The Night Witches of WW2

How Do You Solve A Hostage Crisis? How Did We Not Know That

The relationship between Iran and the US has always been a rough one, and in today's episode we're going to highlight one of the major events that has shaped this relationship. The Iran Hostage Crisis defined the future of US-Iran relations, changed the course of the Carter Administration's success, and devastated the lives of several American diplomats. In this episode, Nat and Jac learn about the Iran Hostage Crisis and reflect on the risks associated with public service and diplomacy. 📦 ORDER YOUR HDWNKT STICKER HERE!: https://account.venmo.com/u/hdwnkt  💛Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat  📄Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com Follow Us On Social Media 🎉: 🐦Twitter: @HDWNKT 📸 Instagram: @HDWNKT 🕺Tik Tok: @HDWNKT 🖥YouTube: @HDWNKT Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Do You Solve A Hostage Crisis?
  2. Who Has The Drugs?
  3. The Korean War Created K-Pop?
  4. Minisode #18: What’s Going on in Tigray?
  5. How Can I Study Abroad? | The Gilman Scholarship

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Show Notes

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hello everybody and welcome back to

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another episode of how did we not know

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that

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i’m nat i’m jack

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and today jack has a super interesting

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topic to discuss

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a special episode so we’re doing a

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special bonus episode chosen by our

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friends

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over at women of her story women of her

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story

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is a podcast that focuses on important

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women in history that

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often go overlooked but they do a really

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good job of bringing those stories to

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light so i

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really encourage you guys to check that

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out if you’re interested

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alright so today’s topic is on the night

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which is a world war

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ii this was specifically chosen by the

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women of her story podcast

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so let’s just get right into it the

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night witches were an all-female

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a 588th night bomber regiment from the

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soviet union

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they were so feared and hated by the

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nazis that if a german airman could take

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one of them down

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then they were automatically awarded the

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prestigious iron cross medal

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just similar to the purple heart for us

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yeah yeah yeah yeah it’s a very high

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honor for germans i believe

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wow um yeah so they’re very feared so

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this is their story

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so the night witches dropped more than

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23

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000 tons of bombs on nazi targets and in

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doing so

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we’re a very crucial soviet asset to

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winning the war

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and for those of you who don’t know the

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soviets and the

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americans ended up teaming up as well so

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this is

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really cool to hear about um the types

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of regiments inside the soviet union’s

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army because we did end up becoming

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allies in order to defeat the nazis for

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world war ii

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so the germans gave them the nickname of

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night witches

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because of the whooshing noise that

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their wooden planes made

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resembled a sweeping broom so that

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whooshing noise

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was the only warning germans had because

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the planes were so

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small that they never used radios and so

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they wouldn’t show up on any of their

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radars

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oh my gosh very stealthy

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yeah spooky and they didn’t have lights

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on the planes i’ll get into it but their

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planes were very ill-equipped

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so they’re they’re just like flying dark

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basically and they can’t

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you can’t see them like no one can see

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them they probably can’t even see you

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themselves like that does not suck

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yeah it wasn’t that safe but they did a

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good job

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in june 1941 adolf hitler launched

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operation barbarossa which was a massive

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invasion of the soviet union

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by the fall of that year the germans

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were successfully pressing on moscow

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which is

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is that the capital of russia yeah it’s

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the capital of russia

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okay so the soviets were desperate but

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on june 28

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1942 the night witches had their first

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mission to bomb

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the headquarters of the invading nazis

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and that was a success

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so going back to the backstory of the

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night witches

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they were led by marina roskova who was

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famous for being the first

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female navigator in the soviet air force

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she had received letters from women

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across the soviet union

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who wanted to join the world war ii

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effort many of them had lost loved ones

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or had their villages destroyed and

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wanted to be in combat and fly their own

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planes

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ruskova petitioned to joseph stalin the

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dictator of the soviet union at the time

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for an all-female fighting squadron

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before

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she sent the letter women weren’t

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allowed to serve in the

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army good question yes they were allowed

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to serve in the army but they were not

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allowed to do

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combat oh so just like as like medical

