:54.720,0:02:58.159
he’s like a wild

0:02:55.760,0:03:01.040
character but his name so his name is

0:02:58.159,0:03:04.720
gregory rasputin and he was born in

0:03:01.040,0:03:05.840
siberia in 1869 and he was raised as a

0:03:04.720,0:03:07.760
peasant

0:03:05.840,0:03:10.000
and later like when he was younger i

0:03:07.760,0:03:11.200
think around 19 years old he married a

0:03:10.000,0:03:14.480
local woman

0:03:11.200,0:03:18.239
named pascovia

0:03:14.480,0:03:21.360
and he’s father good job on that

0:03:18.239,0:03:22.959
these are my people so i have africa are

0:03:21.360,0:03:25.280
you russian

0:03:22.959,0:03:27.440
i’m like you okay my family says we’re

0:03:25.280,0:03:30.560
ukrainian

0:03:27.440,0:03:33.680
borders change you know we nah

0:03:30.560,0:03:36.000
i literally am also my great grandpa was

0:03:33.680,0:03:38.000
born on the border of the ukraine and

0:03:36.000,0:03:39.840
formerly chuckle slovakia but he

0:03:38.000,0:03:43.440
identifies as a slovakian

0:03:39.840,0:03:43.440
oh my gosh are you serious

0:03:44.000,0:03:51.200
like the long-lost cousins probably

0:03:47.360,0:03:53.920
probably continue please yeah okay

0:03:51.200,0:03:54.640
so okay so he fathered three surviving

0:03:53.920,0:03:57.360
children

0:03:54.640,0:03:57.840
and him and his family lived and worked

0:03:57.360,0:04:01.680
on

0:03:57.840,0:04:05.040
the farm together but then in 1892

0:04:01.680,0:04:06.480
he left the farm to spend several months

0:04:05.040,0:04:09.280
at a monastery

0:04:06.480,0:04:10.400
and there he earned the nickname the mad

0:04:09.280,0:04:12.879
monk

0:04:10.400,0:04:14.080
and technically he wasn’t actually a

0:04:12.879,0:04:17.040
monk because he never

0:04:14.080,0:04:17.519
actually took the holy orders um and

0:04:17.040,0:04:20.320
also

0:04:17.519,0:04:21.440
like he was very passionate about

0:04:20.320,0:04:24.479
religion

0:04:21.440,0:04:26.880
but he like his um

0:04:24.479,0:04:28.880
i guess like his personal life

0:04:26.880,0:04:32.240
conflicted a lot with his

0:04:28.880,0:04:34.800
like religious piety um so like

0:04:32.240,0:04:35.600
he continued to see his wife and family

0:04:34.800,0:04:38.560
even though

0:04:35.600,0:04:40.720
most holy men usually give up their past

0:04:38.560,0:04:43.520
lives once they joined the monastery

0:04:40.720,0:04:44.400
and he was like known like everyone knew

0:04:43.520,0:04:47.759
he was

0:04:44.400,0:04:50.880
a very big fan of alcohol

0:04:47.759,0:04:53.680
and brothels like he was always drunk

0:04:50.880,0:04:55.600
and always having affairs like he did

0:04:53.680,0:04:58.240
not try to keep it secret so

0:04:55.600,0:04:59.759
even that’s not just for monks that’s

0:04:58.240,0:05:02.960
like a general

0:04:59.759,0:05:05.600
thing is like yeah and like he

0:05:02.960,0:05:06.720
yeah so he was like oh i’m a holy man

0:05:05.600,0:05:09.840
and people are like

0:05:06.720,0:05:10.479
maybe not and what denomination can i

0:05:09.840,0:05:13.520
ask

0:05:10.479,0:05:15.360
a russian orthodox okay it’s like

0:05:13.520,0:05:18.800
orthodox

0:05:15.360,0:05:21.440
christian meaning okay yeah yeah yeah

0:05:18.800,0:05:24.400
they’re not like orthodox catholics no

0:05:21.440,0:05:27.840
yeah i’m sure it’s it sounds different

0:05:24.400,0:05:29.759
yeah but russian orthodox but yeah so he

0:05:27.840,0:05:30.880
so rasputin had a very memorable

0:05:29.759,0:05:33.600
personality

0:05:30.880,0:05:35.199
and his passion for religion as well as

0:05:33.600,0:05:37.120
his strong charisma

0:05:35.199,0:05:39.520
brought him to the attention of some

0:05:37.120,0:05:41.840
like russian orthodox clergymen

0:05:39.520,0:05:42.639
and other senior members of the imperial

0:05:41.840,0:05:45.280
family

0:05:42.639,0:05:45.680
and through those connections he was

0:05:45.280,0:05:48.960
then

0:05:45.680,0:05:51.840
introduced to czar nicholas ii

0:05:48.960,0:05:52.400
and his wife alexandra so before i get

0:05:51.840,0:05:54.400
into that

0:05:52.400,0:05:56.240
i just want to like give a background

0:05:54.400,0:06:00.080
about what russia

0:05:56.240,0:06:01.919
is like at this time um when

0:06:00.080,0:06:03.360
basically russia was in political

0:06:01.919,0:06:07.360
turmoil when

0:06:03.360,0:06:08.160
nicholas ii became tsar in 1894 and also

0:06:07.360,0:06:10.080
like czar

0:06:08.160,0:06:12.319
is just like kind of another word for

0:06:10.080,0:06:15.600
emperor it’s like the russian word

0:06:12.319,0:06:17.759
um and so he became zarya in 1894 his

0:06:15.600,0:06:21.600
father had ruled russia with an

0:06:17.759,0:06:24.639
iron fist he was not a great guy

0:06:21.600,0:06:25.680
he forced everyone in the empire to

0:06:24.639,0:06:27.520
speak russian

0:06:25.680,0:06:29.600
even though like there are several

0:06:27.520,0:06:31.759
languages spoken

0:06:29.600,0:06:32.639
there and then there’s no freedom of the

0:06:31.759,0:06:34.720
press

0:06:32.639,0:06:36.160
and then there were also very weak

0:06:34.720,0:06:37.520
political institutions

0:06:36.160,0:06:39.199
kind of like we talked about in the

0:06:37.520,0:06:41.919
middle east

0:06:39.199,0:06:43.199
episode like the judicial system was

0:06:41.919,0:06:46.720
very corrupt and

0:06:43.199,0:06:47.600
all that classic stuff and so nicholas

0:06:46.720,0:06:51.120
ii

0:06:47.600,0:06:51.680
was not prepared and he didn’t want to

0:06:51.120,0:06:54.319
become

0:06:51.680,0:06:54.800
tsar actually like when he was crowned

0:06:54.319,0:06:57.280
he

0:06:54.800,0:06:59.199
asked his advisor what is going to

0:06:57.280,0:07:01.360
happen to me to all of russia

0:06:59.199,0:07:02.800
i’m not prepared to be czar i never

0:07:01.360,0:07:05.759
wanted to become one

0:07:02.800,0:07:06.880
so yeah it’s kind of sad he was like he

0:07:05.759,0:07:09.199
really didn’t

0:07:06.880,0:07:10.400
want yeah but he was the heir to the

0:07:09.199,0:07:12.880
throne so

0:07:10.400,0:07:13.759
what age was he when he had to take over

0:07:12.880,0:07:17.199
sorry

0:07:13.759,0:07:19.120
i actually no idea let me look that up

0:07:17.199,0:07:20.880
because uh i don’t know i feel like if

0:07:19.120,0:07:22.880
you’re older maybe you would have been

0:07:20.880,0:07:24.319
groomed for it hopefully you wouldn’t be

0:07:22.880,0:07:27.440
that nervous to rule an

0:07:24.319,0:07:31.360
entire nation yeah

0:07:27.440,0:07:34.160
um he was 26.

0:07:31.360,0:07:36.240
so like you’re grown enough i guess like

0:07:34.160,0:07:38.960
your dad didn’t talk to you

0:07:36.240,0:07:40.479
about his dad no his dad like really

0:07:38.960,0:07:41.039
didn’t have a good relationship with him

0:07:40.479,0:07:44.160
and like

0:07:41.039,0:07:47.039
he did not so okay

0:07:44.160,0:07:48.400
yeah so he was just like he was starting

0:07:47.039,0:07:51.840
off at a low point

0:07:48.400,0:07:54.639
like he’s not happy to be there

0:07:51.840,0:07:55.039
and then so he assumes power he’s 26 so

0:07:54.639,0:07:58.479
he’s

0:07:55.039,0:08:02.000
pretty young and he is not really

0:07:58.479,0:08:05.039
well liked by the russian people so

0:08:02.000,0:08:06.879
while he’s tsar they

0:08:05.039,0:08:08.879
uh russia gets involved in the russo

0:08:06.879,0:08:11.440
japanese war they’re fighting

0:08:08.879,0:08:13.120
japan and the people there wasn’t a lot

0:08:11.440,0:08:15.599
of public support for this war

0:08:13.120,0:08:16.319
like they didn’t agree with it and they

0:08:15.599,0:08:18.319
didn’t like that

0:08:16.319,0:08:20.319
they were like fighting and risking all

0:08:18.319,0:08:24.960
their lives and resources

0:08:20.319,0:08:27.680
and then in 1905 his government oh also

0:08:24.960,0:08:28.800
japan won this war sorry so they also

0:08:27.680,0:08:30.560
like lost this

0:08:28.800,0:08:31.840
unpopular war so they’re even more

0:08:30.560,0:08:35.039
pissed um

0:08:31.840,0:08:35.519
and then later in 1905 nicholas the

0:08:35.039,0:08:38.640
second

0:08:35.519,0:08:41.519
government massacred about 100 unarmed

0:08:38.640,0:08:46.080
protesters during a peaceful assembly

0:08:41.519,0:08:46.080
so the public they’re like what the heck

0:08:46.399,0:08:50.320
it was really bad um and then like on

0:08:49.360,0:08:54.160
top of this

0:08:50.320,0:08:56.880
he didn’t have a civil relationship with

0:08:54.160,0:08:57.839
with the duma and the duma is like the

0:08:56.880,0:09:00.480
russian

0:08:57.839,0:09:01.760
equivalent of congress um it’s like

0:09:00.480,0:09:04.160
their representative

0:09:01.760,0:09:05.040
branch and so he didn’t have a good

0:09:04.160,0:09:08.240
relationship with

0:09:05.040,0:09:11.600
them they’re like we hate you too

0:09:08.240,0:09:12.240
oh no wait so if this russian russian

0:09:11.600,0:09:16.000
government

0:09:12.240,0:09:19.279
is a constitutional monarchy yes

0:09:16.000,0:09:20.880
yes like the emperor and then they also

0:09:19.279,0:09:24.560
have a representative

0:09:20.880,0:09:25.200
branch okay why does everyone not like

0:09:24.560,0:09:27.920
him

0:09:25.200,0:09:29.040
does he like just do a terrible job when

0:09:27.920,0:09:31.360
he starts

0:09:29.040,0:09:32.560
yeah like well he’s like fighting all

0:09:31.360,0:09:35.040
these wars

0:09:32.560,0:09:36.720
and then killing all these like innocent

0:09:35.040,0:09:40.160
civilians

0:09:36.720,0:09:42.160
um and he’s just like i don’t think he’s

0:09:40.160,0:09:44.800
a very good like public speaker

0:09:42.160,0:09:46.480
he just doesn’t have like that charisma

0:09:44.800,0:09:48.000
about him because like he’s also like

0:09:46.480,0:09:49.279
pretty young and he’s just like

0:09:48.000,0:09:52.080
unenthusiastic like

0:09:49.279,0:09:53.680
people can tell i think that he doesn’t

0:09:52.080,0:09:56.800
want to be there and they’re like

0:09:53.680,0:09:58.959
okay and they’re starting to get sick of

0:09:56.800,0:10:01.760
the monarchy they’re like we

0:09:58.959,0:10:03.920
like why are you even ruling us then

0:10:01.760,0:10:07.040
like just leave

0:10:03.920,0:10:08.320
that that comes into play later um and

0:10:07.040,0:10:12.320
like i think

0:10:08.320,0:10:15.519
the one of the biggest uh reasons for

0:10:12.320,0:10:18.959
people’s hatred towards him was uh

0:10:15.519,0:10:19.680
in 1914 when russia was drawn into world

0:10:18.959,0:10:22.160
war one

0:10:19.680,0:10:22.720
but they were very unprepared to fight

0:10:22.160,0:10:25.120
and

0:10:22.720,0:10:27.519
russia actually suffered the largest

0:10:25.120,0:10:29.360
number of deaths in world war one

0:10:27.519,0:10:31.360
and this is literally insane like i

0:10:29.360,0:10:34.399
can’t comprehend how many people died

0:10:31.360,0:10:35.279
so there were 1.8 million military

0:10:34.399,0:10:38.959
deaths

0:10:35.279,0:10:42.480
and then 1.5 million civilian deaths

0:10:38.959,0:10:45.519
so literally two million

0:10:42.480,0:10:46.640
russians died in world war one oh my

0:10:45.519,0:10:49.519
gosh

0:10:46.640,0:10:50.079
like so russia is in shambles at the

0:10:49.519,0:10:53.680
time

0:10:50.079,0:10:56.959
and they’re like blaming the emperor

0:10:53.680,0:11:00.079
so they don’t like him yeah

0:10:56.959,0:11:01.200
wow why why so many civilians were they

0:11:00.079,0:11:04.240
just like

0:11:01.200,0:11:06.079
there was just battles like in civilian

0:11:04.240,0:11:08.800
area

0:11:06.079,0:11:09.920
yeah i think so i weren’t there like

0:11:08.800,0:11:11.920
black oh my gosh

0:11:09.920,0:11:13.680
i need to like refresh my memory on

0:11:11.920,0:11:15.760
world war one history but i think there

0:11:13.680,0:11:17.200
went there were like a lot of blockades

0:11:15.760,0:11:20.240
and then a lot of people like died of

0:11:17.200,0:11:23.440
starvation because oh

0:11:20.240,0:11:26.800
yes was it world war two oh gosh

0:11:23.440,0:11:29.279
probably both both wars yeah but i think

0:11:26.800,0:11:32.800
a lot of people died from starvation

0:11:29.279,0:11:35.519
which is okay which is awful

0:11:32.800,0:11:36.160
um yeah that makes sense i think i heard

0:11:35.519,0:11:39.680
about this

0:11:36.160,0:11:41.920
it was like yeah basically that the

0:11:39.680,0:11:43.680
the army was like did not learn how to

0:11:41.920,0:11:45.360
fight at all so they kind of just like

0:11:43.680,0:11:48.399
got let into massacre

0:11:45.360,0:11:49.600
and then yeah yeah that just like ruined

0:11:48.399,0:11:51.519
they were not prepared to fight because

0:11:49.600,0:11:54.720
they recently lost like the

0:11:51.519,0:11:54.720
russo-japanese war

0:11:54.880,0:12:00.240
then they enter world war one which is

0:11:56.320,0:12:00.240
like oh [ _ ] oh it’s like oh [ _ ]

