The Opium Wars

How Do You Solve A Hostage Crisis? How Did We Not Know That

The relationship between Iran and the US has always been a rough one, and in today's episode we're going to highlight one of the major events that has shaped this relationship. The Iran Hostage Crisis defined the future of US-Iran relations, changed the course of the Carter Administration's success, and devastated the lives of several American diplomats. In this episode, Nat and Jac learn about the Iran Hostage Crisis and reflect on the risks associated with public service and diplomacy. 📦 ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnkt  💛Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat  📄Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com Follow Us On Social Media 🎉: 🐦Twitter: @HDWNKT 📸 Instagram: @HDWNKT 🕺Tik Tok: @HDWNKT 🖥YouTube: @HDWNKT Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Do You Solve A Hostage Crisis?
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Show Notes

0:00:00.000,0:00:03.439
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.159,0:00:06.560
another episode

0:00:03.439,0:00:07.120
of how did we not know that i’m net i’m

0:00:06.560,0:00:10.160
jack

0:00:07.120,0:00:12.320
and today i’m excited

0:00:10.160,0:00:14.320
for jack’s episode do you want to tell

0:00:12.320,0:00:16.960
us what you’re going to be talking about

0:00:14.320,0:00:18.800
yeah today i’m covering the opium wars

0:00:16.960,0:00:19.359
and that and i did not plan for this

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large

0:00:19.359,0:00:23.439
china sequence in the middle of the

0:00:21.359,0:00:24.960
season but it just ended up that way

0:00:23.439,0:00:27.119
but yeah it’ll it’s gonna be really

0:00:24.960,0:00:28.320
interesting this is a war that i always

0:00:27.119,0:00:30.560
heard about in

0:00:28.320,0:00:31.599
light but i never really looked into it

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and i think

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after this episode when you hear about

0:00:33.760,0:00:36.800
the opium war you’ll have a better

0:00:35.760,0:00:39.360
understanding

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about why china has been closed off to

0:00:39.360,0:00:42.239
trade they have been a little less prone

0:00:41.280,0:00:45.440
to trade

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which we discovered in gnats episode and

0:00:45.440,0:00:49.200
you’ll also probably have a better idea

0:00:47.440,0:00:49.600
as to some of the other events that come

0:00:49.200,0:00:51.360
after

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the opium war and why that happened

0:00:51.360,0:00:56.640
because this really sets the stage for

0:00:53.680,0:00:59.120
a lot of the other uh catastrophes that

0:00:56.640,0:01:01.120
happen in china the opium wars

0:00:59.120,0:01:02.320
that’s war is plural so there are two

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wars and

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we’re going to start with the first one

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and basically the opium wars

0:01:06.000,0:01:10.960
were a series of conflicts in china from

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western imperial powers mainly great

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britain

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in their attempt to open up trade in

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china

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so for the first opium war it’s the

0:01:17.920,0:01:22.240
early 1800s

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and great britain is not in great

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financial shape

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in the 1800s they’ve recently

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like 20 years ago um lost the american

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colonies

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which you’ve lost like all that tax

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revenue and you lost

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the cotton production that you get from

0:01:35.439,0:01:40.079
the americas um and the tobacco etc

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and they’ve spent a lot of money on

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their colonization efforts around the

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world

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and their investment in india is not

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paying off like they had hoped

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they spent a lot of money conquering

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india and

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they wanted to grow cotton there but you

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couldn’t really grow cotton as well

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as they were doing in other countries so

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they weren’t

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it wasn’t like successful so at this

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time there are already a lot of european

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imperialist strongholds around asia

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you have the british in india the french

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and vietnam

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cambodia laos and the dutch in

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indonesia also the spanish in the

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philippines so

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it’s just like european powers are

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everywhere around asia

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and so well before this time

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chinese products were in really high

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demand in england such as their silk

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porcelain

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and a lot of tea like the british it’s a

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stereotype but they really did

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love tea all european countries were

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interested in trade with china right but

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great britain was like

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really really liking their products but

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on the flip side

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china didn’t really have a lot of

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interest for great britain’s products or

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like any european products they just

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didn’t think it was interesting or they

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didn’t want it

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can’t make a trade like that with

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products instead england has to trade

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hard

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silver um to get the tea from china

0:02:55.760,0:02:59.200
great britain starts to look for a

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solution to

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that problem and they discover that

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although india

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is not good for growing cotton it is

0:03:05.680,0:03:13.040
really good for growing a plant called

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the opium poppy so

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this we start the opium trade so opium

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which i said comes from this poppy plant

0:03:18.400,0:03:22.239
is a highly addictive drug

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it forms the base of those really hard

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drugs like morphine and heroin

0:03:24.000,0:03:29.040
right so the plan was to get the chinese

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addicted to opium so then they would

0:03:29.040,0:03:32.000
have something to trade and solve the

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trade deficit isn’t that

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terrible but that’s really what they

0:03:33.840,0:03:38.159
were thinking oh my god they’re

0:03:36.640,0:03:39.760
literally like let’s give them the most

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addictive things so then

0:03:39.760,0:03:44.159
here’s the thing though in china the

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chinese emperor believed that western

0:03:44.159,0:03:47.920
powers were corrupt

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and they didn’t want to trade with them

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so they really wanted to strictly

0:03:49.440,0:03:52.080
restrain

0:03:50.239,0:03:53.439
trade with foreigners which can you

0:03:52.080,0:03:56.480
blame the guy like

0:03:53.439,0:03:59.599
i think they had a lot of technological

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advancements too like they were doing

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so much compared to a lot of countries

