So You Want To Be A Billionaire?

Minisode #12: Monetarist Economics How Did We Not Know That

Everybody has an opinion! In another episode of the Econ With Jac series, Jac covers Monetarist Economics: a direct criticism of Keynesian Economics. Tweet us @HDWNKT with your thoughts on an Econ With Jac mini-series! Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. Minisode #12: Monetarist Economics
  2. Why Are Israel And Palestine Fighting?
  3. Minisode #11: Realism
  4. Who Shot Bob Marley?
  5. Minisode #10: Keynesian Economics

Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon:
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Show Notes

In a time where billionaires roamed the earth, it seemed as if everything in the United States was gold. Spoiler Alert: it wasn’t. If your last name isn’t Rockefeller, Carnegie, or Vanderbilt, there’s a good chance your ancestors were dirt poor and pawns in the grips of capitalism and corruption. In this Episode, Jac takes you through the history of the Gilded Age, striping off the thin gold on top and exposing the rusted, abused tin underneath. For more episodes from How Did We Not Know That, check out our weekly podcast on Anchor, Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or wherever you listen to your podcasts. At How Did We Not Know That or HDWNKT

Sources:

https://www.history.com/topics/early-20th-century-us/triangle-shirtwaist-fire

https://www.history.com/topics/19th-century/gilded-age#:~:text=%E2%80%9CThe%20Gilded%20Age%E2%80%9D%20is%20the,1800s%2C%20and%20was%20its%20namesake.

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/the-gilded-age/gilded-age/v/the-gilded-age-part-1

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/the-gilded-age/gilded-age/v/what-was-the-gilded-age

https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/gold/golden-ages/the-gilded-age#:~:text=The%20term%20%22Gilded%20Age%2C%22,class%20of%20the%20super%2Drich.

http://sageamericanhistory.net/gildedage/topics/gildedagepolitics.html

Transcript

0:00:00.240,0:00:04.160
hello everybody and welcome back to

0:00:02.240,0:00:07.759
another episode of how did we not

0:00:04.160,0:00:10.480
know that i’m nat i’m jack

0:00:07.759,0:00:10.960
and today uh jack is going to be talking

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about

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a part of history that i don’t know

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about

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it is the gilded age

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but before we start i have some

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announcements

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so firstly follow us on social media at

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nkt please subscribe to us

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know what you think of it we’d really

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appreciate that

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yeah leave it give a comment it would

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help us a lot we love reading yeah

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makes our day uh also as always

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please check out our patreon at how did

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we not know that

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and we want to give a shout out to our

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most recent patreon

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caroline from california thank you so

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much for becoming a history hero

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and let us know if you have a topic you

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want us to cover because we will do that

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yeah thank you caroline you’re great

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and then also the biggest announcements

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we have for

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i guess today are um

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we have recently started a monthly

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newsletter so at the end of each month

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we’ll just

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send out a quick email telling you what

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episodes we released that month

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and you can go to our website

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at hdwnkt.com to sign up for

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it it’s under the contact page yeah we

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have a lot of

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um big updates coming to this show soon

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so if you sign up for monthly

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plans and things so yes

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subscribe to that for sure and then we

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can like just see

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who’s listening which would be nice

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sometimes

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like are you guys there yeah police

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hello anyways okay the gilded age

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so let me know uh nat what do you

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first off do you know what gilded means

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um gilded is that like oh my gosh i’m

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about to sound

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real stupid but it doesn’t have to do

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with like

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like metal and like gilded i think of

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like

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gold and metal stuff yeah

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yeah gilded well yeah so gilded actually

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means like

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it’s like metal like tin a cheap metal

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and then it’s thinly covered

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with gold paint um and then it also

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means wealthy or privileged

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and the term gilded age was coined by

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mark twain

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and charles dudley warner in their 1873

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book

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the gilded age a tale of today and that

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book was a criticism on basically social

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inequality

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during that time in america and

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it was to draw a contrast between like

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the golden age where the golden age is

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everyone’s doing well

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everyone’s thriving and it’s a golden

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era

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but gilded is kind of a sarcastic

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comment on what’s happening because it

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seems like everything’s great because we

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have these

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mega millionaire billionaires

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but everyone else is suffering so it

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just looks like it’s golden

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it’s actually just gilded that’s tea

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that’s major tea

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so yeah basically america seems great

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but it literally sucked for basically

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everyone

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who wasn’t thriving and this is the time

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period in america of

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the mega wealthy who are known as barons

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so that’s rockefeller that’s carnegie

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vanderbilt

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jp morgan and this is a time where

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there’s

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like huge huge huge monopolies in very

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very

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expensive industries like oil

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and steel and the railroads and also

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finances

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so why did this age start

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so the gilded age started after the

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civil war in 1865 and it ended around

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1898 and do you know why it might have

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ended

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uh the spanish-american war yeah it did

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yes oh my gosh you guys where we talk

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about i feel like we keep bringing up

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spanish-american war

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well we’re gonna do an episode about it

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but yeah we drop it every single episode

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we’re saying

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like we will do the spanish-american war

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but yes

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it ends around 1898 with the

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spanish-american war

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so the reason the gilded age started was

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because we had a second industrial

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revolution so do you remember what the

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first industrial revolution was like

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yeah wasn’t that with the invention of

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like the cotton gin

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um right and it was like

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it was like during the slavery era so

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what’s a cotton gin oh isn’t that like

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they process like you can process cotton

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easily to like turn it into fabric

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yeah like a textile textile mills

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basically

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wait didn’t the first industrial

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revolution start in

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england and like the great britain and

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then like it made its way over to

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yeah it bleeds into the us anyways

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because we’re doing trade with britain

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so any first industrial revolution

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industrial

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revolution is gonna we’re gonna adapt

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that anyways

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gotcha but yeah it’s like textile mills

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um and canal boats and like the steam

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engine

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oh yeah yeah yeah so then the second

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industrial revolution is mainly

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this new process to create

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steel and steel isn’t like a new

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technology they already

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made steel it was just there was a new

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process called the bessemer steel

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process and that’s how you

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that was a way that you blew out like

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toxins within

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the iron to create steel and that would

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make it high quality

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well it produced higher quality steel

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that was faster and cheaper okay

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yeah and then also there’s like the

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assembly line with henry ford

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so that made cars really cheap so much

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so that even his workers could afford to

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buy them which just helped his company

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because then you’re selling more cars

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yeah

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wow okay yeah now this is all coming

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back to me it’s like

0:06:42.400,0:06:46.720
fifth grade i didn’t even remember the

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first one i was like oh yeah canal boats

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that’s a

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that’s a thing okay so then around this

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time too

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with all of this like technology

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emerging and the industrial

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industrialization uh we also see

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an urbanization effect and so

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urbanization is

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basically the process of moving to

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cities from

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outside so during this time before the

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gilded age most people were living in

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rural areas

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and farms and by the late 1800s

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the united states industrial output and

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gdp which is your gross domestic product

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was growing faster than that of any

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other country in the world

0:07:26.960,0:07:34.160
wow yeah and so by 1890

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28 of americans lived in urban areas and

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by 1920 more americans lived in towns

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and cities than in rural areas

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and this was all because of like a

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technological

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advancement stage which not only pushed

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more people from rural areas into

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the cities to find work but also it

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attracted more immigrants from other

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countries mostly europe to pursue

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a better life because the country’s

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growing so fast it was like

0:08:01.599,0:08:05.759
um the american dream kind of starts to

0:08:04.080,0:08:07.360
form where you can build a better life

0:08:05.759,0:08:10.240
for yourself

0:08:07.360,0:08:11.599
wow so there ended up being about 11

0:08:10.240,0:08:14.560
million americans

0:08:11.599,0:08:16.800
so like american-born people who

0:08:14.560,0:08:19.919
migrated from the countryside to cities

0:08:16.800,0:08:22.560
between 1870 and 1920 and then an

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additional 25 million immigrants

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mostly again from europe who hadn’t

0:08:25.360,0:08:30.960
moved to the united states

0:08:27.520,0:08:32.560
wow that’s a lot and another thing too

0:08:30.960,0:08:34.719
for like immigrants not moving

0:08:32.560,0:08:36.159
is mostly because when you move to a new

0:08:34.719,0:08:37.519
country you kind of have to stay with

0:08:36.159,0:08:40.080
your support system

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so you really can’t afford to move that

0:08:40.080,0:08:43.360
far

0:08:40.560,0:08:44.959
out of where you’re first arriving and

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one of the big ports is going to be like

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ellis island in new york

0:08:47.279,0:08:54.640
okay so with

0:08:50.399,0:08:57.680
all of these new jobs the big question

0:08:54.640,0:08:59.920
is who are the laborers and how did they

0:08:57.680,0:09:03.440
get treated

0:08:59.920,0:09:05.920
so with all of these big big fortunes

0:09:03.440,0:09:08.240
that are getting billed during this time

0:09:05.920,0:09:09.680
they were built off of the backs of

0:09:08.240,0:09:13.279
immigrants

0:09:09.680,0:09:16.399
um and one of the biggest examples of

0:09:13.279,0:09:19.279
that is the transcontinental rail

0:09:16.399,0:09:20.880
the trans-continental railroad and we’re

0:09:19.279,0:09:21.680
going to do a whole nother episode in

0:09:20.880,0:09:24.320
depth on this

0:09:21.680,0:09:24.959
because it’s like a very chunky piece of

0:09:24.320,0:09:26.720
history

0:09:24.959,0:09:28.560
in the united states that they often do

0:09:26.720,0:09:31.440
not cover

0:09:28.560,0:09:32.320
but the plan uh for the transcontinental

0:09:31.440,0:09:35.519
railroad

0:09:32.320,0:09:38.640
was to connect the entire usa

0:09:35.519,0:09:41.519
by railroad and so over

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40 000 miles of steel were laid down to