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care and like those yeah like maybe

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moving supplies around

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similar to the harlem hell fighters

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which was a mini set episode we did in

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season one

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but they weren’t they weren’t doing

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combat and a lot of these women wanted

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to fight

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on october 8 1941 stalin gave orders to

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deploy

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three all-female air force units and the

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women would not only fly missions and

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drop bombs but they would return

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fire making the soviet union the first

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nation to officially allow women to

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engage in combat

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wow okay i did not

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me neither that’s what they don’t tell

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you about the soviet union

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so ruskova who’s the leader

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quickly started to fill out her teams

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for more than 2000 applications

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she selected 400 women for each of the

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three units

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most of them were students ranging in

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age from 17 to 26

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those selected moved to engels which is

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a small town north of stalingrad

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to begin training at the engel school of

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aviation

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so during training they underwent a

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highly compressed education

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and were expected to learn in a few

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months what it took most soldiers

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several years to grasp

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each recruit had to train and perform as

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pilots navigators maintenance and ground

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crew

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wow beyond their steep learning curve

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the women face

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skepticism from some of the male

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military personnel who believe they

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added no value to the combat effort

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yeah oh my god not surprising

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yeah of course there’s always some

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background noise

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um yeah so ruskova did her best to

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prepare her women

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for these attitudes but they still face

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sexual harassment

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long nights and grueling conditions

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basically the men didn’t like

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the little girls going to the front line

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that was considered a man’s thing

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so the military um who were unprepared

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for women pilots

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offered them meager resources so flyers

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received hand-me-down uniforms from mail

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soldiers including oversized boots so

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they would have to tear up their bedding

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and stuff them in their boots to get

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them to fit

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oh my god yeah which i’ve done before

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because i ordered the wrong size and

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they did not have a return policy or

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exchange policy

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you took your bed linens not bed linens

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but like cotton you know

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similar so i know what these girls are

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going to just kidding

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the military provided them with outdated

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1920s crop duster planes

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that have been used as training vehicles

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crop duster planes are

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literally the small planes that you

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carry fertilizer in

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and you fly over farms and you dust the

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crops with them

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it just it makes it like a faster

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process so they’re not meant for combat

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no not at all like they’re probably

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super slow

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and like not stealthy

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not safe like yeah they are

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that’s exactly it they were made out of

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plywood with a very thin

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canvas pulled over them which provided

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no protection from the elements so think

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about that you’re literally in the

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atmosphere

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with no protection from the elements

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it’s cold in the ozone layer

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but it’s freezing i can’t even imagine

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like how scary that is i’m already so

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scared

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i could never go i never want to go in

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like a tiny plane or like a helicopter

0:07:08.000,0:07:12.240
like i hate turbulence and like oh it’s

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just so loud and cold

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and then you’re in the literal like a

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war

0:07:16.479,0:07:20.400
yeah you’re fighting in a war in this

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little like it was made of plywood you

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said

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yes plywood wouldn’t wouldn’t crime

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dusting plate

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with no light right it’s yeah they

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didn’t have a lot going for them but

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[Music]

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i can’t oh my god at night um

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especially the pilots had to endure

0:07:38.160,0:07:43.039
freezing temperatures wind

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and frostbite that’s cool um

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in the harsh soviet winters the planes

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were so cold

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that if you touch them with bare skin it

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would rip your skin off

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what the heck oh my god i forgot we’re

0:07:53.840,0:07:56.560
in

0:07:54.560,0:07:59.759
so like oh my god it’s like you’re in

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russia it’s not the caribbean

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oh my god why would you oh my god how

0:08:02.400,0:08:07.520
can you

0:08:04.240,0:08:09.759
low funds all right so due to both the

0:08:07.520,0:08:12.240
plane’s limited weight capacity and the

0:08:09.759,0:08:15.599
military’s limited funds the pilots

0:08:12.240,0:08:18.160
also lacked other luxury items uh their

0:08:15.599,0:08:19.280
male counterparts enjoyed so instead of

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parachutes

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which were too heavy to carry radars