0:12:03.120,0:12:07.200
yeah wait what was the russo japanese

0:12:05.920,0:12:09.600
war about

0:12:07.200,0:12:10.320
were they fighting off for land or what

0:12:09.600,0:12:12.800
yeah

0:12:10.320,0:12:15.279
i think it was like territorial because

0:12:12.800,0:12:18.480
there’s like a disputed island

0:12:15.279,0:12:21.680
yeah the krugman islands or something

0:12:18.480,0:12:25.600
no yeah it’s the cure

0:12:21.680,0:12:28.320
cural islands yeah

0:12:25.600,0:12:30.000
yeah everyone should read silly isles

0:12:28.320,0:12:30.880
and then read the chapter about the curl

0:12:30.000,0:12:32.240
islands because that’s

0:12:30.880,0:12:33.440
or just like do your own research

0:12:32.240,0:12:35.040
because it’s very interesting because

0:12:33.440,0:12:38.880
both japan and russia

0:12:35.040,0:12:42.240
claim the island which is yeah

0:12:38.880,0:12:44.720
the silly isles by eric campbell yeah

0:12:42.240,0:12:45.519
great journalist read and then you learn

0:12:44.720,0:12:48.639
a lot too

0:12:45.519,0:12:50.480
so um yeah so this is

0:12:48.639,0:12:52.959
basically this this is what russia looks

0:12:50.480,0:12:56.480
like at the time and they’re not

0:12:52.959,0:12:58.800
in a good spot and then like a lot of

0:12:56.480,0:12:59.519
again like there’s a huge division

0:12:58.800,0:13:01.600
between the

0:12:59.519,0:13:02.880
peasantry and like the working class and

0:13:01.600,0:13:05.760
then the noble

0:13:02.880,0:13:06.720
elites of russia like there’s a huge

0:13:05.760,0:13:09.040
wealth gap

0:13:06.720,0:13:10.000
so the monarchy like all the peasants a

0:13:09.040,0:13:12.480
lot of the presidents hate

0:13:10.000,0:13:13.519
the monarchy because they’re like just

0:13:12.480,0:13:15.680
like so

0:13:13.519,0:13:17.279
extremely wealthy and they’re living and

0:13:15.680,0:13:17.920
like extreme lavish and they’re like

0:13:17.279,0:13:20.160
what the heck

0:13:17.920,0:13:22.079
i can barely afford my next meal and

0:13:20.160,0:13:25.760
like here you are in this palace

0:13:22.079,0:13:27.839
so there people are upset about that um

0:13:25.760,0:13:29.279
and so let me let me get into the

0:13:27.839,0:13:31.360
imperial family now

0:13:29.279,0:13:34.560
so basically the imperial family

0:13:31.360,0:13:35.680
consisted of nicholas ii his wife

0:13:34.560,0:13:38.480
alexandra

0:13:35.680,0:13:39.360
and their four daughters olga maria

0:13:38.480,0:13:42.240
tatiana

0:13:39.360,0:13:43.040
and anastasia and then their only son

0:13:42.240,0:13:46.160
alexi

0:13:43.040,0:13:49.279
who was the heir to the throne and

0:13:46.160,0:13:50.639
alexi suffered from hemophilia which is

0:13:49.279,0:13:52.639
a rare

0:13:50.639,0:13:53.680
disorder where your blood doesn’t clot

0:13:52.639,0:13:55.839
so like if you got

0:13:53.680,0:13:56.880
even like a tiny cut you would bleed to

0:13:55.839,0:13:59.199
death

0:13:56.880,0:14:00.079
yeah i think that’s known as the royal

0:13:59.199,0:14:01.760
disease

0:14:00.079,0:14:03.399
because it happens a lot in royal

0:14:01.760,0:14:07.600
families because of the

0:14:03.399,0:14:10.959
inbreeding for pure blood

0:14:07.600,0:14:13.680
rut yeah yeah

0:14:10.959,0:14:16.160
so he has hemophilia and he’s he had

0:14:13.680,0:14:19.040
been in poor health since he was born

0:14:16.160,0:14:19.680
and the imperial couple had consulted

0:14:19.040,0:14:23.199
more

0:14:19.680,0:14:24.880
like unconventional spiritual spiritual

0:14:23.199,0:14:28.839
advisors before

0:14:24.880,0:14:30.320
but when they met rasputin everything

0:14:28.839,0:14:32.399
changed

0:14:30.320,0:14:34.000
so when they met rasputin everything

0:14:32.399,0:14:36.880
changed because

0:14:34.000,0:14:39.360
rasputin’s healing process proved to be

0:14:36.880,0:14:39.680
beneficial to alexis condition and they

0:14:39.360,0:14:41.600
saw

0:14:39.680,0:14:42.800
like immediate improvements in his

0:14:41.600,0:14:44.639
health so they had like

0:14:42.800,0:14:46.000
gone through all these doctors all these

0:14:44.639,0:14:47.680
spiritual healers

0:14:46.000,0:14:49.760
and then nothing had worked finally

0:14:47.680,0:14:52.560
rasputin came and

0:14:49.760,0:14:53.760
they saw progress in alexis condition

0:14:52.560,0:14:57.600
and they were like

0:14:53.760,0:15:00.720
oh my gosh like you are amazing you know

0:14:57.600,0:15:03.120
what did he do do you know yeah so

0:15:00.720,0:15:04.399
um i’ll tell you right now so basically

0:15:03.120,0:15:05.120
like there are a lot of myths

0:15:04.399,0:15:06.880
surrounding

0:15:05.120,0:15:09.600
rasputin and one of those myths is that

0:15:06.880,0:15:11.120
he had magical healing powers um

0:15:09.600,0:15:12.720
obviously like oh sorry i shouldn’t say

0:15:11.120,0:15:16.160
obviously um this is not actually

0:15:12.720,0:15:16.720
true many historians believe that the

0:15:16.160,0:15:19.279
reason

0:15:16.720,0:15:20.079
alexi’s condition improved was because

0:15:19.279,0:15:22.320
rasputin

0:15:20.079,0:15:23.519
insisted that other doctors stay away

0:15:22.320,0:15:26.160
from him

0:15:23.519,0:15:27.839
and because of limited knowledge on

0:15:26.160,0:15:30.480
medicine at the time

0:15:27.839,0:15:32.079
russian doctors were giving him aspirin

0:15:30.480,0:15:35.519
they were just resp

0:15:32.079,0:15:37.519
prescribing alexi asprin to cure

0:15:35.519,0:15:39.440
his disease and because i was kind of

0:15:37.519,0:15:41.920
known as the cure-all at the time

0:15:39.440,0:15:43.040
but aspirin actually thins the blood

0:15:41.920,0:15:45.360
which makes

0:15:43.040,0:15:47.040
his hemophilia condition worse so then

0:15:45.360,0:15:49.759
once the doctor stopped giving him

0:15:47.040,0:15:52.079
aspirin they were able to see it like

0:15:49.759,0:15:54.639
improvement

0:15:52.079,0:15:55.839
and yeah so that’s kind of the reason

0:15:54.639,0:15:58.079
why

0:15:55.839,0:16:00.240
his condition improved and also just

0:15:58.079,0:16:03.360
like rasputin’s personality

0:16:00.240,0:16:06.480
and his aura like painted this picture

0:16:03.360,0:16:09.839
of success because he was able to read

0:16:06.480,0:16:12.079
the couples inner hopes and like he told

0:16:09.839,0:16:15.440
them exactly what they wanted to hear

0:16:12.079,0:16:16.240
and he especially he formed like a

0:16:15.440,0:16:18.480
really

0:16:16.240,0:16:21.279
tight relationship with alexandra he was

0:16:18.480,0:16:23.600
able to soothe all her anxieties

0:16:21.279,0:16:26.000
and he encouraged nicholas to have more

0:16:23.600,0:16:28.160
confidence in his role as a czar

0:16:26.000,0:16:29.600
so like he knew all of their weaknesses

0:16:28.160,0:16:31.519
basically and like

0:16:29.600,0:16:32.639
he was like no i’m here to help you like

0:16:31.519,0:16:35.920
you need me

0:16:32.639,0:16:36.959
you know yeah it’s like a modern day

0:16:35.920,0:16:40.160
therapist

0:16:36.959,0:16:43.680
slash people person

0:16:40.160,0:16:45.279
he knew how to like work with people

0:16:43.680,0:16:47.040
and he knew how to get what he wanted

0:16:45.279,0:16:49.279
from people so

0:16:47.040,0:16:51.440
um and so this is like kind of where his

0:16:49.279,0:16:54.240
role as a healer

0:16:51.440,0:16:56.160
transitions to like a much more powerful

0:16:54.240,0:16:57.519
figure in the imperial court because

0:16:56.160,0:17:00.880
like he’s just there to

0:16:57.519,0:17:03.279
cure alexi but um like

0:17:00.880,0:17:04.000
obviously he stayed for a lot longer so

0:17:03.279,0:17:06.720
there are

0:17:04.000,0:17:08.559
also a lot of myths around this topic a

0:17:06.720,0:17:10.240
lot of people think that he was like a

0:17:08.559,0:17:12.480
secret puppet master

0:17:10.240,0:17:13.360
for the imperial couple and actually

0:17:12.480,0:17:16.799
secretly ran

0:17:13.360,0:17:20.400
russia um and like because

0:17:16.799,0:17:22.160
of his odd nature and then his constant

0:17:20.400,0:17:24.799
presence in the royal court

0:17:22.160,0:17:26.160
rumors about this spread very quickly

0:17:24.799,0:17:28.000
within russia

0:17:26.160,0:17:30.559
and everyone was like what is he up to

0:17:28.000,0:17:33.679
like this guy’s so suspicious

0:17:30.559,0:17:36.240
um in reality like he did offer

0:17:33.679,0:17:36.880
military advice occasionally to nicholas

0:17:36.240,0:17:39.679
ii

0:17:36.880,0:17:40.559
but it like his ideas never actually

0:17:39.679,0:17:42.720
helped him

0:17:40.559,0:17:44.720
like it never actually proved to be like

0:17:42.720,0:17:47.440
good ideas so

0:17:44.720,0:17:48.880
um yeah he didn’t have a huge influence

0:17:47.440,0:17:51.919
over the military

0:17:48.880,0:17:52.880
um however he did have a lot of

0:17:51.919,0:17:56.320
influence

0:17:52.880,0:17:58.880
over alexandra and nicholas was away

0:17:56.320,0:18:00.160
fighting a lot um like fighting all

0:17:58.880,0:18:02.240
these wars and so

0:18:00.160,0:18:04.000
rasputin did have enough time to appoint

0:18:02.240,0:18:05.440
his own church ministers and other

0:18:04.000,0:18:08.080
public officials

0:18:05.440,0:18:10.080
and alexandra would dismiss ministers

0:18:08.080,0:18:12.080
who were skeptical of rasputin

0:18:10.080,0:18:13.600
so there was like he did have a lot of

0:18:12.080,0:18:16.400
influence in that regard

0:18:13.600,0:18:19.039
and so obviously this really upset the

0:18:16.400,0:18:21.120
other russian elites and nobles

0:18:19.039,0:18:22.799
which comes into play later because like

0:18:21.120,0:18:25.360
at the time

0:18:22.799,0:18:26.320
um so i really like reading like old

0:18:25.360,0:18:29.520
russian literature

0:18:26.320,0:18:31.600
like anna and like brother karamazov

0:18:29.520,0:18:33.360
and like in all these books like they

0:18:31.600,0:18:37.120
just really

0:18:33.360,0:18:38.160
they really uh crap on russian elites

0:18:37.120,0:18:40.400
basically

0:18:38.160,0:18:42.000
because at this time like the nobles had

0:18:40.400,0:18:44.640
so much influence over

0:18:42.000,0:18:46.240
the imperial family and like they’re all

0:18:44.640,0:18:49.360
like cousins and they’re all

0:18:46.240,0:18:50.880
trying to like gain power and like rule

0:18:49.360,0:18:53.520
russia

0:18:50.880,0:18:54.160
and yeah so it’s like pretty corrupt at

0:18:53.520,0:18:57.600
the time

0:18:54.160,0:18:59.840
and it’s uh not very democratic so

0:18:57.600,0:19:01.840
yeah again like peasants really hated

0:18:59.840,0:19:04.799
that aspect of the monarchy

0:19:01.840,0:19:05.600
um and yeah and then before we move on

0:19:04.799,0:19:08.160
there are also

0:19:05.600,0:19:11.200
like a lot of rumors that rasputin was

0:19:08.160,0:19:14.320
having a secret affair with alexandra

0:19:11.200,0:19:16.880
but there’s actually no evidence of this

0:19:14.320,0:19:18.000
and these rumors about their

0:19:16.880,0:19:20.720
relationship

0:19:18.000,0:19:21.840
they also began early and they spread

0:19:20.720,0:19:24.480
very quickly

0:19:21.840,0:19:27.360
throughout russia because like of his

0:19:24.480,0:19:30.400
reputation for like sexual deviancy

0:19:27.360,0:19:32.640
and his frequent visits to brothels um

0:19:30.400,0:19:34.960
he was also having affairs with other

0:19:32.640,0:19:38.880
high society ladies

0:19:34.960,0:19:41.919
and while alexandra did

0:19:38.880,0:19:43.679
embroider shirts for him and she and her

0:19:41.919,0:19:45.679
friends were invited to his home

0:19:43.679,0:19:48.000
sometimes like there’s no actual

0:19:45.679,0:19:51.679
evidence that they were having an affair

0:19:48.000,0:19:52.000
so yeah okay so that line in the song is

0:19:51.679,0:19:54.480
just

0:19:52.000,0:19:56.640
speculation where they said he was the

0:19:54.480,0:19:59.039
lover of the russian queen

0:19:56.640,0:20:00.640
yeah yeah yeah that’s like kind of like

0:19:59.039,0:20:02.000
people like joke about it now and

0:20:00.640,0:20:04.000
they’re like oh that’s why he had so

0:20:02.000,0:20:06.640
much influence and it’s like

0:20:04.000,0:20:08.799
i don’t know i don’t think it was true i

0:20:06.640,0:20:10.400
like just a lot of rumors

0:20:08.799,0:20:12.080
there’s just so many rumors about him

0:20:10.400,0:20:14.400
because he was such a

0:20:12.080,0:20:15.760
weird unpredictable guy and like people

0:20:14.400,0:20:18.159
didn’t know the extent

0:20:15.760,0:20:19.440
of like his like powers they thought he

0:20:18.159,0:20:21.919
was like this magical man

0:20:19.440,0:20:24.000
so yeah and i’m sure a lot of this is

0:20:21.919,0:20:27.039
happening behind closed doors so

0:20:24.000,0:20:30.559
no one really knows unless you’re there

0:20:27.039,0:20:31.120
yeah exactly yeah so i mean that’s true

0:20:30.559,0:20:34.080
like well

0:20:31.120,0:20:35.520
we don’t really know but yeah and so

0:20:34.080,0:20:38.640
yeah that’s kind of like

0:20:35.520,0:20:40.480
a big uh like important thing to

0:20:38.640,0:20:42.400
remember about rasputin is that the

0:20:40.480,0:20:44.559
russian people were scared of him

0:20:42.400,0:20:46.559
because they didn’t know who he was like

0:20:44.559,0:20:48.880
he called himself a holy man

0:20:46.559,0:20:50.320
even though he had he had no formal

0:20:48.880,0:20:53.840
affiliation with a

0:20:50.320,0:20:55.760
russian orthodox church and he was very

0:20:53.840,0:20:58.240
passionately religious but he was also a

0:20:55.760,0:20:59.760
huge drunk and he was constantly having

0:20:58.240,0:21:01.520
affairs with women

0:20:59.760,0:21:02.880
and then he declared himself the

0:21:01.520,0:21:05.440
self-appointed

0:21:02.880,0:21:07.360
representative of the russian peasantry

0:21:05.440,0:21:08.640
but he was also like living with the

0:21:07.360,0:21:10.240
imperial family

0:21:08.640,0:21:12.559
like in this palace and so they’re like

0:21:10.240,0:21:15.360
okay you’re not really a peasant anymore

0:21:12.559,0:21:17.360
and so nobody knew what was true and

0:21:15.360,0:21:18.320
what was false what was myth what was

0:21:17.360,0:21:21.200
fact

0:21:18.320,0:21:23.120
um yeah and like the extent of his grip

0:21:21.200,0:21:23.840
on the imperial family so it was really

0:21:23.120,0:21:26.960
easy for

0:21:23.840,0:21:29.200
rumors to be spread about him and so

0:21:26.960,0:21:31.360
after the russian revolution

0:21:29.200,0:21:32.240
which like spoiler alert it’s happening

0:21:31.360,0:21:35.440
soon and i’ll

0:21:32.240,0:21:38.240
talk about it later but um his life was

0:21:35.440,0:21:39.440
exaggerated and embellished by his

0:21:38.240,0:21:41.520
enemies in order to

0:21:39.440,0:21:44.080
propagandize his life and kind of make

0:21:41.520,0:21:47.600
him into this like evil villain like

0:21:44.080,0:21:48.799
this evil sorcerer you know so a lot of

0:21:47.600,0:21:51.200
aspects of his life have been

0:21:48.799,0:21:53.200
exaggerated a lot and that’s

0:21:51.200,0:21:54.799
like kind of the image that has stuck

0:21:53.200,0:21:57.280
over time you know

0:21:54.799,0:21:58.400
okay but people did that i guess people

0:21:57.280,0:22:01.600
did that

0:21:58.400,0:22:04.880
to um like get

0:22:01.600,0:22:05.600
the local russians to not like support

0:22:04.880,0:22:08.240
him

0:22:05.600,0:22:09.600
like what’s the point of doing that well

0:22:08.240,0:22:13.120
i’ll get into it

0:22:09.600,0:22:17.919
later but basically they’re like

0:22:13.120,0:22:20.080
um well okay yeah his enemies were like

0:22:17.919,0:22:22.159
oh like look at this guy who has this

0:22:20.080,0:22:23.760
control over the imperial couple and

0:22:22.159,0:22:25.679
he’s actually the one

0:22:23.760,0:22:27.760
who decides what’s going on what’s going

0:22:25.679,0:22:29.280
on in russia like not the people

0:22:27.760,0:22:31.280
and they’re like oh the imperial family

0:22:29.280,0:22:32.559
is so corrupt so that’s kind of

0:22:31.280,0:22:34.720
they’re like they were corrupted by this

0:22:32.559,0:22:37.840
evil sorcerer guy so i think that’s what

0:22:34.720,0:22:41.280
oh it’s like propaganda for overthrowing

0:22:37.840,0:22:43.760
excuse me the monarchy yes yeah okay

0:22:41.280,0:22:44.799
i’ll like go more into detail because

0:22:43.760,0:22:47.280
that’s like

0:22:44.799,0:22:49.039
it gets complicated but yeah but that’s

0:22:47.280,0:22:49.520
like his enemies that was his enemies

0:22:49.039,0:22:52.480
argument

0:22:49.520,0:22:54.400
kind of um and so yeah like another

0:22:52.480,0:22:55.440
reason why these rumors spread so

0:22:54.400,0:22:58.159
quickly

0:22:55.440,0:22:59.200
about rasputin was because nicholas ii

0:22:58.159,0:23:01.200
had actually given

0:22:59.200,0:23:02.400
a lot more rights to the press so they

0:23:01.200,0:23:05.120
were free to print

0:23:02.400,0:23:07.039
all these rumors about rasputin and it

0:23:05.120,0:23:08.880
was not only in russia it was overseas

0:23:07.039,0:23:09.200
as well like a lot of people knew about

0:23:08.880,0:23:11.679
him

0:23:09.200,0:23:12.320
just because he was like this wild guy

0:23:11.679,0:23:14.080
and

0:23:12.320,0:23:15.440
like a lot of people wanted to read

0:23:14.080,0:23:17.760
about him you know

0:23:15.440,0:23:19.840
um there were even rumors that he was

0:23:17.760,0:23:22.159
committing treason with a german

0:23:19.840,0:23:24.400
enemy and he had started the cholera

0:23:22.159,0:23:26.880
epidemic in saint petersburg

0:23:24.400,0:23:27.840
but like this is obviously not true but

0:23:26.880,0:23:31.919
yeah it’s just like

0:23:27.840,0:23:34.840
is it is it we don’t really know diddy

0:23:31.919,0:23:36.480
i mean yeah that could be another like

0:23:34.840,0:23:38.960
conspiracy

0:23:36.480,0:23:40.400
recipe and start the cholera epidemic

0:23:38.960,0:23:42.240
but yeah it like

0:23:40.400,0:23:43.919
to me it’s like it sounds like it’s like

0:23:42.240,0:23:46.960
tabloid magazines you know

0:23:43.919,0:23:48.480
he’s like the first like celebrity

0:23:46.960,0:23:50.000
where they’re like spreading all these

0:23:48.480,0:23:52.480
like crazy rumors like oh my

0:23:50.000,0:23:54.480
god what’s he gonna do next and like who

0:23:52.480,0:23:58.400
is rasputin you know

0:23:54.480,0:24:01.520
yeah imagine it um

0:23:58.400,0:24:03.520
and okay so i actually like didn’t know

0:24:01.520,0:24:06.640
the details of this

0:24:03.520,0:24:10.799
um but rasputin dies

0:24:06.640,0:24:15.200
obviously um but his he was murdered

0:24:10.799,0:24:16.880
and it’s a wow sorry uh rasputin was a

0:24:15.200,0:24:19.600
very controversial

0:24:16.880,0:24:20.559
person and he was hated by a lot of

0:24:19.600,0:24:22.960
people