0:09:41.519,0:09:46.720
create the tracks

0:09:43.200,0:09:48.399
and to put that into perspective coast

0:09:46.720,0:09:50.080
to coast if you’re going to drive from

0:09:48.399,0:09:52.080
california to

0:09:50.080,0:09:55.200
new york or like west coast to east

0:09:52.080,0:09:58.080
coast that’s only about 3 000 miles

0:09:55.200,0:09:59.519
and so to lay down 40 000 miles of steel

0:09:58.080,0:10:01.600
they’re really connecting

0:09:59.519,0:10:04.160
all of the united states as much as they

0:10:01.600,0:10:07.120
possibly can i

0:10:04.160,0:10:08.079
can’t imagine i know i know it’s so much

0:10:07.120,0:10:11.360
work

0:10:08.079,0:10:12.800
and because of the railroad they were

0:10:11.360,0:10:15.040
able to greatly improve

0:10:12.800,0:10:16.399
our ability to transport goods across

0:10:15.040,0:10:18.720
the country which helps us

0:10:16.399,0:10:20.720
being self-sufficient as well which will

0:10:18.720,0:10:22.800
just increase our like gdp

0:10:20.720,0:10:25.200
because we can ship things out and we

0:10:22.800,0:10:28.640
don’t have to depend so heavily on trade

0:10:25.200,0:10:29.680
yeah that’s huge and the railroad was

0:10:28.640,0:10:33.120
built by

0:10:29.680,0:10:34.480
90 percent chinese immigrants so that’s

0:10:33.120,0:10:36.720
like

0:10:34.480,0:10:38.160
of the workers 90 of them are chinese

0:10:36.720,0:10:41.200
they’re not like i’m a 90

0:10:38.160,0:10:42.320
chinese person just to like clarify when

0:10:41.200,0:10:44.720
i said that i was like

0:10:42.320,0:10:45.519
is that clear to everyone anyways and

0:10:44.720,0:10:47.519
then

0:10:45.519,0:10:49.600
like the last 10 percent were irish

0:10:47.519,0:10:52.320
immigrants which we can go into more but

0:10:49.600,0:10:54.800
irish immigrants were actually seen as

0:10:52.320,0:10:55.760
um non-whites and they were treated

0:10:54.800,0:10:57.839
probably the worst

0:10:55.760,0:10:59.680
out of potentially the worst i don’t

0:10:57.839,0:11:01.279
want to say that like for sure but they

0:10:59.680,0:11:04.959
were treated potentially

0:11:01.279,0:11:06.320
the worst um out of like the white class

0:11:04.959,0:11:08.240
they weren’t treated very well

0:11:06.320,0:11:10.000
it was built by like mostly chinese

0:11:08.240,0:11:10.720
immigrants and the chinese immigrants

0:11:10.000,0:11:14.079
were always

0:11:10.720,0:11:16.079
paid less than their white counterparts

0:11:14.079,0:11:19.200
which were usually irish

0:11:16.079,0:11:20.480
immigrants i know and they would like go

0:11:19.200,0:11:23.279
on strike a lot

0:11:20.480,0:11:24.959
to protest the injustice and they never

0:11:23.279,0:11:27.920
did get to the same fair

0:11:24.959,0:11:28.880
like but they never got to equal wages

0:11:27.920,0:11:32.600
wow

0:11:28.880,0:11:33.920
yeah so the railroad finished in may of

0:11:32.600,0:11:36.240
1869

0:11:33.920,0:11:37.680
and this was a project of leland

0:11:36.240,0:11:40.320
stanford who is the

0:11:37.680,0:11:43.200
founder of stanford university and he

0:11:40.320,0:11:45.200
got extremely wealthy from the railroad

0:11:43.200,0:11:46.880
and the work of chinese immigrants and

0:11:45.200,0:11:49.920
it’s just ironic

0:11:46.880,0:11:51.760
because leland stanford is was the

0:11:49.920,0:11:54.320
governor of california

0:11:51.760,0:11:56.639
and his campaign was made on the basis

0:11:54.320,0:11:59.360
of being anti-chinese

0:11:56.639,0:12:01.200
so basically he advocated against giving

0:11:59.360,0:12:04.240
chinese people rights

0:12:01.200,0:12:05.680
and he abused them during their time

0:12:04.240,0:12:08.160
working on the railroads

0:12:05.680,0:12:09.040
and then he became like disgustingly

0:12:08.160,0:12:12.240
rich

0:12:09.040,0:12:16.079
because of them so

0:12:12.240,0:12:18.079
so upsetting i had no idea

0:12:16.079,0:12:19.600
yeah it’s pretty sad and like fun fact

0:12:18.079,0:12:22.560
i’m half chinese and

0:12:19.600,0:12:24.000
like this didn’t affect my ancestors so

0:12:22.560,0:12:24.720
much as like they didn’t work on the

0:12:24.000,0:12:29.360
railroad

0:12:24.720,0:12:32.000
but the next thing did so in 1882

0:12:29.360,0:12:33.120
the chinese exclusion act was put into

0:12:32.000,0:12:35.760
place so

0:12:33.120,0:12:37.360
the railroad gets finished in 1869 you

0:12:35.760,0:12:38.000
have this huge group of immigrants who

0:12:37.360,0:12:40.399
just worked so

0:12:38.000,0:12:41.680
hard to build it and now what they’ve

0:12:40.399,0:12:43.519
built has

0:12:41.680,0:12:44.959
extremely benefited the country beyond

0:12:43.519,0:12:46.880
our greatest like

0:12:44.959,0:12:48.720
imagination it’s connecting us it’s

0:12:46.880,0:12:52.320
increasing like our output

0:12:48.720,0:12:54.000
and then they decided to ban all chinese

0:12:52.320,0:12:56.240
immigrants like a complete ban

0:12:54.000,0:12:58.399
no immigration from china at all so that

0:12:56.240,0:13:00.000
did affect my family because my family

0:12:58.399,0:13:02.639
was not able to come to the us

0:13:00.000,0:13:04.000
and they immigrated to malaysia instead

0:13:02.639,0:13:06.880
so

0:13:04.000,0:13:08.959
the chinese exclusion act not only bans

0:13:06.880,0:13:10.639
chinese immigrants but it also denies

0:13:08.959,0:13:13.519
the ones who were are

0:13:10.639,0:13:15.440
already there who built the railroad

0:13:13.519,0:13:18.839
that it denied them citizenship and it

0:13:15.440,0:13:20.399
also segregated them from the rest of

0:13:18.839,0:13:23.680
society

0:13:20.399,0:13:26.480
awful yeah it’s so disgusting

0:13:23.680,0:13:27.600
like oh thanks for your cheap labor and

0:13:26.480,0:13:30.800
like thanks for

0:13:27.600,0:13:34.639
like working extremely hard over this

0:13:30.800,0:13:38.000
railroad and like now get out like yeah

0:13:34.639,0:13:41.519
that’s so upsetting it’s horrific

0:13:38.000,0:13:42.639
but it’s a reoccurring theme in american

0:13:41.519,0:13:45.199
history

0:13:42.639,0:13:47.279
okay so yeah the exclusion act uh was

0:13:45.199,0:13:51.120
not fully lifted until the immigration

0:13:47.279,0:13:52.880
and nationality act of 1965. so

0:13:51.120,0:13:55.279
you’re wondering why there aren’t a ton

0:13:52.880,0:13:58.240
of chinese immigrants where you’re from

0:13:55.279,0:13:59.360
could be it wow that’s such a long

0:13:58.240,0:14:01.279
period of time

0:13:59.360,0:14:03.839
yeah literally they started to lift it

0:14:01.279,0:14:07.120
in 1943 but it was a quota

0:14:03.839,0:14:09.199
of only 105 max

0:14:07.120,0:14:11.440
chinese immigrants could be taken in per

0:14:09.199,0:14:13.760
year and so it was like a

0:14:11.440,0:14:16.240
very very very tiny amount would be let

0:14:13.760,0:14:18.000
in and then 1965 they finally got rid of

0:14:16.240,0:14:20.240
it

0:14:18.000,0:14:22.639
that’s like really recently i did not

0:14:20.240,0:14:26.880
realize it took that long

0:14:22.639,0:14:30.240
to be repealed holy moly wild

0:14:26.880,0:14:31.440
so um so those workers work six days a

0:14:30.240,0:14:34.320
week and they made

0:14:31.440,0:14:34.800
26 dollars a month which is a little

0:14:34.320,0:14:38.560
over

0:14:34.800,0:14:41.920
one dollar a day and that’s about 31

0:14:38.560,0:14:42.720
today so roughly only three dollars an

0:14:41.920,0:14:45.519
hour

0:14:42.720,0:14:46.399
in today’s money and that’s being

0:14:45.519,0:14:49.600
conservative

0:14:46.399,0:14:51.519
with me considering i’m i’m saying that

0:14:49.600,0:14:53.440
they worked only 10 hours a day and

0:14:51.519,0:14:56.560
that’s a conservative estimate

0:14:53.440,0:14:57.680
yeah i’m sure it was and it’s like hard

0:14:56.560,0:15:00.000
labor

0:14:57.680,0:15:01.199
jeez yeah a lot of them died you would

0:15:00.000,0:15:04.320
get paid

0:15:01.199,0:15:05.519
um one extra dollar if you did the

0:15:04.320,0:15:07.519
tunneling work

0:15:05.519,0:15:08.720
which is the most dangerous part that’s

0:15:07.519,0:15:10.480
where a lot of

0:15:08.720,0:15:12.000
people would die because the tunnels

0:15:10.480,0:15:15.279
would cave in on them

0:15:12.000,0:15:18.399