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guns and radios they were forced to use

0:08:25.680,0:08:31.039
more rudimentary tools such as

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rulers stop watches flashlights

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pencils maps and compasses are you

0:08:34.080,0:08:36.959
serious

0:08:35.200,0:08:38.959
yeah this is like impossible i don’t

0:08:36.959,0:08:41.519
know how you did this like

0:08:38.959,0:08:42.399
just like my school supply list for like

0:08:41.519,0:08:44.720
elementary

0:08:42.399,0:08:48.399
school like okay you got your ruler you

0:08:44.720,0:08:51.839
got here’s your protractor like go ahead

0:08:48.399,0:08:54.560
like how far off are we okay

0:08:51.839,0:08:56.720
let me get my protractor out really yeah

0:08:54.560,0:08:59.040
they didn’t even have parachutes

0:08:56.720,0:09:01.600
yeah from my source they didn’t have

0:08:59.040,0:09:05.120
their parachutes which is a big yikes

0:09:01.600,0:09:07.440
um so basically hope you land

0:09:05.120,0:09:08.880
yeah actually i don’t know if i covered

0:09:07.440,0:09:09.279
how they dealt with that i think they

0:09:08.880,0:09:10.800
just

0:09:09.279,0:09:13.200
try not to have to jump out of your

0:09:10.800,0:09:16.320
plane i guess

0:09:13.200,0:09:17.920
all right but i said mess it up right

0:09:16.320,0:09:20.480
just do your job

0:09:17.920,0:09:22.080
so the upside though to the aircrafts

0:09:20.480,0:09:24.959
was that their maximum speed

0:09:22.080,0:09:26.160
was still slower than the stall speed of

0:09:24.959,0:09:28.000
nazi planes

0:09:26.160,0:09:30.000
which means that the wooden planes were

0:09:28.000,0:09:31.360
actually able to maneuver faster than

0:09:30.000,0:09:33.200
the nazis

0:09:31.360,0:09:35.519
so that made them harder to target

0:09:33.200,0:09:37.920
because it’s like if your stall speed

0:09:35.519,0:09:38.560
is still faster than someone else’s turn

0:09:37.920,0:09:40.720
speed

0:09:38.560,0:09:42.880
then you can’t like slow down enough to

0:09:40.720,0:09:44.080
turn which means that the the smaller

0:09:42.880,0:09:47.519
planes are able to

0:09:44.080,0:09:50.800
move faster wow oh my god

0:09:47.519,0:09:51.600
so that was good however since there was

0:09:50.800,0:09:54.160
no defense

0:09:51.600,0:09:54.640
ammunition in the planes they would just

0:09:54.160,0:09:57.839
have to

0:09:54.640,0:10:00.480
duck whenever the enemy opened fire so

0:09:57.839,0:10:02.480
if the plane was hit by a tracer bullet

0:10:00.480,0:10:04.240
it would burst into flames because of

0:10:02.480,0:10:07.280
the wood

0:10:04.240,0:10:10.409
oh my god

0:10:07.280,0:10:10.409
[Music]