0:24:20.559,0:24:24.799
so elites hated him because of the

0:24:22.960,0:24:27.360
influence he had over the imperial

0:24:24.799,0:24:29.120
couple and how he ruined the reputation

0:24:27.360,0:24:30.240
of the monarchy because it just made

0:24:29.120,0:24:32.400
them look

0:24:30.240,0:24:34.400
silly they’re like oh they’re weak they

0:24:32.400,0:24:35.120
can let this crazy guy come and like

0:24:34.400,0:24:38.159
take over

0:24:35.120,0:24:40.559
you know yeah like puppets and stuff

0:24:38.159,0:24:41.679
but then again did it really make them

0:24:40.559,0:24:44.559
look worse

0:24:41.679,0:24:47.200
because from the sound of it they didn’t

0:24:44.559,0:24:50.559
look that good at least nicholas wasn’t

0:24:47.200,0:24:53.600
doing too hot before us rasputin

0:24:50.559,0:24:54.320
i think like the big problem with him

0:24:53.600,0:24:56.880
was

0:24:54.320,0:24:57.760
like at the time the russian orthodox

0:24:56.880,0:25:00.240
church is

0:24:57.760,0:25:02.159
had a lot of power in russia and like

0:25:00.240,0:25:05.200
russians are very religious

0:25:02.159,0:25:07.440
and so rasputin like

0:25:05.200,0:25:09.440
represented a lot of different sins and

0:25:07.440,0:25:12.799
so they’re like oh this sinful man

0:25:09.440,0:25:14.559
is in the monarchy like he’s destroying

0:25:12.799,0:25:15.919
the purity of the monarchy you know

0:25:14.559,0:25:16.640
because like even if you don’t agree

0:25:15.919,0:25:19.360
with

0:25:16.640,0:25:21.120
the imperial fam like couples politics

0:25:19.360,0:25:23.600
and like nicholas the second

0:25:21.120,0:25:24.960
decisions you know like this was like

0:25:23.600,0:25:28.240
different because they’re like oh

0:25:24.960,0:25:32.320
this sinful man is like corrupting

0:25:28.240,0:25:34.799
the monarchy um yeah so and then it like

0:25:32.320,0:25:35.520
nobles hated him because they are used

0:25:34.799,0:25:37.039
to having

0:25:35.520,0:25:38.960
control over the couple but then now

0:25:37.039,0:25:40.320
rasputin has like kind of like claimed

0:25:38.960,0:25:41.840
his territory so they’re like

0:25:40.320,0:25:43.360
what the heck now the couple’s not

0:25:41.840,0:25:47.039
listening to us they’re listening to

0:25:43.360,0:25:50.400
this random guy and also like

0:25:47.039,0:25:53.279
it seems like wild in june 1914

0:25:50.400,0:25:54.960
a beggar woman stabbed rasputin in the

0:25:53.279,0:25:57.200
stomach because he was

0:25:54.960,0:25:58.559
quote unquote preying on the innocent so

0:25:57.200,0:26:00.240
like i don’t even want to know

0:25:58.559,0:26:02.480
it was probably he was probably being an

0:26:00.240,0:26:03.440
awful person um so she literally goes up

0:26:02.480,0:26:06.400
and stabs him

0:26:03.440,0:26:07.840
he’s like so close to death at one point

0:26:06.400,0:26:08.720
he’s like bleeding out and he’s like

0:26:07.840,0:26:10.400
about to die

0:26:08.720,0:26:12.640
but somehow he still makes a full

0:26:10.400,0:26:16.799
recovery and he’s like fine like he’s

0:26:12.640,0:26:18.640
what he’s like a character

0:26:16.799,0:26:20.400
yeah i’m like this guy does not sound

0:26:18.640,0:26:22.480
real and so people are like oh my god

0:26:20.400,0:26:25.440
it’s because he’s magic you know

0:26:22.480,0:26:26.159
okay and so this kind of like feeds into

0:26:25.440,0:26:29.200
all like

0:26:26.159,0:26:32.400
the the myths about him um

0:26:29.200,0:26:35.360
and so yeah how did he if he’s bleeding

0:26:32.400,0:26:36.080
out i don’t was just like a medical

0:26:35.360,0:26:37.840
miracle

0:26:36.080,0:26:39.200
i guess yeah maybe he has the opposite

0:26:37.840,0:26:43.039
of hemophilia

0:26:39.200,0:26:44.960
and then like his blood clots so fast

0:26:43.039,0:26:47.279
his blood clots so fast he has all this

0:26:44.960,0:26:49.600
extra blood but

0:26:47.279,0:26:51.039
just wait until listen what i’m about to

0:26:49.600,0:26:54.320
tell you because like if you think that

0:26:51.039,0:26:56.080
is wild the story of his murder

0:26:54.320,0:26:57.360
is literally insane i like could not

0:26:56.080,0:27:01.200
believe it when i was reading it

0:26:57.360,0:27:04.080
so basically on december 30th 1916

0:27:01.200,0:27:06.240
felix yusuf which i am i know i’m

0:27:04.080,0:27:08.400
mispronouncing that last name um

0:27:06.240,0:27:10.080
he’s the richest man in russia and he’s

0:27:08.400,0:27:13.919
also the husband

0:27:10.080,0:27:17.520
of nicholas ii’s only niece so he’s

0:27:13.919,0:27:19.440
tied to the family um and so he invites

0:27:17.520,0:27:21.360
rasputin over at his house to have

0:27:19.440,0:27:24.559
dinner with him and his friends

0:27:21.360,0:27:25.440
and yusuf he was very privileged and he

0:27:24.559,0:27:28.159
lived a pretty

0:27:25.440,0:27:28.720
aimless life like he was just some rich

0:27:28.159,0:27:30.880
guy

0:27:28.720,0:27:31.919
you know and he thought that getting rid

0:27:30.880,0:27:34.320
of rasputin

0:27:31.919,0:27:36.399
would give nicholas the second a final

0:27:34.320,0:27:39.440
chance to restore the reputation

0:27:36.399,0:27:41.840
and prestige of the monarchy and then

0:27:39.440,0:27:45.039
the tsar would be open to advice

0:27:41.840,0:27:47.600
of his extended family and nobles

0:27:45.039,0:27:49.039
like yusupov again so he’s like okay we

0:27:47.600,0:27:50.880
need to get rid of this guy

0:27:49.039,0:27:52.559
and he also just like wanted to reinvent

0:27:50.880,0:27:54.399
himself as a patriot

0:27:52.559,0:27:56.799
and a man of action because he’s like

0:27:54.399,0:27:58.080
i’m doing this for the betterment of

0:27:56.799,0:28:00.480
russia like i’m doing this for the

0:27:58.080,0:28:02.320
russian people because like people

0:28:00.480,0:28:04.080
he didn’t he like refused to fight in

0:28:02.320,0:28:06.480
the wars like he didn’t serve and people

0:28:04.080,0:28:10.080
were like okay you’re trash

0:28:06.480,0:28:12.720
oh i’m actually like doing stuff

0:28:10.080,0:28:14.880
yeah but even like with rasputin

0:28:12.720,0:28:16.960
advising the monarchy did

0:28:14.880,0:28:19.600
the situation get better for common

0:28:16.960,0:28:23.039
people in russia or no

0:28:19.600,0:28:24.480
um not like to my knowledge not

0:28:23.039,0:28:26.640
really like raspbian kind of

0:28:24.480,0:28:29.760
disappointed people

0:28:26.640,0:28:30.720
who like his allies he appointed them to

0:28:29.760,0:28:33.919
like

0:28:30.720,0:28:35.840
official positions so he like he wasn’t

0:28:33.919,0:28:37.600
really there for the russian people he

0:28:35.840,0:28:39.679
wasn’t like oh i’m here

0:28:37.600,0:28:41.840
to make the working class better he was

0:28:39.679,0:28:44.880
kind of just there to benefit him on

0:28:41.840,0:28:45.440
his own self it’s like oh yeah my allies

0:28:44.880,0:28:48.480
in place

0:28:45.440,0:28:49.919
so yeah so either way

0:28:48.480,0:28:52.480
like i don’t think that’s super

0:28:49.919,0:28:53.279
patriotic like i’m not going to benefit

0:28:52.480,0:28:56.320
from it

0:28:53.279,0:28:58.399
so but here’s the thing is that yusuf is

0:28:56.320,0:29:00.080
thinking from the perspective of a noble

0:28:58.399,0:29:01.600
person he’s like i’m doing this for the

0:29:00.080,0:29:03.520
nobles of russia like

0:29:01.600,0:29:04.960
okay not for the common people all right

0:29:03.520,0:29:06.159
that’s a different definition of

0:29:04.960,0:29:09.200
patriotism

0:29:06.159,0:29:10.799
than what i have so it’s more like

0:29:09.200,0:29:13.520
classism he’s like he does not

0:29:10.799,0:29:13.919
care about the word class russian people

0:29:13.520,0:29:16.559
um

0:29:13.919,0:29:18.159
yeah this is what russia is like at the

0:29:16.559,0:29:20.799
time it’s very divided which

0:29:18.159,0:29:23.039
we’ll get into in a bit but that sucks

0:29:20.799,0:29:25.039
well also too

0:29:23.039,0:29:27.039
sorry going back you said they’re like

0:29:25.039,0:29:29.440
seven different languages before they’re

0:29:27.039,0:29:31.679
forced to speak russian so

0:29:29.440,0:29:33.440
yeah it sounds like it’s not this big

0:29:31.679,0:29:36.640
monolithic

0:29:33.440,0:29:39.279
country where everyone is like united

0:29:36.640,0:29:40.080
to start not at all it’s just like this

0:29:39.279,0:29:42.720
huge empire

0:29:40.080,0:29:44.159
and like russia is so big like each

0:29:42.720,0:29:46.080
region is so

0:29:44.159,0:29:47.919
different like there’s different

0:29:46.080,0:29:48.960
languages different religions different

0:29:47.919,0:29:52.720
cultures and so

0:29:48.960,0:29:55.120
it’s hard to unite the people as a whole

0:29:52.720,0:29:56.960
which is like that kind of explains like

0:29:55.120,0:29:58.240
russian politics and like russian

0:29:56.960,0:30:01.039
history is like

0:29:58.240,0:30:04.000
how do we unite all these people but um

0:30:01.039,0:30:08.320
yeah what’s the population on russia

0:30:04.000,0:30:10.640
it’s not huge let me google it um

0:30:08.320,0:30:11.760
yeah i thought that i thought that

0:30:10.640,0:30:13.679
siberia

0:30:11.760,0:30:15.520
was where you got sent for prison

0:30:13.679,0:30:18.159
because i thought you could not live

0:30:15.520,0:30:18.640
in siberia but you just said someone was

0:30:18.159,0:30:21.440
born

0:30:18.640,0:30:22.240
like rasputin was born in siberia like

0:30:21.440,0:30:25.200
during the

0:30:22.240,0:30:27.200
soviet union i think a lot there are a

0:30:25.200,0:30:29.440
lot of prisons in siberia

0:30:27.200,0:30:30.480
okay yeah fiddler on the roof like he

0:30:29.440,0:30:35.279
gets sent to

0:30:30.480,0:30:36.399
siberia yeah but there are 144.5 million

0:30:35.279,0:30:39.120
people in russia

0:30:36.399,0:30:40.960
which is okay that’s like a third of the

0:30:39.120,0:30:43.440
us’s population and russia

0:30:40.960,0:30:44.799
is huge but a lot of it is uninhabitable

0:30:43.440,0:30:47.520
because it’s so

0:30:44.799,0:30:48.640
freaking cold yeah it’s probably just

0:30:47.520,0:30:52.720
like forest

0:30:48.640,0:30:55.279
it’s like ice um yeah

0:30:52.720,0:30:57.039
but yeah so it’s like and everyone’s

0:30:55.279,0:30:58.320
very spread out too so it’s also harder

0:30:57.039,0:31:01.760
to get like people

0:30:58.320,0:31:03.600
um and yeah so rasputin goes to dinner

0:31:01.760,0:31:06.559
at ucla’s house

0:31:03.600,0:31:07.279
and a few days later his battered body

0:31:06.559,0:31:11.519
is found

0:31:07.279,0:31:13.840
in the neva river and so yeah

0:31:11.519,0:31:14.880
yeah it’s wild and so the details of his

0:31:13.840,0:31:18.159
murder

0:31:14.880,0:31:21.519
are a bit unclear so in

0:31:18.159,0:31:24.240
his 1928 memoir memoir

0:31:21.519,0:31:26.480
yusupov actually wrote about how he and

0:31:24.240,0:31:27.519
his friends killed rasputin because like

0:31:26.480,0:31:28.880
to him

0:31:27.519,0:31:31.279
yeah because to him he was like this i

0:31:28.880,0:31:32.880
did a good deed for the country and like

0:31:31.279,0:31:34.399
a lot of people ended up all the other

0:31:32.880,0:31:36.640
elites like praised him for it they’re

0:31:34.399,0:31:39.519
like you did a great thing like good job

0:31:36.640,0:31:40.720
like you didn’t serve any time oh my

0:31:39.519,0:31:44.720
gosh

0:31:40.720,0:31:47.200
what and so he said basically what

0:31:44.720,0:31:49.840
he said happened was that he served

0:31:47.200,0:31:51.440
rasputin a platter of cakes and several

0:31:49.840,0:31:54.320
glasses of wine that had

0:31:51.440,0:31:55.519
been poisoned with potassium cyanide and

0:31:54.320,0:31:58.159
to his surprise

0:31:55.519,0:31:59.360
rasputin was unaffected by the poison so

0:31:58.159,0:32:01.360
him and his friends are like

0:31:59.360,0:32:03.039
oh okay i guess you got to go to a plan

0:32:01.360,0:32:05.039
b so then they just start

0:32:03.039,0:32:06.720
pulling out the revolvers and they shoot

0:32:05.039,0:32:08.960
rescued multiple times

0:32:06.720,0:32:11.039
and he like collapses to the ground but

0:32:08.960,0:32:11.919
then when they’re like dragging his body

0:32:11.039,0:32:15.279
out

0:32:11.919,0:32:17.679
he like revives and he

0:32:15.279,0:32:18.960
escaped and they’re like what the heck

0:32:17.679,0:32:21.279
we still

0:32:18.960,0:32:22.080
so then like this part is like kind of

0:32:21.279,0:32:25.039
awful

0:32:22.080,0:32:26.080
they beat rasputin viciously and then

0:32:25.039,0:32:28.240
they tie him up

0:32:26.080,0:32:29.760
and throw him into the freezing cold

0:32:28.240,0:32:32.320
river because it’s like

0:32:29.760,0:32:34.240
december you know and they said that he

0:32:32.320,0:32:37.600
was still alive when he threw

0:32:34.240,0:32:41.600
when they threw him in the river um

0:32:37.600,0:32:45.039
i would be like this is a it’s a demon

0:32:41.600,0:32:45.760
kill it like well that’s i mean that’s

0:32:45.039,0:32:48.480
kind of

0:32:45.760,0:32:48.960
the whole thing so people are like oh my

0:32:48.480,0:32:51.679
god

0:32:48.960,0:32:52.000
this guy was not human like he is some

0:32:51.679,0:32:55.120
like

0:32:52.000,0:32:58.080
demon right like that

0:32:55.120,0:32:59.120
no scary if he was actually a demon oh

0:32:58.080,0:33:02.240
my gosh i just got

0:32:59.120,0:33:05.519
chills okay well listen to this because

0:33:02.240,0:33:05.919
a year later rasputin’s daughter who fun

0:33:05.519,0:33:08.640
fact

0:33:05.919,0:33:10.000
so she flees russia after the revolution

0:33:08.640,0:33:13.200
and then she becomes a circus

0:33:10.000,0:33:15.760
lion tamer which is like what the heck

0:33:13.200,0:33:17.519
sorry um live your best life i didn’t

0:33:15.760,0:33:20.720
know he had a daughter

0:33:17.519,0:33:22.480
yeah he had three children oh a lot more

0:33:20.720,0:33:25.600
but only three of them survived

0:33:22.480,0:33:28.399
um so survive her

0:33:25.600,0:33:30.080
yeah they like because it like infant

0:33:28.399,0:33:30.640
mortality rate was like high in russia

0:33:30.080,0:33:33.679
so sad

0:33:30.640,0:33:34.320
oh okay he she writes her own book and

0:33:33.679,0:33:37.279
she said

0:33:34.320,0:33:38.399
a year later and she says that yusuf his

0:33:37.279,0:33:40.960
story is fake

0:33:38.399,0:33:43.039
she said that her father hated sweets so

0:33:40.960,0:33:44.720
he would never have eaten the food

0:33:43.039,0:33:46.880
and she also pointed out that the

0:33:44.720,0:33:49.039
autopsy showed that he died

0:33:46.880,0:33:50.480
from gunshots to the head from a close

0:33:49.039,0:33:53.120
range and not from

0:33:50.480,0:33:54.640
like drowning in the river and so she

0:33:53.120,0:33:57.440
argued that yusufov

0:33:54.640,0:33:58.799
just wanted to turn the murder into a

0:33:57.440,0:34:01.440
story about good

0:33:58.799,0:34:03.279
versus evil to sell books and also

0:34:01.440,0:34:05.039
improve his reputation like

0:34:03.279,0:34:06.880
oh don’t worry guys i got rid of this

0:34:05.039,0:34:10.960
evil demon like you can thank me

0:34:06.880,0:34:11.200
you know okay fooled me i was convinced

0:34:10.960,0:34:13.839
i

0:34:11.200,0:34:15.119
was like oh my gosh dude rasputin was a

0:34:13.839,0:34:17.040
demon

0:34:15.119,0:34:19.119
but okay that makes sense yeah i was

0:34:17.040,0:34:21.119
like what the heck like that’s

0:34:19.119,0:34:22.240
wild and it’s like oh okay that’s

0:34:21.119,0:34:24.639
probably fake

0:34:22.240,0:34:25.520
um so yeah so people think that like he

0:34:24.639,0:34:28.159
was just shot

0:34:25.520,0:34:28.800
in the head and then they threw him into

0:34:28.159,0:34:32.159
the river

0:34:28.800,0:34:35.919
like his bed oh gosh

0:34:32.159,0:34:37.359
so terrible well okay yeah

0:34:35.919,0:34:39.200
it’s gonna get a little bit worse later

0:34:37.359,0:34:42.800
when we get to like the romanov

0:34:39.200,0:34:44.079
it’s not done i like i’m almost done

0:34:42.800,0:34:46.960
though but um

0:34:44.079,0:34:49.359
okay just like a tiny little bit no rush

0:34:46.960,0:34:52.159
it’s fine it’s interesting

0:34:49.359,0:34:52.960
so responses to his death were pretty

0:34:52.159,0:34:55.679
mixed because

0:34:52.960,0:34:56.800
the elites were happy and like i said

0:34:55.679,0:34:59.599
earlier they were like

0:34:56.800,0:35:01.040
praising the killers um but actually

0:34:59.599,0:35:03.280
like his death

0:35:01.040,0:35:04.160
rasputin’s death didn’t lead to radical

0:35:03.280,0:35:06.720
changes in

0:35:04.160,0:35:08.079
nicholas and alexander’s politics like

0:35:06.720,0:35:09.440
they were like oh russia’s gonna be

0:35:08.079,0:35:10.240
better now and like that didn’t really

0:35:09.440,0:35:12.240
happen

0:35:10.240,0:35:14.400
and then peasants mourned him as one of

0:35:12.240,0:35:17.200
their own they saw his murder

0:35:14.400,0:35:19.040
as yet another example of the nobles

0:35:17.200,0:35:22.079
controlling bizarre

0:35:19.040,0:35:22.880
um into the bolsheviks which recap like

0:35:22.079,0:35:25.599
bolsheviks

0:35:22.880,0:35:26.640
are like russian it’s the word for

0:35:25.599,0:35:29.440
communists

0:35:26.640,0:35:30.960
so they’re the communist group in russia

0:35:29.440,0:35:33.119
and so they

0:35:30.960,0:35:34.400
believe that rasputin symbolized the

0:35:33.119,0:35:37.040
corruption of the

0:35:34.400,0:35:38.400
imperial court and they said that his

0:35:37.040,0:35:40.960
murder

0:35:38.400,0:35:43.440
was seen as an attempt by the nobility

0:35:40.960,0:35:45.599
to hold on to power at the continued

0:35:43.440,0:35:47.200
expense of the proletariat and the

0:35:45.599,0:35:48.000
proletariat is another word for a

0:35:47.200,0:35:49.680
working class

0:35:48.000,0:35:52.240
so they’re like rasputin was working

0:35:49.680,0:35:53.920
class and the nobles killed him for

0:35:52.240,0:35:56.880
their own benefits

0:35:53.920,0:35:57.760
like we don’t like the nobles like let’s

0:35:56.880,0:36:00.240
overthrow them

0:35:57.760,0:36:01.200
so that’s so actually like after the

0:36:00.240,0:36:03.520
revolution

0:36:01.200,0:36:05.520
the provisional government leader his

0:36:03.520,0:36:08.160
name was alexander kransky

0:36:05.520,0:36:09.760
he actually said that without rasputin

0:36:08.160,0:36:12.079
there would have been no lenin

0:36:09.760,0:36:13.520
so like vladimir lenin was the leader of

0:36:12.079,0:36:15.920
the bolsheviks

0:36:13.520,0:36:16.880
in this russia in this in this

0:36:15.920,0:36:19.520
revolution

0:36:16.880,0:36:20.880
um so i like i’m just going to do like a

0:36:19.520,0:36:22.800
quick one minute

0:36:20.880,0:36:24.000
overview of the russian revolution of

0:36:22.800,0:36:26.079
1917.

