How Long Did Apartheid Last?

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Show Notes

South Africa, one of the most beautiful countries in the world, has an ugly past marked by one of the severest examples of racial segregation in history.  In this episode Jac explains the system known as Apartheid and its lasting effects on the country today.

Learn More and Donate to PASSOP: https://www.passop.co.za/

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/africa/apartheid

https://www.gov.za/about-sa/history

https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/cape-malay

https://www.southafrica.to/history/history.php

https://www.gov.za/about-sa/history

https://abcnews.go.com/Archives/video/april-1985-south-africa-interracial-marriage-9797274

Transcript

0:00:00.000,0:00:04.319
everybody and welcome back to another

0:00:01.839,0:00:08.480
episode of how did we not know that

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i’m matt i’m jack and

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today jack is gonna tell us about some

0:00:11.840,0:00:15.519
cool event in history i have no idea

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what it is yet

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yay oh i didn’t tell you it’s um

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i’m gonna cover the apartheid in south

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africa

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oh that’s right you actually did tell me

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oh

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i’m excited for this one this is like a

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very

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um i don’t know it’s like a special

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episode i just

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that’s like the last country i traveled

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to was like south africa so it’s

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still fresh just like seeing the huge

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difference in class

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okay so um what is apartheid

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now do you know what apartheid is can

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you explain it to everyone

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isn’t it basically like so south africa

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it was like

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divided up and there were places where

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black people could live

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and then they people places where like

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white people could live and then it’s

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like

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also almost like a caste system or like

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people of like if you’re white versus a

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person of color like

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you would qualify for different jobs so

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like if you’re a person of color like

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you wouldn’t be able to do

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certain jobs right yeah no exactly

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didn’t like when you were talking about

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your time in south africa where

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you’re also saying that like there’s

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another class of like

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colored people yeah half black and

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that’s like a whole

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other separation yeah no literally i

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think

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i feel like we talked about apartheid

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already together as friends so like

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i’ve already told you everything about

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my experience but it’s fine

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okay so that’s good yeah you have a

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really good understanding on it

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so apartheid was a system of

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institutionalized racial segregation

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that existed in south africa from

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1914 oh not 1914 from 1948

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until the early 1990s so it didn’t end

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till like

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1994 officially which is really really

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recent to have racial segregation and it

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wasn’t just like mild race racial

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segregation it’s like very strict

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um segregation of people

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so fire race anyways so apartheid is an

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afrikaans word that means separateness

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and offer cons is a language that’s

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spoken in south africa and it comes from

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the dutch colonizers

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so we’re going to go back into some

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south african history

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to have like a better understanding

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because some people still when you hear

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south africa

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they think it’s oh it’s like africa

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right so everyone’s black and then if

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you meet

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a white south african you’re like you’re

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from africa

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um which like for south africa is not a

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conglomerate country like they’re

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different pockets but

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um anyways so south africa history is

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really long

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like way longer than the united states

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um

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in 1488 the portuguese get to south

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africa

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but the local tribes and different

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groups of people in south africa

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actually killed all of them so that’s

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just like a fun fact

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piece of history yeah so they had

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already they arrived

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in like 15 15th century so 1400’s

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to enslave south africans

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which when i say south africans i am

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talking about

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the all of the different groups there’s

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like zulus

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and um oh can i do the click it’s like

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uh there’s just like a bunch of

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different tribes so i’m just

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referring to that but yeah they like

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killed all the portuguese then

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in 1652 so like over 150 years later

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the dutch arrived to south africa and

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then they opened up a dutch east indian

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company port

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in cape town in 1652 so

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that’s when the dutch arrived and when

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the dutch arrive

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technology has like grown for the

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europeans so they’re a lot better at the

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slavery thing

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and they start the slave trade as well

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however they

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start importing slaves from east africa

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so

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um there’s of course like a collection

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of slaves also in

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south african region but a lot of the

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slaves which i discovered too when i was

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like touring the museums

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they imported them from like madagascar

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and

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the east indies um so like southeast

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asia

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malaysia indonesian area and

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um like later

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oh this is interesting okay i just put

0:04:38.800,0:04:42.080
in a fun fact but like the dutch

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colonized indonesia if anyone

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didn’t know and then the english

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colonized malaysia

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and so but malay

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is like an ethnic group so when i say

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malay it’s not just people from malaysia

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it’s people from

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malaysia and indonesia like that

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southeast asian region

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anyways slavery ends in 1834 with the

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slavery abolition act

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in 1833 from the british parliament

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banning slaves

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um and like even though the dutch

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are really okay how do i explain this

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eloquently so the

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south africa was colonized mainly by the

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dutch but actually the english too

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in partnership so for a long part of

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history

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the dutch and the english were like

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fighting over control of south africa

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and in 1833 it just happened to be that

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they were under english rule

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and when that was outlawed in like the

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united kingdom or in

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england um all british territories like

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banned slavery so that’s when it got

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banned in south africa as well

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so although slavery ends there’s now

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this minority group

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of white colonizers and a black majority

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so then we start to enter the time of

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the white minority like seizing control

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over

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all of it and like figuring out a way to

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stay in power

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yeah cause like they’re like okay

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slavery’s over but they’re not gonna be

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like

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all right have your own like democratic

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government

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and like yeah you guys should run for

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office right

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exactly they’re not like yeah let’s all

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live together now

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like that’s not what it’s about um

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so in 1834 to 1948 i’m just gonna give

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some

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brief history because 1948 is when we

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officially start apartheid

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so the events leading up to it during

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that time

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um there’s a lot of discovery of natural

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resources

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which is like um

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yeah natural resources and like they

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discover

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diamonds and gold so because of that

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it’s more important for them to have

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control

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so they can like economically gain from

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ruling the area they control the

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resources

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so during this time white south africans

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were forming political groups only for

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white people

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and they’re seizing control of the

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resources the gold

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and the diamond want mines and the

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wealth is like getting concentrated just

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for white people

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so during this time there are also

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activist groups that are formed by black

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south africans to protest

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and in 1914 laws outlawing blacks from

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owning or occupying land

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under the command unless under the

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command

0:07:31.520,0:07:35.840
of a white master was ran by the

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national party which was

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a political group um run

0:07:39.520,0:07:43.680
obviously exclusively by white people so

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that was a policy

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that they made it illegal for you to own

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land

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which as you may or may not know is like

0:07:49.680,0:07:53.120
the way to build wealth is to own

0:07:51.280,0:07:53.759
property because then you can farm the

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land

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and then you have products to trade so

0:07:56.319,0:08:00.879
that’s that’s a pretty bad

0:07:58.240,0:08:03.280
law it’s like very insidious to keep the

0:08:00.879,0:08:06.720
black community poor

0:08:03.280,0:08:07.440
yeah so yeah before apartheid officially

0:08:06.720,0:08:09.599
starts

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there’s already segregation between

0:08:09.599,0:08:15.039
white and black people in south africa

0:08:11.840,0:08:18.479
and that’s really visible in urban areas

0:08:15.039,0:08:19.120
but when we get to 1948 that’s when

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things like

0:08:19.120,0:08:23.280
officially get put in place like very

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clear

0:08:23.280,0:08:26.960
strict laws so one of the political

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parties

0:08:26.960,0:08:31.360
known as the national party who were

0:08:28.560,0:08:34.000
responsible for that 1914 law

0:08:31.360,0:08:36.399
um excluding anyone who’s not white

0:08:34.000,0:08:40.240
basically from owning property

0:08:36.399,0:08:42.959
um the national party is a pro-afrikaner

0:08:40.240,0:08:43.519
which is the white dutch south african

0:08:42.959,0:08:46.000
and

0:08:43.519,0:08:48.000
they came to power with the ideology of

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apartheid

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because government’s run by white people

0:08:49.680,0:08:52.640
and they’re like hey let’s like separate

0:08:51.360,0:08:55.440
ourselves

0:08:52.640,0:08:55.920
through a system of like laws and then

0:08:55.440,0:08:57.440
the white

0:08:55.920,0:08:59.040
other white people were like yeah that’s

0:08:57.440,0:08:59.839
a good idea and that’s how they came to

0:08:59.040,0:09:01.760
power

0:08:59.839,0:09:03.920
so segregation is already a thing like

0:09:01.760,0:09:06.480
we said but apartheid is this

0:09:03.920,0:09:09.120
really authoritarian and rigorous

0:09:06.480,0:09:12.160
approach to enforcing the segregation

0:09:09.120,0:09:14.160
so like think of american segregation

0:09:12.160,0:09:17.120
how bad that was before the civil rights

0:09:14.160,0:09:22.480
movement it’s like that on steroids like

0:09:17.120,0:09:24.160
it’s really really bad so basically it’s

0:09:22.480,0:09:26.399
just white people running the government

0:09:24.160,0:09:28.000
and using force to make up their rules

0:09:26.399,0:09:30.959
and seize resources

0:09:28.000,0:09:32.480
and so apartheid which is a really this

0:09:30.959,0:09:34.800
is a really important idea to grasp is

0:09:32.480,0:09:38.000
that it’s actually it’s very

0:09:34.800,0:09:39.760
it’s like racist first off like um no

0:09:38.000,0:09:40.880
question but it’s also economically

0:09:39.760,0:09:43.920
motivated

0:09:40.880,0:09:47.040
because now that slavery is illegal

0:09:43.920,0:09:47.839
how do you get cheap labor to mine all

0:09:47.040,0:09:49.760
the gold

0:09:47.839,0:09:51.440
and the diamonds that they found so they

0:09:49.760,0:09:54.560
have to keep people poor

0:09:51.440,0:09:56.959
so they can use them as cheap labor so

0:09:54.560,0:09:58.720
that’s a big reason why you keep them

0:09:56.959,0:10:01.360
from owning land

0:09:58.720,0:10:04.240
and then you separate you separate them

0:10:01.360,0:10:08.959
into specific groups and specific groups

0:10:04.240,0:10:12.000
can only work certain jobs so

0:10:08.959,0:10:12.000
yeah it’s like horrible

0:10:12.079,0:10:15.519
and the black opposition politics

0:10:14.240,0:10:17.680
however are forming

0:10:15.519,0:10:18.720
most notably the african national

0:10:17.680,0:10:21.839
congress

0:10:18.720,0:10:23.760
which started a youth league in 1943 to

0:10:21.839,0:10:25.120
start fostering the leadership of young

0:10:23.760,0:10:28.560
black people like

0:10:25.120,0:10:30.040
oliver tambo walter suzulu and nelson

0:10:28.560,0:10:31.440
mandela

0:10:30.040,0:10:32.640
[Music]