0:10:10.640,0:10:14.480
hey did they all survive i guess you’ll

0:10:13.600,0:10:16.880
get into it

0:10:14.480,0:10:18.000
no they did not but i think they did a

0:10:16.880,0:10:20.480
good job but no

0:10:18.000,0:10:21.760
not all of them survived so because the

0:10:20.480,0:10:23.519
bombs were so heavy

0:10:21.760,0:10:26.079
they would be forced to fly at lower

0:10:23.519,0:10:27.279
altitudes making them an easier target

0:10:26.079,0:10:29.040
for nazis

0:10:27.279,0:10:31.040
which is why they could only fly at

0:10:29.040,0:10:32.240
night hence the term night witches

0:10:31.040,0:10:34.800
because

0:10:32.240,0:10:35.519
they couldn’t fly high enough so they’re

0:10:34.800,0:10:37.519
always like

0:10:35.519,0:10:39.040
very close like you can easily see them

0:10:37.519,0:10:40.079
so they have no choice but to go at

0:10:39.040,0:10:43.040
night

0:10:40.079,0:10:44.880
um and then the planes would fly with a

0:10:43.040,0:10:45.600
pilot in the front and a navigator in

0:10:44.880,0:10:47.839
the back

0:10:45.600,0:10:48.880
they also traveled in packs and the

0:10:47.839,0:10:51.360
first planes

0:10:48.880,0:10:52.880
would go in as bait which would attract

0:10:51.360,0:10:55.120
german spotlights

0:10:52.880,0:10:57.360
and they needed the german spotlights to

0:10:55.120,0:10:59.680
help illuminate where the target was

0:10:57.360,0:11:00.800
because again the planes did not have

0:10:59.680,0:11:03.279
light

0:11:00.800,0:11:04.000
um which is really smart that they did

0:11:03.279,0:11:06.160
that

0:11:04.000,0:11:08.399
and then the planes would release a

0:11:06.160,0:11:08.959
flare light to light up the intended

0:11:08.399,0:11:11.279
target

0:11:08.959,0:11:13.680
and then the last plane would idle its

0:11:11.279,0:11:15.360
engines and glide into the darkness

0:11:13.680,0:11:16.560
which created the signature witch’s

0:11:15.360,0:11:18.000
broom sound

0:11:16.560,0:11:19.519
yeah and then that’s when they would

0:11:18.000,0:11:20.240
strike that’s when they dropped their

0:11:19.519,0:11:22.480
bomb because

0:11:20.240,0:11:23.920
you would like you become quiet and then

0:11:22.480,0:11:25.040
you just like glide in so they don’t

0:11:23.920,0:11:26.000
know where you are and then you drop the

0:11:25.040,0:11:28.800
bomb

0:11:26.000,0:11:29.200
well that’s really clever like that’s

0:11:28.800,0:11:31.839
really

0:11:29.200,0:11:33.680
that’s a really smart tactic especially

0:11:31.839,0:11:35.279
okay how do we make this work we have

0:11:33.680,0:11:38.640
literally nothing going for us

0:11:35.279,0:11:42.000
like this is gonna be easy but

0:11:38.640,0:11:44.079
that’s smart super creative who god

0:11:42.000,0:11:45.760
like who’s the one who gets picked as

0:11:44.079,0:11:48.000
bait like that

0:11:45.760,0:11:49.279
that sounds awful yeah that sucks are

0:11:48.000,0:11:51.680
probably the ones that don’t make it

0:11:49.279,0:11:53.200
so there were 12 commandments that the

0:11:51.680,0:11:54.959
night witches followed

0:11:53.200,0:11:57.600
some for strategy but also for

0:11:54.959,0:11:59.360
empowerment and the first one was be

0:11:57.600,0:12:02.160
proud you are a woman

0:11:59.360,0:12:04.160
so marina the leader who created the

0:12:02.160,0:12:06.160
night witches never wanted any of them

0:12:04.160,0:12:07.920
to apologize for being women

0:12:06.160,0:12:10.480
or to take pity on themselves for the

0:12:07.920,0:12:12.720
treatment they were going to receive i

0:12:10.480,0:12:13.920
love that i think that’s so great that

0:12:12.720,0:12:15.440
that was a commandment

0:12:13.920,0:12:17.519