0:36:24.000,0:36:27.359
so remember how we talked about earlier

0:36:26.079,0:36:29.680
raspbian was like if

0:36:27.359,0:36:31.280
i die you guys are all going down like

0:36:29.680,0:36:34.880
the imperial family

0:36:31.280,0:36:35.599
15 months later um his prophecy comes

0:36:34.880,0:36:37.760
true

0:36:35.599,0:36:40.000
so basically the bolsheviks which are

0:36:37.760,0:36:42.640
let they’re led by vladimir lenin

0:36:40.000,0:36:43.200
they seize power and they overthrow the

0:36:42.640,0:36:46.320
duma

0:36:43.200,0:36:48.000
and also the romanov dynasty and

0:36:46.320,0:36:50.880
their dynasty had been ruling for over

0:36:48.000,0:36:54.079
300 years um and so okay question

0:36:50.880,0:36:56.079
i’m so sorry um what’s a dynasty if

0:36:54.079,0:36:57.520
they’re overthrowing multiple dynasties

0:36:56.079,0:37:00.560
isn’t that just like

0:36:57.520,0:37:00.880
time periods or it’s like the dynasty is

0:37:00.560,0:37:04.240
like

0:37:00.880,0:37:06.880
one royal family like

0:37:04.240,0:37:09.520
like the monarch the kingdom as a whole

0:37:06.880,0:37:11.680
but then the dynasty there’s like the

0:37:09.520,0:37:13.280
why can’t i think of any other oh it’s

0:37:11.680,0:37:17.040
like related bloods

0:37:13.280,0:37:18.720
to the family okay the british

0:37:17.040,0:37:20.320
who are like what’s the current british

0:37:18.720,0:37:20.960
dynasty i don’t know what their last

0:37:20.320,0:37:24.000
name is

0:37:20.960,0:37:26.560
but william you ever know what’s his

0:37:24.000,0:37:31.599
first name

0:37:26.560,0:37:33.760
princess diana meghan markle

0:37:31.599,0:37:35.680
yeah but i don’t know why i’m blinking

0:37:33.760,0:37:37.599
on an every dynasty name but basically

0:37:35.680,0:37:39.280
it’s like oh like this one family

0:37:37.599,0:37:42.160
like that’s the name for their whole

0:37:39.280,0:37:44.800
like family so the romanovs is like

0:37:42.160,0:37:47.119
the one linear family that they’ve

0:37:44.800,0:37:48.720
passed down the throne to for 300 years

0:37:47.119,0:37:50.320
so they’ve been ruling

0:37:48.720,0:37:52.079
oh like chinese dynasty like there’s

0:37:50.320,0:37:54.079
like what like the mean dynasty

0:37:52.079,0:37:56.160
yeah but see that’s the dynasty i

0:37:54.079,0:37:58.720
thought was like a time period i didn’t

0:37:56.160,0:38:00.800
realize that it’s like a bloodline

0:37:58.720,0:38:02.839
it’s the bloodline but it’s been used to

0:38:00.800,0:38:05.839
mark different time periods because

0:38:02.839,0:38:07.359
normally like when you switch dynasties

0:38:05.839,0:38:09.119
when you switch families that’s because

0:38:07.359,0:38:12.320
like you’re switching

0:38:09.119,0:38:14.880
like political views oh okay

0:38:12.320,0:38:16.720
that makes a lot of sense yeah so how

0:38:14.880,0:38:18.800
did i not know that

0:38:16.720,0:38:20.560
how did i not know that but yeah so they

0:38:18.800,0:38:22.240
the bolsheviks overthrow the romanov

0:38:20.560,0:38:24.800
dynasty and they later become the

0:38:22.240,0:38:27.440
communist party of the soviet union

0:38:24.800,0:38:28.320
and so nicholas ii was dethroned and his

0:38:27.440,0:38:31.359
family was

0:38:28.320,0:38:34.160
in prison and they tried to gain asylum

0:38:31.359,0:38:35.920
in france or britain because alexandra

0:38:34.160,0:38:36.960
was actually the granddaughter of queen

0:38:35.920,0:38:40.240
victoria

0:38:36.960,0:38:43.040
um but they were refused um

0:38:40.240,0:38:45.440
okay i they were refused but she’s the

0:38:43.040,0:38:47.599
granddaughter of queen victoria

0:38:45.440,0:38:48.640
yeah it’s like very scandalous it’s like

0:38:47.599,0:38:51.200
wow

0:38:48.640,0:38:52.560
just like turn their back on them but

0:38:51.200,0:38:53.440
they didn’t no one thought that they

0:38:52.560,0:38:56.240
would be killed

0:38:53.440,0:38:57.359
um basically they were like the family

0:38:56.240,0:38:59.520
was put into exile

0:38:57.359,0:39:01.200
they were like in prison but at first

0:38:59.520,0:39:03.520
like they were just taken to another

0:39:01.200,0:39:04.720
like huge house and they took like 40 of

0:39:03.520,0:39:06.320
their servants with them

0:39:04.720,0:39:07.920
and they could take like most of their

0:39:06.320,0:39:10.160
belongings so they’re like

0:39:07.920,0:39:12.000
okay you’re not in power but like you

0:39:10.160,0:39:15.520
could still kind of live

0:39:12.000,0:39:18.560
a comfortable life um this lasted

0:39:15.520,0:39:19.760
for a little bit and then they kept

0:39:18.560,0:39:23.280
getting moved from house to

0:39:19.760,0:39:26.640
house eventually they ended up at the

0:39:23.280,0:39:29.119
at this one house patio house i don’t

0:39:26.640,0:39:31.440
know how to pronounce it um

0:39:29.119,0:39:32.480
this is where things like take a turn

0:39:31.440,0:39:34.079
for the worst

0:39:32.480,0:39:36.160
they show up to this house they can’t

0:39:34.079,0:39:38.800
bring any of their servants with

0:39:36.160,0:39:40.560
there are no bed linens it was very

0:39:38.800,0:39:41.440
dusty there weren’t enough plates or

0:39:40.560,0:39:43.280
silverware

0:39:41.440,0:39:44.880
and a wall had been built around the

0:39:43.280,0:39:46.960
house so they couldn’t see

0:39:44.880,0:39:47.920
like outside you you’re just like in

0:39:46.960,0:39:49.520
this prison

0:39:47.920,0:39:51.200
and they were like hassled a lot by the

0:39:49.520,0:39:52.960
soldiers so they’re like

0:39:51.200,0:39:54.880
okay but even then they didn’t think

0:39:52.960,0:39:57.520
they would actually be murdered

0:39:54.880,0:39:59.680
um okay honestly though that living

0:39:57.520,0:40:01.440
situation i’m pretty sure there are some

0:39:59.680,0:40:05.200
peasants living that way too

0:40:01.440,0:40:09.200
yeah i mean yeah that’s like yeah

0:40:05.200,0:40:11.359
that’s true um but yeah so

0:40:09.200,0:40:13.040
i’m not going to get into the details

0:40:11.359,0:40:16.400
about their murder

0:40:13.040,0:40:19.920
i’m just being oh please do why not

0:40:16.400,0:40:20.400
it’s like really gruesome but let’s give

0:40:19.920,0:40:22.960
an

0:40:20.400,0:40:24.560
overview because like if you’d like to

0:40:22.960,0:40:25.280
learn more you can look it up but the

0:40:24.560,0:40:27.440
details are

0:40:25.280,0:40:28.560
like really painful to hear but

0:40:27.440,0:40:32.160
basically

0:40:28.560,0:40:32.800
on july 17 1918 the romanov family is

0:40:32.160,0:40:34.800
awoken

0:40:32.800,0:40:37.200
and they’re told to prepare for another

0:40:34.800,0:40:39.920
move and all of a sudden

0:40:37.200,0:40:40.880
the soldiers just start shooting at them

0:40:39.920,0:40:44.319
um

0:40:40.880,0:40:46.240
and like they’re in this tiny room and

0:40:44.319,0:40:47.839
you can see photos of the room after

0:40:46.240,0:40:51.280
it’s like horrifying

0:40:47.839,0:40:52.960
um they’re like this is like back in the

0:40:51.280,0:40:54.640
old days when guns are like

0:40:52.960,0:40:56.319
really weird and they don’t work all the

0:40:54.640,0:40:57.599
time and so they’re

0:40:56.319,0:40:59.920
like shooting at them but they’re

0:40:57.599,0:41:02.319
unsuccessful um

0:40:59.920,0:41:04.000
like they don’t kill them right away you

0:41:02.319,0:41:05.760
know like they maybe like

0:41:04.000,0:41:07.040
the bullets will hit them but like they

0:41:05.760,0:41:10.560
won’t be fatal shots

0:41:07.040,0:41:12.400
yeah oh okay so it’s like okay

0:41:10.560,0:41:14.160
wait let me just make sure my my facts

0:41:12.400,0:41:16.480
are correct so

0:41:14.160,0:41:17.280
nicholas is nicholas already murdered or

0:41:16.480,0:41:19.680
no

0:41:17.280,0:41:20.480
no so they’re okay seven of them are in

0:41:19.680,0:41:22.800
the same room

0:41:20.480,0:41:24.160
like they’re okay together all right so

0:41:22.800,0:41:25.760
the bolsheviks are like

0:41:24.160,0:41:28.079
get out of here and they get out and

0:41:25.760,0:41:31.119
they’re fleeing to all these houses

0:41:28.079,0:41:34.240
right and then the bolsheviks

0:41:31.119,0:41:36.079
get them at this house oh go ahead oh no

0:41:34.240,0:41:39.119
okay yeah so now they’re at this house

0:41:36.079,0:41:42.800
and they’re like now let’s kill them

0:41:39.119,0:41:44.400
yeah anyways why but that’s like

0:41:42.800,0:41:46.240
i mean there’s a lot of speculation like

0:41:44.400,0:41:47.520
people are also like so confused like

0:41:46.240,0:41:50.319
why

0:41:47.520,0:41:51.599
did they shoot them all of a sudden um

0:41:50.319,0:41:53.599
like it really did

0:41:51.599,0:41:54.960
a sense like why they would kill them

0:41:53.599,0:41:57.280
all um

0:41:54.960,0:41:58.319
and like just like their death is really

0:41:57.280,0:42:00.319
sad because

0:41:58.319,0:42:02.480
like shooting doesn’t work so then they

0:42:00.319,0:42:04.079
start like beating and like stabbing the

0:42:02.480,0:42:05.119
family members and it’s really sad

0:42:04.079,0:42:06.480
because

0:42:05.119,0:42:08.400
like they don’t want to kill the

0:42:06.480,0:42:10.800
children at first

0:42:08.400,0:42:12.240
like so they go after their parents but

0:42:10.800,0:42:12.640
then they’re like okay the children have

0:42:12.240,0:42:15.839
to die

0:42:12.640,0:42:19.839
so like the children why no they

0:42:15.839,0:42:21.680
don’t what no one had to die what

0:42:19.839,0:42:23.200
but like literally like so this attack

0:42:21.680,0:42:26.240
lasts 20 minutes

0:42:23.200,0:42:29.680
so can you it’s like

0:42:26.240,0:42:30.400
it’s not like just a quick kill like

0:42:29.680,0:42:33.359
it’s that’s

0:42:30.400,0:42:35.119
terrible they’re like literally like you

0:42:33.359,0:42:36.640
have to watch your parents get killed

0:42:35.119,0:42:40.480
and then they’re going to kill you

0:42:36.640,0:42:42.560
and you’re a child and

0:42:40.480,0:42:44.000
because it’s really upsetting but like

0:42:42.560,0:42:44.800
when they’re carrying the bodies out to

0:42:44.000,0:42:47.040
the forest

0:42:44.800,0:42:48.480
two of the daughters were still alive

0:42:47.040,0:42:49.839
like they realized that they were still

0:42:48.480,0:42:52.800
alive so then they had to like

0:42:49.839,0:42:54.400
stab them again and then finally like

0:42:52.800,0:42:58.000
all seven of them were

0:42:54.400,0:43:00.960
dead it’s like really awful like that’s

0:42:58.000,0:43:02.640
terrible that’s literally so sad my

0:43:00.960,0:43:04.240
friend told me that russian history is

0:43:02.640,0:43:05.440
depressing that’s where i don’t care

0:43:04.240,0:43:08.160
what

0:43:05.440,0:43:09.599
like what the royal family did i’m sorry

0:43:08.160,0:43:13.200
but that’s like not okay

0:43:09.599,0:43:14.079
to do it’s not oh my god it’s not

0:43:13.200,0:43:17.359
excusable at all

0:43:14.079,0:43:19.440
it’s such a gruesome death and like

0:43:17.359,0:43:20.960
they’re like they’re trying to cover up

0:43:19.440,0:43:23.200
they don’t want anyone to know

0:43:20.960,0:43:24.720
what happened like they like the people

0:43:23.200,0:43:25.680
kill them they’re like no one can ever

0:43:24.720,0:43:28.319
know

0:43:25.680,0:43:30.000
what happened to the family and so this

0:43:28.319,0:43:31.200
is what’s wild it’s like at first they

0:43:30.000,0:43:33.359
only told the public that

0:43:31.200,0:43:34.880
nicholas ii was killed they didn’t say

0:43:33.359,0:43:36.960
that the rest they just said the rest of

0:43:34.880,0:43:38.960
the family was still like in prison

0:43:36.960,0:43:41.200
and the death the details of their

0:43:38.960,0:43:42.480
deaths as well as the locations of their

0:43:41.200,0:43:44.400
bodies weren’t

0:43:42.480,0:43:47.119
known by the public until the fall of

0:43:44.400,0:43:49.760
the soviet union in 1991

0:43:47.119,0:43:51.200
so like this whole time period like

0:43:49.760,0:43:53.440
people didn’t know

0:43:51.200,0:43:54.800
what went down they were like the family

0:43:53.440,0:43:57.920
just went missing

0:43:54.800,0:43:59.839
and like because of this there’s so many

0:43:57.920,0:44:01.359
there were so many rumors that some of

0:43:59.839,0:44:03.359
the daughters escaped

0:44:01.359,0:44:05.200
um especially anastasia which like

0:44:03.359,0:44:06.839
there’s a whole disney movie about it

0:44:05.200,0:44:11.040
like jeez louise

0:44:06.839,0:44:14.480
um people claim to be

0:44:11.040,0:44:17.200
like the like the romanoff children um

0:44:14.480,0:44:19.040
and like there’s like one girl who like

0:44:17.200,0:44:20.319
was like really famous for like she was

0:44:19.040,0:44:23.119
like i’m anastasia

0:44:20.319,0:44:24.000
like i’m i had to hide in captivity but

0:44:23.119,0:44:26.079
then dns

0:44:24.000,0:44:27.920
dna tests later proved that these things

0:44:26.079,0:44:29.280
were false and like they tested

0:44:27.920,0:44:30.960
the remains of the bodies and they’re

0:44:29.280,0:44:34.240
like no these are like all

0:44:30.960,0:44:35.440
oh my gosh how did they find out where

0:44:34.240,0:44:36.960
the bodies were later

0:44:35.440,0:44:38.880
though after the fall of the soviet

0:44:36.960,0:44:40.800
union like because

0:44:38.880,0:44:42.240
i mean when did when did the murders

0:44:40.800,0:44:45.520
happen like the 40s

0:44:42.240,0:44:48.000
50 no it was 1918.

0:44:45.520,0:44:49.440
so forever ago so how would they even

0:44:48.000,0:44:51.119
how they have record of it and how’d

0:44:49.440,0:44:52.319
they find the dead bodies for the dna

0:44:51.119,0:44:54.800
test

0:44:52.319,0:44:56.160
um well i think okay if i remember

0:44:54.800,0:44:58.000
correctly

0:44:56.160,0:44:59.599
i think i guess like just people in the

0:44:58.000,0:45:00.160
government like knew and it was like top

0:44:59.599,0:45:02.480
secret

0:45:00.160,0:45:04.000
i don’t know and like they just didn’t

0:45:02.480,0:45:06.000
tell the public so i guess people in the

0:45:04.000,0:45:07.280
government still knew but then

0:45:06.000,0:45:09.440
like when they were trying to find the

0:45:07.280,0:45:11.200
remains of the bodies they had

0:45:09.440,0:45:13.440
put their bodies in like two separate

0:45:11.200,0:45:14.720
graves to like split up the family so

0:45:13.440,0:45:16.640
then like it’d be harder to find the

0:45:14.720,0:45:17.359
remains and i think like they had found

0:45:16.640,0:45:19.040
one grave

0:45:17.359,0:45:20.400
but it took a lot longer to find that

0:45:19.040,0:45:24.240
second one

0:45:20.400,0:45:26.240
um yeah so it was so sad

0:45:24.240,0:45:27.760
but now the remains have been collected

0:45:26.240,0:45:30.319
and they’re like buried

0:45:27.760,0:45:31.440
somewhere in russia and like a nice

0:45:30.319,0:45:35.440
place but

0:45:31.440,0:45:37.440
it’s it’s so depressing so

0:45:35.440,0:45:38.560
and russian history is depressing it’s

0:45:37.440,0:45:42.000
depressing but like

0:45:38.560,0:45:42.960
again the bolsheviks so kind of just to

0:45:42.000,0:45:45.599
wrap everything

0:45:42.960,0:45:47.920
up like the bolshevik saw the monarchy

0:45:45.599,0:45:50.079
as a cancer that made it impossible for

0:45:47.920,0:45:53.280
the working class to rise

0:45:50.079,0:45:54.240
um they were like we there’s no way for

0:45:53.280,0:45:56.160
the peasants

0:45:54.240,0:45:58.240
to have a better life if there’s still a

0:45:56.160,0:46:00.640
monarchy in place

0:45:58.240,0:46:02.000
ironically the death the death of

0:46:00.640,0:46:04.640
nicholas ii

0:46:02.000,0:46:06.160
overshadowed lennon’s victories in the

0:46:04.640,0:46:07.359
russian revolution

0:46:06.160,0:46:09.119
so it took up more space in the

0:46:07.359,0:46:10.800
newspapers everyone was focused about

0:46:09.119,0:46:11.359
the fact that nicholas ii had been

0:46:10.800,0:46:14.160
killed

0:46:11.359,0:46:15.359
and it actually made many russians yearn

0:46:14.160,0:46:17.280
for the monarchy

0:46:15.359,0:46:19.040
so they’re like even if they didn’t like

0:46:17.280,0:46:20.000
him while he was alive they felt bad

0:46:19.040,0:46:23.119
that he had been

0:46:20.000,0:46:23.880
like murdered and so it kind of proved

0:46:23.119,0:46:27.119
to be

0:46:23.880,0:46:29.760
counterproductive um and

0:46:27.119,0:46:31.520
but like obviously it had a huge that

0:46:29.760,0:46:33.200
was the last russian emperor there were

0:46:31.520,0:46:36.640
no more

0:46:33.200,0:46:39.839
uh like emperors anymore

0:46:36.640,0:46:40.640
um it’s a completely different country

0:46:39.839,0:46:44.319
now

0:46:40.640,0:46:48.000
and so like they went from a monarchy to

0:46:44.319,0:46:48.000
like the soviet union so

0:46:48.240,0:46:53.599
um you said that they went for like

0:46:51.200,0:46:56.800
multiple dynasties so did they

0:46:53.599,0:47:00.800
murder the other dynasties

0:46:56.800,0:47:02.560
no the other bloodlines no um

0:47:00.800,0:47:04.640
i don’t i don’t know if they like killed

0:47:02.560,0:47:07.599
other members of

0:47:04.640,0:47:08.079
like their cousins or anything but it’s

0:47:07.599,0:47:10.240
like they

0:47:08.079,0:47:12.319
just ended the romanov dynasty so the

0:47:10.240,0:47:13.839
romanov dynasty had been ruling for 300

0:47:12.319,0:47:15.920
years like so this family

0:47:13.839,0:47:18.079
like they passed it down from sun to sun

0:47:15.920,0:47:20.800
so after 300 years like

0:47:18.079,0:47:22.400
the whole dynasty was put to an end

0:47:20.800,0:47:25.440
because there’s no more air

0:47:22.400,0:47:26.400
you know so there is no more romanovs in

0:47:25.440,0:47:29.599
the world

0:47:26.400,0:47:31.440
it’s such a it’s a depressing story but

0:47:29.599,0:47:33.440
like it’s just if you think about like

0:47:31.440,0:47:35.280
if you’re a russian

0:47:33.440,0:47:36.559
like if you live in russia at the time

0:47:35.280,0:47:39.440
can you imagine

0:47:36.559,0:47:40.960
how wild this is because like the

0:47:39.440,0:47:43.119
revolution

0:47:40.960,0:47:44.880
like takes like about a year there’s

0:47:43.119,0:47:45.359
like a big one in february and then a

0:47:44.880,0:47:48.240
big

0:47:45.359,0:47:49.680
riot in october and then you go from

0:47:48.240,0:47:52.319
like

0:47:49.680,0:47:53.839
monarchy to soviet union and then the

0:47:52.319,0:47:55.599
soviet union collapses later like i

0:47:53.839,0:47:58.880
don’t know russian history is just

0:47:55.599,0:48:00.640
so wild it’s so crazy like how much the

0:47:58.880,0:48:03.599
country has changed in like

0:48:00.640,0:48:05.520
just like 100 years you know yeah to be

0:48:03.599,0:48:06.000
fair yeah that’s wild the monarchy was

0:48:05.520,0:48:09.119
just like

0:48:06.000,0:48:11.359

  1. like that’s nothing

0:48:09.119,0:48:12.160
um yeah it’s literally nothing it was

0:48:11.359,0:48:15.359
like like

0:48:12.160,0:48:17.760
yesterday almost um but

0:48:15.359,0:48:19.280
like hardly a hundred years ago but um

0:48:17.760,0:48:22.079
yeah i feel like though like

0:48:19.280,0:48:23.839
the peasants for lack of a better word

0:48:22.079,0:48:25.200
in russia like you’re more worried about

0:48:23.839,0:48:26.000
just like how you’re gonna get your next

0:48:25.200,0:48:29.119
meal

0:48:26.000,0:48:33.200
so it’s hard to like register

0:48:29.119,0:48:34.880
these changes yeah but then they’re like

0:48:33.200,0:48:37.520
you know the bolsheviks are like we are

0:48:34.880,0:48:41.119
here for the working class people

0:48:37.520,0:48:42.640
whether you agree with like them or not

0:48:41.119,0:48:44.880
like and whether you think it was

0:48:42.640,0:48:45.599
successful or not that’s like a whole

0:48:44.880,0:48:48.400
different thing

0:48:45.599,0:48:50.000
but it’s just like a wild time in

0:48:48.400,0:48:53.040
russian history

0:48:50.000,0:48:55.599
um yeah and so that’s the

0:48:53.040,0:48:56.559
story of rasputin and the last russian

0:48:55.599,0:48:58.960
emperor

0:48:56.559,0:48:59.599
so sorry like took a depressing turn at

0:48:58.960,0:49:01.359
the end

0:48:59.599,0:49:03.359
i’m gonna try like i said i’m gonna

0:49:01.359,0:49:06.880
challenge myself i need to pick a topic

0:49:03.359,0:49:10.160
where there is no like death or despair

0:49:06.880,0:49:12.640
i don’t know it’s hard yeah it’s hard i

0:49:10.160,0:49:15.200
was looking at next topics and basically

0:49:12.640,0:49:18.400
all the ones are like wars

0:49:15.200,0:49:19.599
so literally so let’s

0:49:18.400,0:49:22.079
maybe next time i’ll try to find

0:49:19.599,0:49:24.079
something i thought this light-hearted

0:49:22.079,0:49:27.280
but

0:49:24.079,0:49:29.520
no this is like that’s like the saddest

0:49:27.280,0:49:31.839
one we’ve done oh my gosh

0:49:29.520,0:49:33.520
what because when i started my research

0:49:31.839,0:49:35.599
i’m like i’m just gonna do rasputin

0:49:33.520,0:49:36.720
but like you can’t just like end with

0:49:35.599,0:49:40.000
his death because then

0:49:36.720,0:49:43.280
like all of russia changes like

0:49:40.000,0:49:45.760
he like he was the one who predicted it

0:49:43.280,0:49:47.200
like not the details but he was like oh

0:49:45.760,0:49:47.599
you guys are going to be killed if i’m

0:49:47.200,0:49:51.040
gone

0:49:47.599,0:49:54.480
oh my gosh scary yeah

0:49:51.040,0:49:58.880
halloween yeah i guess like almost

0:49:54.480,0:50:02.160
halloween episode um

0:49:58.880,0:50:02.559
well thank you so much nat for covering

0:50:02.160,0:50:04.319
that

0:50:02.559,0:50:06.160
this is probably one of my favorite

0:50:04.319,0:50:09.520
episodes we have done

0:50:06.160,0:50:10.319
it was funny and sad at the same time we

0:50:09.520,0:50:13.119
love a good

0:50:10.319,0:50:14.800
emotional roller rollercoaster yeah well

0:50:13.119,0:50:16.720
thanks for listening

0:50:14.800,0:50:19.680
um and yeah we’ll see you guys in the

0:50:16.720,0:50:19.680
next episode

0:50:20.910,0:50:26.570
[Music]

0:50:24.839,0:50:40.659
bye

0:50:26.570,0:50:40.659
[Music]

0:50:41.200,0:50:43.280
you

How Long Did Apartheid Last?

How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship How Did We Not Know That

Study abroad is expensive, but luckily there are scholarships available to help! In this guest episode, we talk about the founding of the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship as well as application tips and deadlines. Special thanks to our guest for this week, Sarah, the host of 'A Gilman Podcast'!  Check out A. Gilman Podcast here! 🎙 The Gilman Scholarship Official Website: https://www.gilmanscholarship.org/ Sarah's email: sarah.a.murrayy@gmail.com 📦 ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnkt  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat  Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship
  2. What Are Cryptocurrencies? | Minisode #17
  3. Is Fritz Haber Our Savior Or Our Worst Nightmare?
  4. Minisode #16: What's Going On In Papua?
  5. Japan Occupied Korea?

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat

Show Notes

South Africa, one of the most beautiful countries in the world, has an ugly past marked by one of the severest examples of racial segregation in history.  In this episode Jac explains the system known as Apartheid and its lasting effects on the country today.