0:04:01.599,0:04:04.720
at the time i think but they were so

0:04:02.879,0:04:06.000
isolated so like people didn’t actually

0:04:04.720,0:04:09.439
yeah they had like coal

0:04:06.000,0:04:12.799
gun powder porcelain tea silk like

0:04:09.439,0:04:15.120
what do you need so basically the ching

0:04:12.799,0:04:16.720
emperor who is the emperor at the time

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limited trade to something called the

0:04:16.720,0:04:20.639
canton system

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canton is in the south of china so the

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canton system there’s one port in the

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canton region which is in

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guangdong province and the port is in

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guangzhou which is the city

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so there’s only one port all the

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foreigners got to go to this port

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also at this port the trade between

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foreigners has to go through

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licensed chinese merchants and it has to

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be subjected to a lot of government

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regulation and they have to pay tax on

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it

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so it’s really like heavily scrutinized

0:04:47.759,0:04:50.160
trade

0:04:48.400,0:04:51.759
there were already small amounts of

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opium that had been

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in china they were either grown in china

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or they had been

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like smuggled in but they weren’t

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getting caught it was just very small

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amounts

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and even with that small amount the

0:05:01.759,0:05:05.600
chinese government recognized that the

0:05:03.680,0:05:08.000
opium was becoming a really

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serious social problem so in the year

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1800 it banned both the production and

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the importation of opium

0:05:12.400,0:05:18.400
wow legal now and in 2013

0:05:15.919,0:05:19.759
they went a step further and outlawed

0:05:18.400,0:05:22.000
the smoking of opium

0:05:19.759,0:05:23.600
and they imposed a punishment of beating

0:05:22.000,0:05:26.720
offenders a hundred times

0:05:23.600,0:05:27.840
oh my gosh they’re really like ah this

0:05:26.720,0:05:31.759
opium thing

0:05:27.840,0:05:34.880
is not the move yeah

0:05:31.759,0:05:36.960
that’s not fun i know and so in response

0:05:34.880,0:05:39.759
the british east india company

0:05:36.960,0:05:40.240
which was the company in east india that

0:05:39.759,0:05:42.720
was

0:05:40.240,0:05:44.560
producing the opium they hired private

0:05:42.720,0:05:46.400
british and american traders to

0:05:44.560,0:05:48.320
transport the drug to china

0:05:46.400,0:05:49.520
and then they had chinese smugglers

0:05:48.320,0:05:51.199
bring the opium in

0:05:49.520,0:05:52.880
from ships that were anchored off the

0:05:51.199,0:05:55.600
coast of guangzhou which is

0:05:52.880,0:05:58.479
canton area like we said so in less than

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30 years from 1810 to 1838

0:05:58.479,0:06:02.240
opium in china had increased from 4 500

0:06:01.600,0:06:04.400
chests

0:06:02.240,0:06:06.560
which is like the container for opium to

0:06:04.400,0:06:10.160
40 000.

0:06:06.560,0:06:14.319
so like almost 10 times oh my gosh

0:06:10.160,0:06:17.680
and that’s not a long time period i know

0:06:14.319,0:06:19.759
so things are not looking great uh

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and then we get into some conflict

0:06:19.759,0:06:22.400
between the chinese and great britain

0:06:21.520,0:06:25.680
the chinese

0:06:22.400,0:06:27.600
emperor is furious about this

0:06:25.680,0:06:29.600
so he employs quite a few different

0:06:27.600,0:06:31.360
officials over the course of time to

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combat the opium issue

0:06:31.360,0:06:36.160
so one of the officials is lin lindsay

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and he’s ordered to go down to canton

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and destroy all the opium

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that’s his main job so in may of 1839

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lindsay sue does a few things to try and

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combat the trade

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first thing he does is he writes a

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letter to queen victoria and he

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questions

0:06:48.960,0:06:52.880
britain’s political support for the

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trade and the morality of pushing drugs