because it’s true why would why should

0:12:15.440,0:12:18.320
you be ashamed of like who you are you

0:12:17.519,0:12:21.120
know

0:12:18.320,0:12:22.560
yeah and they’re amazing so so their

0:12:21.120,0:12:25.760
last flight took place

0:12:22.560,0:12:28.160
on may 4th 1945 when the night witches

0:12:25.760,0:12:30.959
flew within 60 kilometers

0:12:28.160,0:12:32.160
of berlin three days later germany

0:12:30.959,0:12:36.079
officially surrendered

0:12:32.160,0:12:38.560
whoa so the germans had two theories

0:12:36.079,0:12:40.079
about why these women were so successful

0:12:38.560,0:12:42.000
the first theory

0:12:40.079,0:12:43.600
was they were all criminals who were

0:12:42.000,0:12:45.839
masters at stealing

0:12:43.600,0:12:47.040
and had been sent to the front line as

0:12:45.839,0:12:49.839
punishment

0:12:47.040,0:12:52.000
or number two they had been given

0:12:49.839,0:12:54.959
special injections that allowed them

0:12:52.000,0:12:56.000
to see in the night oh my god they’re

0:12:54.959,0:12:58.320
like

0:12:56.000,0:13:00.000
oh what’s in their little mutant people

0:12:58.320,0:13:01.600
yeah they’re like no way they’re just

0:13:00.000,0:13:03.839
regular women

0:13:01.600,0:13:03.839
like

0:13:04.880,0:13:08.959
all together the night witches flew more

0:13:06.560,0:13:11.200
than 30 000 missions in total or about

0:13:08.959,0:13:14.160
800 per pilot and navigator

0:13:11.200,0:13:16.240
they lost a total of 30 pilots and 24 of

0:13:14.160,0:13:18.399
the flyers were awarded the title

0:13:16.240,0:13:20.320
hero of the soviet union which is

0:13:18.399,0:13:22.560
awesome to hear then

0:13:20.320,0:13:25.760
raskova the mother of the movement died

0:13:22.560,0:13:27.279
on january 4th 1943 when she was finally

0:13:25.760,0:13:29.360
sent to the front line

0:13:27.279,0:13:30.720
and her plane did not make it back so

0:13:29.360,0:13:33.839
she was given

0:13:30.720,0:13:34.480
yeah she was given the very first state

0:13:33.839,0:13:36.959
funeral

0:13:34.480,0:13:38.240
of world war ii and her ashes were

0:13:36.959,0:13:40.079
buried in the kremlin

0:13:38.240,0:13:41.279
kremlin is like isn’t that like their

0:13:40.079,0:13:44.959
like white house

0:13:41.279,0:13:48.160
is it probably

0:13:44.959,0:13:50.320
the kremlin oh it is the moscow kremlin

0:13:48.160,0:13:52.320
yeah the florida it’s a fortified

0:13:50.320,0:13:54.000
complex in the center of moscow

0:13:52.320,0:13:56.320
so despite being the most highly

0:13:54.000,0:13:57.839
decorated unit in the soviet air force

0:13:56.320,0:14:00.079
during the war the night witch’s

0:13:57.839,0:14:01.279
regiment was disbanded six months after

0:14:00.079,0:14:03.760
the end of world war

0:14:01.279,0:14:05.199
ii and when it came to the big victory

0:14:03.760,0:14:07.279
day parade in moscow

0:14:05.199,0:14:10.320
they weren’t included because it was

0:14:07.279,0:14:13.360
decided their planes were too slow

0:14:10.320,0:14:15.199
and yeah that’s that’s all

0:14:13.360,0:14:17.600
these always end like this right like

0:14:15.199,0:14:20.240
that was the harlem hellfire same thing

0:14:17.600,0:14:21.519
so it’s unfortunate but this is that’s

0:14:20.240,0:14:23.440
the world

0:14:21.519,0:14:25.120
and that’s basically the story of the

0:14:23.440,0:14:27.760
night which is sorry

0:14:25.120,0:14:28.160
it is not a happier ending but i am very

0:14:27.760,0:14:29.839
proud

0:14:28.160,0:14:31.760
to hear about their story and to be able

0:14:29.839,0:14:33.360
to present this piece of history to you

0:14:31.760,0:14:34.399
all so that we can remember these

0:14:33.360,0:14:38.000