oh my god that’s so scary that’s

0:15:15.279,0:15:21.120
awful with that extra dollar though

0:15:18.399,0:15:21.839
yeah but like if you’re getting paid so

0:15:21.120,0:15:24.079
little

0:15:21.839,0:15:24.880
like one dollar like that’s a third of

0:15:24.079,0:15:26.800
your

0:15:24.880,0:15:28.959
it’s ridiculous and the wage gap was

0:15:26.800,0:15:32.560
about nine dollars between

0:15:28.959,0:15:35.279
chinese and irish workers oh man

0:15:32.560,0:15:37.440
yeah anyway so that’s just the biggest

0:15:35.279,0:15:38.959
example i wanted to put into there

0:15:37.440,0:15:40.959
there are bad working conditions

0:15:38.959,0:15:43.120
basically all around for immigrants

0:15:40.959,0:15:44.959
but that is one of the biggest ones and

0:15:43.120,0:15:46.720
overall

0:15:44.959,0:15:48.079
yeah bad working conditions in the

0:15:46.720,0:15:51.360
cities for immigrants

0:15:48.079,0:15:54.160
they all lived in very tiny rooms with

0:15:51.360,0:15:56.639
sometimes 10 of them crammed in together

0:15:54.160,0:15:57.759
with basically no light there’s no light

0:15:56.639,0:16:00.480
in these

0:15:57.759,0:16:02.000
tiny rooms and all the fortunes that

0:16:00.480,0:16:03.839
we’re going to talk about were built on

0:16:02.000,0:16:06.000
the backs

0:16:03.839,0:16:07.440
and labor of immigrants there are lots

0:16:06.000,0:16:09.920
of preventable deaths

0:16:07.440,0:16:11.040
they’re very long work days bad working

0:16:09.920,0:16:12.720
conditions

0:16:11.040,0:16:14.399
and a book that i think i’m going to

0:16:12.720,0:16:15.279
read we were supposed to read this in

0:16:14.399,0:16:17.279
high school but i

0:16:15.279,0:16:18.399
did not read it because i wasn’t a

0:16:17.279,0:16:21.040
reader in high school

0:16:18.399,0:16:23.199
but if you’re interested you can read

0:16:21.040,0:16:25.680
the jungle by upton sinclair

0:16:23.199,0:16:27.920
it’s a 1906 novel that illustrates the

0:16:25.680,0:16:30.959
harsh working conditions in chicago

0:16:27.920,0:16:34.160
specifically the meat industry i think

0:16:30.959,0:16:36.480
yeah yeah did you read it no

0:16:34.160,0:16:38.639
because like i was so scared i was like

0:16:36.480,0:16:41.839
a vegetarian for so long and i was like

0:16:38.639,0:16:43.759
i’m scared to read about me like i think

0:16:41.839,0:16:45.360
it’s a really important book i

0:16:43.759,0:16:47.920
should read it this leads to the

0:16:45.360,0:16:49.360
question how bad was the wealth gap in

0:16:47.920,0:16:52.959
the gilded age

0:16:49.360,0:16:55.920
so there’s a very sharp contrast

0:16:52.959,0:16:57.199
to the poor immigrant workers that we

0:16:55.920,0:17:00.399
just talked about

0:16:57.199,0:17:01.199
and so on the complete other end of the

0:17:00.399,0:17:03.519
spectrum

0:17:01.199,0:17:05.120
are what are known as barons they’re

0:17:03.519,0:17:06.799
also called robber barons

0:17:05.120,0:17:09.360
just because basically like the amount

0:17:06.799,0:17:12.959
of wealth they had was criminal

0:17:09.360,0:17:14.400
um and they really exploited the flaws

0:17:12.959,0:17:17.199
of capitalism

0:17:14.400,0:17:19.360
to the worst extent which also in case

0:17:17.199,0:17:22.079
anyone doesn’t know

0:17:19.360,0:17:23.280
nat do you want to define capitalism

0:17:22.079,0:17:26.559
capitalism

0:17:23.280,0:17:28.400
the definition of capitalism um it’s

0:17:26.559,0:17:32.640
like

0:17:28.400,0:17:35.360
yeah market market determined

0:17:32.640,0:17:37.200
it’s a free market so the government

0:17:35.360,0:17:41.120
like doesn’t get involved

0:17:37.200,0:17:44.400
with the market economy

0:17:41.120,0:17:47.679
and they leave it up to like consumers

0:17:44.400,0:17:48.559
and companies yeah and like competition

0:17:47.679,0:17:51.600
is good

0:17:48.559,0:17:52.880
in capitalism so basically everyone gets

0:17:51.600,0:17:55.919
to compete

0:17:52.880,0:17:56.960
and everyone can own like

0:17:55.919,0:17:59.039
entrepreneurship

0:17:56.960,0:18:00.559
is stuff i don’t have a textbook

0:17:59.039,0:18:03.039
definition for capitalism but

0:18:00.559,0:18:04.880
anyways so they made their well through

0:18:03.039,0:18:07.679
the monopolization

0:18:04.880,0:18:07.679
monopolization

0:18:09.480,0:18:13.039
monopolization of huge industries like

0:18:12.240,0:18:16.640
oil

0:18:13.039,0:18:20.480
steel railroads and financing

0:18:16.640,0:18:22.160
um jp morgan dominated corporate finance

0:18:20.480,0:18:26.240
on wall street

0:18:22.160,0:18:29.440
and okay this the stat is literally wild

0:18:26.240,0:18:30.000
but they were as calculated making ten

0:18:29.440,0:18:33.039
dollars

0:18:30.000,0:18:33.600
a minute in their time so ten dollars a

0:18:33.039,0:18:37.880
minute

0:18:33.600,0:18:42.000
back in the late 1800s and that’s about

0:18:37.880,0:18:44.320
310 a minute in today’s terms

0:18:42.000,0:18:45.600
which is approximately eighteen thousand

0:18:44.320,0:18:48.640
six hundred dollars an

0:18:45.600,0:18:49.520
hour which is way more than i make i

0:18:48.640,0:18:51.200
don’t know about you

0:18:49.520,0:18:53.919
now if you’re like a secret wealthy

0:18:51.200,0:18:57.280
person uh i wish

0:18:53.919,0:18:59.200
i was like what you couldn’t and

0:18:57.280,0:19:00.640
maybe okay there’s a big range too

0:18:59.200,0:19:02.799
because rockefeller

0:19:00.640,0:19:04.640
is by far the wealthiest out of all the

0:19:02.799,0:19:05.679
barons we’re going to talk about he’s

0:19:04.640,0:19:08.400
like

0:19:05.679,0:19:10.400
i will tell you how much he makes in a

0:19:08.400,0:19:12.960
bet but he’s way wealthier

0:19:10.400,0:19:14.880
and so this estimate is more like an

0:19:12.960,0:19:18.240
average between all of the barons

0:19:14.880,0:19:21.360
but that’s insane like 18

0:19:18.240,0:19:23.120
600 an hour

0:19:21.360,0:19:24.799
do you know how much bezos makes is it

0:19:23.120,0:19:27.200
like similar

0:19:24.799,0:19:28.640
to that bezos hun okay i’m just gonna go

0:19:27.200,0:19:31.440
right into the next die

0:19:28.640,0:19:33.039
uh rockefeller’s wealth and rock okay

0:19:31.440,0:19:34.960
john d rockefeller for anyone who

0:19:33.039,0:19:36.559
doesn’t know he was the founder of the

0:19:34.960,0:19:39.280
standard oil company

0:19:36.559,0:19:41.039
which was the monopoly and then i should

0:19:39.280,0:19:43.600
define monopoly monopoly

0:19:41.039,0:19:44.799
is basically if you ever played the game

0:19:43.600,0:19:46.799
monopoly

0:19:44.799,0:19:49.520
your the goal of that is to make sure

0:19:46.799,0:19:51.840
that you buy up as much property so that

0:19:49.520,0:19:53.200
anytime someone lands they’re always

0:19:51.840,0:19:56.320
paying you money

0:19:53.200,0:19:59.520
i guess and so in

0:19:56.320,0:20:02.720
the real world a monopoly is

0:19:59.520,0:20:05.200
where you hold so many companies or

0:20:02.720,0:20:07.200
control of so much of an industry

0:20:05.200,0:20:09.360
that people have no choice but to come

0:20:07.200,0:20:10.799
to you and when that happens it’s really

0:20:09.360,0:20:13.919
bad because then

0:20:10.799,0:20:16.159
without competition there’s no

0:20:13.919,0:20:18.159
limitation on how you can price your

0:20:16.159,0:20:18.720
products so with the standard oil

0:20:18.159,0:20:21.600
company

0:20:18.720,0:20:22.880
since rockefeller held a monopoly on all

0:20:21.600,0:20:25.919
oil companies

0:20:22.880,0:20:27.200
if you need oil which basically every

0:20:25.919,0:20:29.280
industry does

0:20:27.200,0:20:30.559
you have no choice but to get oil from

0:20:29.280,0:20:32.159
rockefeller and

0:20:30.559,0:20:34.080
since no one else is competing with

0:20:32.159,0:20:37.520
rockefeller he can just price oil

0:20:34.080,0:20:40.799
as high as he wants to price it so

0:20:37.520,0:20:45.039
he made a ton of money and at his

0:20:40.799,0:20:49.120
peak he was worth about 318.3 billion

0:20:45.039,0:20:50.799
in today’s money whoa but that’s

0:20:49.120,0:20:52.640
ridiculous and to put that into

0:20:50.799,0:20:54.320
perspective the richest man in the world

0:20:52.640,0:20:57.559
right now jeff bezos