0:06:52.880,0:06:56.000
but it’s highly unlikely that she

0:06:54.560,0:06:59.599
actually got that letter

0:06:56.000,0:07:01.759
but he wrote it he’s like please stop

0:06:59.599,0:07:03.039
then he rapidly progresses the

0:07:01.759,0:07:05.599
enforcement of the ban

0:07:03.039,0:07:06.960
and he arrests 600 chinese dealers of

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opium

0:07:06.960,0:07:12.080
wow but most importantly he demands that

0:07:10.240,0:07:14.160
the british chief superintendent of

0:07:12.080,0:07:14.720
trade in china whose name was charles

0:07:14.160,0:07:17.199
elliott

0:07:14.720,0:07:17.919
hand over all the stalks of opium at

0:07:17.199,0:07:19.440
canton

0:07:17.919,0:07:20.960
and they were going to give them tea in

0:07:19.440,0:07:22.240
exchange for the opium

0:07:20.960,0:07:23.759
then they were going to destroy all the

0:07:22.240,0:07:24.319
opium they weren’t going to like sell it

0:07:23.759,0:07:26.160
out but

0:07:24.319,0:07:27.759
they wanted all the opium like this is

0:07:26.160,0:07:29.840
my personal status

0:07:27.759,0:07:33.039
yeah he’s like good excellent the

0:07:29.840,0:07:35.599
emperor comes in he’s like smoking

0:07:33.039,0:07:36.560
okay so the british refuse they’re like

0:07:35.599,0:07:39.599
ah no thanks

0:07:36.560,0:07:41.520
so lin jesus stops all foreign trade and

0:07:39.599,0:07:44.240
he confines the foreigners to

0:07:41.520,0:07:46.080
one area wow yeah and then they’re

0:07:44.240,0:07:48.000
quarantined in that area so the

0:07:46.080,0:07:49.039
quarantine time period lasts for six

0:07:48.000,0:07:50.879
weeks and then

0:07:49.039,0:07:53.840
the merchants finally give in and they

0:07:50.879,0:07:58.080
hand over 20 000 chests of opium

0:07:53.840,0:08:00.800
but that’s not enough so lynn’s troops

0:07:58.080,0:08:02.080
then go and they destroy all of those

0:08:00.800,0:08:03.840
chests that they handed over

0:08:02.080,0:08:05.919
but then they also seize and destroy

0:08:03.840,0:08:07.440
opium that was being held on the british

0:08:05.919,0:08:10.560
ships oh my gosh

0:08:07.440,0:08:13.520
like they are hiding so much i know

0:08:10.560,0:08:15.360
i know so the british are not happy

0:08:13.520,0:08:17.039
about this and charles elliot

0:08:15.360,0:08:18.479
claims that these ships were in

0:08:17.039,0:08:20.879
international waters

0:08:18.479,0:08:23.440
but lynn claims that they were anchored

0:08:20.879,0:08:26.400
in and around chinese lands

0:08:23.440,0:08:27.120
whose side are you on you know and then

0:08:26.400,0:08:30.639
lastly

0:08:27.120,0:08:33.919
lynn pressures the portuguese who had a

0:08:30.639,0:08:35.120
colony in nearby macau which i did not

0:08:33.919,0:08:38.320
know but yeah that’s

0:08:35.120,0:08:40.719
they owned my cow i guess

0:08:38.320,0:08:41.519
did they colonize macau no i’m sorry i

0:08:40.719,0:08:44.560
didn’t know i

0:08:41.519,0:08:44.560
didn’t know that wow

0:08:44.800,0:08:48.640
yeah we should cover that because i have

0:08:46.480,0:08:51.760
no idea so he pressures them

0:08:48.640,0:08:52.560
to expel the uncooperative british from

0:08:51.760,0:08:54.399
that area

0:08:52.560,0:08:55.839
and force them to move to the island of

0:08:54.399,0:08:58.480
hong kong

0:08:55.839,0:08:59.120
so i mean lin tried really hard i admire

0:08:58.480,0:09:01.360
this guy

0:08:59.120,0:09:02.160
yeah okay so yeah british are not

0:09:01.360,0:09:05.200
unhappy

0:09:02.160,0:09:07.920
and for them the destruction of

0:09:05.200,0:09:09.360
opium was a violation of britain’s

0:09:07.920,0:09:11.279
concepts of trade

0:09:09.360,0:09:12.720
because britain really believes in the

0:09:11.279,0:09:14.080
concept of free trade like the

0:09:12.720,0:09:14.480
government should not get involved in

0:09:14.080,0:09:16.880
that

0:09:14.480,0:09:19.360
and the politicians in great britain had

0:09:16.880,0:09:21.839
been looking for an excuse to expand

0:09:19.360,0:09:23.600
british imperial interests so they used

0:09:21.839,0:09:24.320
the opium incident to act more

0:09:23.600,0:09:26.160
forcefully

0:09:24.320,0:09:27.760
with china they were they were like

0:09:26.160,0:09:29.440
looking for a reason to go to war and

0:09:27.760,0:09:33.120
then they were like using this

0:09:29.440,0:09:34.959
as the reason okay okay

0:09:33.120,0:09:36.720
that’s sketchy so they’re like they

0:09:34.959,0:09:38.560
wouldn’t have

0:09:36.720,0:09:40.480
it’s not like they were so upset about

0:09:38.560,0:09:42.800
the whole

0:09:40.480,0:09:44.399
opium situation well like them like

0:09:42.800,0:09:46.880
stealing all their opium

0:09:44.399,0:09:49.120
yeah because they knew it was unethical

0:09:46.880,0:09:52.720
i don’t even know if opium was like

0:09:49.120,0:09:54.399
legal in england so they knew what they

0:09:52.720,0:09:56.399
were doing

0:09:54.399,0:09:58.240
and then a lot of the politicians when

0:09:56.399,0:10:00.000
they’re making the arguments in

0:09:58.240,0:10:01.920
court as to whether or not they wanted

0:10:00.000,0:10:03.519
to go to war with china

0:10:01.920,0:10:05.920
a lot of them argued that china was out

0:10:03.519,0:10:08.560
of touch with civilized nations

0:10:05.920,0:10:11.040
which practiced free trade and they also

0:10:08.560,0:10:14.240
often called the chinese barbaric

0:10:11.040,0:10:15.519
and that they needed to go to china

0:10:14.240,0:10:17.760
and have a war with them because they

0:10:15.519,0:10:18.560
were just like savages and barbarians

0:10:17.760,0:10:21.600
and

0:10:18.560,0:10:23.200
wow all right so so there you go there

0:10:21.600,0:10:25.600
you have it

0:10:23.200,0:10:28.480
not great okay so then we have the first