amazing women

0:14:34.399,0:14:40.720
and find strength in their story wow

0:14:38.000,0:14:41.519
i i can’t believe i’ve never heard of

0:14:40.720,0:14:43.120
this before

0:14:41.519,0:14:44.639
first of all like this would be an

0:14:43.120,0:14:46.560
amazing movie plot

0:14:44.639,0:14:47.839
like they should make not a plot but

0:14:46.560,0:14:48.959
like you know they should make a movie

0:14:47.839,0:14:50.560
out of it

0:14:48.959,0:14:52.959
i really because like whenever i learn

0:14:50.560,0:14:53.279
about world war ii it’s like oh my god i

0:14:52.959,0:14:57.120
think

0:14:53.279,0:15:00.399
the soviet union lost like like

0:14:57.120,0:15:02.480
millions of there were like millions of

0:15:00.399,0:15:04.639
casualties like soldier military

0:15:02.480,0:15:06.320
casualties

0:15:04.639,0:15:07.920
but then like so i was always like oh

0:15:06.320,0:15:09.360
i’m dang like somebody

0:15:07.920,0:15:10.880
they’re not doing their military’s not

0:15:09.360,0:15:12.560
doing well but then you have like this

0:15:10.880,0:15:14.959
team of women

0:15:12.560,0:15:16.000
you said each pilot had like around 800

0:15:14.959,0:15:20.160
missions

0:15:16.000,0:15:22.399
yeah how do you do that 800 times how

0:15:20.160,0:15:23.760
first of all how do you not like you

0:15:22.399,0:15:27.440
okay first of all the ads

0:15:23.760,0:15:29.920
are so tiny that you’re going to survive

0:15:27.440,0:15:30.480
like you do it 800 times instead and

0:15:29.920,0:15:33.040
make it

0:15:30.480,0:15:34.000
like that now i’m starting to think like

0:15:33.040,0:15:36.320
yeah maybe they were

0:15:34.000,0:15:37.839
mutant yeah no they did really well

0:15:36.320,0:15:40.959
because they were like

0:15:37.839,0:15:43.120
what 1200 of them and only 30 no

0:15:40.959,0:15:44.160
i mean 30 passing away is very sad and

0:15:43.120,0:15:47.279
that’s still a loss

0:15:44.160,0:15:49.360
but 30 out of that’s a pretty good given

0:15:47.279,0:15:52.079
like everything they had to overcome

0:15:49.360,0:15:53.120
most of them did survive so like when

0:15:52.079,0:15:57.120
did the us

0:15:53.120,0:15:59.360
allow women to like fight like

0:15:57.120,0:16:02.639
hold combat positions in the military

0:15:59.360,0:16:02.639
that’s a great question

0:16:02.880,0:16:06.880
yeah i going off of like your earlier

0:16:05.120,0:16:10.560
point

0:16:06.880,0:16:13.360
um i feel like

0:16:10.560,0:16:15.120
the narrative of the us military and

0:16:13.360,0:16:19.040
army is mostly

0:16:15.120,0:16:21.680
around men and i’ve i know that a lot of

0:16:19.040,0:16:22.320
like people always like oh for equality

0:16:21.680,0:16:24.480
like

0:16:22.320,0:16:26.160
forget equal pay like women need to do

0:16:24.480,0:16:28.800
the draft which like

0:16:26.160,0:16:30.800
sure if you want sure like if you want

0:16:28.800,0:16:33.040
that but i think that that’s a false

0:16:30.800,0:16:35.120
narrative that you put on everyone that

0:16:33.040,0:16:38.720
they don’t want to serve

0:16:35.120,0:16:42.000
in the military um because some women do

0:16:38.720,0:16:42.880
like for some women it’s not like a huge

0:16:42.000,0:16:44.639
blessing that

0:16:42.880,0:16:46.639
we don’t sign up for the draft i know

0:16:44.639,0:16:48.000
like no one wants to die but you’re not

0:16:46.639,0:16:50.399
guaranteed

0:16:48.000,0:16:51.920
to die and if you serve in the military

0:16:50.399,0:16:55.040
you serve it in the army you know

0:16:51.920,0:16:57.199
so women always get excluded from that

0:16:55.040,0:16:59.120
and a lot of women probably did want to

0:16:57.199,0:17:02.000
serve during that time