0:20:54.320,0:21:01.679
is currently only at a measly

0:20:57.559,0:21:05.280
189 billion his pocket change

0:21:01.679,0:21:07.440
for a rockefeller like i don’t think

0:21:05.280,0:21:08.640
mentally can you comprehend a billion

0:21:07.440,0:21:10.720
dollars can you come

0:21:08.640,0:21:13.039
okay just think about a million and

0:21:10.720,0:21:13.919
that’s like a hundred times that is one

0:21:13.039,0:21:17.600
billion

0:21:13.919,0:21:19.760
and bezos has a hundred of those

0:21:17.600,0:21:21.600
plus 89 more of those and then

0:21:19.760,0:21:25.600
rockefeller has 300

0:21:21.600,0:21:28.320
plus 18 like it’s it’s an insane amount

0:21:25.600,0:21:31.520
of wealth like you can’t even imagine

0:21:28.320,0:21:33.600
how much there’s literally like there’s

0:21:31.520,0:21:35.600
a website and it’s like

0:21:33.600,0:21:37.280
like something like spend can you spend

0:21:35.600,0:21:39.120
bill gates money because he

0:21:37.280,0:21:41.039
bill gates also has a lot of money not

0:21:39.120,0:21:43.360
as much as jeff bezos or

0:21:41.039,0:21:44.799
rockefeller but a lot and like literally

0:21:43.360,0:21:46.400
it’s like you could like buy like a cup

0:21:44.799,0:21:47.919
of coffee and like you could see like

0:21:46.400,0:21:50.159
your total net worth and like

0:21:47.919,0:21:51.679
one cup of coffee like there’s nothing

0:21:50.159,0:21:53.360
and it’s it’s just funny

0:21:51.679,0:21:55.840
to see like how much stuff people buy

0:21:53.360,0:21:56.880
because i cannot i cannot like mentally

0:21:55.840,0:21:59.919
comprehend

0:21:56.880,0:22:01.919
that much money like oh my gosh i could

0:21:59.919,0:22:04.240
pay off my loans like

0:22:01.919,0:22:05.520
i could your loans are pocket change

0:22:04.240,0:22:08.960
it’s a penny to them

0:22:05.520,0:22:10.960
it’s nothing oh my god okay jeffy

0:22:08.960,0:22:12.799
here what do you think about even like

0:22:10.960,0:22:15.039
what is it the kardashians they’re

0:22:12.799,0:22:16.400
like they’re so wealthy and famous and

0:22:15.039,0:22:18.159
everything

0:22:16.400,0:22:19.600
like they don’t even have a billion

0:22:18.159,0:22:22.480
dollars

0:22:19.600,0:22:23.919
like it’s nothing if there are any

0:22:22.480,0:22:26.559
billionaires listening

0:22:23.919,0:22:29.280
please consider donating please become a

0:22:26.559,0:22:32.640
history hero and sponsor us on patreon

0:22:29.280,0:22:36.320
yeah it’s only three dollars a month

0:22:32.640,0:22:41.360
please it’s like not even a

0:22:36.320,0:22:45.440
penny to you

0:22:41.360,0:22:48.960
yeah so wild it’s incredible wealth um

0:22:45.440,0:22:50.320
and also so another big barren during

0:22:48.960,0:22:53.679
this time

0:22:50.320,0:22:56.640
is vanderbilt so

0:22:53.679,0:22:58.400
i don’t really know specifically what is

0:22:56.640,0:22:58.880
it cornelius vanderbilt let me look it

0:22:58.400,0:23:00.960
up

0:22:58.880,0:23:02.720
i don’t even know i think of vanderbilt

0:23:00.960,0:23:06.159
i think it’s serena vanderbilt from

0:23:02.720,0:23:07.280
gossip oh my god is she a vanderbilt in

0:23:06.159,0:23:08.799
that show

0:23:07.280,0:23:10.559
well she’s on vanderbilt i guess i don’t

0:23:08.799,0:23:12.159
know if she’s like the vanderbilt

0:23:10.559,0:23:14.400
i would imagine because her family is

0:23:12.159,0:23:17.360
like super rich you know who is a

0:23:14.400,0:23:17.919
vanderbilt um anderson cooper did you

0:23:17.360,0:23:22.159
know that

0:23:17.919,0:23:22.559
no oh yeah his mom’s a vanderville what

0:23:22.159,0:23:24.640
the heck

0:23:22.559,0:23:26.080
he’s super wealthy i found that out when

0:23:24.640,0:23:29.280
i was researching and i was like

0:23:26.080,0:23:31.200
anderson cooper what random

0:23:29.280,0:23:33.679
i mean probably not but like he’s such a

0:23:31.200,0:23:35.840
nice guy too i was like oh my god

0:23:33.679,0:23:37.200
but honestly the wealth has been like

0:23:35.840,0:23:39.840
diluted

0:23:37.200,0:23:41.360
for the generation so they’re still

0:23:39.840,0:23:44.640
obviously really wealthy like he

0:23:41.360,0:23:48.320
inherited like 1.5 million but it’s like

0:23:44.640,0:23:50.640
i mean whatever it’s not like yeah

0:23:48.320,0:23:52.080
i’ll take it if you’re gonna give it to

0:23:50.640,0:23:54.000
me

0:23:52.080,0:23:56.480
anyways so yeah it’s cornelius

0:23:54.000,0:23:59.679
vanderbilt so cornelius vanderbilt

0:23:56.480,0:24:01.279
built his wealth through railroads and

0:23:59.679,0:24:04.640
shipping

0:24:01.279,0:24:06.320
and um something interesting is

0:24:04.640,0:24:07.840
uh because like how are these people

0:24:06.320,0:24:10.080
spending their money right so

0:24:07.840,0:24:10.960
vanderbilt built these really huge

0:24:10.080,0:24:13.679
estates

0:24:10.960,0:24:16.159
and an estate is basically a big house

0:24:13.679,0:24:16.880
and a lot of land just tons of acres of

0:24:16.159,0:24:20.880
it

0:24:16.880,0:24:22.559
so um i actually went to

0:24:20.880,0:24:24.240
one of his estates it’s called the

0:24:22.559,0:24:25.120
biltmore estate and that’s in north

0:24:24.240,0:24:27.279
carolina

0:24:25.120,0:24:28.799
which i also just realized when i was

0:24:27.279,0:24:30.799
doing this research that that is only

0:24:28.799,0:24:32.159
one of their estates that’s not they

0:24:30.799,0:24:34.720
have multiple estates

0:24:32.159,0:24:37.039
but this is just one and i i don’t even

0:24:34.720,0:24:38.159
think it’s cornelius’s it was one of his

0:24:37.039,0:24:41.360
descendants

0:24:38.159,0:24:44.159
who built this estate just for himself

0:24:41.360,0:24:45.840
it is if you can go just search biltmore

0:24:44.159,0:24:47.600
estate and go buy some tickets and go to

0:24:45.840,0:24:49.600
north carolina and check it out

0:24:47.600,0:24:50.799
if you can go it is literally the most

0:24:49.600,0:24:53.440
greedy thing

0:24:50.799,0:24:53.840
you will ever lay your eyes on the house

0:24:53.440,0:24:55.679
is

0:24:53.840,0:24:57.279
huge i just remember walking through and

0:24:55.679,0:25:00.240
i was like why does this exist

0:24:57.279,0:25:02.240
like who who needed this much it’s i

0:25:00.240,0:25:03.120
don’t even like so many rooms and

0:25:02.240,0:25:05.919
there’s like

0:25:03.120,0:25:06.559
golden maybe gilded maybe not golden but

0:25:05.919,0:25:08.880
like

0:25:06.559,0:25:10.880
just like golden um what are they called

0:25:08.880,0:25:14.240
the things like that people put

0:25:10.880,0:25:16.640
like in their houses like on the corners

0:25:14.240,0:25:17.679
you don’t have any like the the things

0:25:16.640,0:25:21.840
like on the bottom

0:25:17.679,0:25:23.600
oh i’m too poor i’m just kidding i know

0:25:21.840,0:25:25.520
like what you’re talking about i don’t

0:25:23.600,0:25:26.640
know they’re like crown crownings maybe

0:25:25.520,0:25:29.440
or something

0:25:26.640,0:25:30.720
crowning yeah maybe crownings yeah

0:25:29.440,0:25:32.799
something like that i don’t

0:25:30.720,0:25:34.080
even know what to google like yeah like

0:25:32.799,0:25:36.320
an image search or something

0:25:34.080,0:25:38.240
but yeah they had like golden gold

0:25:36.320,0:25:41.120
everywhere like golden accents

0:25:38.240,0:25:42.400
um and they would have they had a

0:25:41.120,0:25:44.559
swimming pool

0:25:42.400,0:25:46.960
in the basement and they had a bowling

0:25:44.559,0:25:49.120
alley and the swimming pool’s nice

0:25:46.960,0:25:50.000
like i would use it in a whole changing

0:25:49.120,0:25:54.000
room

0:25:50.000,0:25:54.720
and um yeah it’s just an insane amount

0:25:54.000,0:25:57.120
of wealth

0:25:54.720,0:25:58.559
and keep in mind that’s like late 1800s

0:25:57.120,0:26:00.320
just that much wealth

0:25:58.559,0:26:02.480
and they’re not just paying for all of

0:26:00.320,0:26:04.000
that land and all like this enormous

0:26:02.480,0:26:05.360
house you’re also paying for all of

0:26:04.000,0:26:07.360
these servants

0:26:05.360,0:26:08.840
too who run the house and clean the

0:26:07.360,0:26:10.720
house

0:26:08.840,0:26:11.919
so yeah hopefully

0:26:10.720,0:26:14.240
[Music]