0:10:25.600,0:10:31.200
opium war attack so in june 1840

0:10:28.480,0:10:32.640
16 british warships and opium merchants

0:10:31.200,0:10:35.760
arrive at guangzhou

0:10:32.640,0:10:38.800
and they attack china and

0:10:35.760,0:10:40.959
although there were like 50 000 chinese

0:10:38.800,0:10:43.279
soldiers to 6 000 british

0:10:40.959,0:10:44.320
the british had superior training and

0:10:43.279,0:10:46.320
technology

0:10:44.320,0:10:48.160
from all their colonization efforts so

0:10:46.320,0:10:51.279
they very quickly started seizing

0:10:48.160,0:10:54.399
cities and winning battles it was like

0:10:51.279,0:10:56.320
yeah just really not a chance

0:10:54.399,0:10:58.720
england had like the strongest navy at

0:10:56.320,0:11:00.320
the time so a naval attack like they’re

0:10:58.720,0:11:00.880
gonna win no matter what like that’s

0:11:00.320,0:11:02.160
what they do

0:11:00.880,0:11:04.560
all these countries that they’re

0:11:02.160,0:11:09.040
colonizing they attack them

0:11:04.560,0:11:11.519
through water see yeah and it was like

0:11:09.040,0:11:12.399
yeah even though the gun powder like for

0:11:11.519,0:11:14.720
guns is from

0:11:12.399,0:11:15.600
china the chinese were still using like

0:11:14.720,0:11:18.160
spears

0:11:15.600,0:11:19.920
in the wars and i guess like not very

0:11:18.160,0:11:21.839
high quality guns

0:11:19.920,0:11:24.160
and the british were using like the best

0:11:21.839,0:11:24.160
guns

0:11:24.320,0:11:28.800
i think so yeah it’s pretty bad for the

0:11:27.040,0:11:31.360
chinese lynn

0:11:28.800,0:11:32.480
boylan wins issue he gets sent into

0:11:31.360,0:11:34.480
exile

0:11:32.480,0:11:36.000
um because the emperor is like furious

0:11:34.480,0:11:37.920
that this is happening and then

0:11:36.000,0:11:39.360
lots of chinese generals are committing

0:11:37.920,0:11:43.279
suicide because

0:11:39.360,0:11:46.160
it’s so bad they can’t defeat the forces

0:11:43.279,0:11:47.519
so really sad and this pattern continues

0:11:46.160,0:11:49.600
throughout the war and then they end up

0:11:47.519,0:11:53.040
capturing several major ports

0:11:49.600,0:11:56.399
along the coast then in 1842

0:11:53.040,0:11:58.959
they capture the city of uh jejung

0:11:56.399,0:11:59.600
which allows them to blockade the yancey

0:11:58.959,0:12:02.320
river

0:11:59.600,0:12:04.399
and that is like final straw because

0:12:02.320,0:12:05.040
once they blockade the yancey river that

0:12:04.399,0:12:07.360
means that

0:12:05.040,0:12:10.560
they can’t transport food down to other

0:12:07.360,0:12:13.040
parts of the country anymore

0:12:10.560,0:12:15.680
so that’s regarded as the last major

0:12:13.040,0:12:17.600
battle of the first opium war

0:12:15.680,0:12:19.120
and at this point the chinese have lost

0:12:17.600,0:12:22.160
the war and they need to sign

0:12:19.120,0:12:22.160
a peace treaty

0:12:22.800,0:12:26.480
so the treaty they sign is called the

0:12:25.120,0:12:29.519
treaty of nan king

0:12:26.480,0:12:31.200
and in august of 1842 the war is

0:12:29.519,0:12:32.880
officially ended and the chinese

0:12:31.200,0:12:34.160
officials are forced to sign the treaty

0:12:32.880,0:12:38.320
of nanking

0:12:34.160,0:12:41.040
so this treaty is also the first of what

0:12:38.320,0:12:44.160
china later refers to as the series

0:12:41.040,0:12:47.040
of unequal treaties so they’re like

0:12:44.160,0:12:49.360
wow a series yeah there’s a lot of them

0:12:47.040,0:12:52.639
so this is the first of those

0:12:49.360,0:12:54.480
yikes and so

0:12:52.639,0:12:57.040
here’s what the treaty of nanking does

0:12:54.480,0:12:59.040
it ends the canton system of trading

0:12:57.040,0:13:00.320
and then the treaty provided the british

0:12:59.040,0:13:03.120
with a few

0:13:00.320,0:13:04.959
a few benefits the first was a deep

0:13:03.120,0:13:07.360
water port in hong kong

0:13:04.959,0:13:09.040
second was monetary composition for all

0:13:07.360,0:13:10.720
of the opium that was destroyed in

0:13:09.040,0:13:13.279
reparation for the war

0:13:10.720,0:13:14.320
then they opened five new chinese treaty

0:13:13.279,0:13:16.240
ports

0:13:14.320,0:13:18.320
yeah then they also granted everyone

0:13:16.240,0:13:19.440
extra territoriality for british

0:13:18.320,0:13:21.760
citizens

0:13:19.440,0:13:24.480
so that means that they were subject to

0:13:21.760,0:13:26.480
the british not the chinese laws

0:13:24.480,0:13:27.839
extra territory i think of it like

0:13:26.480,0:13:30.800
diplomatic immunity

0:13:27.839,0:13:32.720
because you know diplomats get that too

0:13:30.800,0:13:34.399
yeah so it’s like the same as that but

0:13:32.720,0:13:37.200
then they’re giving it to like

0:13:34.399,0:13:37.920
people like just they’re just giving it

0:13:37.200,0:13:41.040
to everyone

0:13:37.920,0:13:44.320
and so i’m sure that got abused

0:13:41.040,0:13:47.279
like crazy yeah definitely

0:13:44.320,0:13:48.160
so um another thing that was in the

0:13:47.279,0:13:50.959
treaty was

0:13:48.160,0:13:52.880
the most favored nation clause which

0:13:50.959,0:13:54.320
states that any rights gained by

0:13:52.880,0:13:56.240
other foreign nations would

0:13:54.320,0:14:00.320
automatically apply to great britain

0:13:56.240,0:14:02.240
as well so this allows westerners to

0:14:00.320,0:14:05.360
start building churches and spreading

0:14:02.240,0:14:07.120
christianity in china

0:14:05.360,0:14:08.959
and then on the china side they got

0:14:07.120,0:14:11.760
nothing

0:14:08.959,0:14:14.720
wow so it’s like really interesting

0:14:11.760,0:14:16.639
because i feel like there’s so many

0:14:14.720,0:14:17.839
like it’s almost like they partly colin