0:16:59.120,0:17:02.320
yeah that’s always so frustrating i’m

0:17:02.000,0:17:03.920
like

0:17:02.320,0:17:05.839
just getting flashbacks to like high

0:17:03.920,0:17:07.760
school history class and like they’re

0:17:05.839,0:17:08.640
like oh let’s debate about like women’s

0:17:07.760,0:17:11.120
rights

0:17:08.640,0:17:12.640
oh you want equal pay like you don’t

0:17:11.120,0:17:14.480
even get drafted

0:17:12.640,0:17:16.319
right right it’s like okay well if you

0:17:14.480,0:17:20.000
draft me are we gonna be paid the same

0:17:16.319,0:17:22.480
cause i feel like that’s the issue

0:17:20.000,0:17:24.880
um first of all i’d like to have equal

0:17:22.480,0:17:24.880
rights

0:17:26.000,0:17:30.320
my life yeah i don’t know exactly no

0:17:28.559,0:17:32.880
it’s that’s literally they always pull

0:17:30.320,0:17:35.120
the draft card and it’s like

0:17:32.880,0:17:36.640
sure if you want me to register for the

0:17:35.120,0:17:38.960
draft let’s do it

0:17:36.640,0:17:40.400
like is that are you gonna pay me the

0:17:38.960,0:17:43.520
same then

0:17:40.400,0:17:46.720
yeah but yeah so to answer your question

0:17:43.520,0:17:49.840
the it says that

0:17:46.720,0:17:53.679
the 1994 rescinding of the okay so in

0:17:49.840,0:17:57.039
1988 there was a risk rule

0:17:53.679,0:18:00.080
and that rule i think is what

0:17:57.039,0:18:01.520
prevented women from being able oh it

0:18:00.080,0:18:04.400
was a combat man

0:18:01.520,0:18:04.400
wait a second

0:18:05.679,0:18:10.160
yeah i feel like pretty recent because

0:18:07.840,0:18:13.679
they weren’t fighting in like vietnam

0:18:10.160,0:18:16.080
yeah it says in 1994 the rescinding of

0:18:13.679,0:18:18.640
the 1988 risk rule

0:18:16.080,0:18:19.200
allowed women to serve in all positions

0:18:18.640,0:18:22.400
except

0:18:19.200,0:18:23.280
those engaged in direct ground combat

0:18:22.400,0:18:25.440
roles

0:18:23.280,0:18:27.440
subsequently women have been able to

0:18:25.440,0:18:28.240
serve in almost all air force and navy

0:18:27.440,0:18:31.760
positions

0:18:28.240,0:18:35.039
since the mid-1990s okay so

0:18:31.760,0:18:38.480
they still wait can they not serve in

0:18:35.039,0:18:40.320
on the ground combat still no yeah they

0:18:38.480,0:18:44.400
can

0:18:40.320,0:18:44.400
for sure only since 2016.

0:18:44.640,0:18:49.120
no yes i’m reading it right here women

0:18:47.600,0:18:51.440
have been training to become marines for

0:18:49.120,0:18:53.280
decades but only since 2016 have they

0:18:51.440,0:18:56.480
been able to serve in combat roles

0:18:53.280,0:18:59.520
alongside men

0:18:56.480,0:19:01.919
huh are you kidding me

0:18:59.520,0:19:01.919
is that

0:19:02.640,0:19:07.440
because that the 1994 rescinding of the

0:19:06.160,0:19:09.280
risk rule

0:19:07.440,0:19:10.880
only allowed them to serve in the air

0:19:09.280,0:19:14.799
force of the navy they still weren’t

0:19:10.880,0:19:14.799
allowed to serve in on-the-ground combat

0:19:16.160,0:19:18.480
what

0:19:19.200,0:19:26.880
how do we not know that literally

0:19:22.480,0:19:26.880
i i thought they were like female

0:19:28.400,0:19:33.280
maybe recently in the past four years

0:19:30.559,0:19:37.520
that’s insane

0:19:33.280,0:19:43.440
that’s crazy i literally did not realize

0:19:37.520,0:19:43.440
how recent that was that’s wild yeah

0:19:43.840,0:19:47.600
i’m looking who is the highest ranking

0:19:45.520,0:19:50.240
female military officer

0:19:47.600,0:19:53.520
and then it says u.s air force general

0:19:50.240,0:19:57.440
lori robinson is um

0:19:53.520,0:20:01.280
and she served from 2016 to 2018.