Learn More and Donate to PASSOP: https://www.passop.co.za/

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/africa/apartheid

https://www.gov.za/about-sa/history

https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/cape-malay

https://www.southafrica.to/history/history.php

https://www.gov.za/about-sa/history

https://abcnews.go.com/Archives/video/april-1985-south-africa-interracial-marriage-9797274

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:04.319
everybody and welcome back to another

0:00:01.839,0:00:08.480
episode of how did we not know that

0:00:04.319,0:00:11.840
i’m matt i’m jack and

0:00:08.480,0:00:14.320
today jack is gonna tell us about some

0:00:11.840,0:00:15.519
cool event in history i have no idea

0:00:14.320,0:00:19.039
what it is yet

0:00:15.519,0:00:21.680
yay oh i didn’t tell you it’s um

0:00:19.039,0:00:22.720
i’m gonna cover the apartheid in south

0:00:21.680,0:00:24.560
africa

0:00:22.720,0:00:26.000
oh that’s right you actually did tell me

0:00:24.560,0:00:27.920
oh

0:00:26.000,0:00:29.359
i’m excited for this one this is like a

0:00:27.920,0:00:32.800
very

0:00:29.359,0:00:33.920
um i don’t know it’s like a special

0:00:32.800,0:00:35.680
episode i just

0:00:33.920,0:00:37.760
that’s like the last country i traveled

0:00:35.680,0:00:40.160
to was like south africa so it’s

0:00:37.760,0:00:41.680
still fresh just like seeing the huge

0:00:40.160,0:00:45.120
difference in class

0:00:41.680,0:00:46.559
okay so um what is apartheid

0:00:45.120,0:00:49.440
now do you know what apartheid is can

0:00:46.559,0:00:52.000
you explain it to everyone

0:00:49.440,0:00:53.120
isn’t it basically like so south africa

0:00:52.000,0:00:55.840
it was like

0:00:53.120,0:00:57.760
divided up and there were places where

0:00:55.840,0:01:00.960
black people could live

0:00:57.760,0:01:03.440
and then they people places where like

0:01:00.960,0:01:04.239
white people could live and then it’s

0:01:03.440,0:01:07.760
like

0:01:04.239,0:01:10.560
also almost like a caste system or like

0:01:07.760,0:01:11.680
people of like if you’re white versus a

0:01:10.560,0:01:14.159
person of color like

0:01:11.680,0:01:15.600
you would qualify for different jobs so

0:01:14.159,0:01:17.280
like if you’re a person of color like

0:01:15.600,0:01:20.479
you wouldn’t be able to do

0:01:17.280,0:01:22.400
certain jobs right yeah no exactly

0:01:20.479,0:01:23.840
didn’t like when you were talking about

0:01:22.400,0:01:25.680
your time in south africa where

0:01:23.840,0:01:27.119
you’re also saying that like there’s

0:01:25.680,0:01:30.159
another class of like

0:01:27.119,0:01:31.759
colored people yeah half black and

0:01:30.159,0:01:35.520
that’s like a whole

0:01:31.759,0:01:36.000
other separation yeah no literally i

0:01:35.520,0:01:37.920
think

0:01:36.000,0:01:40.880
i feel like we talked about apartheid

0:01:37.920,0:01:42.880
already together as friends so like

0:01:40.880,0:01:44.640
i’ve already told you everything about

0:01:42.880,0:01:47.280
my experience but it’s fine

0:01:44.640,0:01:48.640
okay so that’s good yeah you have a

0:01:47.280,0:01:50.560
really good understanding on it

0:01:48.640,0:01:52.960
so apartheid was a system of

0:01:50.560,0:01:56.000
institutionalized racial segregation

0:01:52.960,0:02:00.240
that existed in south africa from

0:01:56.000,0:02:03.360
1914 oh not 1914 from 1948

0:02:00.240,0:02:04.119
until the early 1990s so it didn’t end

0:02:03.360,0:02:09.440
till like

0:02:04.119,0:02:12.239
1994 officially which is really really

0:02:09.440,0:02:13.760
recent to have racial segregation and it

0:02:12.239,0:02:15.920
wasn’t just like mild race racial

0:02:13.760,0:02:19.680
segregation it’s like very strict

0:02:15.920,0:02:23.599
um segregation of people

0:02:19.680,0:02:26.319
so fire race anyways so apartheid is an

0:02:23.599,0:02:28.239
afrikaans word that means separateness

0:02:26.319,0:02:30.239
and offer cons is a language that’s

0:02:28.239,0:02:32.319
spoken in south africa and it comes from

0:02:30.239,0:02:34.959
the dutch colonizers

0:02:32.319,0:02:36.239
so we’re going to go back into some

0:02:34.959,0:02:37.840
south african history

0:02:36.239,0:02:39.840
to have like a better understanding

0:02:37.840,0:02:40.720
because some people still when you hear

0:02:39.840,0:02:42.800
south africa

0:02:40.720,0:02:44.959
they think it’s oh it’s like africa

0:02:42.800,0:02:45.840
right so everyone’s black and then if

0:02:44.959,0:02:47.840
you meet

0:02:45.840,0:02:49.040
a white south african you’re like you’re

0:02:47.840,0:02:51.599
from africa

0:02:49.040,0:02:53.200
um which like for south africa is not a

0:02:51.599,0:02:54.560
conglomerate country like they’re

0:02:53.200,0:02:58.159
different pockets but

0:02:54.560,0:02:59.200
um anyways so south africa history is

0:02:58.159,0:03:01.760
really long

0:02:59.200,0:03:02.480
like way longer than the united states

0:03:01.760,0:03:05.760
um

0:03:02.480,0:03:07.040
in 1488 the portuguese get to south

0:03:05.760,0:03:09.599
africa

0:03:07.040,0:03:11.280
but the local tribes and different

0:03:09.599,0:03:12.959
groups of people in south africa

0:03:11.280,0:03:14.480
actually killed all of them so that’s

0:03:12.959,0:03:16.959
just like a fun fact

0:03:14.480,0:03:18.000
piece of history yeah so they had

0:03:16.959,0:03:21.920
already they arrived

0:03:18.000,0:03:24.959
in like 15 15th century so 1400’s

0:03:21.920,0:03:27.360
to enslave south africans

0:03:24.959,0:03:28.159
which when i say south africans i am

0:03:27.360,0:03:30.080
talking about

0:03:28.159,0:03:31.680
the all of the different groups there’s

0:03:30.080,0:03:35.519
like zulus

0:03:31.680,0:03:36.959
and um oh can i do the click it’s like

0:03:35.519,0:03:38.640
uh there’s just like a bunch of

0:03:36.959,0:03:40.080
different tribes so i’m just

0:03:38.640,0:03:41.680
referring to that but yeah they like

0:03:40.080,0:03:45.760
killed all the portuguese then

0:03:41.680,0:03:48.799
in 1652 so like over 150 years later

0:03:45.760,0:03:50.959
the dutch arrived to south africa and

0:03:48.799,0:03:52.400
then they opened up a dutch east indian

0:03:50.959,0:03:56.799
company port

0:03:52.400,0:03:58.640
in cape town in 1652 so

0:03:56.799,0:03:59.920
that’s when the dutch arrived and when

0:03:58.640,0:04:01.599
the dutch arrive

0:03:59.920,0:04:03.360
technology has like grown for the

0:04:01.599,0:04:04.640
europeans so they’re a lot better at the

0:04:03.360,0:04:07.280
slavery thing

0:04:04.640,0:04:08.239
and they start the slave trade as well

0:04:07.280,0:04:11.120
however they

0:04:08.239,0:04:11.840
start importing slaves from east africa

0:04:11.120,0:04:13.519
so

0:04:11.840,0:04:15.120
um there’s of course like a collection

0:04:13.519,0:04:17.359
of slaves also in

0:04:15.120,0:04:19.199
south african region but a lot of the

0:04:17.359,0:04:20.959
slaves which i discovered too when i was

0:04:19.199,0:04:23.840
like touring the museums

0:04:20.959,0:04:24.320
they imported them from like madagascar

0:04:23.840,0:04:27.840
and

0:04:24.320,0:04:28.880
the east indies um so like southeast

0:04:27.840,0:04:33.759
asia

0:04:28.880,0:04:36.800
malaysia indonesian area and

0:04:33.759,0:04:38.800
um like later

0:04:36.800,0:04:40.160
oh this is interesting okay i just put

0:04:38.800,0:04:42.080
in a fun fact but like the dutch

0:04:40.160,0:04:43.440
colonized indonesia if anyone

0:04:42.080,0:04:45.759
didn’t know and then the english

0:04:43.440,0:04:48.880
colonized malaysia

0:04:45.759,0:04:50.800
and so but malay

0:04:48.880,0:04:52.960
is like an ethnic group so when i say

0:04:50.800,0:04:53.919
malay it’s not just people from malaysia

0:04:52.960,0:04:56.720
it’s people from

0:04:53.919,0:04:58.800
malaysia and indonesia like that

0:04:56.720,0:05:02.160
southeast asian region

0:04:58.800,0:05:03.840
anyways slavery ends in 1834 with the

0:05:02.160,0:05:06.479
slavery abolition act

0:05:03.840,0:05:08.000
in 1833 from the british parliament

0:05:06.479,0:05:12.000
banning slaves

0:05:08.000,0:05:14.479
um and like even though the dutch

0:05:12.000,0:05:15.520
are really okay how do i explain this

0:05:14.479,0:05:18.479
eloquently so the

0:05:15.520,0:05:20.400
south africa was colonized mainly by the

0:05:18.479,0:05:22.960
dutch but actually the english too

0:05:20.400,0:05:23.600
in partnership so for a long part of

0:05:22.960,0:05:25.199
history

0:05:23.600,0:05:27.840
the dutch and the english were like

0:05:25.199,0:05:31.840
fighting over control of south africa

0:05:27.840,0:05:33.680
and in 1833 it just happened to be that

0:05:31.840,0:05:36.560
they were under english rule

0:05:33.680,0:05:38.160
and when that was outlawed in like the

0:05:36.560,0:05:41.360
united kingdom or in

0:05:38.160,0:05:43.680
england um all british territories like

0:05:41.360,0:05:46.000
banned slavery so that’s when it got

0:05:43.680,0:05:49.199
banned in south africa as well

0:05:46.000,0:05:50.560
so although slavery ends there’s now

0:05:49.199,0:05:53.919
this minority group

0:05:50.560,0:05:57.039
of white colonizers and a black majority

0:05:53.919,0:05:59.600
so then we start to enter the time of

0:05:57.039,0:06:00.639
the white minority like seizing control

0:05:59.600,0:06:03.680
over

0:06:00.639,0:06:05.600
all of it and like figuring out a way to

0:06:03.680,0:06:07.360
stay in power

0:06:05.600,0:06:09.199
yeah cause like they’re like okay

0:06:07.360,0:06:09.759
slavery’s over but they’re not gonna be

0:06:09.199,0:06:12.560
like

0:06:09.759,0:06:13.199
all right have your own like democratic

0:06:12.560,0:06:14.720
government

0:06:13.199,0:06:16.639
and like yeah you guys should run for

0:06:14.720,0:06:18.880
office right

0:06:16.639,0:06:20.000
exactly they’re not like yeah let’s all

0:06:18.880,0:06:23.360
live together now

0:06:20.000,0:06:26.240
like that’s not what it’s about um

0:06:23.360,0:06:26.880
so in 1834 to 1948 i’m just gonna give

0:06:26.240,0:06:29.280
some

0:06:26.880,0:06:30.880
brief history because 1948 is when we

0:06:29.280,0:06:33.600
officially start apartheid

0:06:30.880,0:06:34.800
so the events leading up to it during

0:06:33.600,0:06:37.600
that time

0:06:34.800,0:06:38.560
um there’s a lot of discovery of natural

0:06:37.600,0:06:41.840
resources

0:06:38.560,0:06:44.240
which is like um

0:06:41.840,0:06:45.440
yeah natural resources and like they

0:06:44.240,0:06:49.440
discover

0:06:45.440,0:06:52.080
diamonds and gold so because of that

0:06:49.440,0:06:52.960
it’s more important for them to have

0:06:52.080,0:06:56.960
control

0:06:52.960,0:06:59.440
so they can like economically gain from

0:06:56.960,0:07:01.520
ruling the area they control the

0:06:59.440,0:07:03.360
resources

0:07:01.520,0:07:05.440
so during this time white south africans

0:07:03.360,0:07:06.400
were forming political groups only for

0:07:05.440,0:07:07.759
white people

0:07:06.400,0:07:09.680
and they’re seizing control of the

0:07:07.759,0:07:12.720
resources the gold

0:07:09.680,0:07:14.639
and the diamond want mines and the

0:07:12.720,0:07:16.000
wealth is like getting concentrated just

0:07:14.639,0:07:17.759
for white people

0:07:16.000,0:07:19.599
so during this time there are also

0:07:17.759,0:07:22.319
activist groups that are formed by black

0:07:19.599,0:07:26.319
south africans to protest

0:07:22.319,0:07:28.080
and in 1914 laws outlawing blacks from

0:07:26.319,0:07:30.479
owning or occupying land

0:07:28.080,0:07:31.520
under the command unless under the

0:07:30.479,0:07:34.479
command

0:07:31.520,0:07:35.840
of a white master was ran by the

0:07:34.479,0:07:39.520
national party which was

0:07:35.840,0:07:42.400
a political group um run

0:07:39.520,0:07:43.680
obviously exclusively by white people so

0:07:42.400,0:07:46.240
that was a policy

0:07:43.680,0:07:47.120
that they made it illegal for you to own

0:07:46.240,0:07:49.680
land

0:07:47.120,0:07:51.280
which as you may or may not know is like

0:07:49.680,0:07:53.120
the way to build wealth is to own

0:07:51.280,0:07:53.759
property because then you can farm the

0:07:53.120,0:07:56.319
land

0:07:53.759,0:07:58.240
and then you have products to trade so

0:07:56.319,0:08:00.879
that’s that’s a pretty bad

0:07:58.240,0:08:03.280
law it’s like very insidious to keep the

0:08:00.879,0:08:06.720
black community poor

0:08:03.280,0:08:07.440
yeah so yeah before apartheid officially

0:08:06.720,0:08:09.599
starts

0:08:07.440,0:08:11.840
there’s already segregation between

0:08:09.599,0:08:15.039
white and black people in south africa

0:08:11.840,0:08:18.479
and that’s really visible in urban areas

0:08:15.039,0:08:19.120
but when we get to 1948 that’s when

0:08:18.479,0:08:22.639
things like

0:08:19.120,0:08:23.280
officially get put in place like very

0:08:22.639,0:08:26.000
clear

0:08:23.280,0:08:26.960
strict laws so one of the political

0:08:26.000,0:08:28.560
parties

0:08:26.960,0:08:31.360
known as the national party who were

0:08:28.560,0:08:34.000
responsible for that 1914 law

0:08:31.360,0:08:36.399
um excluding anyone who’s not white

0:08:34.000,0:08:40.240
basically from owning property

0:08:36.399,0:08:42.959
um the national party is a pro-afrikaner

0:08:40.240,0:08:43.519
which is the white dutch south african

0:08:42.959,0:08:46.000
and

0:08:43.519,0:08:48.000
they came to power with the ideology of

0:08:46.000,0:08:49.680
apartheid

0:08:48.000,0:08:51.360
because government’s run by white people

0:08:49.680,0:08:52.640
and they’re like hey let’s like separate

0:08:51.360,0:08:55.440
ourselves

0:08:52.640,0:08:55.920
through a system of like laws and then

0:08:55.440,0:08:57.440
the white

0:08:55.920,0:08:59.040
other white people were like yeah that’s

0:08:57.440,0:08:59.839
a good idea and that’s how they came to

0:08:59.040,0:09:01.760
power

0:08:59.839,0:09:03.920
so segregation is already a thing like

0:09:01.760,0:09:06.480
we said but apartheid is this

0:09:03.920,0:09:09.120
really authoritarian and rigorous

0:09:06.480,0:09:12.160
approach to enforcing the segregation

0:09:09.120,0:09:14.160
so like think of american segregation

0:09:12.160,0:09:17.120
how bad that was before the civil rights

0:09:14.160,0:09:22.480
movement it’s like that on steroids like

0:09:17.120,0:09:24.160
it’s really really bad so basically it’s

0:09:22.480,0:09:26.399
just white people running the government

0:09:24.160,0:09:28.000
and using force to make up their rules

0:09:26.399,0:09:30.959
and seize resources

0:09:28.000,0:09:32.480
and so apartheid which is a really this

0:09:30.959,0:09:34.800
is a really important idea to grasp is

0:09:32.480,0:09:38.000
that it’s actually it’s very

0:09:34.800,0:09:39.760
it’s like racist first off like um no

0:09:38.000,0:09:40.880
question but it’s also economically

0:09:39.760,0:09:43.920
motivated

0:09:40.880,0:09:47.040
because now that slavery is illegal

0:09:43.920,0:09:47.839
how do you get cheap labor to mine all

0:09:47.040,0:09:49.760
the gold

0:09:47.839,0:09:51.440
and the diamonds that they found so they

0:09:49.760,0:09:54.560
have to keep people poor

0:09:51.440,0:09:56.959
so they can use them as cheap labor so

0:09:54.560,0:09:58.720
that’s a big reason why you keep them

0:09:56.959,0:10:01.360
from owning land

0:09:58.720,0:10:04.240
and then you separate you separate them

0:10:01.360,0:10:08.959
into specific groups and specific groups

0:10:04.240,0:10:12.000
can only work certain jobs so

0:10:08.959,0:10:12.000
yeah it’s like horrible

0:10:12.079,0:10:15.519
and the black opposition politics

0:10:14.240,0:10:17.680
however are forming

0:10:15.519,0:10:18.720
most notably the african national

0:10:17.680,0:10:21.839
congress

0:10:18.720,0:10:23.760
which started a youth league in 1943 to

0:10:21.839,0:10:25.120
start fostering the leadership of young

0:10:23.760,0:10:28.560
black people like

0:10:25.120,0:10:30.040
oliver tambo walter suzulu and nelson

0:10:28.560,0:10:31.440
mandela

0:10:30.040,0:10:32.640
[Music]