0:26:11.919,0:26:15.360
a whole city like you’re like employing

0:26:14.240,0:26:17.279
the whole town

0:26:15.360,0:26:18.960
it literally is like a that just shows

0:26:17.279,0:26:21.520
you

0:26:18.960,0:26:22.799
how much how ridiculous the amount of

0:26:21.520,0:26:26.799
wealth

0:26:22.799,0:26:30.799
it was in the 1800s

0:26:26.799,0:26:33.200
so as you might ask

0:26:30.799,0:26:35.360
as i did why were those people allowed

0:26:33.200,0:26:36.720
to get so wealthy and why were other

0:26:35.360,0:26:38.559
people so poor

0:26:36.720,0:26:40.159
like how did that happen why did no one

0:26:38.559,0:26:41.440
say anything so

0:26:40.159,0:26:43.360
during this time there’s actually

0:26:41.440,0:26:46.000
something called the social darwinism

0:26:43.360,0:26:46.000
mindset

0:26:46.320,0:26:52.640
so as you may know charles darwin

0:26:49.760,0:26:54.240
in 1859 published this book on the

0:26:52.640,0:26:57.200
theory of evolution

0:26:54.240,0:26:58.880
and this became known as darwinism no

0:26:57.200,0:27:01.440
not social darwinism

0:26:58.880,0:27:02.640
so people twisted the concept of

0:27:01.440,0:27:04.880
darwinism

0:27:02.640,0:27:06.159
and they created a field called social

0:27:04.880,0:27:09.600
darwinism

0:27:06.159,0:27:11.679
and basically social darwinism was used

0:27:09.600,0:27:14.960
as a justification for racism

0:27:11.679,0:27:18.159
sexism and poverty in the world

0:27:14.960,0:27:19.440
and herbert spencer spearheaded this

0:27:18.159,0:27:21.520
philosophy saying

0:27:19.440,0:27:23.600
you shouldn’t help the poor because it

0:27:21.520,0:27:25.039
was survival of the fittest

0:27:23.600,0:27:28.480
and by helping the poor you’re

0:27:25.039,0:27:31.279
preventing weaker genes from dying out

0:27:28.480,0:27:32.399
so we’re going to go into why this is

0:27:31.279,0:27:34.080
wrong

0:27:32.399,0:27:35.520
basically in case you didn’t know it

0:27:34.080,0:27:38.559
gives you things like

0:27:35.520,0:27:41.520
oh sounds about right like um

0:27:38.559,0:27:42.320
which i think like okay if i were like

0:27:41.520,0:27:45.679
growing up

0:27:42.320,0:27:48.159
and i like heard darwinism

0:27:45.679,0:27:50.559
maybe if i if you didn’t talk to me more

0:27:48.159,0:27:53.279
about evolution if i just heard about

0:27:50.559,0:27:55.039
like the theory of evolution i might

0:27:53.279,0:27:55.840
come to this incorrect conclusion as

0:27:55.039,0:27:57.679
well

0:27:55.840,0:27:59.200
and so we’re going to talk about why

0:27:57.679,0:28:01.200
it’s not what i feel like

0:27:59.200,0:28:03.039
oh i just was going to say like i feel

0:28:01.200,0:28:05.360
like rich people

0:28:03.039,0:28:06.960
wealthy people at the time and today too

0:28:05.360,0:28:09.440
like trying to use this mindset

0:28:06.960,0:28:10.480
to like make themselves feel better like

0:28:09.440,0:28:12.000
oh no i

0:28:10.480,0:28:14.000
like deserve this amount of wealth

0:28:12.000,0:28:16.320
because i work hard and like it’s not

0:28:14.000,0:28:17.039
just because i inherited it like i work

0:28:16.320,0:28:19.200
harder

0:28:17.039,0:28:21.039
than like people who don’t have as much

0:28:19.200,0:28:22.640
wealth when like

0:28:21.039,0:28:24.559
that’s not true that’s not the whole

0:28:22.640,0:28:27.679
picture but yeah

0:28:24.559,0:28:30.799
yeah and it’s not like not to discredit

0:28:27.679,0:28:32.960
obviously like to build empires and

0:28:30.799,0:28:36.320
entrepreneurs you do have to work hard

0:28:32.960,0:28:39.520
but everyone’s got certain benefits

0:28:36.320,0:28:42.080
especially all these barons so

0:28:39.520,0:28:43.279
the reason why social darwinism is wrong

0:28:42.080,0:28:45.360
is because

0:28:43.279,0:28:47.200
a lot of people will wrongly think about

0:28:45.360,0:28:48.720
evolution in terms of a linear

0:28:47.200,0:28:51.120
progression

0:28:48.720,0:28:52.720
uh like you see with there’s that one

0:28:51.120,0:28:54.799
picture and it’s like the ape

0:28:52.720,0:28:56.880
that turns into the human people think

0:28:54.799,0:29:00.240
that it’s like a linear

0:28:56.880,0:29:00.559
thing so the human is more developed

0:29:00.240,0:29:03.679
than

0:29:00.559,0:29:05.200
an ape so we are by nature superior

0:29:03.679,0:29:07.360
and that’s incorrect that’s not the

0:29:05.200,0:29:09.919
correct way to think about evolution

0:29:07.360,0:29:11.440
i also blame evernote here i also blame

0:29:09.919,0:29:13.039
the pokemon game

0:29:11.440,0:29:14.559
uh for distorting how we think about

0:29:13.039,0:29:16.399
evolving because even i

0:29:14.559,0:29:18.080
like i’ve thought about evolution

0:29:16.399,0:29:20.559
incorrectly as well because

0:29:18.080,0:29:21.360
when your pokemon evolves unless you

0:29:20.559,0:29:23.679
press b

0:29:21.360,0:29:25.520
you don’t stunt its growth and so when

0:29:23.679,0:29:26.559
it evolves it’s supposed to become this

0:29:25.520,0:29:29.120
like stronger

0:29:26.559,0:29:31.039
better creature and that’s actually not

0:29:29.120,0:29:33.279
how evolution works

0:29:31.039,0:29:35.200
yeah so evolution is not a time thing

0:29:33.279,0:29:37.600
where other species

0:29:35.200,0:29:38.960
are less evolved or have not been

0:29:37.600,0:29:41.200
evolving for as much

0:29:38.960,0:29:42.559
time basically everything that you see

0:29:41.200,0:29:45.440
today has been

0:29:42.559,0:29:48.159
evolving for the same amount of time

0:29:45.440,0:29:51.679
evolution is when the adaptations or

0:29:48.159,0:29:54.159
traits or mutations that suit a species

0:29:51.679,0:29:54.720
better for a specific environment will

0:29:54.159,0:29:56.480
survive

0:29:54.720,0:29:58.399
and thrive better than others without

0:29:56.480,0:29:59.039
the same gene but they’re coming from

0:29:58.399,0:30:02.080
the same

0:29:59.039,0:30:02.880
shared ancestor so it helps if you think

0:30:02.080,0:30:05.760
of it like

0:30:02.880,0:30:06.640
a tree where the branches will come out

0:30:05.760,0:30:09.840
and

0:30:06.640,0:30:11.440
maybe like there’s more leaves on one

0:30:09.840,0:30:12.880
branch than the other but it doesn’t

0:30:11.440,0:30:14.640
mean that the branches

0:30:12.880,0:30:16.159
one branch is more superior because

0:30:14.640,0:30:17.200
you’re coming from the same branch if

0:30:16.159,0:30:19.440
that makes sense

0:30:17.200,0:30:20.240
i think that’s a bad example yeah i get

0:30:19.440,0:30:23.679
that

0:30:20.240,0:30:25.919
okay but yeah it’s basically like

0:30:23.679,0:30:27.360
there’s a good beetle example but

0:30:25.919,0:30:30.480
basically like

0:30:27.360,0:30:31.279
um they’re like there’s like a group of

0:30:30.480,0:30:34.880
beetles

0:30:31.279,0:30:36.880
and the beetles are some beetles are

0:30:34.880,0:30:39.200
green some beetles are blue

0:30:36.880,0:30:40.960
and in their environment and it’s

0:30:39.200,0:30:42.880
because there’s a genetic mutation that

0:30:40.960,0:30:45.120
some are blue some are green

0:30:42.880,0:30:47.520
and in the environment there happens to

0:30:45.120,0:30:49.919
be a lot of green foliage

0:30:47.520,0:30:50.880
and the birds in the environment that

0:30:49.919,0:30:52.720
eat beetles

0:30:50.880,0:30:54.559
are having a better time seeing the blue

0:30:52.720,0:30:57.679
ones instead of the green ones

0:30:54.559,0:31:01.200
so just in that environment there

0:30:57.679,0:31:02.559
happens to be more green beetle survival

0:31:01.200,0:31:04.000
because they’re blending in and the blue

0:31:02.559,0:31:04.880
ones aren’t it doesn’t mean that the

0:31:04.000,0:31:07.279
blue ones

0:31:04.880,0:31:07.919
are inferior to the green ones it just

0:31:07.279,0:31:10.399
means

0:31:07.919,0:31:11.360
in that scenario like in that specific

0:31:10.399,0:31:14.080
environment

0:31:11.360,0:31:14.880
those traits were able to live on that’s

0:31:14.080,0:31:18.399
why you see

0:31:14.880,0:31:20.880