0:10:31.440,0:10:34.880
okay so now we’re just gonna talk about

0:10:32.640,0:10:38.240
what’s apartheid like like how bad is it

0:10:34.880,0:10:41.440
what did they do okay so the government

0:10:38.240,0:10:43.600
made people carry ids or past books

0:10:41.440,0:10:45.839
they’re like actually called past books

0:10:43.600,0:10:47.920
and they tell you what race you are and

0:10:45.839,0:10:50.079
it’s purely based on appearance

0:10:47.920,0:10:51.279
so the classifications that they had

0:10:50.079,0:10:53.760
were white

0:10:51.279,0:10:54.320
black and then another group called

0:10:53.760,0:10:57.600
color

0:10:54.320,0:10:58.320
because there’s this colored group is a

0:10:57.600,0:11:01.360
special

0:10:58.320,0:11:02.640
black and white mix that emerges um

0:11:01.360,0:11:04.959
through just like

0:11:02.640,0:11:06.320
marriage and like having children not

0:11:04.959,0:11:07.760
even marriage that was outlawed but like

0:11:06.320,0:11:09.040
just like having children and like

0:11:07.760,0:11:12.720
intermixing

0:11:09.040,0:11:16.640
um colored people just like emerge

0:11:12.720,0:11:17.920
and also um i in my research i found

0:11:16.640,0:11:21.200
that

0:11:17.920,0:11:24.800
like a fourth category was later made

0:11:21.200,0:11:27.600
um called like asian to like include

0:11:24.800,0:11:28.240
indians and malays but that’s when i was

0:11:27.600,0:11:29.440
doing like

0:11:28.240,0:11:31.680
when i was like walking through the

0:11:29.440,0:11:33.839
museums and stuff that i didn’t see

0:11:31.680,0:11:34.959
any indian past books or asian past

0:11:33.839,0:11:37.360
books so

0:11:34.959,0:11:38.399
indians and malays are also under the

0:11:37.360,0:11:40.079
colored

0:11:38.399,0:11:41.600
um group so if you’re not clearly white

0:11:40.079,0:11:42.959
you’re not clearly black you’re like

0:11:41.600,0:11:46.720
shoved into colored

0:11:42.959,0:11:49.760
like just miscellaneous exactly

0:11:46.720,0:11:53.120
and you know some people when

0:11:49.760,0:11:55.440
they’re mixed it’s not always clear

0:11:53.120,0:11:56.560
like what they are sometimes like some

0:11:55.440,0:11:58.399
if you like

0:11:56.560,0:11:59.680
you could like look with my sister and

0:11:58.399,0:12:03.040
like whatever like

0:11:59.680,0:12:04.720
some people look more um one side than

0:12:03.040,0:12:05.120
the other it’s not always super clear to

0:12:04.720,0:12:08.160
tell

0:12:05.120,0:12:10.880
so they created like fake

0:12:08.160,0:12:12.079
tests fake science tests to determine if

0:12:10.880,0:12:15.360
you weren’t european

0:12:12.079,0:12:17.040
if you look like you could be mixed

0:12:15.360,0:12:19.279
so do you have a guess like what how

0:12:17.040,0:12:22.240
they would test that maybe

0:12:19.279,0:12:22.959
oh my gosh oh well i know like oh my

0:12:22.240,0:12:25.600
gosh i think

0:12:22.959,0:12:27.519
around this time period when i think of

0:12:25.600,0:12:28.880
like social darwinism when they were so

0:12:27.519,0:12:31.600
focused on like

0:12:28.880,0:12:33.200
anatomy and like skull shapes but i

0:12:31.600,0:12:34.240
don’t know how you would like test that

0:12:33.200,0:12:37.360
on like a living

0:12:34.240,0:12:40.399
person yeah they don’t know but i’m sure

0:12:37.360,0:12:40.399
you can measure your skull

0:12:40.519,0:12:45.040
ridiculously yeah okay so it’s called

0:12:43.279,0:12:46.880
the pencil test

0:12:45.040,0:12:48.240
and what they would do they had a few

0:12:46.880,0:12:50.079
different tests but this is like

0:12:48.240,0:12:53.839
by far the most famous test that they

0:12:50.079,0:12:57.360
would do so they would put a pencil

0:12:53.839,0:12:58.959
in a person’s hair and if it fell out

0:12:57.360,0:13:01.040
then you passed the test and you’re

0:12:58.959,0:13:04.240
considered white but if it stayed in

0:13:01.040,0:13:07.120
your hair then you were considered color

0:13:04.240,0:13:08.160
what the heck yeah so they did it based

0:13:07.120,0:13:12.079
on like your hair

0:13:08.160,0:13:15.760
texture that’s ridiculous

0:13:12.079,0:13:18.959
isn’t that wild i was like oh my god

0:13:15.760,0:13:20.480
and like this stupid like it’s just like

0:13:18.959,0:13:22.800
so

0:13:20.480,0:13:24.880
silly and like i don’t know first of all

0:13:22.800,0:13:26.720
i can’t imagine like

0:13:24.880,0:13:28.480
like you’re in like some important like

0:13:26.720,0:13:29.040
government office and then they like

0:13:28.480,0:13:31.839
just come

0:13:29.040,0:13:33.680
up to you with like a little like oh my

0:13:31.839,0:13:34.000
gosh like a little yellow pencil but

0:13:33.680,0:13:36.560
then

0:13:34.000,0:13:40.320
like the fact that like that determines

0:13:36.560,0:13:41.839
your class in society which has

0:13:40.320,0:13:43.360
like obviously like that affects the

0:13:41.839,0:13:44.880
whole rest of your life and then like

0:13:43.360,0:13:46.240
your children’s

0:13:44.880,0:13:48.000
lives you know that like has a

0:13:46.240,0:13:51.920
generational effect and it’s all

0:13:48.000,0:13:55.199
based like if a pencil sees in your hair

0:13:51.920,0:13:56.000
yeah that’s ridiculous i know it’s crazy

0:13:55.199,0:13:59.360
and it’s like

0:13:56.000,0:14:01.680
um yeah it’s a huge deal like being

0:13:59.360,0:14:02.480
white in south africa it’s like it’s

0:14:01.680,0:14:04.880
like

0:14:02.480,0:14:06.880
you’re like top of the world king and

0:14:04.880,0:14:08.320
queen like everything’s awesome for you

0:14:06.880,0:14:10.079
but like

0:14:08.320,0:14:11.680
if you’re if you get if you’re colored

0:14:10.079,0:14:13.920
like it’s completely different so it’s

0:14:11.680,0:14:17.120
literally

0:14:13.920,0:14:18.399
just on the pencil yeah well okay are

0:14:17.120,0:14:20.399
you probably gonna get into this next

0:14:18.399,0:14:23.519
but like what’s the difference between

0:14:20.399,0:14:26.160
colored and black like in terms of

0:14:23.519,0:14:26.880
what they can and can’t do yeah i’ll get

0:14:26.160,0:14:30.079
into that

0:14:26.880,0:14:32.079
um i guess like

0:14:30.079,0:14:34.160
yeah let me just all like go through it

0:14:32.079,0:14:35.920
but basically the other things that they

0:14:34.160,0:14:37.440
did in apartheid so once they figured

0:14:35.920,0:14:39.519
out what group you were in

0:14:37.440,0:14:40.880
that was marked on your past book and

0:14:39.519,0:14:44.160
then

0:14:40.880,0:14:46.480
everyone who was non-white had a curfew

0:14:44.160,0:14:47.920
so if you’re colored and if you’re black

0:14:46.480,0:14:49.600
there’s a certain amount of time you’re

0:14:47.920,0:14:52.000
allowed to be

0:14:49.600,0:14:53.600
outside and then after a certain time

0:14:52.000,0:14:54.160
you you’re not allowed to be outside

0:14:53.600,0:14:55.680
anymore

0:14:54.160,0:14:58.240
and it’s like by your past book and if

0:14:55.680,0:15:01.600
they saw you outside passed your curfew

0:14:58.240,0:15:05.279
you would be jailed or fined oh my god

0:15:01.600,0:15:06.480
i have never heard of that yeah

0:15:05.279,0:15:08.800
it’s that’s what i’m saying is like it’s

0:15:06.480,0:15:11.040
segregation on steroids like it’s

0:15:08.800,0:15:12.639
they’re controlling literally like all

0:15:11.040,0:15:16.639
everything

0:15:12.639,0:15:17.360
so um also to the past books right if

0:15:16.639,0:15:20.480
you’re not

0:15:17.360,0:15:22.480
white so you need to always have your

0:15:20.480,0:15:23.760
past book on you because the police are

0:15:22.480,0:15:25.920
allowed to do like

0:15:23.760,0:15:27.760
a raid on you and like a search at any

0:15:25.920,0:15:28.720
time they want like they can bust down

0:15:27.760,0:15:30.560
your door

0:15:28.720,0:15:32.320
and ask for your past books and if you

0:15:30.560,0:15:33.199
don’t have it again you could be jailed

0:15:32.320,0:15:35.920
or fine

0:15:33.199,0:15:37.519
like yeah and it’s only for non-white

0:15:35.920,0:15:38.720
people so coloreds and blacks

0:15:37.519,0:15:41.440
like if you’re white you don’t have to

0:15:38.720,0:15:46.079
worry about any of this yeah

0:15:41.440,0:15:48.560
so yeah and then officially interracial

0:15:46.079,0:15:49.120
marriage is illegal but also interracial

0:15:48.560,0:15:51.199
sex

0:15:49.120,0:15:52.720
okay well i guess i’m young so like i

0:15:51.199,0:15:54.320
guess at the time it was like you can’t

0:15:52.720,0:15:57.519
have sex if you’re not married

0:15:54.320,0:15:58.399
well yeah yeah interracial sex and

0:15:57.519,0:16:00.800
marriage