0:14:16.639,0:14:19.680
like you know

0:14:17.839,0:14:21.680
it sounds like a lot of rules that would

0:14:19.680,0:14:23.440
be set in place if they like colonize

0:14:21.680,0:14:25.680
the entire

0:14:23.440,0:14:27.199
country but it’s like they i don’t know

0:14:25.680,0:14:28.639
they did it

0:14:27.199,0:14:30.240
sorry i’m now i’m just like thinking out

0:14:28.639,0:14:32.880
loud but it’s like they’re colonizing

0:14:30.240,0:14:34.560
it but without having to set up like the

0:14:32.880,0:14:35.920
government that has to like

0:14:34.560,0:14:37.839
rule the country they’re just like

0:14:35.920,0:14:40.320
getting some of the

0:14:37.839,0:14:41.360
benefits you know yeah no that’s a great

0:14:40.320,0:14:43.519
way to say it

0:14:41.360,0:14:44.639
i think this is my friend that i’m going

0:14:43.519,0:14:46.959
to ask later

0:14:44.639,0:14:48.399
she was telling me about this i didn’t

0:14:46.959,0:14:50.560
even understand like what she was saying

0:14:48.399,0:14:52.399
but basically like during this time

0:14:50.560,0:14:54.560
period it was like all european powers

0:14:52.399,0:14:56.320
were like trying to get a bite of china

0:14:54.560,0:14:58.480
if that makes sense and she’s like

0:14:56.320,0:15:00.480
it’s like a dog trying to like bite a

0:14:58.480,0:15:02.480
beach ball like everyone wants a piece

0:15:00.480,0:15:05.279
of it but it’s like too big

0:15:02.480,0:15:06.959
so you can’t take it over so every like

0:15:05.279,0:15:08.399
this was like their way of like taking a

0:15:06.959,0:15:09.839
bite almost

0:15:08.399,0:15:11.760
yeah well yeah because you were saying

0:15:09.839,0:15:14.240
like england wasn’t doing or

0:15:11.760,0:15:16.160
the uk great britain wasn’t doing like

0:15:14.240,0:15:17.600
well financially at the time

0:15:16.160,0:15:19.040
and they knew that there was no way they

0:15:17.600,0:15:21.519
could like successfully colonize the

0:15:19.040,0:15:24.639
entire country so this is just like

0:15:21.519,0:15:27.040
economically they’re colonizing it

0:15:24.639,0:15:28.639
i guess this marks the end of the first

0:15:27.040,0:15:31.839
opium war

0:15:28.639,0:15:34.720
and yeah not a great time for china

0:15:31.839,0:15:36.480
then we enter the second opium war time

0:15:34.720,0:15:39.920
period

0:15:36.480,0:15:41.279
so after the end of the first opium war

0:15:39.920,0:15:42.480
in 1842

0:15:41.279,0:15:44.720
with the signing of the treaty of

0:15:42.480,0:15:48.000
nanking um

0:15:44.720,0:15:49.680
the great britain obviously received a

0:15:48.000,0:15:51.519
lot of enormous benefits over

0:15:49.680,0:15:53.040
china but the british were still

0:15:51.519,0:15:55.839
unsatisfied

0:15:53.040,0:15:57.759
so trade did not expand as much as

0:15:55.839,0:15:59.199
foreign merchants had hoped and they

0:15:57.759,0:16:01.920
continued to blame the chinese

0:15:59.199,0:16:05.360
government for this

0:16:01.920,0:16:07.920
to be fair though the chinese court

0:16:05.360,0:16:09.920
did keep finding excuses to not accept

0:16:07.920,0:16:10.720
foreign diplomats at the capital city of

0:16:09.920,0:16:12.240
beijing

0:16:10.720,0:16:14.240
and it’s compliant with the treaties

0:16:12.240,0:16:16.240
fell far short with western countries

0:16:14.240,0:16:19.199
expectations

0:16:16.240,0:16:19.839
um yeah which anyone who’s not familiar

0:16:19.199,0:16:21.920
with

0:16:19.839,0:16:24.720
the diplomatic system in china you have

0:16:21.920,0:16:25.680
to present your cases to like the high

0:16:24.720,0:16:28.800
imperial

0:16:25.680,0:16:29.920
court before they get heard and that all

0:16:28.800,0:16:32.079
happens in the north

0:16:29.920,0:16:32.079
but

0:16:33.040,0:16:40.399
how do we not know but what

0:16:36.800,0:16:43.519
where am i okay so at this time

0:16:40.399,0:16:45.920
the qing dynasty of china is also still

0:16:43.519,0:16:48.079
very weakened from the first opium war

0:16:45.920,0:16:50.959
so the british decide that they want to

0:16:48.079,0:16:53.440
extract even more concessions from china

0:16:50.959,0:16:54.959
and this time france wants a piece of

0:16:53.440,0:16:57.519
the action

0:16:54.959,0:16:58.320
what i really don’t have to do with

0:16:57.519,0:17:01.120
anything

0:16:58.320,0:17:02.720
france was like let’s go france really

0:17:01.120,0:17:05.679
wanted to do trade with china

0:17:02.720,0:17:06.319
um and they were looking for a way in so

0:17:05.679,0:17:09.520
they’re like

0:17:06.319,0:17:10.799
yeah i’ll take that so in october of

0:17:09.520,0:17:13.520
1856

0:17:10.799,0:17:14.480
chinese authorities arrest the chinese

0:17:13.520,0:17:16.720
crew of a ship

0:17:14.480,0:17:18.000
operated by the british they’re chinese

0:17:16.720,0:17:20.799
citizens that’s within their

0:17:18.000,0:17:22.480
rights it’s not against the treaty um

0:17:20.799,0:17:24.720
but then the british used this as an

0:17:22.480,0:17:25.360
excuse to start using military forces

0:17:24.720,0:17:29.440
against

0:17:25.360,0:17:32.880
china again to open up more trade

0:17:29.440,0:17:34.080
wow okay yeah so france teams up with

0:17:32.880,0:17:36.480
britain this time

0:17:34.080,0:17:40.080
and they also invite the united states

0:17:36.480,0:17:42.640
and russia to get in on it

0:17:40.080,0:17:44.240
um but both the usa and russia opted out

0:17:42.640,0:17:46.160
because they were both recovering from

0:17:44.240,0:17:48.320
wars but in 1856

0:17:46.160,0:17:49.200
joint french and british forces captured

0:17:48.320,0:17:51.200
guangzhou

0:17:49.200,0:17:52.799
again which is that that point in the

0:17:51.200,0:17:54.240
south and they move north towards the

0:17:52.799,0:17:56.960