trait variation between species

0:31:18.399,0:31:23.360
wow you did a good job explaining that

0:31:20.880,0:31:25.760
we should become a science podcast

0:31:23.360,0:31:27.600
if history doesn’t work out special

0:31:25.760,0:31:30.559
season yeah

0:31:27.600,0:31:31.679
so a lot of people today even still

0:31:30.559,0:31:34.720
think this way

0:31:31.679,0:31:37.360
especially with poorer countries so

0:31:34.720,0:31:39.200
for example with a lot of african

0:31:37.360,0:31:41.440
countries a lot of people

0:31:39.200,0:31:43.200
modern day like to claim that africans

0:31:41.440,0:31:45.919
by nature are inferior

0:31:43.200,0:31:46.880
or not as smart or civilized and that

0:31:45.919,0:31:49.279
these are why

0:31:46.880,0:31:50.880
these countries are poor and that

0:31:49.279,0:31:52.960
completely ignores the fact that

0:31:50.880,0:31:54.399
westernized countries have been stealing

0:31:52.960,0:31:58.000
natural resources

0:31:54.399,0:32:00.799
including human labor slavery

0:31:58.000,0:32:01.760
for over 400 years and they continue to

0:32:00.799,0:32:04.559
do so

0:32:01.760,0:32:06.320
so social darwinism just completely

0:32:04.559,0:32:09.519
disregards the effect

0:32:06.320,0:32:12.559
of colonization on different groups of

0:32:09.519,0:32:12.559
people around the world

0:32:12.720,0:32:17.519
anyways so this also supported the idea

0:32:15.840,0:32:20.000
that you shouldn’t mix

0:32:17.519,0:32:21.279
as we saw with miscegenation laws which

0:32:20.000,0:32:25.440
we covered in

0:32:21.279,0:32:29.200
our episode we were illegal and

0:32:25.440,0:32:32.320
that’s really bad so because um

0:32:29.200,0:32:34.320
when you do not mix with different

0:32:32.320,0:32:35.919
race or the less you tend to mix with

0:32:34.320,0:32:36.559
people who have different traits than

0:32:35.919,0:32:38.960
you

0:32:36.559,0:32:40.399
then the lower your genetic variation is

0:32:38.960,0:32:43.440
for your descendants

0:32:40.399,0:32:46.399
and the reason why that’s bad is because

0:32:43.440,0:32:48.880
you not only have a lower ability to

0:32:46.399,0:32:50.799
survive you also will have

0:32:48.880,0:32:52.000
um it’s very common to develop a lot of

0:32:50.799,0:32:54.880
health issues

0:32:52.000,0:32:56.240
and rare diseases so for example in

0:32:54.880,0:32:59.200
amish country

0:32:56.240,0:32:59.519
or the royal family there we see a lot

0:32:59.200,0:33:02.720
of

0:32:59.519,0:33:04.240
um i don’t

0:33:02.720,0:33:05.919
want to see this like nicely but we see

0:33:04.240,0:33:09.039
a lot of like rare genetic

0:33:05.919,0:33:12.320
mutations or diseases because there’s a

0:33:09.039,0:33:14.240
um there’s a practice of inbreeding

0:33:12.320,0:33:15.840
within those communities especially with

0:33:14.240,0:33:18.240
the royal family the

0:33:15.840,0:33:20.159
consideration of being pure bread or

0:33:18.240,0:33:22.000
pure blood or something like that

0:33:20.159,0:33:23.519
um they would tend not to mix with

0:33:22.000,0:33:25.679
anyone who wasn’t

0:33:23.519,0:33:27.679
within the family and as a result you

0:33:25.679,0:33:30.960
see a lot of

0:33:27.679,0:33:31.760
diseases and mental disorders because of

0:33:30.960,0:33:34.159
that

0:33:31.760,0:33:36.159
one of the biggest ones within the royal

0:33:34.159,0:33:38.159
family was hemophilia

0:33:36.159,0:33:39.840
which is the inability of your blood to

0:33:38.159,0:33:41.120
clot and that was actually known as the

0:33:39.840,0:33:43.279
royals disease

0:33:41.120,0:33:45.120
because it was very common in the royal

0:33:43.279,0:33:48.399
family

0:33:45.120,0:33:51.120
so and to go off of that

0:33:48.399,0:33:52.399
yeah so the lack of genetic variation so

0:33:51.120,0:33:55.200
the main reason

0:33:52.399,0:33:57.440
endangered species become endangered is

0:33:55.200,0:33:59.360
because of the low genetic variation in

0:33:57.440,0:34:02.159
their gene pool

0:33:59.360,0:34:03.679
so the same thing with literally every

0:34:02.159,0:34:05.760
living thing that you see

0:34:03.679,0:34:06.960
the lower the genetic variation the

0:34:05.760,0:34:10.960
worse off you are

0:34:06.960,0:34:15.520
because you’re not able to let’s say

0:34:10.960,0:34:15.520
like you’re not able to withstand

0:34:15.919,0:34:19.200
what is it like natural disasters like

0:34:17.599,0:34:21.280
you’re less able to adapt to different

0:34:19.200,0:34:24.800
surroundings when you only have

0:34:21.280,0:34:26.960
a set amount of traits so

0:34:24.800,0:34:28.000
a fun fact actually is even banana

0:34:26.960,0:34:30.800
fruits

0:34:28.000,0:34:32.879
are like the ones we see today have very

0:34:30.800,0:34:34.960
very little genetic variation

0:34:32.879,0:34:36.480
and it’s only a matter of time before

0:34:34.960,0:34:39.200
the banana that we know

0:34:36.480,0:34:40.240
gets completely wiped out have you heard

0:34:39.200,0:34:41.679
of this

0:34:40.240,0:34:44.879
yeah i feel like i’ve heard of this

0:34:41.679,0:34:46.480
before yeah the banana we know today is

0:34:44.879,0:34:49.040
like the cavendish banana

0:34:46.480,0:34:50.480
and it’s really um how they made it

0:34:49.040,0:34:53.200
because our first banana

0:34:50.480,0:34:54.480
that we had was the gross michelle

0:34:53.200,0:34:57.760
banana

0:34:54.480,0:34:59.599
and that one died out so what they did

0:34:57.760,0:35:00.000
is they took a cavendish banana and then

0:34:59.599,0:35:02.720
they

0:35:00.000,0:35:04.640
i believe mutated it so that every

0:35:02.720,0:35:06.800
single banana has like literally the

0:35:04.640,0:35:09.520
same genetic makeup

0:35:06.800,0:35:11.920
so there’s absolutely like no genetic

0:35:09.520,0:35:15.119
variation between banana plants today

0:35:11.920,0:35:17.359
so as soon as we have one disease

0:35:15.119,0:35:18.560
that the banana is not resistant to it’s

0:35:17.359,0:35:20.240
gonna completely

0:35:18.560,0:35:21.720
die out and we’ll never have bananas

0:35:20.240,0:35:24.800
again i like

0:35:21.720,0:35:28.720
bananas what the heck

0:35:24.800,0:35:32.079
save the bananas it’s gonna happen like

0:35:28.720,0:35:34.880
it’s coming okay

0:35:32.079,0:35:35.599
so then also to yeah the government was

0:35:34.880,0:35:38.240
not like

0:35:35.599,0:35:39.680
involved basically during this time too

0:35:38.240,0:35:40.560
it’s like where is everyone in the

0:35:39.680,0:35:42.320
government

0:35:40.560,0:35:43.839
government did very little to help

0:35:42.320,0:35:45.440
laborers

0:35:43.839,0:35:48.000
yeah politics were actually

0:35:45.440,0:35:49.440
characterized by scandal and corruption

0:35:48.000,0:35:52.880
during this time

0:35:49.440,0:35:56.320
jp morgan who was a wealthy baron

0:35:52.880,0:35:58.400
gave 400 million dollars as a loan to

0:35:56.320,0:36:01.040
the u.s government

0:35:58.400,0:36:01.680
and so the government is basically a

0:36:01.040,0:36:03.359
pawn

0:36:01.680,0:36:06.320
to the wealthy because that’s where

0:36:03.359,0:36:07.680
they’re getting their money from

0:36:06.320,0:36:10.640
there’s also something known as the

0:36:07.680,0:36:12.640
patronage or spoils system

0:36:10.640,0:36:13.760
which is where the elected president is

0:36:12.640,0:36:15.920
allowed to give

0:36:13.760,0:36:17.680
government positions to their friends or

0:36:15.920,0:36:22.079
close political supporters

0:36:17.680,0:36:25.119
so that makes for a very homogenous

0:36:22.079,0:36:28.480
cabinet like government that

0:36:25.119,0:36:31.040
has only one idea um

0:36:28.480,0:36:31.680
so lots of opportunity for corruption

0:36:31.040,0:36:34.720
yeah

0:36:31.680,0:36:37.359
yeah and so the final reform of this

0:36:34.720,0:36:37.920
policy comes after the assassination of

0:36:37.359,0:36:41.200
president

0:36:37.920,0:36:44.320
james garfield in 1881

0:36:41.200,0:36:44.800
oh my gosh which we should cover at some

0:36:44.320,0:36:48.000
point