0:15:58.399,0:16:02.480
is illegal and that’s just between

0:16:00.800,0:16:03.920
whites and non-whites so it’s very

0:16:02.480,0:16:08.079
similar to

0:16:03.920,0:16:11.360
the um the segregation laws that were

0:16:08.079,0:16:12.959
in virginia in

0:16:11.360,0:16:15.279
the marriage interracial marriage

0:16:12.959,0:16:15.839
segregation laws in the united states as

0:16:15.279,0:16:18.079
well

0:16:15.839,0:16:19.440
where it’s just whites and non-whites

0:16:18.079,0:16:23.360
can’t mix

0:16:19.440,0:16:26.639
yeah and

0:16:23.360,0:16:29.360
yeah so then there’s segregated beaches

0:16:26.639,0:16:32.480
segregated mountains segregated benches

0:16:29.360,0:16:33.920
bathrooms water faucets everything like

0:16:32.480,0:16:35.759
you’re not allowed to go to this beach

0:16:33.920,0:16:37.360
it’s only for white people you can’t go

0:16:35.759,0:16:39.519
to that mountain it’s only for colored

0:16:37.360,0:16:42.959
people like all these things

0:16:39.519,0:16:45.040
um also in schools

0:16:42.959,0:16:47.199
segregated of course the non-white

0:16:45.040,0:16:48.079
majority only got a fraction of the

0:16:47.199,0:16:51.120
funding

0:16:48.079,0:16:53.759
as the white schools just like of course

0:16:51.120,0:16:55.920
um same thing like with all like the

0:16:53.759,0:16:56.320
beaches and mountains and benches like

0:16:55.920,0:16:59.440
oh

0:16:56.320,0:17:01.360
like of course the ones for non-whites

0:16:59.440,0:17:02.800
aren’t going to be like maintained and

0:17:01.360,0:17:03.839
it’s not going to be like the nice

0:17:02.800,0:17:07.039
places

0:17:03.839,0:17:09.120
exactly exactly okay now this is the

0:17:07.039,0:17:11.919
worst part of apartheid though obviously

0:17:09.120,0:17:14.079
everything’s horrible but this is like

0:17:11.919,0:17:16.079
this is probably like the saddest part

0:17:14.079,0:17:17.280
um and i didn’t really understand it

0:17:16.079,0:17:18.959
till

0:17:17.280,0:17:20.319
i like kind of had to like reflect on it

0:17:18.959,0:17:23.280
and i there’s like

0:17:20.319,0:17:24.240
museums completely dedicated to what

0:17:23.280,0:17:27.760
happened

0:17:24.240,0:17:30.400
but basically there were forced removals

0:17:27.760,0:17:32.400
so the government forcibly removed

0:17:30.400,0:17:34.240
people from their homes and made them

0:17:32.400,0:17:36.799
live in specific areas

0:17:34.240,0:17:38.480
and this is like the reason why this is

0:17:36.799,0:17:40.799
the worst thing is because

0:17:38.480,0:17:42.000
this will push you into poverty like

0:17:40.799,0:17:44.480
where you live

0:17:42.000,0:17:46.400
and what like access to jobs and

0:17:44.480,0:17:49.360
resources you have in that area

0:17:46.400,0:17:51.120
can push you into poverty or keep you

0:17:49.360,0:17:54.960
there

0:17:51.120,0:17:57.039
so the government forcibly removes

0:17:54.960,0:17:59.280
okay let me start again so there’s

0:17:57.039,0:18:00.880
basically they designate different areas

0:17:59.280,0:18:02.400
for like white people can live here

0:18:00.880,0:18:04.880
colored people can live here black

0:18:02.400,0:18:07.679
people or black people can live here

0:18:04.880,0:18:09.280
black people have to go move to an area

0:18:07.679,0:18:11.679
called the homeland

0:18:09.280,0:18:12.960
so the government forcibly removes them

0:18:11.679,0:18:16.160
pushes them to the homeland

0:18:12.960,0:18:19.679
it’s more than 3.5 million people

0:18:16.160,0:18:21.600
and the homelands were located in areas

0:18:19.679,0:18:23.600
that didn’t have any jobs

0:18:21.600,0:18:26.240
or resources and there’s very little

0:18:23.600,0:18:28.320
water in those areas or it was polluted

0:18:26.240,0:18:29.919
and they forcibly made them live there

0:18:28.320,0:18:34.000
so leave your house

0:18:29.919,0:18:35.840
and go exactly so

0:18:34.000,0:18:37.360
now they’re pushed into poverty you

0:18:35.840,0:18:39.600
don’t own your house anymore

0:18:37.360,0:18:41.600
like if even if oh well you couldn’t own

0:18:39.600,0:18:43.440
it anyway because 1914 but like

0:18:41.600,0:18:45.440
you didn’t have a chance to like own or

0:18:43.440,0:18:47.120
occupy land they took it from you pushed

0:18:45.440,0:18:50.000
you off to the side

0:18:47.120,0:18:51.120
and then they kind of like we did to the

0:18:50.000,0:18:54.480
native americans

0:18:51.120,0:18:56.240
and um you were describing that

0:18:54.480,0:18:58.320
because like sorry not to interrupt but

0:18:56.240,0:18:59.760
like like current day like present day

0:18:58.320,0:19:01.600
like reservations

0:18:59.760,0:19:02.799
like there’s so many issues with like

0:19:01.600,0:19:05.600
access to water

0:19:02.799,0:19:06.480
and like electricity and basic utilities

0:19:05.600,0:19:09.039
and like

0:19:06.480,0:19:09.679
like uh food sources and yeah so it’s

0:19:09.039,0:19:13.039
just

0:19:09.679,0:19:14.880
very similar yeah huge huge parallels um

0:19:13.039,0:19:16.160
basically the same thing it’s like same

0:19:14.880,0:19:18.640
oppressive practices

0:19:16.160,0:19:19.520
and we did the native american thing we

0:19:18.640,0:19:23.200
did first

0:19:19.520,0:19:24.400
like this is like in the 1940s 1950s so

0:19:23.200,0:19:27.600
like these guys are

0:19:24.400,0:19:29.840
kind of copying anyways

0:19:27.600,0:19:31.760
um so yeah when you’re pushed into

0:19:29.840,0:19:34.400
poverty like that it means that you

0:19:31.760,0:19:35.280
now have no choice but to work as cheap

0:19:34.400,0:19:37.600
labor

0:19:35.280,0:19:39.760
like the only jobs available are mining

0:19:37.600,0:19:41.919
the gold and diamonds for the white

0:19:39.760,0:19:43.840
minority so that’s what you have to do

0:19:41.919,0:19:45.919
now yeah

0:19:43.840,0:19:47.120
so that’s where they live the coloreds

0:19:45.919,0:19:50.480
get moved to

0:19:47.120,0:19:53.440
slum area so district six is the um

0:19:50.480,0:19:55.280
is they’ve built like a huge museum off

0:19:53.440,0:19:56.960
of district six

0:19:55.280,0:19:58.320
to like talk about what happened but it

0:19:56.960,0:20:01.039
was like an area

0:19:58.320,0:20:02.640
in cape town where 60 000 residents were

0:20:01.039,0:20:05.200
forcibly removed

0:20:02.640,0:20:06.080
and i was like reading through the

0:20:05.200,0:20:07.840
museum

0:20:06.080,0:20:09.440
on like all the stories of the people

0:20:07.840,0:20:11.200
who had been removed

0:20:09.440,0:20:13.120
and they would say like the movers would

0:20:11.200,0:20:14.640
literally come and you could only take

0:20:13.120,0:20:16.880
what would fit into like

0:20:14.640,0:20:18.480
a truck like whatever this truck is and

0:20:16.880,0:20:22.799
it’s like really your whole family

0:20:18.480,0:20:24.720
stuff and um if you didn’t

0:20:22.799,0:20:26.240
like if you didn’t pack it up or

0:20:24.720,0:20:27.760
whatever they would just like

0:20:26.240,0:20:29.440
still make you move out like just

0:20:27.760,0:20:32.080
forcibly remove you

0:20:29.440,0:20:34.320
um and whatever you didn’t take like

0:20:32.080,0:20:35.840
everything else got demolished so

0:20:34.320,0:20:38.240
if you didn’t have time to grab

0:20:35.840,0:20:39.520
everything like within the allotted time

0:20:38.240,0:20:43.840
that they gave you

0:20:39.520,0:20:46.559
then you just lose it all oh my gosh

0:20:43.840,0:20:48.880
yeah so yeah that whole residential area

0:20:46.559,0:20:51.520
got demolished

0:20:48.880,0:20:52.559
and now the government is trying to fix

0:20:51.520,0:20:54.320
the wrongs

0:20:52.559,0:20:55.919
like this is as of last year when i was

0:20:54.320,0:20:56.400
there there’s like a huge project going

0:20:55.919,0:20:58.960
on

0:20:56.400,0:21:00.799
and they’re trying to rebuild that area

0:20:58.960,0:21:03.039
into like affordable housing

0:21:00.799,0:21:04.559
so that people who are forcibly removed

0:21:03.039,0:21:07.280
can return

0:21:04.559,0:21:10.240
um but yeah so colored people have to

0:21:07.280,0:21:12.480
move into these slum areas

0:21:10.240,0:21:14.400
and the goal is basically of all this

0:21:12.480,0:21:16.080
force removal is to make sure that four

0:21:14.400,0:21:19.120
million whites in south africa

0:21:16.080,0:21:22.240
had all the jobs wealth resources and

0:21:19.120,0:21:22.240
mines in their hands

0:21:22.799,0:21:26.320
so now on a more positive note like what

0:21:24.640,0:21:28.400
did people do to oppose that

0:21:26.320,0:21:30.159
like that’s horrible so like how how are

0:21:28.400,0:21:33.360