capital beijing

0:17:54.240,0:17:58.080
on the way they capture a city called

0:17:56.960,0:18:00.720
tianjin

0:17:58.080,0:18:02.480
and get the treaty of tianjin sign which

0:18:00.720,0:18:04.720
was supposed to be the end of the war

0:18:02.480,0:18:06.640
but the treaty never gets ratified

0:18:04.720,0:18:07.840
and i didn’t know what ratified meant

0:18:06.640,0:18:09.600
before i looked this up so

0:18:07.840,0:18:11.840
ratified is like it gets signed but

0:18:09.600,0:18:15.200
ratified like we accept it as the law

0:18:11.840,0:18:17.840
and we actually in response to it

0:18:15.200,0:18:18.640
um and then in 1860 they finally capture

0:18:17.840,0:18:20.320
beijing

0:18:18.640,0:18:23.120
and they destroy the imperial summer

0:18:20.320,0:18:24.080
palace and then the emperor flees to

0:18:23.120,0:18:26.720
manchuria

0:18:24.080,0:18:28.960
and they force his brother to sign a new

0:18:26.720,0:18:32.080
round of unequal treaties

0:18:28.960,0:18:33.280
oh my gosh it’s really sad to read about

0:18:32.080,0:18:34.559
this stuff

0:18:33.280,0:18:36.480
the signing of these treaties is

0:18:34.559,0:18:37.200
referred to as the convention of pecking

0:18:36.480,0:18:39.840
because

0:18:37.200,0:18:41.039
it resulted in the signing of three

0:18:39.840,0:18:43.200
different treaties

0:18:41.039,0:18:45.440
for great britain france and the russian

0:18:43.200,0:18:47.520
empire so britain and france

0:18:45.440,0:18:49.120
allowed russia to join in on the treaty

0:18:47.520,0:18:50.960
even though they didn’t do anything

0:18:49.120,0:18:53.360
because they wanted more military

0:18:50.960,0:18:55.280
pressure on china to uphold the treaties

0:18:53.360,0:18:57.120
and face repercussions

0:18:55.280,0:19:00.000
if they backed out because now there’s

0:18:57.120,0:19:03.360
three of them oh my god this is awful

0:19:00.000,0:19:05.840
i know russia got a free ride from this

0:19:03.360,0:19:07.360
yeah and like just the reasoning behind

0:19:05.840,0:19:10.720
it like it’s

0:19:07.360,0:19:13.840
really i don’t want to say smart

0:19:10.720,0:19:16.640
but like that’s strategically like

0:19:13.840,0:19:17.679
that sounds like it’s a sound plan but

0:19:16.640,0:19:20.000
like it’s evil

0:19:17.679,0:19:20.960
more the merrier to harass so this

0:19:20.000,0:19:22.960
treaty

0:19:20.960,0:19:25.120
well okay the all of the treaties

0:19:22.960,0:19:27.200
because there’s three of them this time

0:19:25.120,0:19:29.120
and like collectively some of the things

0:19:27.200,0:19:30.000
that they stated were that the territory

0:19:29.120,0:19:32.240
of hong kong

0:19:30.000,0:19:34.000
is now completely lost to british rule

0:19:32.240,0:19:35.039
so that’s when hong kong gets handed

0:19:34.000,0:19:38.640
over

0:19:35.039,0:19:40.320
okay opium is legalized so

0:19:38.640,0:19:42.320
after the first opium war it still

0:19:40.320,0:19:44.799
wasn’t legalized

0:19:42.320,0:19:45.679
but now it’s like officially legalized

0:19:44.799,0:19:48.559
then they open up

0:19:45.679,0:19:48.960
11 more ports for trade and then they

0:19:48.559,0:19:51.200
allow

0:19:48.960,0:19:52.160
more christian missionaries to come in

0:19:51.200,0:19:55.360
to the country

0:19:52.160,0:19:57.760
they give russia a lot more land in the

0:19:55.360,0:19:59.919
north it’s if you look at the map

0:19:57.760,0:20:00.960
like before and after this the second

0:19:59.919,0:20:03.360
war like

0:20:00.960,0:20:05.280
the entire top part of china is just

0:20:03.360,0:20:06.080
like cut off it’s tons of land that’s

0:20:05.280,0:20:09.600
given to

0:20:06.080,0:20:11.200
russia does it never get returned or

0:20:09.600,0:20:13.520
i don’t think so i think china’s still

0:20:11.200,0:20:15.520
the same size so they it solidified the

0:20:13.520,0:20:17.600
1859 treaty of nan king

0:20:15.520,0:20:19.280
which was the treaty that they signed

0:20:17.600,0:20:21.600
from the first opium war

0:20:19.280,0:20:23.919
and then it also contains terms from the

0:20:21.600,0:20:26.159
treaty of tianjin which they

0:20:23.919,0:20:28.559
had signed but didn’t ratify and that

0:20:26.159,0:20:29.600
allows russia great britain france and

0:20:28.559,0:20:32.799
the usa to do

0:20:29.600,0:20:35.039
trade with china so then now we go into

0:20:32.799,0:20:37.280
what are the consequences in china

0:20:35.039,0:20:38.480
because of the opium wars because can

0:20:37.280,0:20:41.840
you imagine

0:20:38.480,0:20:44.559
like it has been isolated for centuries

0:20:41.840,0:20:46.080
and then all of a sudden like all these

0:20:44.559,0:20:48.480
countries are coming in

0:20:46.080,0:20:49.760
and they do not have good intentions it

0:20:48.480,0:20:51.919
sounds like

0:20:49.760,0:20:53.039
literally their first introduction to

0:20:51.919,0:20:55.840
like dealing with

0:20:53.039,0:20:56.480
like western powers is them like force

0:20:55.840,0:21:01.200
feeding them

0:20:56.480,0:21:01.200
opio opioids yeah opium

0:21:02.400,0:21:06.640
yeah so after the opium wars opium

0:21:05.760,0:21:08.559
floods

0:21:06.640,0:21:11.200
into the country and it continues to

0:21:08.559,0:21:13.840
undermine the social fabric of society

0:21:11.200,0:21:16.080
and then historians believe that the

0:21:13.840,0:21:16.640
increase in opium flooding into the

0:21:16.080,0:21:19.440
country

0:21:16.640,0:21:20.880
and the qing dynasty’s concessions to

0:21:19.440,0:21:21.840
the french and the british after the

0:21:20.880,0:21:24.320
opium wars

0:21:21.840,0:21:25.200
contributed to the taiping rebellion

0:21:24.320,0:21:28.480
which was

0:21:25.200,0:21:30.000
an event that lasted in china from 1815

0:21:28.480,0:21:32.240
to 1864.