0:36:44.800,0:36:48.880
and they after this they reformed civil

0:36:48.000,0:36:51.520
service and

0:36:48.880,0:36:53.040
ended the spoils system in 1883 with the

0:36:51.520,0:36:54.720
pendleton act

0:36:53.040,0:36:57.680
and another big problem with the

0:36:54.720,0:37:01.040
government is laissez-faire government

0:36:57.680,0:37:04.560
so laissez faire is a key part

0:37:01.040,0:37:07.920
in capitalist economics and

0:37:04.560,0:37:09.440
laissez-faire policies basically oppose

0:37:07.920,0:37:13.119
government intervention

0:37:09.440,0:37:14.160
in society or the market i think laissez

0:37:13.119,0:37:16.560
faire

0:37:14.160,0:37:18.480
because it comes from like a french word

0:37:16.560,0:37:19.520
right and i think it means let it be or

0:37:18.480,0:37:23.119
something

0:37:19.520,0:37:25.440
yeah yeah let it be that sounds correct

0:37:23.119,0:37:26.320
it’s like hands off like just let it do

0:37:25.440,0:37:30.800
whatever

0:37:26.320,0:37:33.280
yeah don’t touch it don’t do anything

0:37:30.800,0:37:35.200
so proponents of laissez faire so

0:37:33.280,0:37:36.000
supporters of laissez faire were

0:37:35.200,0:37:39.280
actually known as

0:37:36.000,0:37:42.320
liberals this is really interesting and

0:37:39.280,0:37:44.720
the liberals had the belief that a free

0:37:42.320,0:37:47.119
market would naturally produce the best

0:37:44.720,0:37:48.640
and most efficient solutions to economic

0:37:47.119,0:37:51.280
and social problems

0:37:48.640,0:37:53.520
and this is extremely different from the

0:37:51.280,0:37:56.800
definition of liberalism

0:37:53.520,0:38:00.000
that we have today so

0:37:56.800,0:38:01.520
liberals today are like perhaps some of

0:38:00.000,0:38:04.800
the polar opposites of

0:38:01.520,0:38:07.839
the original definition for liberals um

0:38:04.800,0:38:09.440
so today liberals would

0:38:07.839,0:38:11.680
typically advocate for government

0:38:09.440,0:38:14.320
intervention to solve social problems

0:38:11.680,0:38:16.240
so libertarians are more closely

0:38:14.320,0:38:17.680
equivalent to the gilded age liberals in

0:38:16.240,0:38:21.520
u.s politics

0:38:17.680,0:38:22.960
i see yeah and the combo of

0:38:21.520,0:38:24.720
laissez-faire capitalism

0:38:22.960,0:38:26.240
social darwinism and a corrupt

0:38:24.720,0:38:30.400
government was basically

0:38:26.240,0:38:33.520
a recipe for some very terrible lives

0:38:30.400,0:38:35.119
um for basically anyone who was not a

0:38:33.520,0:38:37.760
baron

0:38:35.119,0:38:39.119
and then of course people rose up

0:38:37.760,0:38:41.359
because if they didn’t we would not be

0:38:39.119,0:38:45.359
here today

0:38:41.359,0:38:46.640
so between 1881 and 1900s 35 000 workers

0:38:45.359,0:38:49.280
per year

0:38:46.640,0:38:51.440
lost their lives in industrial and other

0:38:49.280,0:38:56.240
accidents at work

0:38:51.440,0:38:56.240
wow yeah so because of

0:38:56.640,0:39:00.000
yeah because it’s not even like like i

0:38:58.079,0:39:03.760
know our population is a lot bigger now

0:39:00.000,0:39:07.280
but during the this time period

0:39:03.760,0:39:07.280
it at most would be like

0:39:07.440,0:39:12.000
35 million maybe maybe like 40 million

0:39:10.480,0:39:15.119
at most

0:39:12.000,0:39:16.000
yeah i don’t even know so people started

0:39:15.119,0:39:18.640
going on strike

0:39:16.000,0:39:19.760
literally all the time there are no

0:39:18.640,0:39:22.880
fewer than 100

0:39:19.760,0:39:27.040
000 workers who are on strike each year

0:39:22.880,0:39:30.880
and in 1892 about 1200 strikes

0:39:27.040,0:39:33.200
involving roughly 164 000 workers took

0:39:30.880,0:39:36.960
place across the nation

0:39:33.200,0:39:39.520
wow that’s a lot

0:39:36.960,0:39:42.160
yeah well it shows too that like people

0:39:39.520,0:39:43.680
have always been and will always fight

0:39:42.160,0:39:47.040
against injustice

0:39:43.680,0:39:47.760
and it’s because of the efforts of those

0:39:47.040,0:39:49.440
people

0:39:47.760,0:39:50.960
that change was made because the

0:39:49.440,0:39:54.480
government was not doing

0:39:50.960,0:39:54.480
jack squat for them

0:39:54.560,0:39:58.960
so um another thing that happened in

0:39:58.000,0:40:02.240
addition to strikes

0:39:58.960,0:40:04.240
is that labor unions started to form

0:40:02.240,0:40:06.319
so labor unions work to limit the

0:40:04.240,0:40:08.240
influence of big businesses and gain

0:40:06.319,0:40:10.480
rights for all laborers

0:40:08.240,0:40:12.880
and they would come together in larger

0:40:10.480,0:40:14.880
numbers to strike and protest unfair

0:40:12.880,0:40:16.640
labor wages and conditions

0:40:14.880,0:40:20.000
an example of this was the knights of

0:40:16.640,0:40:23.040
labor which was founded in 1869

0:40:20.000,0:40:24.000
they unfortunately collapsed and like

0:40:23.040,0:40:26.640
the 1886

0:40:24.000,0:40:28.160
haymarket square right in chicago do you

0:40:26.640,0:40:30.000
know about this

0:40:28.160,0:40:32.480
i like didn’t know about it until i was

0:40:30.000,0:40:36.880
researching topics to talk about

0:40:32.480,0:40:39.839
but yeah it was like a riot

0:40:36.880,0:40:42.000
because of labor right yeah they wanted

0:40:39.839,0:40:45.200
like an eight-hour workday

0:40:42.000,0:40:47.839
yeah yeah it was like a bomb

0:40:45.200,0:40:48.319
at some point and then police shot into

0:40:47.839,0:40:52.400
the

0:40:48.319,0:40:54.160
protesters also i don’t know if you like

0:40:52.400,0:40:56.240
read about like saw this in your

0:40:54.160,0:40:58.480
research about nights of labor but i was

0:40:56.240,0:41:00.720
also like looking into covering them i

0:40:58.480,0:41:03.119
remember reading that like

0:41:00.720,0:41:05.040
um knights of labor like they were

0:41:03.119,0:41:06.640
really strong union but they supported

0:41:05.040,0:41:09.200
the chinese exclusion act

0:41:06.640,0:41:10.000
because it would be chinese immigrants

0:41:09.200,0:41:13.119
would be

0:41:10.000,0:41:14.480
competition for them so like that’s just

0:41:13.119,0:41:16.240
like something to consider

0:41:14.480,0:41:19.119
too is like these late a lot of these

0:41:16.240,0:41:21.599
labor unions it was like yeah we want

0:41:19.119,0:41:24.000
not all of them but like like the

0:41:21.599,0:41:26.160
general trend is like yeah we want like

0:41:24.000,0:41:27.839
fair wages and like safe working

0:41:26.160,0:41:30.480
standards but like

0:41:27.839,0:41:32.640
we’re only including like we’re only

0:41:30.480,0:41:34.000
representing white americans and like

0:41:32.640,0:41:36.400
we’re only fighting for white

0:41:34.000,0:41:38.240
americans so again like americans of

0:41:36.400,0:41:39.359
people of color working in america are

0:41:38.240,0:41:41.920
like left out of the

0:41:39.359,0:41:43.040
picture or are like trying to be

0:41:41.920,0:41:45.280
excluded yeah so

0:41:43.040,0:41:46.880
yeah no that’s so thank you for adding

0:41:45.280,0:41:50.000
that looks literally like such a

0:41:46.880,0:41:52.240
common theme that color does affect the

0:41:50.000,0:41:55.440
way you get treated

0:41:52.240,0:41:57.520
yep yep anyways

0:41:55.440,0:42:00.160
and so yeah the knights of labor

0:41:57.520,0:42:04.000
eventually got disbanded after that

0:42:00.160,0:42:07.520
and by 1886 the american federation of

0:42:04.000,0:42:09.359
labor was formed and it was growing

0:42:07.520,0:42:12.079
and there was also the people’s populist

0:42:09.359,0:42:14.000
party and this was a political party

0:42:12.079,0:42:16.880
that arose in 1890

0:42:14.000,0:42:18.800
to champion the interest of farmers and

0:42:16.880,0:42:22.319
that party

0:42:18.800,0:42:24.000
rallied with the labor movement

0:42:22.319,0:42:25.359
but they eventually just folded into the

0:42:24.000,0:42:28.400
democratic party

0:42:25.359,0:42:32.720
in 1896 and

0:42:28.400,0:42:34.160
they ended up disbanding in 1908.