you gonna fight up against that

0:21:30.159,0:21:34.960
so people yeah people never took

0:21:33.360,0:21:36.720
this like sitting down you know what i

0:21:34.960,0:21:38.000
mean like people are always protesting

0:21:36.720,0:21:40.720
these injustices

0:21:38.000,0:21:42.880
and especially throughout apartheid they

0:21:40.720,0:21:44.000
got organized politically so we see the

0:21:42.880,0:21:46.799
formation of the south

0:21:44.000,0:21:47.679
african indian congress colored people’s

0:21:46.799,0:21:49.679
congress

0:21:47.679,0:21:51.039
and african national congress like we

0:21:49.679,0:21:53.520
talked about earlier that was the group

0:21:51.039,0:21:56.320
nelson mandela was in

0:21:53.520,0:21:58.080
and resistance to apartheid came in the

0:21:56.320,0:22:00.640
form of mostly non-violent

0:21:58.080,0:22:02.480
protests in 1952 there was something

0:22:00.640,0:22:04.320
known as the defiance campaign

0:22:02.480,0:22:05.520
so it was the first large-scale

0:22:04.320,0:22:08.400
multi-racial

0:22:05.520,0:22:09.200
political mobilization against apartheid

0:22:08.400,0:22:11.840
laws

0:22:09.200,0:22:12.640
so the idea was let’s break the

0:22:11.840,0:22:16.559
apartheid

0:22:12.640,0:22:20.240
rules to get arrested and then overwhelm

0:22:16.559,0:22:23.039
the criminal justice system wow

0:22:20.240,0:22:24.640
yeah so that was the approach yeah it’s

0:22:23.039,0:22:25.679
really interesting but unfortunately it

0:22:24.640,0:22:28.320
did not work

0:22:25.679,0:22:30.320
so it just ended up being that like yeah

0:22:28.320,0:22:33.760
a lot of people were in jail now

0:22:30.320,0:22:36.000
in 1960 they did the past books protest

0:22:33.760,0:22:37.120
which was like burning your past book or

0:22:36.000,0:22:39.039
not carrying it

0:22:37.120,0:22:40.880
and then offering yourself up to the

0:22:39.039,0:22:43.039
police for a rest like hey i don’t have

0:22:40.880,0:22:45.919
my pass book like arrest me or whatever

0:22:43.039,0:22:46.559
and that led to the sharpville massacre

0:22:45.919,0:22:50.480
which

0:22:46.559,0:22:53.200
was um an event where police opened fire

0:22:50.480,0:22:53.760
and killed 69 unarmed protesters as well

0:22:53.200,0:22:56.480
as

0:22:53.760,0:22:57.760
wounding three wounding 300 more

0:22:56.480,0:23:01.280
protesters

0:22:57.760,0:23:03.280
um and like at first they were telling

0:23:01.280,0:23:06.559
people like the protesters were like

0:23:03.280,0:23:07.520
throwing rocks and like like the police

0:23:06.559,0:23:09.760
felt threatened

0:23:07.520,0:23:11.280
but actually when you do like a biopsy

0:23:09.760,0:23:14.640
of the bodies

0:23:11.280,0:23:16.240
um they they found that the gunshots

0:23:14.640,0:23:17.760
were like in their backs

0:23:16.240,0:23:20.720
so it’s like even when they were running

0:23:17.760,0:23:24.159
away they weren’t seizing fire

0:23:20.720,0:23:28.000
why this all sounds really

0:23:24.159,0:23:31.840
like way too familiar like oh my god

0:23:28.000,0:23:34.080
yeah yeah and then okay so then there’s

0:23:31.840,0:23:35.760
we have like a famous trial like a court

0:23:34.080,0:23:36.320
trial and they’re called the rivonia

0:23:35.760,0:23:38.000
trials

0:23:36.320,0:23:39.440
and that starts to draw national

0:23:38.000,0:23:42.720
attention so

0:23:39.440,0:23:46.080
with the the defiance campaign

0:23:42.720,0:23:47.679
um obviously like leaders like the white

0:23:46.080,0:23:49.520
people are like who’s leading them like

0:23:47.679,0:23:53.279
who do we need to arrest

0:23:49.520,0:23:55.919
to get all these get control again so

0:23:53.279,0:23:58.000
in the rivonia trials the trials accused

0:23:55.919,0:23:59.919
various anti-apartheid leaders for

0:23:58.000,0:24:01.840
treason and sabotage

0:23:59.919,0:24:04.080
and these trials are what led to the

0:24:01.840,0:24:07.200
sentencing of nelson mandela

0:24:04.080,0:24:10.960
to prison for 27 years

0:24:07.200,0:24:14.400
oh my gosh that’s right 27

0:24:10.960,0:24:16.480
years 27 i’m not even 27 like that’s

0:24:14.400,0:24:20.480
your entire life

0:24:16.480,0:24:24.080
for protesting yeah for leading like the

0:24:20.480,0:24:26.240
the protests and stuff oh my gosh

0:24:24.080,0:24:28.159
right and they’re like you’re like it’s

0:24:26.240,0:24:31.200
treason against south africa

0:24:28.159,0:24:32.000
like so you like they because you’re

0:24:31.200,0:24:33.600
standing up for your

0:24:32.000,0:24:35.360
rights that’s treason against your

0:24:33.600,0:24:36.880
country yeah

0:24:35.360,0:24:39.360
because you’re fighting against the

0:24:36.880,0:24:43.039
oppressive white government

0:24:39.360,0:24:45.919
exactly seven years did he actually

0:24:43.039,0:24:47.520
end up how oh i guess you’ll probably

0:24:45.919,0:24:50.640
get into it but like how long

0:24:47.520,0:24:53.840
was he in prison for 27

0:24:50.640,0:24:55.440
27 years full sentence yeah yeah

0:24:53.840,0:24:57.279
no he was supposed to be there till

0:24:55.440,0:25:02.159
death

0:24:57.279,0:25:03.279
oh yeah and he served 27 years like he

0:25:02.159,0:25:06.799
was supposed to raw

0:25:03.279,0:25:09.919
in jail i

0:25:06.799,0:25:15.039
can’t oh my gosh okay now

0:25:09.919,0:25:18.480
oh yeah so like it’s bad it’s really bad

0:25:15.039,0:25:22.000
like i would still have five more years

0:25:18.480,0:25:23.760
yeah that’s a horrifying thought

0:25:22.000,0:25:25.760
literally and it’s not even it’s not

0:25:23.760,0:25:28.640
just like nelson mandela like

0:25:25.760,0:25:29.440
all these anti-apartheid activists like

0:25:28.640,0:25:32.799
all

0:25:29.440,0:25:35.919
jailed you know um

0:25:32.799,0:25:40.640
so all right so he’s in jail but

0:25:35.919,0:25:42.880
the um those trials the rivonia trials

0:25:40.640,0:25:44.640
like the world starts to notice that

0:25:42.880,0:25:45.279
something’s happening in south africa

0:25:44.640,0:25:47.120
like there’s

0:25:45.279,0:25:48.799
protests and stuff they like they’re

0:25:47.120,0:25:51.120
like what’s up so

0:25:48.799,0:25:54.240
the rest of the world is like it like

0:25:51.120,0:25:58.000
what the heck it’s like 1990s like

0:25:54.240,0:26:01.440
how is it still segregated right

0:25:58.000,0:26:02.159
so basically um every all the other

0:26:01.440,0:26:04.799
countries put

0:26:02.159,0:26:06.720
economic sanctions on south africa so

0:26:04.799,0:26:07.679
other countries around the world refuse

0:26:06.720,0:26:10.960
to do trade

0:26:07.679,0:26:12.640
until they end apartheid and there’s a

0:26:10.960,0:26:13.520
divestment of companies from south

0:26:12.640,0:26:15.200
africa so

0:26:13.520,0:26:16.559
there’s a huge global movement to

0:26:15.200,0:26:19.760
boycott south africa

0:26:16.559,0:26:21.200
until they end apartheid that must be

0:26:19.760,0:26:23.360
insane too because like the

0:26:21.200,0:26:25.279
original motivations for everything like

0:26:23.360,0:26:28.720
obviously people are just racist

0:26:25.279,0:26:32.159
and awful but like it’s an economic uh

0:26:28.720,0:26:33.760
venture and so what as soon as it’s not

0:26:32.159,0:26:35.360
i don’t know as soon as uh like the

0:26:33.760,0:26:37.039
economy starts hurting and it’s like

0:26:35.360,0:26:38.799
economic consequences and that’s when

0:26:37.039,0:26:41.200
they’re like okay

0:26:38.799,0:26:42.320
i guess i think we’ll have to rethink

0:26:41.200,0:26:45.520
some of this you know

0:26:42.320,0:26:47.039
yeah it’s so unfortunate and like

0:26:45.520,0:26:49.200
i just watched a documentary on the

0:26:47.039,0:26:51.039
holocaust like yesterday and like the

0:26:49.200,0:26:53.039
holocaust was also economically

0:26:51.039,0:26:54.960
motivated like the reason

0:26:53.039,0:26:56.559
the huge genocide happened is because

0:26:54.960,0:26:58.400
like germans cared more about like

0:26:56.559,0:27:01.520
economic growth of germany

0:26:58.400,0:27:03.200
than the fact that like

0:27:01.520,0:27:05.360
literally 11 million people were going

0:27:03.200,0:27:07.600
to be murdered and that’s what happens

0:27:05.360,0:27:11.520
when you care more about economic growth

0:27:07.600,0:27:15.200
over human rights so anyways

0:27:11.520,0:27:16.720
um yeah so if you had a south african

0:27:15.200,0:27:17.840
passport you’re not allowed to enter

0:27:16.720,0:27:20.399
other countries

0:27:17.840,0:27:21.360
and one of my i have an auntie in south

0:27:20.399,0:27:24.399
africa i refer

0:27:21.360,0:27:26.000
to that we’re not actually related but i