0:10:31.440,0:10:34.880
okay so now we’re just gonna talk about

0:10:32.640,0:10:38.240
what’s apartheid like like how bad is it

0:10:34.880,0:10:41.440
what did they do okay so the government

0:10:38.240,0:10:43.600
made people carry ids or past books

0:10:41.440,0:10:45.839
they’re like actually called past books

0:10:43.600,0:10:47.920
and they tell you what race you are and

0:10:45.839,0:10:50.079
it’s purely based on appearance

0:10:47.920,0:10:51.279
so the classifications that they had

0:10:50.079,0:10:53.760
were white

0:10:51.279,0:10:54.320
black and then another group called

0:10:53.760,0:10:57.600
color

0:10:54.320,0:10:58.320
because there’s this colored group is a

0:10:57.600,0:11:01.360
special

0:10:58.320,0:11:02.640
black and white mix that emerges um

0:11:01.360,0:11:04.959
through just like

0:11:02.640,0:11:06.320
marriage and like having children not

0:11:04.959,0:11:07.760
even marriage that was outlawed but like

0:11:06.320,0:11:09.040
just like having children and like

0:11:07.760,0:11:12.720
intermixing

0:11:09.040,0:11:16.640
um colored people just like emerge

0:11:12.720,0:11:17.920
and also um i in my research i found

0:11:16.640,0:11:21.200
that

0:11:17.920,0:11:24.800
like a fourth category was later made

0:11:21.200,0:11:27.600
um called like asian to like include

0:11:24.800,0:11:28.240
indians and malays but that’s when i was

0:11:27.600,0:11:29.440
doing like

0:11:28.240,0:11:31.680
when i was like walking through the

0:11:29.440,0:11:33.839
museums and stuff that i didn’t see

0:11:31.680,0:11:34.959
any indian past books or asian past

0:11:33.839,0:11:37.360
books so

0:11:34.959,0:11:38.399
indians and malays are also under the

0:11:37.360,0:11:40.079
colored

0:11:38.399,0:11:41.600
um group so if you’re not clearly white

0:11:40.079,0:11:42.959
you’re not clearly black you’re like

0:11:41.600,0:11:46.720
shoved into colored

0:11:42.959,0:11:49.760
like just miscellaneous exactly

0:11:46.720,0:11:53.120
and you know some people when

0:11:49.760,0:11:55.440
they’re mixed it’s not always clear

0:11:53.120,0:11:56.560
like what they are sometimes like some

0:11:55.440,0:11:58.399
if you like

0:11:56.560,0:11:59.680
you could like look with my sister and

0:11:58.399,0:12:03.040
like whatever like

0:11:59.680,0:12:04.720
some people look more um one side than

0:12:03.040,0:12:05.120
the other it’s not always super clear to

0:12:04.720,0:12:08.160
tell

0:12:05.120,0:12:10.880
so they created like fake

0:12:08.160,0:12:12.079
tests fake science tests to determine if

0:12:10.880,0:12:15.360
you weren’t european

0:12:12.079,0:12:17.040
if you look like you could be mixed

0:12:15.360,0:12:19.279
so do you have a guess like what how

0:12:17.040,0:12:22.240
they would test that maybe

0:12:19.279,0:12:22.959
oh my gosh oh well i know like oh my

0:12:22.240,0:12:25.600
gosh i think

0:12:22.959,0:12:27.519
around this time period when i think of

0:12:25.600,0:12:28.880
like social darwinism when they were so

0:12:27.519,0:12:31.600
focused on like

0:12:28.880,0:12:33.200
anatomy and like skull shapes but i

0:12:31.600,0:12:34.240
don’t know how you would like test that

0:12:33.200,0:12:37.360
on like a living

0:12:34.240,0:12:40.399
person yeah they don’t know but i’m sure

0:12:37.360,0:12:40.399
you can measure your skull

0:12:40.519,0:12:45.040
ridiculously yeah okay so it’s called

0:12:43.279,0:12:46.880
the pencil test

0:12:45.040,0:12:48.240
and what they would do they had a few

0:12:46.880,0:12:50.079
different tests but this is like

0:12:48.240,0:12:53.839
by far the most famous test that they

0:12:50.079,0:12:57.360
would do so they would put a pencil

0:12:53.839,0:12:58.959
in a person’s hair and if it fell out

0:12:57.360,0:13:01.040
then you passed the test and you’re

0:12:58.959,0:13:04.240
considered white but if it stayed in

0:13:01.040,0:13:07.120
your hair then you were considered color

0:13:04.240,0:13:08.160
what the heck yeah so they did it based

0:13:07.120,0:13:12.079
on like your hair

0:13:08.160,0:13:15.760
texture that’s ridiculous

0:13:12.079,0:13:18.959
isn’t that wild i was like oh my god

0:13:15.760,0:13:20.480
and like this stupid like it’s just like

0:13:18.959,0:13:22.800
so

0:13:20.480,0:13:24.880
silly and like i don’t know first of all

0:13:22.800,0:13:26.720
i can’t imagine like

0:13:24.880,0:13:28.480
like you’re in like some important like

0:13:26.720,0:13:29.040
government office and then they like

0:13:28.480,0:13:31.839
just come

0:13:29.040,0:13:33.680
up to you with like a little like oh my

0:13:31.839,0:13:34.000
gosh like a little yellow pencil but

0:13:33.680,0:13:36.560
then

0:13:34.000,0:13:40.320
like the fact that like that determines

0:13:36.560,0:13:41.839
your class in society which has

0:13:40.320,0:13:43.360
like obviously like that affects the

0:13:41.839,0:13:44.880
whole rest of your life and then like

0:13:43.360,0:13:46.240
your children’s

0:13:44.880,0:13:48.000
lives you know that like has a

0:13:46.240,0:13:51.920
generational effect and it’s all

0:13:48.000,0:13:55.199
based like if a pencil sees in your hair

0:13:51.920,0:13:56.000
yeah that’s ridiculous i know it’s crazy

0:13:55.199,0:13:59.360
and it’s like

0:13:56.000,0:14:01.680
um yeah it’s a huge deal like being

0:13:59.360,0:14:02.480
white in south africa it’s like it’s

0:14:01.680,0:14:04.880
like

0:14:02.480,0:14:06.880
you’re like top of the world king and

0:14:04.880,0:14:08.320
queen like everything’s awesome for you

0:14:06.880,0:14:10.079
but like

0:14:08.320,0:14:11.680
if you’re if you get if you’re colored

0:14:10.079,0:14:13.920
like it’s completely different so it’s

0:14:11.680,0:14:17.120
literally

0:14:13.920,0:14:18.399
just on the pencil yeah well okay are

0:14:17.120,0:14:20.399
you probably gonna get into this next

0:14:18.399,0:14:23.519
but like what’s the difference between

0:14:20.399,0:14:26.160
colored and black like in terms of

0:14:23.519,0:14:26.880
what they can and can’t do yeah i’ll get

0:14:26.160,0:14:30.079
into that

0:14:26.880,0:14:32.079
um i guess like

0:14:30.079,0:14:34.160
yeah let me just all like go through it

0:14:32.079,0:14:35.920
but basically the other things that they

0:14:34.160,0:14:37.440
did in apartheid so once they figured

0:14:35.920,0:14:39.519
out what group you were in

0:14:37.440,0:14:40.880
that was marked on your past book and

0:14:39.519,0:14:44.160
then

0:14:40.880,0:14:46.480
everyone who was non-white had a curfew

0:14:44.160,0:14:47.920
so if you’re colored and if you’re black

0:14:46.480,0:14:49.600
there’s a certain amount of time you’re

0:14:47.920,0:14:52.000
allowed to be

0:14:49.600,0:14:53.600
outside and then after a certain time

0:14:52.000,0:14:54.160
you you’re not allowed to be outside

0:14:53.600,0:14:55.680
anymore

0:14:54.160,0:14:58.240
and it’s like by your past book and if

0:14:55.680,0:15:01.600
they saw you outside passed your curfew

0:14:58.240,0:15:05.279
you would be jailed or fined oh my god

0:15:01.600,0:15:06.480
i have never heard of that yeah

0:15:05.279,0:15:08.800
it’s that’s what i’m saying is like it’s

0:15:06.480,0:15:11.040
segregation on steroids like it’s

0:15:08.800,0:15:12.639
they’re controlling literally like all

0:15:11.040,0:15:16.639
everything

0:15:12.639,0:15:17.360
so um also to the past books right if

0:15:16.639,0:15:20.480
you’re not

0:15:17.360,0:15:22.480
white so you need to always have your

0:15:20.480,0:15:23.760
past book on you because the police are

0:15:22.480,0:15:25.920
allowed to do like

0:15:23.760,0:15:27.760
a raid on you and like a search at any

0:15:25.920,0:15:28.720
time they want like they can bust down

0:15:27.760,0:15:30.560
your door

0:15:28.720,0:15:32.320
and ask for your past books and if you

0:15:30.560,0:15:33.199
don’t have it again you could be jailed

0:15:32.320,0:15:35.920
or fine

0:15:33.199,0:15:37.519
like yeah and it’s only for non-white

0:15:35.920,0:15:38.720
people so coloreds and blacks

0:15:37.519,0:15:41.440
like if you’re white you don’t have to

0:15:38.720,0:15:46.079
worry about any of this yeah

0:15:41.440,0:15:48.560
so yeah and then officially interracial

0:15:46.079,0:15:49.120
marriage is illegal but also interracial

0:15:48.560,0:15:51.199
sex

0:15:49.120,0:15:52.720
okay well i guess i’m young so like i

0:15:51.199,0:15:54.320
guess at the time it was like you can’t

0:15:52.720,0:15:57.519
have sex if you’re not married

0:15:54.320,0:15:58.399
well yeah yeah interracial sex and

0:15:57.519,0:16:00.800
marriage

0:15:58.399,0:16:02.480
is illegal and that’s just between

0:16:00.800,0:16:03.920
whites and non-whites so it’s very

0:16:02.480,0:16:08.079
similar to

0:16:03.920,0:16:11.360
the um the segregation laws that were

0:16:08.079,0:16:12.959
in virginia in

0:16:11.360,0:16:15.279
the marriage interracial marriage

0:16:12.959,0:16:15.839
segregation laws in the united states as

0:16:15.279,0:16:18.079
well

0:16:15.839,0:16:19.440
where it’s just whites and non-whites

0:16:18.079,0:16:23.360
can’t mix

0:16:19.440,0:16:26.639
yeah and

0:16:23.360,0:16:29.360
yeah so then there’s segregated beaches

0:16:26.639,0:16:32.480
segregated mountains segregated benches

0:16:29.360,0:16:33.920
bathrooms water faucets everything like

0:16:32.480,0:16:35.759
you’re not allowed to go to this beach

0:16:33.920,0:16:37.360
it’s only for white people you can’t go

0:16:35.759,0:16:39.519
to that mountain it’s only for colored

0:16:37.360,0:16:42.959
people like all these things

0:16:39.519,0:16:45.040
um also in schools

0:16:42.959,0:16:47.199
segregated of course the non-white

0:16:45.040,0:16:48.079
majority only got a fraction of the

0:16:47.199,0:16:51.120
funding

0:16:48.079,0:16:53.759
as the white schools just like of course

0:16:51.120,0:16:55.920
um same thing like with all like the

0:16:53.759,0:16:56.320
beaches and mountains and benches like

0:16:55.920,0:16:59.440
oh

0:16:56.320,0:17:01.360
like of course the ones for non-whites

0:16:59.440,0:17:02.800
aren’t going to be like maintained and

0:17:01.360,0:17:03.839
it’s not going to be like the nice

0:17:02.800,0:17:07.039
places

0:17:03.839,0:17:09.120
exactly exactly okay now this is the

0:17:07.039,0:17:11.919
worst part of apartheid though obviously

0:17:09.120,0:17:14.079
everything’s horrible but this is like

0:17:11.919,0:17:16.079
this is probably like the saddest part

0:17:14.079,0:17:17.280
um and i didn’t really understand it

0:17:16.079,0:17:18.959
till

0:17:17.280,0:17:20.319
i like kind of had to like reflect on it

0:17:18.959,0:17:23.280
and i there’s like

0:17:20.319,0:17:24.240
museums completely dedicated to what

0:17:23.280,0:17:27.760
happened

0:17:24.240,0:17:30.400
but basically there were forced removals

0:17:27.760,0:17:32.400
so the government forcibly removed

0:17:30.400,0:17:34.240
people from their homes and made them

0:17:32.400,0:17:36.799
live in specific areas

0:17:34.240,0:17:38.480
and this is like the reason why this is

0:17:36.799,0:17:40.799
the worst thing is because

0:17:38.480,0:17:42.000
this will push you into poverty like

0:17:40.799,0:17:44.480
where you live

0:17:42.000,0:17:46.400
and what like access to jobs and

0:17:44.480,0:17:49.360
resources you have in that area

0:17:46.400,0:17:51.120
can push you into poverty or keep you

0:17:49.360,0:17:54.960
there

0:17:51.120,0:17:57.039
so the government forcibly removes

0:17:54.960,0:17:59.280
okay let me start again so there’s

0:17:57.039,0:18:00.880
basically they designate different areas

0:17:59.280,0:18:02.400
for like white people can live here

0:18:00.880,0:18:04.880
colored people can live here black

0:18:02.400,0:18:07.679
people or black people can live here

0:18:04.880,0:18:09.280
black people have to go move to an area

0:18:07.679,0:18:11.679
called the homeland

0:18:09.280,0:18:12.960
so the government forcibly removes them

0:18:11.679,0:18:16.160
pushes them to the homeland

0:18:12.960,0:18:19.679
it’s more than 3.5 million people

0:18:16.160,0:18:21.600
and the homelands were located in areas

0:18:19.679,0:18:23.600
that didn’t have any jobs

0:18:21.600,0:18:26.240
or resources and there’s very little

0:18:23.600,0:18:28.320
water in those areas or it was polluted

0:18:26.240,0:18:29.919
and they forcibly made them live there

0:18:28.320,0:18:34.000
so leave your house

0:18:29.919,0:18:35.840
and go exactly so

0:18:34.000,0:18:37.360
now they’re pushed into poverty you

0:18:35.840,0:18:39.600
don’t own your house anymore

0:18:37.360,0:18:41.600
like if even if oh well you couldn’t own

0:18:39.600,0:18:43.440
it anyway because 1914 but like

0:18:41.600,0:18:45.440
you didn’t have a chance to like own or

0:18:43.440,0:18:47.120
occupy land they took it from you pushed

0:18:45.440,0:18:50.000
you off to the side

0:18:47.120,0:18:51.120
and then they kind of like we did to the

0:18:50.000,0:18:54.480
native americans

0:18:51.120,0:18:56.240
and um you were describing that

0:18:54.480,0:18:58.320
because like sorry not to interrupt but

0:18:56.240,0:18:59.760
like like current day like present day

0:18:58.320,0:19:01.600
like reservations

0:18:59.760,0:19:02.799
like there’s so many issues with like

0:19:01.600,0:19:05.600
access to water

0:19:02.799,0:19:06.480
and like electricity and basic utilities

0:19:05.600,0:19:09.039
and like

0:19:06.480,0:19:09.679
like uh food sources and yeah so it’s

0:19:09.039,0:19:13.039
just

0:19:09.679,0:19:14.880
very similar yeah huge huge parallels um

0:19:13.039,0:19:16.160
basically the same thing it’s like same

0:19:14.880,0:19:18.640
oppressive practices

0:19:16.160,0:19:19.520
and we did the native american thing we

0:19:18.640,0:19:23.200
did first

0:19:19.520,0:19:24.400
like this is like in the 1940s 1950s so

0:19:23.200,0:19:27.600
like these guys are

0:19:24.400,0:19:29.840
kind of copying anyways

0:19:27.600,0:19:31.760
um so yeah when you’re pushed into

0:19:29.840,0:19:34.400
poverty like that it means that you

0:19:31.760,0:19:35.280
now have no choice but to work as cheap

0:19:34.400,0:19:37.600
labor

0:19:35.280,0:19:39.760
like the only jobs available are mining

0:19:37.600,0:19:41.919
the gold and diamonds for the white

0:19:39.760,0:19:43.840
minority so that’s what you have to do

0:19:41.919,0:19:45.919
now yeah

0:19:43.840,0:19:47.120
so that’s where they live the coloreds

0:19:45.919,0:19:50.480
get moved to

0:19:47.120,0:19:53.440
slum area so district six is the um

0:19:50.480,0:19:55.280
is they’ve built like a huge museum off

0:19:53.440,0:19:56.960
of district six

0:19:55.280,0:19:58.320
to like talk about what happened but it

0:19:56.960,0:20:01.039
was like an area

0:19:58.320,0:20:02.640
in cape town where 60 000 residents were

0:20:01.039,0:20:05.200
forcibly removed

0:20:02.640,0:20:06.080
and i was like reading through the

0:20:05.200,0:20:07.840
museum

0:20:06.080,0:20:09.440
on like all the stories of the people

0:20:07.840,0:20:11.200
who had been removed

0:20:09.440,0:20:13.120
and they would say like the movers would

0:20:11.200,0:20:14.640
literally come and you could only take

0:20:13.120,0:20:16.880
what would fit into like

0:20:14.640,0:20:18.480
a truck like whatever this truck is and

0:20:16.880,0:20:22.799
it’s like really your whole family

0:20:18.480,0:20:24.720
stuff and um if you didn’t

0:20:22.799,0:20:26.240
like if you didn’t pack it up or

0:20:24.720,0:20:27.760
whatever they would just like

0:20:26.240,0:20:29.440
still make you move out like just

0:20:27.760,0:20:32.080
forcibly remove you

0:20:29.440,0:20:34.320
um and whatever you didn’t take like

0:20:32.080,0:20:35.840
everything else got demolished so

0:20:34.320,0:20:38.240
if you didn’t have time to grab

0:20:35.840,0:20:39.520
everything like within the allotted time

0:20:38.240,0:20:43.840
that they gave you

0:20:39.520,0:20:46.559
then you just lose it all oh my gosh

0:20:43.840,0:20:48.880
yeah so yeah that whole residential area

0:20:46.559,0:20:51.520
got demolished

0:20:48.880,0:20:52.559
and now the government is trying to fix

0:20:51.520,0:20:54.320
the wrongs

0:20:52.559,0:20:55.919
like this is as of last year when i was

0:20:54.320,0:20:56.400
there there’s like a huge project going

0:20:55.919,0:20:58.960
on

0:20:56.400,0:21:00.799
and they’re trying to rebuild that area

0:20:58.960,0:21:03.039
into like affordable housing

0:21:00.799,0:21:04.559
so that people who are forcibly removed

0:21:03.039,0:21:07.280
can return

0:21:04.559,0:21:10.240
um but yeah so colored people have to

0:21:07.280,0:21:12.480
move into these slum areas

0:21:10.240,0:21:14.400
and the goal is basically of all this

0:21:12.480,0:21:16.080
force removal is to make sure that four

0:21:14.400,0:21:19.120
million whites in south africa

0:21:16.080,0:21:22.240
had all the jobs wealth resources and

0:21:19.120,0:21:22.240
mines in their hands

0:21:22.799,0:21:26.320
so now on a more positive note like what

0:21:24.640,0:21:28.400
did people do to oppose that

0:21:26.320,0:21:30.159
like that’s horrible so like how how are

0:21:28.400,0:21:33.360
you gonna fight up against that

0:21:30.159,0:21:34.960
so people yeah people never took

0:21:33.360,0:21:36.720
this like sitting down you know what i

0:21:34.960,0:21:38.000
mean like people are always protesting

0:21:36.720,0:21:40.720
these injustices

0:21:38.000,0:21:42.880
and especially throughout apartheid they

0:21:40.720,0:21:44.000
got organized politically so we see the

0:21:42.880,0:21:46.799
formation of the south

0:21:44.000,0:21:47.679
african indian congress colored people’s

0:21:46.799,0:21:49.679
congress

0:21:47.679,0:21:51.039
and african national congress like we

0:21:49.679,0:21:53.520
talked about earlier that was the group

0:21:51.039,0:21:56.320
nelson mandela was in

0:21:53.520,0:21:58.080
and resistance to apartheid came in the

0:21:56.320,0:22:00.640
form of mostly non-violent

0:21:58.080,0:22:02.480
protests in 1952 there was something

0:22:00.640,0:22:04.320
known as the defiance campaign

0:22:02.480,0:22:05.520
so it was the first large-scale

0:22:04.320,0:22:08.400
multi-racial

0:22:05.520,0:22:09.200
political mobilization against apartheid

0:22:08.400,0:22:11.840
laws

0:22:09.200,0:22:12.640
so the idea was let’s break the

0:22:11.840,0:22:16.559
apartheid

0:22:12.640,0:22:20.240
rules to get arrested and then overwhelm

0:22:16.559,0:22:23.039
the criminal justice system wow

0:22:20.240,0:22:24.640
yeah so that was the approach yeah it’s

0:22:23.039,0:22:25.679
really interesting but unfortunately it

0:22:24.640,0:22:28.320
did not work

0:22:25.679,0:22:30.320
so it just ended up being that like yeah

0:22:28.320,0:22:33.760
a lot of people were in jail now

0:22:30.320,0:22:36.000
in 1960 they did the past books protest

0:22:33.760,0:22:37.120
which was like burning your past book or

0:22:36.000,0:22:39.039
not carrying it

0:22:37.120,0:22:40.880
and then offering yourself up to the

0:22:39.039,0:22:43.039
police for a rest like hey i don’t have

0:22:40.880,0:22:45.919
my pass book like arrest me or whatever

0:22:43.039,0:22:46.559
and that led to the sharpville massacre

0:22:45.919,0:22:50.480
which

0:22:46.559,0:22:53.200
was um an event where police opened fire

0:22:50.480,0:22:53.760
and killed 69 unarmed protesters as well

0:22:53.200,0:22:56.480
as

0:22:53.760,0:22:57.760
wounding three wounding 300 more

0:22:56.480,0:23:01.280
protesters

0:22:57.760,0:23:03.280
um and like at first they were telling

0:23:01.280,0:23:06.559
people like the protesters were like

0:23:03.280,0:23:07.520
throwing rocks and like like the police

0:23:06.559,0:23:09.760
felt threatened

0:23:07.520,0:23:11.280
but actually when you do like a biopsy

0:23:09.760,0:23:14.640
of the bodies

0:23:11.280,0:23:16.240
um they they found that the gunshots

0:23:14.640,0:23:17.760
were like in their backs

0:23:16.240,0:23:20.720
so it’s like even when they were running