0:42:32.720,0:42:36.160
and then this is important because this

0:42:34.160,0:42:39.359
one’s on our this is on our test

0:42:36.160,0:42:40.319
like the term so muckrakers you know

0:42:39.359,0:42:42.079
what this is

0:42:40.319,0:42:44.160
i remember it from high school but i

0:42:42.079,0:42:45.839
don’t i don’t remember what it means

0:42:44.160,0:42:47.359
yeah i literally it was like one of the

0:42:45.839,0:42:47.920
questions on the test and i was like

0:42:47.359,0:42:50.000
okay

0:42:47.920,0:42:51.200
it’s actually very important so a

0:42:50.000,0:42:54.560
muckraker

0:42:51.200,0:42:55.040
is a reform-minded journalist who formed

0:42:54.560,0:42:57.920
in the

0:42:55.040,0:42:59.760
progressive era so not necessarily the

0:42:57.920,0:43:01.359
gilded age but there’s a bit of overlap

0:42:59.760,0:43:04.480
the progressive era

0:43:01.359,0:43:06.000
is from the 1890s to the 1920s which is

0:43:04.480,0:43:08.319
basically

0:43:06.000,0:43:09.200
we made a lot of progress in human

0:43:08.319,0:43:12.079
rights and

0:43:09.200,0:43:13.760
civil rights uh overlapping with the

0:43:12.079,0:43:16.720
gilded age

0:43:13.760,0:43:18.800
so muckrakers basically exposed

0:43:16.720,0:43:19.599
established institutions and leaders as

0:43:18.800,0:43:22.720
corrupt

0:43:19.599,0:43:26.480
and they worked with oh the work was

0:43:22.720,0:43:29.040
usually published in magazines

0:43:26.480,0:43:29.839
okay so to close how did things change

0:43:29.040,0:43:32.480
and how did it

0:43:29.839,0:43:34.960
end so we eventually hit an economic

0:43:32.480,0:43:38.319
depression in 1893 known as

0:43:34.960,0:43:41.040
the panic of 1893. millions of people

0:43:38.319,0:43:43.599
were unemployed homeless and hungry

0:43:41.040,0:43:45.440
unemployment reaches about 50 percent

0:43:43.599,0:43:48.880
and

0:43:45.440,0:43:52.319
50 yeah that’s pretty bad

0:43:48.880,0:43:55.599
wait that’s like literally insane yeah

0:43:52.319,0:43:58.160
well it was a depression so

0:43:55.599,0:44:01.680
i’m like so desensitized to like stats

0:43:58.160,0:44:01.680
nowadays i’m like yeah it’s rough

0:44:03.440,0:44:07.599
and because of that this leads to lots

0:44:06.480,0:44:09.680
of anger

0:44:07.599,0:44:11.440
from the low and middle class with

0:44:09.680,0:44:12.800
political corruption and social

0:44:11.440,0:44:16.240
inequality

0:44:12.800,0:44:17.920
started the progressive movement which

0:44:16.240,0:44:20.640
oh so then the progressive movement

0:44:17.920,0:44:22.160
starts and that was because of president

0:44:20.640,0:44:26.079
theodore roosevelt

0:44:22.160,0:44:31.920
teddy roosevelt who took office in 1901

0:44:26.079,0:44:35.359
after the assassination of mckinley

0:44:31.920,0:44:37.119
yeah i’m excited

0:44:35.359,0:44:41.520
literally check out our president

0:44:37.119,0:44:41.520
mckinley was assassinated episode

0:44:41.760,0:44:49.760
yeah go back to our first episode

0:44:44.960,0:44:51.680
we’ve come so far and yeah roosevelt

0:44:49.760,0:44:52.880
corporate america but he believed

0:44:51.680,0:44:55.280
federal checks

0:44:52.880,0:44:57.040
and control should be in place to limit

0:44:55.280,0:44:59.280
excessive corporate greed

0:44:57.040,0:45:01.359
off the backs of immigrants and the

0:44:59.280,0:45:04.640
lower class

0:45:01.359,0:45:08.160
so with the work of the government and

0:45:04.640,0:45:08.720
muckrakers so the people the progressive

0:45:08.160,0:45:11.040
era

0:45:08.720,0:45:12.160
was able to usher in a lot of reform

0:45:11.040,0:45:16.000
that helped shift away

0:45:12.160,0:45:18.960
power from robber barons such as

0:45:16.000,0:45:20.400
trust busting with the sherman

0:45:18.960,0:45:22.640
anti-trust laws

0:45:20.400,0:45:25.440
so that’s just basically outlawing

0:45:22.640,0:45:27.520
monopolies like you cannot own

0:45:25.440,0:45:29.119
every single thing in an industry you

0:45:27.520,0:45:32.240
have to have competition

0:45:29.119,0:45:34.400
between the industries and within

0:45:32.240,0:45:37.200
industry

0:45:34.400,0:45:38.720
and there’s also labor reform so eight

0:45:37.200,0:45:43.200
hour work day

0:45:38.720,0:45:46.480
no child labor child labor laws

0:45:43.200,0:45:49.079
wow women’s suffrage birth control

0:45:46.480,0:45:51.119
trade unions food and medicine

0:45:49.079,0:45:54.960
regulations

0:45:51.119,0:45:56.800
yeah lots of stuff fair labor standards

0:45:54.960,0:45:58.880
that’s a lot of reform like if you can’t

0:45:56.800,0:46:02.720
like can you imagine like

0:45:58.880,0:46:05.280
i don’t know if you’re like born in like

0:46:02.720,0:46:05.680
the late 1800s and then you lived to

0:46:05.280,0:46:09.839
like

0:46:05.680,0:46:10.480
the mid 1900s and then like you see how

0:46:09.839,0:46:12.960
much

0:46:10.480,0:46:13.520
the work working for us has changed and

0:46:12.960,0:46:16.000
like

0:46:13.520,0:46:17.359
working standards has changed like

0:46:16.000,0:46:20.400
that’s a lot that’s

0:46:17.359,0:46:21.119
happened yeah yeah it shows just like

0:46:20.400,0:46:25.680
how much

0:46:21.119,0:46:28.880
growth like each generation had to do

0:46:25.680,0:46:32.160
and i think it didn’t occur to me

0:46:28.880,0:46:34.640
until i was doing this that these are

0:46:32.160,0:46:36.720
real people i think with history

0:46:34.640,0:46:38.720
i like at least will tend to think that

0:46:36.720,0:46:41.119
these people didn’t exist

0:46:38.720,0:46:42.240
and that this stuff is like so so long

0:46:41.119,0:46:45.359
ago and like

0:46:42.240,0:46:47.680
beast i’m just looking at like history

0:46:45.359,0:46:49.599
and it’s like fictional to me but like

0:46:47.680,0:46:50.720
it’s a real problem that people really

0:46:49.599,0:46:52.079
had and

0:46:50.720,0:46:53.760
i think it was really weird for me to

0:46:52.079,0:46:55.119
look at images of people during this

0:46:53.760,0:46:56.720
time because i don’t know what i was

0:46:55.119,0:46:58.720
expecting them to look like

0:46:56.720,0:47:00.400
but they look like us like we literally

0:46:58.720,0:47:02.960
look the same and i was like

0:47:00.400,0:47:04.480
there’s no indication that they’re old

0:47:02.960,0:47:06.800
or anything

0:47:04.480,0:47:08.240
and just because like your grandma is

0:47:06.800,0:47:10.560
really old doesn’t mean

0:47:08.240,0:47:11.440
that she wasn’t your age at once and

0:47:10.560,0:47:14.960
there weren’t

0:47:11.440,0:47:17.280
problems during that time that’s so true

0:47:14.960,0:47:18.319
it really is like especially just

0:47:17.280,0:47:20.640
reading from

0:47:18.319,0:47:22.079
a really boring old textbook like it’s

0:47:20.640,0:47:25.839
so hard to emphasize

0:47:22.079,0:47:25.839
and emphasize

0:47:27.520,0:47:31.520
it’s so hard to empathize with people

0:47:30.400,0:47:33.280
because

0:47:31.520,0:47:34.880
like if you don’t hear about individual

0:47:33.280,0:47:36.400
stories or like if you’re just getting

0:47:34.880,0:47:40.240
like numbers and like

0:47:36.400,0:47:42.000
facts and just statistics it’s hard to

0:47:40.240,0:47:43.839
really think about like put yourself in

0:47:42.000,0:47:45.520
some in their shoes and i think about

0:47:43.839,0:47:45.839
what life was like at that time and how

0:47:45.520,0:47:48.640
much

0:47:45.839,0:47:51.280
people struggled and yeah it’s weird to

0:47:48.640,0:47:53.680
like think of people in like the 1800s

0:47:51.280,0:47:54.880
like normal people like it does sound

0:47:53.680,0:47:58.480
like silly to say

0:47:54.880,0:48:00.400
but i don’t know no it’s literally so

0:47:58.480,0:48:03.280
true okay so to close us out

0:48:00.400,0:48:04.319
uh by 1916 america’s cities were cleaner

0:48:03.280,0:48:06.720
and healthier

0:48:04.319,0:48:07.520
factories were safer governments less

0:48:06.720,0:48:09.599
corrupt

0:48:07.520,0:48:10.960
and many people had better housing

0:48:09.599,0:48:14.000
working hours

0:48:10.960,0:48:15.520
and wages so there are fewer monopolies

0:48:14.000,0:48:17.359
which meant that more people could

0:48:15.520,0:48:18.960
pursue the american dream and start

0:48:17.359,0:48:21.920
their own businesses

0:48:18.960,0:48:23.119
just before we hit world war one the

0:48:21.920,0:48:26.079
spanish flu

0:48:23.119,0:48:28.960
and the roaring twenties so most of the

0:48:26.079,0:48:31.119
robber barons and their families however

0:48:28.960,0:48:32.079
remained wealthy for generations of

0:48:31.119,0:48:34.559
course

0:48:32.079,0:48:36.319
and progressives still continued their

0:48:34.559,0:48:38.960
mission to close the gap between the

0:48:36.319,0:48:42.240
wealthy and poor and champion the needy

0:48:38.960,0:48:46.559
and disenfranchised wow

0:48:42.240,0:48:48.880
that’s the gilly dave amazing job jack

0:48:46.559,0:48:50.000
okay next week is our last episode for

0:48:48.880,0:48:52.800
season one

0:48:50.000,0:48:54.559
and if you didn’t notice season one has

0:48:52.800,0:48:58.720
basically only been us

0:48:54.559,0:49:02.960
history so season two is going to be

0:48:58.720,0:49:04.640
world history um

0:49:02.960,0:49:06.559
yeah we’re really excited for that so

0:49:04.640,0:49:09.760
stay tuned we’re also gonna have a

0:49:06.559,0:49:10.319
break in between seasons so after next

0:49:09.760,0:49:13.280
week

0:49:10.319,0:49:15.119
we will take a two-week break and then

0:49:13.280,0:49:16.720
we’ll come back at it

0:49:15.119,0:49:19.520
yeah excited because we’re going to

0:49:16.720,0:49:20.079
cover topics from other countries and we

0:49:19.520,0:49:21.680
see

0:49:20.079,0:49:23.760
a lot of our viewers from different

0:49:21.680,0:49:25.760
countries so please

0:49:23.760,0:49:26.960
leave us a rating tell us where you’re

0:49:25.760,0:49:28.960
from tell us

0:49:26.960,0:49:30.319
what about your country what you want us

0:49:28.960,0:49:34.319
to cover

0:49:30.319,0:49:35.040
and yeah tweet us i would tweet us yes

0:49:34.319,0:49:38.240
please

0:49:35.040,0:49:38.880
email us follow us on instagram send us

0:49:38.240,0:49:41.839
a um

0:49:38.880,0:49:44.000
an owl do something anything there are

0:49:41.839,0:49:46.880
so many ways to get in touch with us and

0:49:44.000,0:49:48.000
we’re just so excited to hear from you

0:49:46.880,0:49:58.130
all right

0:49:48.000,0:50:10.179
for the city guys bye

0:49:58.130,0:50:10.179
[Music]

0:50:10.960,0:50:13.040
you

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