0:27:24.399,0:27:27.760
studied abroad in my high school

0:27:26.000,0:27:29.279
um and of course if you studied abroad

0:27:27.760,0:27:30.000
in my high school way back in the day

0:27:29.279,0:27:32.000
you were

0:27:30.000,0:27:33.520
a white south african because only white

0:27:32.000,0:27:35.440
south africans could do that

0:27:33.520,0:27:36.640
which is so weird that she was at my

0:27:35.440,0:27:37.279
high school because it’s a small high

0:27:36.640,0:27:40.640
school

0:27:37.279,0:27:42.000
but um yeah so she told me

0:27:40.640,0:27:43.679
and what are the what are the chances

0:27:42.000,0:27:46.159
that she was in cape town too

0:27:43.679,0:27:47.600
like where i was studying abroad that’s

0:27:46.159,0:27:50.240
so wild

0:27:47.600,0:27:52.080
that’s insane yeah but anyway she was

0:27:50.240,0:27:55.520
telling me because she was like

0:27:52.080,0:27:58.320
like a young girl like teenager-ish when

0:27:55.520,0:27:59.760
it was going on that like the the

0:27:58.320,0:28:00.320
world’s starting to put sanctions on

0:27:59.760,0:28:01.840
them

0:28:00.320,0:28:04.000
and she told me that she was traveling

0:28:01.840,0:28:05.600
with her family they were yachting

0:28:04.000,0:28:08.240
like the fact that your family owns a

0:28:05.600,0:28:09.840
yacht is like

0:28:08.240,0:28:12.159
yeah they were traveling the world on

0:28:09.840,0:28:14.159
their boat and um

0:28:12.159,0:28:15.440
they they like arrived in south america

0:28:14.159,0:28:16.720
and they wouldn’t let her in

0:28:15.440,0:28:18.480
like they wouldn’t let them in because

0:28:16.720,0:28:19.919
they were south africans like she had

0:28:18.480,0:28:20.720
her south african passport and they’re

0:28:19.919,0:28:23.279
like no

0:28:20.720,0:28:24.480
and she was like okay it’s funny because

0:28:23.279,0:28:26.320
she was like

0:28:24.480,0:28:27.600
how like terrible like she’s telling me

0:28:26.320,0:28:30.240
this and you have to remember

0:28:27.600,0:28:32.000
she is like old grew up in apartheid

0:28:30.240,0:28:32.880
white south african like you have to

0:28:32.000,0:28:36.000
remember

0:28:32.880,0:28:38.399
this is like to her

0:28:36.000,0:28:40.080
like she grew up on that mindset so it’s

0:28:38.399,0:28:41.840
hard for her

0:28:40.080,0:28:42.960
to like not saying that like we should

0:28:41.840,0:28:43.360
sympathize it’s hard for her but like

0:28:42.960,0:28:44.799
this

0:28:43.360,0:28:46.720
you have to remember like she has that

0:28:44.799,0:28:49.520
bias so

0:28:46.720,0:28:50.000
uh and it was like thinking that way you

0:28:49.520,0:28:53.520
know

0:28:50.000,0:28:55.039
exactly exactly and she was telling me

0:28:53.520,0:28:56.720
she was explaining to me that like they

0:28:55.039,0:28:58.559
wouldn’t let her in

0:28:56.720,0:29:00.080
and like i think she wanted me to react

0:28:58.559,0:29:01.520
like oh my god that’s horrible like they

0:29:00.080,0:29:03.600
wouldn’t let you into the country

0:29:01.520,0:29:07.120
because of your nationality

0:29:03.600,0:29:10.840
like what was apartheid was a part time

0:29:07.120,0:29:14.480
like oh you’re you face discrimination

0:29:10.840,0:29:15.120
oh i’m sorry like the whole segregation

0:29:14.480,0:29:18.240
thing

0:29:15.120,0:29:19.760
like yeah i was like bro i don’t know

0:29:18.240,0:29:21.279
what you want me to say here like i

0:29:19.760,0:29:22.559
think they did a good thing to not let

0:29:21.279,0:29:26.480
you guys in

0:29:22.559,0:29:28.480
um so anyways um

0:29:26.480,0:29:30.320
so amid the growing domestic and

0:29:28.480,0:29:32.720
international pressure

0:29:30.320,0:29:34.080
with the fears of a racial civil war

0:29:32.720,0:29:37.200
because it was going to come

0:29:34.080,0:29:40.799
yeah in 1991

0:29:37.200,0:29:43.279
the government of president f w d clerk

0:29:40.799,0:29:44.080
the who was a part of the national party

0:29:43.279,0:29:47.200
which is

0:29:44.080,0:29:48.000
people who started apartheid they he was

0:29:47.200,0:29:51.360
like we gotta

0:29:48.000,0:29:53.600
do something so he starts the initiative

0:29:51.360,0:29:55.919
initiative to begin to repeal most of

0:29:53.600,0:29:57.600
the legislation that provided the basis

0:29:55.919,0:30:00.799
of apartheid

0:29:57.600,0:30:02.240
wow and so part of that

0:30:00.799,0:30:04.559
like taking the step forward was

0:30:02.240,0:30:06.640
releasing nelson mandela from prison so

0:30:04.559,0:30:10.640
he gets released in 1990

0:30:06.640,0:30:15.200
at the age of 71. oh my god

0:30:10.640,0:30:18.640
yeah and they start negotiating

0:30:15.200,0:30:20.559
uh between nelson mandela and

0:30:18.640,0:30:22.320
so nelson mandela still leads like the

0:30:20.559,0:30:24.080
anc right like

0:30:22.320,0:30:26.000
the african national congress which is

0:30:24.080,0:30:27.600
like the black congressional party that

0:30:26.000,0:30:28.080
was fighting for rights that they

0:30:27.600,0:30:30.640
weren’t

0:30:28.080,0:30:32.240
like really in the government yet but

0:30:30.640,0:30:35.039
they were still like an

0:30:32.240,0:30:36.000
organization so they start to negotiate

0:30:35.039,0:30:37.520
between

0:30:36.000,0:30:39.840
the national party and the african

0:30:37.520,0:30:43.120
national congress are negotiating

0:30:39.840,0:30:47.120
and slowly apartheid begins to end

0:30:43.120,0:30:49.120
so on april 27 1994

0:30:47.120,0:30:50.399
south africa holds its first

0:30:49.120,0:30:53.279
multi-racial

0:30:50.399,0:30:54.960
election with full enfranchisement so

0:30:53.279,0:30:55.440
that means everyone has the right to

0:30:54.960,0:30:58.159
vote

0:30:55.440,0:30:59.840
because it is probably this might not

0:30:58.159,0:31:01.279
have been clear earlier but yeah they

0:30:59.840,0:31:03.120
definitely did not have the right to

0:31:01.279,0:31:05.120
vote like the government was white

0:31:03.120,0:31:06.240
whites only so no one could vote it’s

0:31:05.120,0:31:08.480
just white people

0:31:06.240,0:31:10.080
but now so now everyone can vote in

0:31:08.480,0:31:13.120
south africa

0:31:10.080,0:31:14.559
and which is huge vote 2020 if you

0:31:13.120,0:31:16.720
haven’t

0:31:14.559,0:31:18.320
yeah don’t forget to vote oh my gosh

0:31:16.720,0:31:20.720
well also okay i’ll

0:31:18.320,0:31:22.480
because the white whites in south africa

0:31:20.720,0:31:23.519
are the minority too so as soon as this

0:31:22.480,0:31:26.320
election

0:31:23.519,0:31:27.120
happens and everyone can vote yeah yeah

0:31:26.320,0:31:28.399
that’s why

0:31:27.120,0:31:30.080
you didn’t have the right to vote

0:31:28.399,0:31:32.480
because there’s no way they’d win if

0:31:30.080,0:31:35.200
everyone can vote

0:31:32.480,0:31:36.880
so yeah and off it’s not bipartisan

0:31:35.200,0:31:37.440
either in south africa there’s a lot of

0:31:36.880,0:31:39.519
different

0:31:37.440,0:31:40.880
congressional parties now that are up

0:31:39.519,0:31:44.720
for election

0:31:40.880,0:31:47.440
and the african national congrat

0:31:44.720,0:31:50.159
congress the african national congress

0:31:47.440,0:31:51.200
party wins the election with 62 percent

0:31:50.159,0:31:53.120
of the votes

0:31:51.200,0:31:54.399
so that’s like huge because there were

0:31:53.120,0:31:57.679
several different

0:31:54.399,0:32:01.760
congressional parties too and

0:31:57.679,0:32:04.080
52 is a lot wow

0:32:01.760,0:32:04.880
yeah and nelson mandela becomes

0:32:04.080,0:32:09.760
president

0:32:04.880,0:32:12.960
yay are they getting kills

0:32:09.760,0:32:14.399
so in may 1996 which is literally like

0:32:12.960,0:32:16.799
that’s the year i was born

0:32:14.399,0:32:19.039
like a little earlier before i was born

0:32:16.799,0:32:20.720
the new south african constitution is

0:32:19.039,0:32:22.480
made

0:32:20.720,0:32:24.000
so anyways like nelson mandela is

0:32:22.480,0:32:26.159
elected then two years later they make

0:32:24.000,0:32:28.320
the new south african constitution

0:32:26.159,0:32:29.840
and this protects the rights of people

0:32:28.320,0:32:32.640
inside the country and

0:32:29.840,0:32:35.200
it explains their obligations and it

0:32:32.640,0:32:37.360
defines the institutions of south africa

0:32:35.200,0:32:38.640
what their powers are and how they may

0:32:37.360,0:32:41.120
use their powers

0:32:38.640,0:32:42.720
so like putting some checks and balances

0:32:41.120,0:32:45.679
in on the government

0:32:42.720,0:32:46.960
and president de clerk and activist