0:23:17.760,0:23:24.159
away they weren’t seizing fire

0:23:20.720,0:23:28.000
why this all sounds really

0:23:24.159,0:23:31.840
like way too familiar like oh my god

0:23:28.000,0:23:34.080
yeah yeah and then okay so then there’s

0:23:31.840,0:23:35.760
we have like a famous trial like a court

0:23:34.080,0:23:36.320
trial and they’re called the rivonia

0:23:35.760,0:23:38.000
trials

0:23:36.320,0:23:39.440
and that starts to draw national

0:23:38.000,0:23:42.720
attention so

0:23:39.440,0:23:46.080
with the the defiance campaign

0:23:42.720,0:23:47.679
um obviously like leaders like the white

0:23:46.080,0:23:49.520
people are like who’s leading them like

0:23:47.679,0:23:53.279
who do we need to arrest

0:23:49.520,0:23:55.919
to get all these get control again so

0:23:53.279,0:23:58.000
in the rivonia trials the trials accused

0:23:55.919,0:23:59.919
various anti-apartheid leaders for

0:23:58.000,0:24:01.840
treason and sabotage

0:23:59.919,0:24:04.080
and these trials are what led to the

0:24:01.840,0:24:07.200
sentencing of nelson mandela

0:24:04.080,0:24:10.960
to prison for 27 years

0:24:07.200,0:24:14.400
oh my gosh that’s right 27

0:24:10.960,0:24:16.480
years 27 i’m not even 27 like that’s

0:24:14.400,0:24:20.480
your entire life

0:24:16.480,0:24:24.080
for protesting yeah for leading like the

0:24:20.480,0:24:26.240
the protests and stuff oh my gosh

0:24:24.080,0:24:28.159
right and they’re like you’re like it’s

0:24:26.240,0:24:31.200
treason against south africa

0:24:28.159,0:24:32.000
like so you like they because you’re

0:24:31.200,0:24:33.600
standing up for your

0:24:32.000,0:24:35.360
rights that’s treason against your

0:24:33.600,0:24:36.880
country yeah

0:24:35.360,0:24:39.360
because you’re fighting against the

0:24:36.880,0:24:43.039
oppressive white government

0:24:39.360,0:24:45.919
exactly seven years did he actually

0:24:43.039,0:24:47.520
end up how oh i guess you’ll probably

0:24:45.919,0:24:50.640
get into it but like how long

0:24:47.520,0:24:53.840
was he in prison for 27

0:24:50.640,0:24:55.440
27 years full sentence yeah yeah

0:24:53.840,0:24:57.279
no he was supposed to be there till

0:24:55.440,0:25:02.159
death

0:24:57.279,0:25:03.279
oh yeah and he served 27 years like he

0:25:02.159,0:25:06.799
was supposed to raw

0:25:03.279,0:25:09.919
in jail i

0:25:06.799,0:25:15.039
can’t oh my gosh okay now

0:25:09.919,0:25:18.480
oh yeah so like it’s bad it’s really bad

0:25:15.039,0:25:22.000
like i would still have five more years

0:25:18.480,0:25:23.760
yeah that’s a horrifying thought

0:25:22.000,0:25:25.760
literally and it’s not even it’s not

0:25:23.760,0:25:28.640
just like nelson mandela like

0:25:25.760,0:25:29.440
all these anti-apartheid activists like

0:25:28.640,0:25:32.799
all

0:25:29.440,0:25:35.919
jailed you know um

0:25:32.799,0:25:40.640
so all right so he’s in jail but

0:25:35.919,0:25:42.880
the um those trials the rivonia trials

0:25:40.640,0:25:44.640
like the world starts to notice that

0:25:42.880,0:25:45.279
something’s happening in south africa

0:25:44.640,0:25:47.120
like there’s

0:25:45.279,0:25:48.799
protests and stuff they like they’re

0:25:47.120,0:25:51.120
like what’s up so

0:25:48.799,0:25:54.240
the rest of the world is like it like

0:25:51.120,0:25:58.000
what the heck it’s like 1990s like

0:25:54.240,0:26:01.440
how is it still segregated right

0:25:58.000,0:26:02.159
so basically um every all the other

0:26:01.440,0:26:04.799
countries put

0:26:02.159,0:26:06.720
economic sanctions on south africa so

0:26:04.799,0:26:07.679
other countries around the world refuse

0:26:06.720,0:26:10.960
to do trade

0:26:07.679,0:26:12.640
until they end apartheid and there’s a

0:26:10.960,0:26:13.520
divestment of companies from south

0:26:12.640,0:26:15.200
africa so

0:26:13.520,0:26:16.559
there’s a huge global movement to

0:26:15.200,0:26:19.760
boycott south africa

0:26:16.559,0:26:21.200
until they end apartheid that must be

0:26:19.760,0:26:23.360
insane too because like the

0:26:21.200,0:26:25.279
original motivations for everything like

0:26:23.360,0:26:28.720
obviously people are just racist

0:26:25.279,0:26:32.159
and awful but like it’s an economic uh

0:26:28.720,0:26:33.760
venture and so what as soon as it’s not

0:26:32.159,0:26:35.360
i don’t know as soon as uh like the

0:26:33.760,0:26:37.039
economy starts hurting and it’s like

0:26:35.360,0:26:38.799
economic consequences and that’s when

0:26:37.039,0:26:41.200
they’re like okay

0:26:38.799,0:26:42.320
i guess i think we’ll have to rethink

0:26:41.200,0:26:45.520
some of this you know

0:26:42.320,0:26:47.039
yeah it’s so unfortunate and like

0:26:45.520,0:26:49.200
i just watched a documentary on the

0:26:47.039,0:26:51.039
holocaust like yesterday and like the

0:26:49.200,0:26:53.039
holocaust was also economically

0:26:51.039,0:26:54.960
motivated like the reason

0:26:53.039,0:26:56.559
the huge genocide happened is because

0:26:54.960,0:26:58.400
like germans cared more about like

0:26:56.559,0:27:01.520
economic growth of germany

0:26:58.400,0:27:03.200
than the fact that like

0:27:01.520,0:27:05.360
literally 11 million people were going

0:27:03.200,0:27:07.600
to be murdered and that’s what happens

0:27:05.360,0:27:11.520
when you care more about economic growth

0:27:07.600,0:27:15.200
over human rights so anyways

0:27:11.520,0:27:16.720
um yeah so if you had a south african

0:27:15.200,0:27:17.840
passport you’re not allowed to enter

0:27:16.720,0:27:20.399
other countries

0:27:17.840,0:27:21.360
and one of my i have an auntie in south

0:27:20.399,0:27:24.399
africa i refer

0:27:21.360,0:27:26.000
to that we’re not actually related but i

0:27:24.399,0:27:27.760
studied abroad in my high school

0:27:26.000,0:27:29.279
um and of course if you studied abroad

0:27:27.760,0:27:30.000
in my high school way back in the day

0:27:29.279,0:27:32.000
you were

0:27:30.000,0:27:33.520
a white south african because only white

0:27:32.000,0:27:35.440
south africans could do that

0:27:33.520,0:27:36.640
which is so weird that she was at my

0:27:35.440,0:27:37.279
high school because it’s a small high

0:27:36.640,0:27:40.640
school

0:27:37.279,0:27:42.000
but um yeah so she told me

0:27:40.640,0:27:43.679
and what are the what are the chances

0:27:42.000,0:27:46.159
that she was in cape town too

0:27:43.679,0:27:47.600
like where i was studying abroad that’s

0:27:46.159,0:27:50.240
so wild

0:27:47.600,0:27:52.080
that’s insane yeah but anyway she was

0:27:50.240,0:27:55.520
telling me because she was like

0:27:52.080,0:27:58.320
like a young girl like teenager-ish when

0:27:55.520,0:27:59.760
it was going on that like the the

0:27:58.320,0:28:00.320
world’s starting to put sanctions on

0:27:59.760,0:28:01.840
them

0:28:00.320,0:28:04.000
and she told me that she was traveling

0:28:01.840,0:28:05.600
with her family they were yachting

0:28:04.000,0:28:08.240
like the fact that your family owns a

0:28:05.600,0:28:09.840
yacht is like

0:28:08.240,0:28:12.159
yeah they were traveling the world on

0:28:09.840,0:28:14.159
their boat and um

0:28:12.159,0:28:15.440
they they like arrived in south america

0:28:14.159,0:28:16.720
and they wouldn’t let her in

0:28:15.440,0:28:18.480
like they wouldn’t let them in because

0:28:16.720,0:28:19.919
they were south africans like she had

0:28:18.480,0:28:20.720
her south african passport and they’re

0:28:19.919,0:28:23.279
like no

0:28:20.720,0:28:24.480
and she was like okay it’s funny because

0:28:23.279,0:28:26.320
she was like

0:28:24.480,0:28:27.600
how like terrible like she’s telling me

0:28:26.320,0:28:30.240
this and you have to remember

0:28:27.600,0:28:32.000
she is like old grew up in apartheid

0:28:30.240,0:28:32.880
white south african like you have to

0:28:32.000,0:28:36.000
remember

0:28:32.880,0:28:38.399
this is like to her

0:28:36.000,0:28:40.080
like she grew up on that mindset so it’s

0:28:38.399,0:28:41.840
hard for her

0:28:40.080,0:28:42.960
to like not saying that like we should

0:28:41.840,0:28:43.360
sympathize it’s hard for her but like

0:28:42.960,0:28:44.799
this

0:28:43.360,0:28:46.720
you have to remember like she has that

0:28:44.799,0:28:49.520
bias so

0:28:46.720,0:28:50.000
uh and it was like thinking that way you

0:28:49.520,0:28:53.520
know

0:28:50.000,0:28:55.039
exactly exactly and she was telling me

0:28:53.520,0:28:56.720
she was explaining to me that like they

0:28:55.039,0:28:58.559
wouldn’t let her in

0:28:56.720,0:29:00.080
and like i think she wanted me to react

0:28:58.559,0:29:01.520
like oh my god that’s horrible like they

0:29:00.080,0:29:03.600
wouldn’t let you into the country

0:29:01.520,0:29:07.120
because of your nationality

0:29:03.600,0:29:10.840
like what was apartheid was a part time

0:29:07.120,0:29:14.480
like oh you’re you face discrimination

0:29:10.840,0:29:15.120
oh i’m sorry like the whole segregation

0:29:14.480,0:29:18.240
thing

0:29:15.120,0:29:19.760
like yeah i was like bro i don’t know

0:29:18.240,0:29:21.279
what you want me to say here like i

0:29:19.760,0:29:22.559
think they did a good thing to not let

0:29:21.279,0:29:26.480
you guys in

0:29:22.559,0:29:28.480
um so anyways um

0:29:26.480,0:29:30.320
so amid the growing domestic and

0:29:28.480,0:29:32.720
international pressure

0:29:30.320,0:29:34.080
with the fears of a racial civil war

0:29:32.720,0:29:37.200
because it was going to come

0:29:34.080,0:29:40.799
yeah in 1991

0:29:37.200,0:29:43.279
the government of president f w d clerk

0:29:40.799,0:29:44.080
the who was a part of the national party

0:29:43.279,0:29:47.200
which is

0:29:44.080,0:29:48.000
people who started apartheid they he was

0:29:47.200,0:29:51.360
like we gotta

0:29:48.000,0:29:53.600
do something so he starts the initiative

0:29:51.360,0:29:55.919
initiative to begin to repeal most of

0:29:53.600,0:29:57.600
the legislation that provided the basis

0:29:55.919,0:30:00.799
of apartheid

0:29:57.600,0:30:02.240
wow and so part of that

0:30:00.799,0:30:04.559
like taking the step forward was

0:30:02.240,0:30:06.640
releasing nelson mandela from prison so

0:30:04.559,0:30:10.640
he gets released in 1990

0:30:06.640,0:30:15.200
at the age of 71. oh my god

0:30:10.640,0:30:18.640
yeah and they start negotiating

0:30:15.200,0:30:20.559
uh between nelson mandela and

0:30:18.640,0:30:22.320
so nelson mandela still leads like the

0:30:20.559,0:30:24.080
anc right like

0:30:22.320,0:30:26.000
the african national congress which is

0:30:24.080,0:30:27.600
like the black congressional party that

0:30:26.000,0:30:28.080
was fighting for rights that they

0:30:27.600,0:30:30.640
weren’t

0:30:28.080,0:30:32.240
like really in the government yet but

0:30:30.640,0:30:35.039
they were still like an

0:30:32.240,0:30:36.000
organization so they start to negotiate

0:30:35.039,0:30:37.520
between

0:30:36.000,0:30:39.840
the national party and the african

0:30:37.520,0:30:43.120
national congress are negotiating

0:30:39.840,0:30:47.120
and slowly apartheid begins to end

0:30:43.120,0:30:49.120
so on april 27 1994

0:30:47.120,0:30:50.399
south africa holds its first

0:30:49.120,0:30:53.279
multi-racial

0:30:50.399,0:30:54.960
election with full enfranchisement so

0:30:53.279,0:30:55.440
that means everyone has the right to

0:30:54.960,0:30:58.159
vote

0:30:55.440,0:30:59.840
because it is probably this might not

0:30:58.159,0:31:01.279
have been clear earlier but yeah they

0:30:59.840,0:31:03.120
definitely did not have the right to

0:31:01.279,0:31:05.120
vote like the government was white

0:31:03.120,0:31:06.240
whites only so no one could vote it’s

0:31:05.120,0:31:08.480
just white people

0:31:06.240,0:31:10.080
but now so now everyone can vote in

0:31:08.480,0:31:13.120
south africa

0:31:10.080,0:31:14.559
and which is huge vote 2020 if you

0:31:13.120,0:31:16.720
haven’t

0:31:14.559,0:31:18.320
yeah don’t forget to vote oh my gosh

0:31:16.720,0:31:20.720
well also okay i’ll

0:31:18.320,0:31:22.480
because the white whites in south africa

0:31:20.720,0:31:23.519
are the minority too so as soon as this

0:31:22.480,0:31:26.320
election

0:31:23.519,0:31:27.120
happens and everyone can vote yeah yeah

0:31:26.320,0:31:28.399
that’s why

0:31:27.120,0:31:30.080
you didn’t have the right to vote

0:31:28.399,0:31:32.480
because there’s no way they’d win if

0:31:30.080,0:31:35.200
everyone can vote

0:31:32.480,0:31:36.880
so yeah and off it’s not bipartisan

0:31:35.200,0:31:37.440
either in south africa there’s a lot of

0:31:36.880,0:31:39.519
different

0:31:37.440,0:31:40.880
congressional parties now that are up

0:31:39.519,0:31:44.720
for election

0:31:40.880,0:31:47.440
and the african national congrat

0:31:44.720,0:31:50.159
congress the african national congress

0:31:47.440,0:31:51.200
party wins the election with 62 percent

0:31:50.159,0:31:53.120
of the votes

0:31:51.200,0:31:54.399
so that’s like huge because there were

0:31:53.120,0:31:57.679
several different

0:31:54.399,0:32:01.760
congressional parties too and

0:31:57.679,0:32:04.080
52 is a lot wow

0:32:01.760,0:32:04.880
yeah and nelson mandela becomes

0:32:04.080,0:32:09.760
president

0:32:04.880,0:32:12.960
yay are they getting kills

0:32:09.760,0:32:14.399
so in may 1996 which is literally like

0:32:12.960,0:32:16.799
that’s the year i was born

0:32:14.399,0:32:19.039
like a little earlier before i was born

0:32:16.799,0:32:20.720
the new south african constitution is

0:32:19.039,0:32:22.480
made

0:32:20.720,0:32:24.000
so anyways like nelson mandela is

0:32:22.480,0:32:26.159
elected then two years later they make

0:32:24.000,0:32:28.320
the new south african constitution

0:32:26.159,0:32:29.840
and this protects the rights of people

0:32:28.320,0:32:32.640
inside the country and

0:32:29.840,0:32:35.200
it explains their obligations and it

0:32:32.640,0:32:37.360
defines the institutions of south africa

0:32:35.200,0:32:38.640
what their powers are and how they may

0:32:37.360,0:32:41.120
use their powers

0:32:38.640,0:32:42.720
so like putting some checks and balances

0:32:41.120,0:32:45.679
in on the government

0:32:42.720,0:32:46.960
and president de clerk and activist

0:32:45.679,0:32:49.279
nelson mandela

0:32:46.960,0:32:50.960
later win the nobel peace prize for

0:32:49.279,0:32:52.960
their work creating a new constitution

0:32:50.960,0:32:56.000
for south africa

0:32:52.960,0:32:59.200
oh that’s incredible

0:32:56.000,0:33:01.440
yeah oh go ahead

0:32:59.200,0:33:02.480
i’m sorry i like i’m just like like we

0:33:01.440,0:33:05.200
talked about in the

0:33:02.480,0:33:06.559
our episode on the middle east in the

0:33:05.200,0:33:10.080
arab spring like

0:33:06.559,0:33:11.360
the importance of institutions when it

0:33:10.080,0:33:14.480
comes to like

0:33:11.360,0:33:16.320
changes and government and like changes

0:33:14.480,0:33:17.919
in constitution like the fact that the

0:33:16.320,0:33:21.360
anc

0:33:17.919,0:33:23.039
despite everything like holding them

0:33:21.360,0:33:25.919
back and oppressing them they were still

0:33:23.039,0:33:26.960
able to like establish this really

0:33:25.919,0:33:29.279
strong

0:33:26.960,0:33:30.320
or like uh yeah a strong political group

0:33:29.279,0:33:32.480
even if they didn’t have power in the

0:33:30.320,0:33:35.679
government yet like they still were like

0:33:32.480,0:33:36.880
a strong organization and then like

0:33:35.679,0:33:38.559
because of that they’re able to

0:33:36.880,0:33:40.399
successfully

0:33:38.559,0:33:42.480
put together this like new constitution

0:33:40.399,0:33:44.399
you know so this

0:33:42.480,0:33:46.480
it’s just really really incredible yeah

0:33:44.399,0:33:49.600
they do that

0:33:46.480,0:33:52.399
even though like every single

0:33:49.600,0:33:54.399
aspect of their life was being oppressed

0:33:52.399,0:33:56.640
and like controlled and limited so

0:33:54.399,0:33:58.000
yeah well they were getting trained from

0:33:56.640,0:34:01.200
a very young age

0:33:58.000,0:34:03.760
like i think it’s important to remember

0:34:01.200,0:34:05.200
like for our listeners that like the

0:34:03.760,0:34:06.480
like people didn’t take this sitting

0:34:05.200,0:34:08.480
down like

0:34:06.480,0:34:10.000
obviously the white people use force and

0:34:08.480,0:34:11.679
like weapons and like literally

0:34:10.000,0:34:14.639
murdering and killing people

0:34:11.679,0:34:15.760
um but people never took it sitting down

0:34:14.639,0:34:17.919
like people have always been trying to

0:34:15.760,0:34:21.040
fight up so nelson mandela

0:34:17.919,0:34:21.679
was like getting crafted like since he

0:34:21.040,0:34:23.760
was young

0:34:21.679,0:34:26.240
to like be a leader and think about how

0:34:23.760,0:34:28.000
we can like move south africa forward

0:34:26.240,0:34:29.760
yeah and there would be no nelson

0:34:28.000,0:34:31.839
mandela if it wasn’t for like the people

0:34:29.760,0:34:35.919
who came before him and like helped

0:34:31.839,0:34:38.320
so yeah absolutely yeah so that’s when

0:34:35.919,0:34:39.200
like apartheid officially ended of

0:34:38.320,0:34:42.800
course though

0:34:39.200,0:34:44.720
there are lasting effects so

0:34:42.800,0:34:46.480
oh i also have an interesting side note

0:34:44.720,0:34:47.040
when i was in south africa one of my

0:34:46.480,0:34:49.599
uncles

0:34:47.040,0:34:51.119
and just referred to him as an uncle um

0:34:49.599,0:34:53.040
who was colored

0:34:51.119,0:34:54.720
he was telling me and he was older right

0:34:53.040,0:34:55.280
so i was asking him about apartheid as

0:34:54.720,0:34:58.160
well

0:34:55.280,0:34:58.560
and he told me that when nelson mandela

0:34:58.160,0:35:01.680
got

0:34:58.560,0:35:05.040
elected one of the like a lot of people

0:35:01.680,0:35:06.720
were saying that they wanted

0:35:05.040,0:35:09.040
like a lot of people in the anc

0:35:06.720,0:35:11.599
basically were like encouraging

0:35:09.040,0:35:13.599
and they wanted the south african army

0:35:11.599,0:35:14.320
to basically massacre all the white

0:35:13.599,0:35:15.839
people

0:35:14.320,0:35:18.160
like just get rid of them like

0:35:15.839,0:35:21.520
completely kill them all off

0:35:18.160,0:35:24.160
um and nelson mandela said

0:35:21.520,0:35:25.280
like no he was like if we do that we’re

0:35:24.160,0:35:28.160
going to take

0:35:25.280,0:35:29.440
like a million steps back and he was

0:35:28.160,0:35:31.680
like in order for us

0:35:29.440,0:35:32.960
which it’s in like his his big like

0:35:31.680,0:35:36.079
inauguration speech

0:35:32.960,0:35:39.599
but he says that like

0:35:36.079,0:35:41.680
in order to move forward as a country

0:35:39.599,0:35:43.359
mandela knew that the country had to

0:35:41.680,0:35:45.280
move forward without bitterness

0:35:43.359,0:35:47.119
because if you move forward with that

0:35:45.280,0:35:47.599
like bitterness then you can’t unite

0:35:47.119,0:35:49.040
because

0:35:47.599,0:35:50.640
there’s still going to be white south

0:35:49.040,0:35:52.400
africans right like you and there’s

0:35:50.640,0:35:54.560
still white people in the world

0:35:52.400,0:35:56.160
you have to find a way to work together

0:35:54.560,0:35:58.160
and that’s not going to happen if you

0:35:56.160,0:36:02.240
seek revenge like that

0:35:58.160,0:36:05.359
so yeah like nelson mandela is just like

0:36:02.240,0:36:08.079
amazing because you you like it’s he was

0:36:05.359,0:36:09.119
in prison for 30 years almost and he was

0:36:08.079,0:36:11.119
like

0:36:09.119,0:36:12.240
no like we’re gonna we have to move

0:36:11.119,0:36:15.839
forward we have to forgive

0:36:12.240,0:36:19.200
and we have to come together

0:36:15.839,0:36:22.480
you have to be such a strong and like

0:36:19.200,0:36:25.520
incredible person to i don’t

0:36:22.480,0:36:28.560