0:19:57.440,0:20:03.280
that’s like two years ago wow

0:20:01.280,0:20:04.480
yeah they have been allowed in

0:20:03.280,0:20:09.120
submarines

0:20:04.480,0:20:09.120
since 2014. are you kidding me

0:20:09.280,0:20:15.360
that’s so recent

0:20:12.320,0:20:18.159
that’s literally i had no clue i

0:20:15.360,0:20:18.640
thought we like i thought women could

0:20:18.159,0:20:20.720
just

0:20:18.640,0:20:21.840
hold any position and i thought it was

0:20:20.720,0:20:23.280
like

0:20:21.840,0:20:24.880
but now that i think of it like how did

0:20:23.280,0:20:25.520
i not realize it wasn’t recent because

0:20:24.880,0:20:28.559
like

0:20:25.520,0:20:31.039
they’re not fighting in like vietnam

0:20:28.559,0:20:33.360
they weren’t fighting in like the 80s

0:20:31.039,0:20:34.240
yeah they’re like not allowed actually

0:20:33.360,0:20:38.080
it’s like a

0:20:34.240,0:20:40.400
ban hmm

0:20:38.080,0:20:43.039
let me read this pentagon now says yeah

0:20:40.400,0:20:45.120
that’s a 2015 article

0:20:43.039,0:20:46.320
process yeah no they literally started

0:20:45.120,0:20:49.679
the process to open

0:20:46.320,0:20:52.480
combat jobs to women in january of 2013.

0:20:49.679,0:20:53.280
started the process so it wasn’t even

0:20:52.480,0:20:56.720
done

0:20:53.280,0:20:59.919
holy moly wow disappointed that i

0:20:56.720,0:21:00.799
did not know that i mean she has a bit

0:20:59.919,0:21:04.240
of a bummer

0:21:00.799,0:21:06.159
um for this episode

0:21:04.240,0:21:07.679
wow it looks like we got a lot of work

0:21:06.159,0:21:11.039
to do and

0:21:07.679,0:21:11.600
yeah for women who are serving thank you

0:21:11.039,0:21:14.080
to

0:21:11.600,0:21:14.080
anyone

0:21:18.640,0:21:22.480
no no no thanks to all our veterans and

0:21:21.200,0:21:23.570
i’m proud to be

0:21:22.480,0:21:25.679
an american

0:21:23.570,0:21:27.520
[Music]

0:21:25.679,0:21:29.200
i remember were you the one that told me

0:21:27.520,0:21:30.559
that your gym teacher made you watch

0:21:29.200,0:21:34.320
that like every

0:21:30.559,0:21:36.960
better here the size of the

0:21:34.320,0:21:36.960
marines

0:21:38.320,0:21:42.320
i love that song anyways yeah last thing

0:21:41.200,0:21:45.760
before we go though

0:21:42.320,0:21:47.360
yeah the 1988 in 1988 there was a rule

0:21:45.760,0:21:50.480
called the risk rule

0:21:47.360,0:21:52.320
and it excluded women from non-combat

0:21:50.480,0:21:53.120
units or missions so they like

0:21:52.320,0:21:56.320
completely

0:21:53.120,0:21:59.039
not allowed to be in the at all

0:21:56.320,0:22:00.159
really yeah okay so there you go if you

0:21:59.039,0:22:02.559
ever have the debate

0:22:00.159,0:22:04.880
about women’s right to pull that on them

0:22:02.559,0:22:07.280
wow okay now i’m like

0:22:04.880,0:22:09.600
someone someone try me someone text me

0:22:07.280,0:22:13.760
say something say something

0:22:09.600,0:22:15.919
i got my dates lined up like i’m ready

0:22:13.760,0:22:17.600
all right well yeah that is the night

0:22:15.919,0:22:20.240
which is thank you

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[Music]

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[Music]

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you

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