0:32:45.679,0:32:49.279
nelson mandela

0:32:46.960,0:32:50.960
later win the nobel peace prize for

0:32:49.279,0:32:52.960
their work creating a new constitution

0:32:50.960,0:32:56.000
for south africa

0:32:52.960,0:32:59.200
oh that’s incredible

0:32:56.000,0:33:01.440
yeah oh go ahead

0:32:59.200,0:33:02.480
i’m sorry i like i’m just like like we

0:33:01.440,0:33:05.200
talked about in the

0:33:02.480,0:33:06.559
our episode on the middle east in the

0:33:05.200,0:33:10.080
arab spring like

0:33:06.559,0:33:11.360
the importance of institutions when it

0:33:10.080,0:33:14.480
comes to like

0:33:11.360,0:33:16.320
changes and government and like changes

0:33:14.480,0:33:17.919
in constitution like the fact that the

0:33:16.320,0:33:21.360
anc

0:33:17.919,0:33:23.039
despite everything like holding them

0:33:21.360,0:33:25.919
back and oppressing them they were still

0:33:23.039,0:33:26.960
able to like establish this really

0:33:25.919,0:33:29.279
strong

0:33:26.960,0:33:30.320
or like uh yeah a strong political group

0:33:29.279,0:33:32.480
even if they didn’t have power in the

0:33:30.320,0:33:35.679
government yet like they still were like

0:33:32.480,0:33:36.880
a strong organization and then like

0:33:35.679,0:33:38.559
because of that they’re able to

0:33:36.880,0:33:40.399
successfully

0:33:38.559,0:33:42.480
put together this like new constitution

0:33:40.399,0:33:44.399
you know so this

0:33:42.480,0:33:46.480
it’s just really really incredible yeah

0:33:44.399,0:33:49.600
they do that

0:33:46.480,0:33:52.399
even though like every single

0:33:49.600,0:33:54.399
aspect of their life was being oppressed

0:33:52.399,0:33:56.640
and like controlled and limited so

0:33:54.399,0:33:58.000
yeah well they were getting trained from

0:33:56.640,0:34:01.200
a very young age

0:33:58.000,0:34:03.760
like i think it’s important to remember

0:34:01.200,0:34:05.200
like for our listeners that like the

0:34:03.760,0:34:06.480
like people didn’t take this sitting

0:34:05.200,0:34:08.480
down like

0:34:06.480,0:34:10.000
obviously the white people use force and

0:34:08.480,0:34:11.679
like weapons and like literally

0:34:10.000,0:34:14.639
murdering and killing people

0:34:11.679,0:34:15.760
um but people never took it sitting down

0:34:14.639,0:34:17.919
like people have always been trying to

0:34:15.760,0:34:21.040
fight up so nelson mandela

0:34:17.919,0:34:21.679
was like getting crafted like since he

0:34:21.040,0:34:23.760
was young

0:34:21.679,0:34:26.240
to like be a leader and think about how

0:34:23.760,0:34:28.000
we can like move south africa forward

0:34:26.240,0:34:29.760
yeah and there would be no nelson

0:34:28.000,0:34:31.839
mandela if it wasn’t for like the people

0:34:29.760,0:34:35.919
who came before him and like helped

0:34:31.839,0:34:38.320
so yeah absolutely yeah so that’s when

0:34:35.919,0:34:39.200
like apartheid officially ended of

0:34:38.320,0:34:42.800
course though

0:34:39.200,0:34:44.720
there are lasting effects so

0:34:42.800,0:34:46.480
oh i also have an interesting side note

0:34:44.720,0:34:47.040
when i was in south africa one of my

0:34:46.480,0:34:49.599
uncles

0:34:47.040,0:34:51.119
and just referred to him as an uncle um

0:34:49.599,0:34:53.040
who was colored

0:34:51.119,0:34:54.720
he was telling me and he was older right

0:34:53.040,0:34:55.280
so i was asking him about apartheid as

0:34:54.720,0:34:58.160
well

0:34:55.280,0:34:58.560
and he told me that when nelson mandela

0:34:58.160,0:35:01.680
got

0:34:58.560,0:35:05.040
elected one of the like a lot of people

0:35:01.680,0:35:06.720
were saying that they wanted

0:35:05.040,0:35:09.040
like a lot of people in the anc

0:35:06.720,0:35:11.599
basically were like encouraging

0:35:09.040,0:35:13.599
and they wanted the south african army

0:35:11.599,0:35:14.320
to basically massacre all the white

0:35:13.599,0:35:15.839
people

0:35:14.320,0:35:18.160
like just get rid of them like

0:35:15.839,0:35:21.520
completely kill them all off

0:35:18.160,0:35:24.160
um and nelson mandela said

0:35:21.520,0:35:25.280
like no he was like if we do that we’re

0:35:24.160,0:35:28.160
going to take

0:35:25.280,0:35:29.440
like a million steps back and he was

0:35:28.160,0:35:31.680
like in order for us

0:35:29.440,0:35:32.960
which it’s in like his his big like

0:35:31.680,0:35:36.079
inauguration speech

0:35:32.960,0:35:39.599
but he says that like

0:35:36.079,0:35:41.680
in order to move forward as a country

0:35:39.599,0:35:43.359
mandela knew that the country had to

0:35:41.680,0:35:45.280
move forward without bitterness

0:35:43.359,0:35:47.119
because if you move forward with that

0:35:45.280,0:35:47.599
like bitterness then you can’t unite

0:35:47.119,0:35:49.040
because

0:35:47.599,0:35:50.640
there’s still going to be white south

0:35:49.040,0:35:52.400
africans right like you and there’s

0:35:50.640,0:35:54.560
still white people in the world

0:35:52.400,0:35:56.160
you have to find a way to work together

0:35:54.560,0:35:58.160
and that’s not going to happen if you

0:35:56.160,0:36:02.240
seek revenge like that

0:35:58.160,0:36:05.359
so yeah like nelson mandela is just like

0:36:02.240,0:36:08.079
amazing because you you like it’s he was

0:36:05.359,0:36:09.119
in prison for 30 years almost and he was

0:36:08.079,0:36:11.119
like

0:36:09.119,0:36:12.240
no like we’re gonna we have to move

0:36:11.119,0:36:15.839
forward we have to forgive

0:36:12.240,0:36:19.200
and we have to come together

0:36:15.839,0:36:22.480
you have to be such a strong and like

0:36:19.200,0:36:25.520
incredible person to i don’t

0:36:22.480,0:36:28.560
like how do you not have so much

0:36:25.520,0:36:32.800
like hate and anger

0:36:28.560,0:36:35.200
towards a whole group of people and like

0:36:32.800,0:36:36.800
yeah i can’t imagine like yeah you just

0:36:35.200,0:36:38.480
have to be so strong and that’s like an

0:36:36.800,0:36:41.839
incredible lesson for like

0:36:38.480,0:36:43.520
all these countries and yeah

0:36:41.839,0:36:45.520
like going through changes like you

0:36:43.520,0:36:47.599
can’t fight discrimination

0:36:45.520,0:36:49.040
with like other discrimination like it’s

0:36:47.599,0:36:52.839
just gonna be a cycle

0:36:49.040,0:36:55.119
and like wow like yeah

0:36:52.839,0:36:56.480
yeah amazing definitely he’s a way

0:36:55.119,0:36:59.119
better leader than i am

0:36:56.480,0:37:00.640
i was like okay well like no that’s you

0:36:59.119,0:37:03.040
should not do that

0:37:00.640,0:37:05.599
oh i would be i’d just be so angry you

0:37:03.040,0:37:09.040
know yeah i’d have a really hard time

0:37:05.599,0:37:12.320
like not resenting anyone you know

0:37:09.040,0:37:14.240
um so really admirable but

0:37:12.320,0:37:16.640
like unfortunately there are lasting

0:37:14.240,0:37:18.880
effects of apartheid that

0:37:16.640,0:37:20.880
are definitely still seen today like

0:37:18.880,0:37:23.920
apartheid was so recent

0:37:20.880,0:37:24.640
so some of which just like based on my

0:37:23.920,0:37:27.760
experience

0:37:24.640,0:37:29.280
from being there last year um it’s it’s

0:37:27.760,0:37:30.640
like very dangerous like there’s a lot

0:37:29.280,0:37:31.599
of crimes because there’s a lot of

0:37:30.640,0:37:33.440
poverty

0:37:31.599,0:37:34.960
so especially for the black community

0:37:33.440,0:37:37.839
and the colored community

0:37:34.960,0:37:38.880
it’s just not super safe in south africa

0:37:37.839,0:37:41.839
um

0:37:38.880,0:37:43.440
like any time that i would go even just

0:37:41.839,0:37:45.839
like walking by myself

0:37:43.440,0:37:46.960
like i would just call an uber instead

0:37:45.839,0:37:48.720
because

0:37:46.960,0:37:50.000
it’s just not worth the risk because

0:37:48.720,0:37:54.320
robberies and like petty

0:37:50.000,0:37:56.800
crime and theft happen so often and

0:37:54.320,0:37:57.599
um there’s also like a gender violence

0:37:56.800,0:37:59.920
issue

0:37:57.599,0:38:01.520
which i didn’t realize it was like

0:37:59.920,0:38:03.920
really beautiful because

0:38:01.520,0:38:04.800
okay i was working at like the a place

0:38:03.920,0:38:06.079
called paso

0:38:04.800,0:38:07.760
it’s called people against suffering

0:38:06.079,0:38:09.680
oppression and poverty which you should

0:38:07.760,0:38:11.680
go to passup.org

0:38:09.680,0:38:13.040
za actually i’ll link it we should go to

0:38:11.680,0:38:15.040
their website and donate because they’re

0:38:13.040,0:38:18.240
a great organization i love them