like how do you not have so much

0:36:25.520,0:36:32.800
like hate and anger

0:36:28.560,0:36:35.200
towards a whole group of people and like

0:36:32.800,0:36:36.800
yeah i can’t imagine like yeah you just

0:36:35.200,0:36:38.480
have to be so strong and that’s like an

0:36:36.800,0:36:41.839
incredible lesson for like

0:36:38.480,0:36:43.520
all these countries and yeah

0:36:41.839,0:36:45.520
like going through changes like you

0:36:43.520,0:36:47.599
can’t fight discrimination

0:36:45.520,0:36:49.040
with like other discrimination like it’s

0:36:47.599,0:36:52.839
just gonna be a cycle

0:36:49.040,0:36:55.119
and like wow like yeah

0:36:52.839,0:36:56.480
yeah amazing definitely he’s a way

0:36:55.119,0:36:59.119
better leader than i am

0:36:56.480,0:37:00.640
i was like okay well like no that’s you

0:36:59.119,0:37:03.040
should not do that

0:37:00.640,0:37:05.599
oh i would be i’d just be so angry you

0:37:03.040,0:37:09.040
know yeah i’d have a really hard time

0:37:05.599,0:37:12.320
like not resenting anyone you know

0:37:09.040,0:37:14.240
um so really admirable but

0:37:12.320,0:37:16.640
like unfortunately there are lasting

0:37:14.240,0:37:18.880
effects of apartheid that

0:37:16.640,0:37:20.880
are definitely still seen today like

0:37:18.880,0:37:23.920
apartheid was so recent

0:37:20.880,0:37:24.640
so some of which just like based on my

0:37:23.920,0:37:27.760
experience

0:37:24.640,0:37:29.280
from being there last year um it’s it’s

0:37:27.760,0:37:30.640
like very dangerous like there’s a lot

0:37:29.280,0:37:31.599
of crimes because there’s a lot of

0:37:30.640,0:37:33.440
poverty

0:37:31.599,0:37:34.960
so especially for the black community

0:37:33.440,0:37:37.839
and the colored community

0:37:34.960,0:37:38.880
it’s just not super safe in south africa

0:37:37.839,0:37:41.839
um

0:37:38.880,0:37:43.440
like any time that i would go even just

0:37:41.839,0:37:45.839
like walking by myself

0:37:43.440,0:37:46.960
like i would just call an uber instead

0:37:45.839,0:37:48.720
because

0:37:46.960,0:37:50.000
it’s just not worth the risk because

0:37:48.720,0:37:54.320
robberies and like petty

0:37:50.000,0:37:56.800
crime and theft happen so often and

0:37:54.320,0:37:57.599
um there’s also like a gender violence

0:37:56.800,0:37:59.920
issue

0:37:57.599,0:38:01.520
which i didn’t realize it was like

0:37:59.920,0:38:03.920
really beautiful because

0:38:01.520,0:38:04.800
okay i was working at like the a place

0:38:03.920,0:38:06.079
called paso

0:38:04.800,0:38:07.760
it’s called people against suffering

0:38:06.079,0:38:09.680
oppression and poverty which you should

0:38:07.760,0:38:11.680
go to passup.org

0:38:09.680,0:38:13.040
za actually i’ll link it we should go to

0:38:11.680,0:38:15.040
their website and donate because they’re

0:38:13.040,0:38:18.240
a great organization i love them

0:38:15.040,0:38:19.359
but um yeah passover is like a human

0:38:18.240,0:38:22.000
rights

0:38:19.359,0:38:23.760
organization a non-profit that works to

0:38:22.000,0:38:26.240
like help refugees

0:38:23.760,0:38:27.760
um with like legally entering the

0:38:26.240,0:38:29.200
country and staying there and getting

0:38:27.760,0:38:31.440
everything they need done because a lot

0:38:29.200,0:38:33.359
of refugees and people seeking asylum

0:38:31.440,0:38:34.480
like it’s hard for them to navigate a

0:38:33.359,0:38:36.160
new country and

0:38:34.480,0:38:37.920
a lot of them don’t speak english that

0:38:36.160,0:38:40.800
well and so

0:38:37.920,0:38:41.680
um anyways i worked for them but as part

0:38:40.800,0:38:44.079
of working for them

0:38:41.680,0:38:45.119
like there was a huge gender violence

0:38:44.079,0:38:47.440
issue

0:38:45.119,0:38:48.800
that was and is still happening in south

0:38:47.440,0:38:50.880
africa and

0:38:48.800,0:38:52.960
the president actually was gonna give

0:38:50.880,0:38:53.520
like a speech to address it while i was

0:38:52.960,0:38:56.880
there

0:38:53.520,0:38:59.119
so like my boss was like you can go if

0:38:56.880,0:39:00.640
you want so i got to go into parliament

0:38:59.119,0:39:03.599
and literally see

0:39:00.640,0:39:05.520
the president of south africa his name

0:39:03.599,0:39:09.119
right now it’s cyril or

0:39:05.520,0:39:10.960
ramaphosa and he gave a speech like

0:39:09.119,0:39:12.640
addressing it and then i got to see all

0:39:10.960,0:39:14.880
the political parties

0:39:12.640,0:39:16.960
literally like have their meeting and

0:39:14.880,0:39:18.960
like like basically present

0:39:16.960,0:39:20.880
on their thoughts for solutions their

0:39:18.960,0:39:23.839
thoughts on the situation

0:39:20.880,0:39:24.880
and um yeah and it was because like

0:39:23.839,0:39:27.280
recently like a

0:39:24.880,0:39:28.800
a white not a white girl sorry some a

0:39:27.280,0:39:30.640
girl was like traveling to the post

0:39:28.800,0:39:31.520
office and on her way in brad daylight

0:39:30.640,0:39:33.920
she was like

0:39:31.520,0:39:34.960
kidnapped on beaten up raped and like

0:39:33.920,0:39:38.320
killed

0:39:34.960,0:39:39.359
and so it was like it’s a huge problem

0:39:38.320,0:39:43.040
in south africa

0:39:39.359,0:39:44.800
and so they were addressing it and um

0:39:43.040,0:39:46.480
one of the presenters i don’t remember

0:39:44.800,0:39:49.920
mr president or not but they’re saying

0:39:46.480,0:39:51.680
like like this this is also a result of

0:39:49.920,0:39:52.560
apartheid because it’s like years of

0:39:51.680,0:39:54.960
abuse

0:39:52.560,0:39:55.599
to these like to groups of people

0:39:54.960,0:39:57.359
especially

0:39:55.599,0:39:59.440
men so they feel that they have to like

0:39:57.359,0:40:00.720
prove their masculinity by asserting

0:39:59.440,0:40:03.520
strength over women

0:40:00.720,0:40:04.800
so it’s a lasting like domestic violence

0:40:03.520,0:40:08.079
gender discrimination

0:40:04.800,0:40:11.359
problem that is a result of being like

0:40:08.079,0:40:13.680
the inferior for so long

0:40:11.359,0:40:15.280
wow which i was like that’s a very

0:40:13.680,0:40:18.400
interesting perspective

0:40:15.280,0:40:22.400
so that’s like such a complex

0:40:18.400,0:40:23.920
issue one of those effects that like

0:40:22.400,0:40:26.079
i like i don’t know i wouldn’t have

0:40:23.920,0:40:29.359
thought of that but

0:40:26.079,0:40:32.720
it makes sense because it

0:40:29.359,0:40:35.599
impacts every single aspect of your life

0:40:32.720,0:40:36.640
and the children’s like from future

0:40:35.599,0:40:39.119
generations

0:40:36.640,0:40:39.680
yeah there’s like a lot more um a lot

0:40:39.119,0:40:42.240
more like

0:40:39.680,0:40:44.160
impact than you might think yeah with

0:40:42.240,0:40:46.240
these things it’s not just like

0:40:44.160,0:40:48.079
slavery was bad like there’s a lot that

0:40:46.240,0:40:48.800
happens and like segregation’s bad like

0:40:48.079,0:40:52.240
a lot

0:40:48.800,0:40:54.800
happens later because of it so anyways

0:40:52.240,0:40:55.599
um another really big thing you can see

0:40:54.800,0:40:57.839
is that

0:40:55.599,0:40:58.640
there’s a huge difference between where

0:40:57.839,0:41:01.359
people live

0:40:58.640,0:41:02.640
of course so and which is like getting

0:41:01.359,0:41:05.680
into what you’re asking earlier

0:41:02.640,0:41:06.880
so if you go to a white person’s house

0:41:05.680,0:41:09.359
like i got to stay with my

0:41:06.880,0:41:12.480
south african auntie and she’s white of

0:41:09.359,0:41:15.040
course so i got to stay at her house

0:41:12.480,0:41:17.520
and it’s just like our houses like it

0:41:15.040,0:41:19.760
looks like america like suburbia

0:41:17.520,0:41:20.640
and it’s beautiful like you can see the

0:41:19.760,0:41:23.839
beach like

0:41:20.640,0:41:25.680
you can see the mountains it’s like yeah

0:41:23.839,0:41:27.440
the houses are really nice and bars on

0:41:25.680,0:41:28.720
the windows though because it’s like a

0:41:27.440,0:41:32.319
lot of crime

0:41:28.720,0:41:33.040
um but yeah she like it’s beautiful and

0:41:32.319,0:41:35.119
then

0:41:33.040,0:41:36.400
right across the street it’s not even

0:41:35.119,0:41:39.520
like off like it’s

0:41:36.400,0:41:42.640
across the street you see slums

0:41:39.520,0:41:44.720
so just like very like poor housing

0:41:42.640,0:41:45.839
area it’s like it definitely looks like

0:41:44.720,0:41:49.280
dirty

0:41:45.839,0:41:51.119
um not a lot of stuff going and

0:41:49.280,0:41:53.760
like very run down that’s where colored

0:41:51.119,0:41:57.040
people live okay so like

0:41:53.760,0:41:59.040
you’re just like one one step below

0:41:57.040,0:42:00.160
then i didn’t even see where black

0:41:59.040,0:42:03.040
people

0:42:00.160,0:42:03.920
lived till i went on like a safari and i

0:42:03.040,0:42:05.440
like went

0:42:03.920,0:42:06.960
driving to the safari we would like go

0:42:05.440,0:42:09.520
out of cape town

0:42:06.960,0:42:10.319
and um yeah they live in tin houses like

0:42:09.520,0:42:13.680
it’s

0:42:10.319,0:42:15.119
black people live in like a shed with

0:42:13.680,0:42:17.040
made of tin and then there’s like a

0:42:15.119,0:42:18.480
little satellite

0:42:17.040,0:42:20.480
what are they called yeah like a saddle

0:42:18.480,0:42:21.200
was this not satellite yeah like a

0:42:20.480,0:42:24.240
satellite dish

0:42:21.200,0:42:26.319
like a satellite dish um some wires

0:42:24.240,0:42:27.440
but yeah it’s literally a tin shed and i

0:42:26.319,0:42:29.680
was like

0:42:27.440,0:42:31.119
and the thing is too if you talk to like

0:42:29.680,0:42:33.599
i talked to

0:42:31.119,0:42:34.480
my uncle who’s colored and my auntie who

0:42:33.599,0:42:37.040
was

0:42:34.480,0:42:39.599
um white and i i didn’t really get to

0:42:37.040,0:42:41.440
meet any like black south africans

0:42:39.599,0:42:43.040
um at least who had experienced

0:42:41.440,0:42:44.640
apartheid i obviously had like black

0:42:43.040,0:42:46.560
south africans who were my age

0:42:44.640,0:42:48.480
but like as far as like adults i didn’t

0:42:46.560,0:42:49.920
get to talk to them but if you talk to a

0:42:48.480,0:42:52.160
colored or white person

0:42:49.920,0:42:53.359
sometimes like they’ll say like oh

0:42:52.160,0:42:57.040
apartheid wasn’t that

0:42:53.359,0:42:58.079
bad and i was like yeah maybe for you it

0:42:57.040,0:43:01.520
wasn’t that bad

0:42:58.079,0:43:05.119
like it’s like you’re not on the bottom

0:43:01.520,0:43:07.200
like it the bottom was probably horrible

0:43:05.119,0:43:09.520
yeah the white stuff happened like no i

0:43:07.200,0:43:11.920
i was doing pretty well i don’t know

0:43:09.520,0:43:13.839
yeah she was like it wasn’t it wasn’t

0:43:11.920,0:43:16.160
that bad she’s like honestly like

0:43:13.839,0:43:17.520
i think south africa got worse because

0:43:16.160,0:43:18.960
it’s and i was like don’t say that like

0:43:17.520,0:43:21.680
please don’t finish that like

0:43:18.960,0:43:21.680
i don’t hear it

0:43:22.160,0:43:26.000
so yeah it’s a lot and then they also

0:43:24.560,0:43:27.760
have since i was working for like a

0:43:26.000,0:43:30.400
refugee organization

0:43:27.760,0:43:32.079
um yeah there’s huge xenophobia issues

0:43:30.400,0:43:34.480
so lots and lots of like just being

0:43:32.079,0:43:37.599
scared of foreigners not wanting to like

0:43:34.480,0:43:39.520
help people who are like seeking asylum

0:43:37.599,0:43:41.760
um they’re having a refugee crisis they

0:43:39.520,0:43:45.200
had a huge refugee crisis

0:43:41.760,0:43:47.440
right when i was leaving um

0:43:45.200,0:43:49.280
which was like really hard and like if

0:43:47.440,0:43:50.960
you if you ever it’s like meet someone

0:43:49.280,0:43:52.560
who’s like seeking asylum and you hear

0:43:50.960,0:43:54.480
their stories it’s like

0:43:52.560,0:43:55.920
oh it’s it’s like it’s real people

0:43:54.480,0:43:58.640
really go through

0:43:55.920,0:43:59.839
horrible things and um and they’re like

0:43:58.640,0:44:03.760
our age like it’s

0:43:59.839,0:44:06.560
you don’t it’s it’s still going on yeah

0:44:03.760,0:44:08.800
just to clarify but like it’s like uh

0:44:06.560,0:44:10.880
like refugee crisis as in

0:44:08.800,0:44:12.960
a people from neighboring countries who

0:44:10.880,0:44:14.800
are seeking asylum in south africa

0:44:12.960,0:44:18.000
absolutely yes that’s what it is but

0:44:14.800,0:44:18.000
just yeah um

0:44:18.400,0:44:22.000
yeah like so yeah like the xenophobia

0:44:21.520,0:44:25.119
thing like

0:44:22.000,0:44:27.440
of because in 90s like

0:44:25.119,0:44:29.200
what 96 that’s what it that’s the year

0:44:27.440,0:44:30.800
it ended 99.94 it

0:44:29.200,0:44:32.880
ended and then 96 we get a new

0:44:30.800,0:44:34.640
constitution actually no

0:44:32.880,0:44:36.319
yeah 91 they’re starting to repeal it

0:44:34.640,0:44:38.160
but i would say like 94 when nelson

0:44:36.319,0:44:39.359
mandela got elected i would say it like

0:44:38.160,0:44:42.400
ended

0:44:39.359,0:44:45.760
yeah so like early 90s like that’s

0:44:42.400,0:44:49.599
insane and yeah there’s

0:44:45.760,0:44:51.440
no way they’re just gonna be like okay

0:44:49.599,0:44:53.359
i don’t know like that’s gonna take so

0:44:51.440,0:44:55.040
long

0:44:53.359,0:44:58.160
how do you even solve that like how do

0:44:55.040,0:45:01.200
you fix that like how do you try to

0:44:58.160,0:45:01.760
like eradicate xenophobia i don’t even

0:45:01.200,0:45:04.880
know

0:45:01.760,0:45:05.280
like especially if it’s like apartheid

0:45:04.880,0:45:08.800
had

0:45:05.280,0:45:10.800
lasted for so long and like if you’re

0:45:08.800,0:45:12.079
a white person you probably never even

0:45:10.800,0:45:15.040
like

0:45:12.079,0:45:17.040
had a real interaction with like a

0:45:15.040,0:45:20.240
non-white person you know

0:45:17.040,0:45:22.960
i don’t know because how would you

0:45:20.240,0:45:25.760
like they may also too i forgot to add

0:45:22.960,0:45:28.400
but like you would also get in trouble

0:45:25.760,0:45:29.119
like as a white person for advocating

0:45:28.400,0:45:31.359
for

0:45:29.119,0:45:33.280
like anti-apartheid so it was like

0:45:31.359,0:45:34.800
against the law to even

0:45:33.280,0:45:37.040
yeah to be like you know what i think

0:45:34.800,0:45:39.760
like we should give people their rights

0:45:37.040,0:45:41.280
like that’s no you can’t say that yeah

0:45:39.760,0:45:43.119
also like i don’t know

0:45:41.280,0:45:45.040
if you found this in your research but

0:45:43.119,0:45:48.160
i’m pretty sure like the government

0:45:45.040,0:45:50.640
um like they censored like all of their

0:45:48.160,0:45:53.359
media pretty much so you they

0:45:50.640,0:45:55.119
you like south africans couldn’t access

0:45:53.359,0:45:56.720
the news easily like from

0:45:55.119,0:45:58.880
other countries you know like the

0:45:56.720,0:46:02.000
government was censoring everything

0:45:58.880,0:46:03.839
um if i

0:46:02.000,0:46:06.079
if you want to like gain another

0:46:03.839,0:46:07.040
interesting perspective on the apartheid

0:46:06.079,0:46:09.200
in south africa

0:46:07.040,0:46:10.640
everyone should watch the documentary

0:46:09.200,0:46:13.680
searching for sugar man

0:46:10.640,0:46:16.720
it won an academy award is that the one

0:46:13.680,0:46:20.240
we watched together

0:46:16.720,0:46:21.839
we’re in china yeah i’m gonna worry

0:46:20.240,0:46:23.599
about like one of my favorite artists

0:46:21.839,0:46:27.839
his name is rodriguez

0:46:23.599,0:46:31.599
and he’s from america um

0:46:27.839,0:46:33.520
he but he was like not famous in america

0:46:31.599,0:46:34.880
at all like he he kind of has like bob

0:46:33.520,0:46:37.599
dylan vibes um

0:46:34.880,0:46:39.280
and like he like didn’t gain any success

0:46:37.599,0:46:40.560
in america and then like a couple

0:46:39.280,0:46:42.800
decades later

0:46:40.560,0:46:43.839
he finds out that he had been like

0:46:42.800,0:46:45.839
insanely

0:46:43.839,0:46:47.839
famous in south africa like he was on

0:46:45.839,0:46:51.920
like the same level as like

0:46:47.839,0:46:53.599
elvis and like he was they loved him um

0:46:51.920,0:46:55.200
and like it yeah it had to do with like

0:46:53.599,0:46:56.720
the apartheid everything um

0:46:55.200,0:46:58.400
so you guys i don’t want to like spoil

0:46:56.720,0:46:59.040
too much but everyone should check out

0:46:58.400,0:47:00.480
the

0:46:59.040,0:47:02.720
documentary because they talk a lot

0:47:00.480,0:47:05.760
about the transition

0:47:02.720,0:47:08.839
um after apartheid so it’s a great movie

0:47:05.760,0:47:12.720
yeah good plug i remember that one

0:47:08.839,0:47:14.240
um yeah so basically yeah just like

0:47:12.720,0:47:16.880
wrapping up to

0:47:14.240,0:47:19.440
unemployment is still around like 25 in

0:47:16.880,0:47:22.079
south africa so they just have a lot

0:47:19.440,0:47:24.160
a lot they have to work with right now

0:47:22.079,0:47:26.240
and there’s always rolling blackouts

0:47:24.160,0:47:28.079
which prevent the com the country from

0:47:26.240,0:47:29.599
moving forward economically so the

0:47:28.079,0:47:32.319
rolling blackout is like

0:47:29.599,0:47:32.960
basically just like huge slabs of the

0:47:32.319,0:47:35.920
country will

0:47:32.960,0:47:36.800
lose electricity for like extensive

0:47:35.920,0:47:39.920
amounts of time

0:47:36.800,0:47:41.760
anyways that is a very very very brief

0:47:39.920,0:47:43.280
history of apartheid

0:47:41.760,0:47:45.119
we weren’t very long i’m gonna have to

0:47:43.280,0:47:48.160
cut down like a lot of

0:47:45.119,0:47:50.480
stuff but um yeah and i hope the audio

0:47:48.160,0:47:52.559
turns out okay but basically

0:47:50.480,0:47:54.240
yeah that that’s like a little insight

0:47:52.559,0:47:55.440
into apartheid i encourage everyone to

0:47:54.240,0:47:58.000
like read more about it

0:47:55.440,0:47:58.640
and just remember why we don’t do things

0:47:58.000,0:48:01.680
like that

0:47:58.640,0:48:03.839
and yeah

0:48:01.680,0:48:04.960
yeah and yeah no thank you so much for

0:48:03.839,0:48:07.359
sharing like that

0:48:04.960,0:48:10.880
so stuff like this is like so important

0:48:07.359,0:48:12.880
to be educated on and like know

0:48:10.880,0:48:15.760
like the effects and like just i don’t

0:48:12.880,0:48:18.240
know it ended in the 90s so that’s just

0:48:15.760,0:48:20.400
such a weird

0:48:18.240,0:48:21.440
uh yeah that’s just such a strange thing

0:48:20.400,0:48:23.680
uh to think about

0:48:21.440,0:48:24.880
but yeah thank you so much for sharing

0:48:23.680,0:48:27.359
that was

0:48:24.880,0:48:29.280
that was really that was a this was a

0:48:27.359,0:48:31.040
good one this is a good episode

0:48:29.280,0:48:33.119
thank you yeah and i also just want to

0:48:31.040,0:48:34.640
add on your point yeah i think

0:48:33.119,0:48:36.240
if you take away anything from this

0:48:34.640,0:48:37.280
episode i think it’s important to just

0:48:36.240,0:48:40.079
remember like

0:48:37.280,0:48:41.040
how recent that was how like these

0:48:40.079,0:48:43.200
issues are not

0:48:41.040,0:48:45.200
in the past like issues of xenophobia

0:48:43.200,0:48:48.240
issues of wanting to separate

0:48:45.200,0:48:51.359
from others and like form an enemy is

0:48:48.240,0:48:54.559
an ongoing issue and

0:48:51.359,0:48:55.280
um the reason of apartheid ended it was

0:48:54.559,0:48:57.119
not like

0:48:55.280,0:48:59.200
the government had a change of heart

0:48:57.119,0:49:00.240
it’s because external pressures were

0:48:59.200,0:49:02.960
placed

0:49:00.240,0:49:03.359
so always stand up for what you believe

0:49:02.960,0:49:05.760
in

0:49:03.359,0:49:09.280
and never like don’t put up with

0:49:05.760,0:49:09.280
injustice if it’s wrong so

0:49:09.840,0:49:21.839
[Music]

0:49:19.760,0:49:21.839
you