0:21:30.000,0:21:33.840
and this was one of the longest and most

0:21:32.240,0:21:36.240
bloody civil wars

0:21:33.840,0:21:37.200
ever in the country and that was led by

0:21:36.240,0:21:39.440
christians

0:21:37.200,0:21:41.679
who believed it was their sole purpose

0:21:39.440,0:21:46.000
to overthrow the qing dynasty

0:21:41.679,0:21:50.400
and 20 million people died in that wow

0:21:46.000,0:21:52.559
yeah and the opium wars are also

0:21:50.400,0:21:54.559
oh go ahead what do you say that just

0:21:52.559,0:21:58.720
hit me like 20 million people

0:21:54.559,0:22:00.640
right right oh holy cow it’s a huge

0:21:58.720,0:22:02.559
amount that’s really sad

0:22:00.640,0:22:04.559
yeah and then the opium wars are

0:22:02.559,0:22:05.760
actually also heavily cited by the

0:22:04.559,0:22:09.600
japanese

0:22:05.760,0:22:11.520
as their reason for industrializing

0:22:09.600,0:22:13.360
it’s like their reason and need to

0:22:11.520,0:22:13.840
industrialize and become an imperial

0:22:13.360,0:22:16.080
power

0:22:13.840,0:22:18.000
so they don’t suffer the way china did

0:22:16.080,0:22:20.000
at the hands of europeans

0:22:18.000,0:22:21.360
wow that’s really interesting okay so

0:22:20.000,0:22:22.880
they are they’re like looking at what

0:22:21.360,0:22:26.640
happened in china and they’re like

0:22:22.880,0:22:30.240
uh okay we gotta do something right

0:22:26.640,0:22:32.880
wow okay and then yeah

0:22:30.240,0:22:33.679
and china is greatly weakened of course

0:22:32.880,0:22:35.360
after

0:22:33.679,0:22:37.440
this event and they start to rethink

0:22:35.360,0:22:39.600
their relations to the outside world

0:22:37.440,0:22:41.120
and their need to industrialize and

0:22:39.600,0:22:44.240
modernize the military

0:22:41.120,0:22:46.320
politics and economic structures

0:22:44.240,0:22:48.240
political military political and

0:22:46.320,0:22:51.760
economic structures

0:22:48.240,0:22:52.960
yes so like everything they’re like wait

0:22:51.760,0:22:56.000
what are we doing

0:22:52.960,0:22:57.440
the controversy of the opium wars so i

0:22:56.000,0:23:00.880
do want to include this

0:22:57.440,0:23:01.520
because although great britain claimed

0:23:00.880,0:23:03.440
that

0:23:01.520,0:23:04.799
what they were doing was in the name of

0:23:03.440,0:23:07.360
free trade it

0:23:04.799,0:23:08.960
is at the expense of the destruction of

0:23:07.360,0:23:10.960
chinese society

0:23:08.960,0:23:13.200
and the opium wars were really

0:23:10.960,0:23:14.799
controversial in europe and america

0:23:13.200,0:23:16.400
as well any all the countries that took

0:23:14.799,0:23:17.679
part like they knew that it was a really

0:23:16.400,0:23:19.919
controversial war

0:23:17.679,0:23:21.679
they knew it was a bad idea and it was

0:23:19.919,0:23:23.520
driven by money and greed

0:23:21.679,0:23:25.200
and i just want to share one of the

0:23:23.520,0:23:26.720
politicians at the time his name was

0:23:25.200,0:23:29.840
william gladstone

0:23:26.720,0:23:32.159
he’s a english politician and his sister

0:23:29.840,0:23:34.159
had actually become addicted to opium

0:23:32.159,0:23:35.520
and so he gave a famous speech on the

0:23:34.159,0:23:38.480
corruptness of the war

0:23:35.520,0:23:40.400
saying quote i am not competent to judge

0:23:38.480,0:23:42.320
how long this war may last

0:23:40.400,0:23:43.679
but this i can say that a war more

0:23:42.320,0:23:46.240
unjust in its origin

0:23:43.679,0:23:47.760
a war more calculated in its progress to

0:23:46.240,0:23:48.400
cover this country with permanent

0:23:47.760,0:23:50.480
disgrace

0:23:48.400,0:23:51.440
i do not know and i have not read of

0:23:50.480,0:23:54.320
unquote

0:23:51.440,0:23:56.000
and then as we know great britain still

0:23:54.320,0:23:57.039
went forward with the war and a few days

0:23:56.000,0:23:58.880
later he writes

0:23:57.039,0:24:01.279
quote i am in dread of the judgments of

0:23:58.880,0:24:04.559
god upon england for our national

0:24:01.279,0:24:07.200
iniquity iniquity inequity and

0:24:04.559,0:24:09.200
it’s not in equity iniquity is like