0:38:15.040,0:38:19.359
but um yeah passover is like a human

0:38:18.240,0:38:22.000
rights

0:38:19.359,0:38:23.760
organization a non-profit that works to

0:38:22.000,0:38:26.240
like help refugees

0:38:23.760,0:38:27.760
um with like legally entering the

0:38:26.240,0:38:29.200
country and staying there and getting

0:38:27.760,0:38:31.440
everything they need done because a lot

0:38:29.200,0:38:33.359
of refugees and people seeking asylum

0:38:31.440,0:38:34.480
like it’s hard for them to navigate a

0:38:33.359,0:38:36.160
new country and

0:38:34.480,0:38:37.920
a lot of them don’t speak english that

0:38:36.160,0:38:40.800
well and so

0:38:37.920,0:38:41.680
um anyways i worked for them but as part

0:38:40.800,0:38:44.079
of working for them

0:38:41.680,0:38:45.119
like there was a huge gender violence

0:38:44.079,0:38:47.440
issue

0:38:45.119,0:38:48.800
that was and is still happening in south

0:38:47.440,0:38:50.880
africa and

0:38:48.800,0:38:52.960
the president actually was gonna give

0:38:50.880,0:38:53.520
like a speech to address it while i was

0:38:52.960,0:38:56.880
there

0:38:53.520,0:38:59.119
so like my boss was like you can go if

0:38:56.880,0:39:00.640
you want so i got to go into parliament

0:38:59.119,0:39:03.599
and literally see

0:39:00.640,0:39:05.520
the president of south africa his name

0:39:03.599,0:39:09.119
right now it’s cyril or

0:39:05.520,0:39:10.960
ramaphosa and he gave a speech like

0:39:09.119,0:39:12.640
addressing it and then i got to see all

0:39:10.960,0:39:14.880
the political parties

0:39:12.640,0:39:16.960
literally like have their meeting and

0:39:14.880,0:39:18.960
like like basically present

0:39:16.960,0:39:20.880
on their thoughts for solutions their

0:39:18.960,0:39:23.839
thoughts on the situation

0:39:20.880,0:39:24.880
and um yeah and it was because like

0:39:23.839,0:39:27.280
recently like a

0:39:24.880,0:39:28.800
a white not a white girl sorry some a

0:39:27.280,0:39:30.640
girl was like traveling to the post

0:39:28.800,0:39:31.520
office and on her way in brad daylight

0:39:30.640,0:39:33.920
she was like

0:39:31.520,0:39:34.960
kidnapped on beaten up raped and like

0:39:33.920,0:39:38.320
killed

0:39:34.960,0:39:39.359
and so it was like it’s a huge problem

0:39:38.320,0:39:43.040
in south africa

0:39:39.359,0:39:44.800
and so they were addressing it and um

0:39:43.040,0:39:46.480
one of the presenters i don’t remember

0:39:44.800,0:39:49.920
mr president or not but they’re saying

0:39:46.480,0:39:51.680
like like this this is also a result of

0:39:49.920,0:39:52.560
apartheid because it’s like years of

0:39:51.680,0:39:54.960
abuse

0:39:52.560,0:39:55.599
to these like to groups of people

0:39:54.960,0:39:57.359
especially

0:39:55.599,0:39:59.440
men so they feel that they have to like

0:39:57.359,0:40:00.720
prove their masculinity by asserting

0:39:59.440,0:40:03.520
strength over women

0:40:00.720,0:40:04.800
so it’s a lasting like domestic violence

0:40:03.520,0:40:08.079
gender discrimination

0:40:04.800,0:40:11.359
problem that is a result of being like

0:40:08.079,0:40:13.680
the inferior for so long

0:40:11.359,0:40:15.280
wow which i was like that’s a very

0:40:13.680,0:40:18.400
interesting perspective

0:40:15.280,0:40:22.400
so that’s like such a complex

0:40:18.400,0:40:23.920
issue one of those effects that like

0:40:22.400,0:40:26.079
i like i don’t know i wouldn’t have

0:40:23.920,0:40:29.359
thought of that but

0:40:26.079,0:40:32.720
it makes sense because it

0:40:29.359,0:40:35.599
impacts every single aspect of your life

0:40:32.720,0:40:36.640
and the children’s like from future

0:40:35.599,0:40:39.119
generations

0:40:36.640,0:40:39.680
yeah there’s like a lot more um a lot

0:40:39.119,0:40:42.240
more like

0:40:39.680,0:40:44.160
impact than you might think yeah with

0:40:42.240,0:40:46.240
these things it’s not just like

0:40:44.160,0:40:48.079
slavery was bad like there’s a lot that

0:40:46.240,0:40:48.800
happens and like segregation’s bad like

0:40:48.079,0:40:52.240
a lot

0:40:48.800,0:40:54.800
happens later because of it so anyways

0:40:52.240,0:40:55.599
um another really big thing you can see

0:40:54.800,0:40:57.839
is that

0:40:55.599,0:40:58.640
there’s a huge difference between where

0:40:57.839,0:41:01.359
people live

0:40:58.640,0:41:02.640
of course so and which is like getting

0:41:01.359,0:41:05.680
into what you’re asking earlier

0:41:02.640,0:41:06.880
so if you go to a white person’s house

0:41:05.680,0:41:09.359
like i got to stay with my

0:41:06.880,0:41:12.480
south african auntie and she’s white of

0:41:09.359,0:41:15.040
course so i got to stay at her house

0:41:12.480,0:41:17.520
and it’s just like our houses like it

0:41:15.040,0:41:19.760
looks like america like suburbia

0:41:17.520,0:41:20.640
and it’s beautiful like you can see the

0:41:19.760,0:41:23.839
beach like

0:41:20.640,0:41:25.680
you can see the mountains it’s like yeah

0:41:23.839,0:41:27.440
the houses are really nice and bars on

0:41:25.680,0:41:28.720
the windows though because it’s like a

0:41:27.440,0:41:32.319
lot of crime

0:41:28.720,0:41:33.040
um but yeah she like it’s beautiful and

0:41:32.319,0:41:35.119
then

0:41:33.040,0:41:36.400
right across the street it’s not even

0:41:35.119,0:41:39.520
like off like it’s

0:41:36.400,0:41:42.640
across the street you see slums

0:41:39.520,0:41:44.720
so just like very like poor housing

0:41:42.640,0:41:45.839
area it’s like it definitely looks like

0:41:44.720,0:41:49.280
dirty

0:41:45.839,0:41:51.119
um not a lot of stuff going and

0:41:49.280,0:41:53.760
like very run down that’s where colored

0:41:51.119,0:41:57.040
people live okay so like

0:41:53.760,0:41:59.040
you’re just like one one step below

0:41:57.040,0:42:00.160
then i didn’t even see where black

0:41:59.040,0:42:03.040
people

0:42:00.160,0:42:03.920
lived till i went on like a safari and i

0:42:03.040,0:42:05.440
like went

0:42:03.920,0:42:06.960
driving to the safari we would like go

0:42:05.440,0:42:09.520
out of cape town

0:42:06.960,0:42:10.319
and um yeah they live in tin houses like

0:42:09.520,0:42:13.680
it’s

0:42:10.319,0:42:15.119
black people live in like a shed with

0:42:13.680,0:42:17.040
made of tin and then there’s like a

0:42:15.119,0:42:18.480
little satellite

0:42:17.040,0:42:20.480
what are they called yeah like a saddle

0:42:18.480,0:42:21.200
was this not satellite yeah like a

0:42:20.480,0:42:24.240
satellite dish

0:42:21.200,0:42:26.319
like a satellite dish um some wires

0:42:24.240,0:42:27.440
but yeah it’s literally a tin shed and i

0:42:26.319,0:42:29.680
was like

0:42:27.440,0:42:31.119
and the thing is too if you talk to like

0:42:29.680,0:42:33.599
i talked to

0:42:31.119,0:42:34.480
my uncle who’s colored and my auntie who

0:42:33.599,0:42:37.040
was

0:42:34.480,0:42:39.599
um white and i i didn’t really get to

0:42:37.040,0:42:41.440
meet any like black south africans

0:42:39.599,0:42:43.040
um at least who had experienced

0:42:41.440,0:42:44.640
apartheid i obviously had like black

0:42:43.040,0:42:46.560
south africans who were my age

0:42:44.640,0:42:48.480
but like as far as like adults i didn’t

0:42:46.560,0:42:49.920
get to talk to them but if you talk to a

0:42:48.480,0:42:52.160
colored or white person

0:42:49.920,0:42:53.359
sometimes like they’ll say like oh

0:42:52.160,0:42:57.040
apartheid wasn’t that

0:42:53.359,0:42:58.079
bad and i was like yeah maybe for you it

0:42:57.040,0:43:01.520
wasn’t that bad

0:42:58.079,0:43:05.119
like it’s like you’re not on the bottom

0:43:01.520,0:43:07.200
like it the bottom was probably horrible

0:43:05.119,0:43:09.520
yeah the white stuff happened like no i

0:43:07.200,0:43:11.920
i was doing pretty well i don’t know

0:43:09.520,0:43:13.839
yeah she was like it wasn’t it wasn’t

0:43:11.920,0:43:16.160
that bad she’s like honestly like

0:43:13.839,0:43:17.520
i think south africa got worse because

0:43:16.160,0:43:18.960
it’s and i was like don’t say that like

0:43:17.520,0:43:21.680
please don’t finish that like

0:43:18.960,0:43:21.680
i don’t hear it

0:43:22.160,0:43:26.000
so yeah it’s a lot and then they also

0:43:24.560,0:43:27.760
have since i was working for like a

0:43:26.000,0:43:30.400
refugee organization

0:43:27.760,0:43:32.079
um yeah there’s huge xenophobia issues

0:43:30.400,0:43:34.480
so lots and lots of like just being

0:43:32.079,0:43:37.599
scared of foreigners not wanting to like

0:43:34.480,0:43:39.520
help people who are like seeking asylum

0:43:37.599,0:43:41.760
um they’re having a refugee crisis they

0:43:39.520,0:43:45.200
had a huge refugee crisis

0:43:41.760,0:43:47.440
right when i was leaving um

0:43:45.200,0:43:49.280
which was like really hard and like if

0:43:47.440,0:43:50.960
you if you ever it’s like meet someone

0:43:49.280,0:43:52.560
who’s like seeking asylum and you hear

0:43:50.960,0:43:54.480
their stories it’s like

0:43:52.560,0:43:55.920
oh it’s it’s like it’s real people

0:43:54.480,0:43:58.640
really go through

0:43:55.920,0:43:59.839
horrible things and um and they’re like

0:43:58.640,0:44:03.760
our age like it’s

0:43:59.839,0:44:06.560
you don’t it’s it’s still going on yeah

0:44:03.760,0:44:08.800
just to clarify but like it’s like uh

0:44:06.560,0:44:10.880
like refugee crisis as in

0:44:08.800,0:44:12.960
a people from neighboring countries who

0:44:10.880,0:44:14.800
are seeking asylum in south africa

0:44:12.960,0:44:18.000
absolutely yes that’s what it is but

0:44:14.800,0:44:18.000
just yeah um

0:44:18.400,0:44:22.000
yeah like so yeah like the xenophobia

0:44:21.520,0:44:25.119
thing like

0:44:22.000,0:44:27.440
of because in 90s like

0:44:25.119,0:44:29.200
what 96 that’s what it that’s the year

0:44:27.440,0:44:30.800
it ended 99.94 it

0:44:29.200,0:44:32.880
ended and then 96 we get a new

0:44:30.800,0:44:34.640
constitution actually no

0:44:32.880,0:44:36.319
yeah 91 they’re starting to repeal it

0:44:34.640,0:44:38.160
but i would say like 94 when nelson

0:44:36.319,0:44:39.359
mandela got elected i would say it like

0:44:38.160,0:44:42.400
ended

0:44:39.359,0:44:45.760
yeah so like early 90s like that’s

0:44:42.400,0:44:49.599
insane and yeah there’s

0:44:45.760,0:44:51.440
no way they’re just gonna be like okay

0:44:49.599,0:44:53.359
i don’t know like that’s gonna take so

0:44:51.440,0:44:55.040
long

0:44:53.359,0:44:58.160
how do you even solve that like how do

0:44:55.040,0:45:01.200
you fix that like how do you try to

0:44:58.160,0:45:01.760
like eradicate xenophobia i don’t even

0:45:01.200,0:45:04.880
know

0:45:01.760,0:45:05.280
like especially if it’s like apartheid

0:45:04.880,0:45:08.800
had

0:45:05.280,0:45:10.800
lasted for so long and like if you’re

0:45:08.800,0:45:12.079
a white person you probably never even

0:45:10.800,0:45:15.040
like

0:45:12.079,0:45:17.040
had a real interaction with like a

0:45:15.040,0:45:20.240
non-white person you know

0:45:17.040,0:45:22.960
i don’t know because how would you

0:45:20.240,0:45:25.760
like they may also too i forgot to add

0:45:22.960,0:45:28.400
but like you would also get in trouble

0:45:25.760,0:45:29.119
like as a white person for advocating

0:45:28.400,0:45:31.359
for

0:45:29.119,0:45:33.280
like anti-apartheid so it was like

0:45:31.359,0:45:34.800
against the law to even

0:45:33.280,0:45:37.040
yeah to be like you know what i think

0:45:34.800,0:45:39.760
like we should give people their rights

0:45:37.040,0:45:41.280
like that’s no you can’t say that yeah

0:45:39.760,0:45:43.119
also like i don’t know

0:45:41.280,0:45:45.040
if you found this in your research but

0:45:43.119,0:45:48.160
i’m pretty sure like the government

0:45:45.040,0:45:50.640
um like they censored like all of their

0:45:48.160,0:45:53.359
media pretty much so you they

0:45:50.640,0:45:55.119
you like south africans couldn’t access

0:45:53.359,0:45:56.720
the news easily like from

0:45:55.119,0:45:58.880
other countries you know like the

0:45:56.720,0:46:02.000
government was censoring everything

0:45:58.880,0:46:03.839
um if i

0:46:02.000,0:46:06.079
if you want to like gain another

0:46:03.839,0:46:07.040
interesting perspective on the apartheid

0:46:06.079,0:46:09.200
in south africa

0:46:07.040,0:46:10.640
everyone should watch the documentary

0:46:09.200,0:46:13.680
searching for sugar man

0:46:10.640,0:46:16.720
it won an academy award is that the one

0:46:13.680,0:46:20.240
we watched together

0:46:16.720,0:46:21.839
we’re in china yeah i’m gonna worry

0:46:20.240,0:46:23.599
about like one of my favorite artists

0:46:21.839,0:46:27.839
his name is rodriguez

0:46:23.599,0:46:31.599
and he’s from america um

0:46:27.839,0:46:33.520
he but he was like not famous in america

0:46:31.599,0:46:34.880
at all like he he kind of has like bob

0:46:33.520,0:46:37.599
dylan vibes um

0:46:34.880,0:46:39.280
and like he like didn’t gain any success

0:46:37.599,0:46:40.560
in america and then like a couple

0:46:39.280,0:46:42.800
decades later

0:46:40.560,0:46:43.839
he finds out that he had been like

0:46:42.800,0:46:45.839
insanely

0:46:43.839,0:46:47.839
famous in south africa like he was on

0:46:45.839,0:46:51.920
like the same level as like

0:46:47.839,0:46:53.599
elvis and like he was they loved him um

0:46:51.920,0:46:55.200
and like it yeah it had to do with like

0:46:53.599,0:46:56.720
the apartheid everything um

0:46:55.200,0:46:58.400
so you guys i don’t want to like spoil

0:46:56.720,0:46:59.040
too much but everyone should check out

0:46:58.400,0:47:00.480
the

0:46:59.040,0:47:02.720
documentary because they talk a lot

0:47:00.480,0:47:05.760
about the transition

0:47:02.720,0:47:08.839
um after apartheid so it’s a great movie

0:47:05.760,0:47:12.720
yeah good plug i remember that one

0:47:08.839,0:47:14.240
um yeah so basically yeah just like

0:47:12.720,0:47:16.880
wrapping up to

0:47:14.240,0:47:19.440
unemployment is still around like 25 in

0:47:16.880,0:47:22.079
south africa so they just have a lot

0:47:19.440,0:47:24.160
a lot they have to work with right now

0:47:22.079,0:47:26.240
and there’s always rolling blackouts

0:47:24.160,0:47:28.079
which prevent the com the country from

0:47:26.240,0:47:29.599
moving forward economically so the

0:47:28.079,0:47:32.319
rolling blackout is like

0:47:29.599,0:47:32.960
basically just like huge slabs of the

0:47:32.319,0:47:35.920
country will

0:47:32.960,0:47:36.800
lose electricity for like extensive

0:47:35.920,0:47:39.920
amounts of time

0:47:36.800,0:47:41.760
anyways that is a very very very brief

0:47:39.920,0:47:43.280
history of apartheid

0:47:41.760,0:47:45.119
we weren’t very long i’m gonna have to

0:47:43.280,0:47:48.160
cut down like a lot of

0:47:45.119,0:47:50.480
stuff but um yeah and i hope the audio

0:47:48.160,0:47:52.559
turns out okay but basically

0:47:50.480,0:47:54.240
yeah that that’s like a little insight

0:47:52.559,0:47:55.440
into apartheid i encourage everyone to

0:47:54.240,0:47:58.000
like read more about it

0:47:55.440,0:47:58.640
and just remember why we don’t do things

0:47:58.000,0:48:01.680
like that

0:47:58.640,0:48:03.839
and yeah

0:48:01.680,0:48:04.960
yeah and yeah no thank you so much for

0:48:03.839,0:48:07.359
sharing like that

0:48:04.960,0:48:10.880
so stuff like this is like so important

0:48:07.359,0:48:12.880
to be educated on and like know

0:48:10.880,0:48:15.760
like the effects and like just i don’t

0:48:12.880,0:48:18.240
know it ended in the 90s so that’s just

0:48:15.760,0:48:20.400
such a weird

0:48:18.240,0:48:21.440
uh yeah that’s just such a strange thing

0:48:20.400,0:48:23.680
uh to think about

0:48:21.440,0:48:24.880
but yeah thank you so much for sharing

0:48:23.680,0:48:27.359
that was

0:48:24.880,0:48:29.280
that was really that was a this was a

0:48:27.359,0:48:31.040
good one this is a good episode

0:48:29.280,0:48:33.119
thank you yeah and i also just want to

0:48:31.040,0:48:34.640
add on your point yeah i think

0:48:33.119,0:48:36.240
if you take away anything from this

0:48:34.640,0:48:37.280
episode i think it’s important to just

0:48:36.240,0:48:40.079
remember like

0:48:37.280,0:48:41.040
how recent that was how like these

0:48:40.079,0:48:43.200
issues are not

0:48:41.040,0:48:45.200
in the past like issues of xenophobia

0:48:43.200,0:48:48.240
issues of wanting to separate

0:48:45.200,0:48:51.359
from others and like form an enemy is

0:48:48.240,0:48:54.559
an ongoing issue and

0:48:51.359,0:48:55.280
um the reason of apartheid ended it was

0:48:54.559,0:48:57.119
not like

0:48:55.280,0:48:59.200
the government had a change of heart

0:48:57.119,0:49:00.240
it’s because external pressures were

0:48:59.200,0:49:02.960
placed

0:49:00.240,0:49:03.359
so always stand up for what you believe

0:49:02.960,0:49:05.760
in

0:49:03.359,0:49:09.280
and never like don’t put up with

0:49:05.760,0:49:09.280
injustice if it’s wrong so

0:49:09.840,0:49:21.839
[Music]

0:49:19.760,0:49:21.839
you

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