0:24:07.200,0:24:10.799
immoral or grossly unfair behavior

0:24:09.200,0:24:13.440
towards china

0:24:10.799,0:24:15.760
so i’m in dread of the judge yeah so he

0:24:13.440,0:24:18.400
says that unquote

0:24:15.760,0:24:20.880
wow so yeah i don’t know if that’s like

0:24:18.400,0:24:23.760
better or worse that like

0:24:20.880,0:24:24.799
i don’t know it’s frustrating that like

0:24:23.760,0:24:27.279
maybe there are a lot of

0:24:24.799,0:24:28.720
people in those countries that didn’t

0:24:27.279,0:24:30.880
support the war that like knew

0:24:28.720,0:24:32.559
how evil it was but then like they’re

0:24:30.880,0:24:34.960
not able to stop it you know

0:24:32.559,0:24:36.720
yeah it doesn’t excuse great britain or

0:24:34.960,0:24:39.840
like the european powers at all

0:24:36.720,0:24:40.559
but um it kind of makes you understand

0:24:39.840,0:24:43.360
that there’s

0:24:40.559,0:24:44.320
always two sides in history and it just

0:24:43.360,0:24:46.159
depends on i guess

0:24:44.320,0:24:48.400
who is in power at the time to make

0:24:46.159,0:24:51.360
those decisions and

0:24:48.400,0:24:52.159
yeah they wanted money more than like

0:24:51.360,0:24:54.080
being ethical

0:24:52.159,0:24:56.000
i have a question like do you know

0:24:54.080,0:24:58.640
anything about opium use

0:24:56.000,0:24:59.200
today in china like is it still a really

0:24:58.640,0:25:01.360
big

0:24:59.200,0:25:02.559
issue that is a great question i don’t

0:25:01.360,0:25:04.559
know if it’s still

0:25:02.559,0:25:06.159
legal i think it’s probably still legal

0:25:04.559,0:25:08.320
but opium

0:25:06.159,0:25:09.840
of course floods in after the wars it

0:25:08.320,0:25:12.080
reaches like peak use

0:25:09.840,0:25:14.400
the imports of opium decline and then

0:25:12.080,0:25:15.840
they end during the first world war so

0:25:14.400,0:25:18.240
opioid abuse

0:25:15.840,0:25:19.200
like re-emerges in the late 1980s in

0:25:18.240,0:25:22.400
china

0:25:19.200,0:25:24.000
um but it has declined a lot since the

0:25:22.400,0:25:25.919
1800s

0:25:24.000,0:25:27.279
okay wow but that’s gonna affect like

0:25:25.919,0:25:29.520
the entire society

0:25:27.279,0:25:30.559
and even the economy i feel like i don’t

0:25:29.520,0:25:33.679
know

0:25:30.559,0:25:34.799
yeah and like that’s gonna affect the

0:25:33.679,0:25:36.159
country yeah you like

0:25:34.799,0:25:38.000
you’re saying at the beginning of the

0:25:36.159,0:25:39.360
episode like this is this kind of

0:25:38.000,0:25:42.799
explains

0:25:39.360,0:25:45.679
like why china in the past has been so

0:25:42.799,0:25:46.880
like wary of entering trade agreements

0:25:45.679,0:25:48.799
with countries like

0:25:46.880,0:25:52.159
in the previous episode like we talked

0:25:48.799,0:25:55.200
about how they were isolated again

0:25:52.159,0:25:56.720
after the communist revolution and

0:25:55.200,0:25:58.240
yeah it took them a while to open up

0:25:56.720,0:26:00.799
their doors but yeah they now

0:25:58.240,0:26:02.240
make sense like they didn’t have great

0:26:00.799,0:26:04.480
experiences

0:26:02.240,0:26:05.840
and and they don’t have to do trade

0:26:04.480,0:26:09.360
actually i forgot to

0:26:05.840,0:26:12.480
add to with the opium declining so

0:26:09.360,0:26:13.520
opium imports decline but also china can

0:26:12.480,0:26:15.760
grow opium

0:26:13.520,0:26:17.840
so they they start growing their own

0:26:15.760,0:26:19.600
opium to like

0:26:17.840,0:26:20.960
so it’s like china didn’t need to do

0:26:19.600,0:26:22.080
trade with people they’re really

0:26:20.960,0:26:23.679
self-sufficient

0:26:22.080,0:26:26.159
it’s crazy because like the country is

0:26:23.679,0:26:29.039
so huge and they have so many different

0:26:26.159,0:26:30.159
like climates and what do you call it

0:26:29.039,0:26:31.919
like topography

0:26:30.159,0:26:33.919
like i don’t know it’s like really

0:26:31.919,0:26:36.400
beneficial i think it

0:26:33.919,0:26:37.120
is so self-sufficient they can grow

0:26:36.400,0:26:48.159
anything

0:26:37.120,0:26:48.159
produce anything

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