Why Are We So Obsessed With Latin America?

How Did America Become An Imperialist Power?| Spanish-American War Pt. 1 How Did We Not Know That

In the year 1898, the once-mighty Spanish empire crumbled within a matter of months. Who was there to pick up the pieces? None other than the young but ambitious nation of the United States of America. In the Season 3 opener, Nat presents the highly-anticipated episode on the Spanish-American War. Listen to how the former British colony acquired a few territories for itself and became a major player on the international stage. Thank you to all of our listeners for supporting us all the way to our third season!  Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt   Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat   Study Guides and Show Notes: http://www.hdwnkt.com #StopAsianHate Fundraiser Facebook Post: https://www.facebook.com/HDWNKT/ #StopAsianHate Educational Resources: https://anti-asianviolenceresources.carrd.co/ Paypal Link to Donate to Fundraiser (send to howdidwenotknowthat@gmail.com): https://www.paypal.com/myaccount/transfer/homepage — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. How Did America Become An Imperialist Power?| Spanish-American War Pt. 1
  2. Who Are The Viet Minh?
  3. Minisode #14: What is Economics?
  4. Is It A Fight For Equality Or Ethnic Cleansing?
  5. Minisode #13: Liberalism

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Show Notes

Regarded as one of the most influential ideologies in US foreign policy, the Monroe Doctrine established the foundation for America’s role in the Western Hemisphere and as a major actor on the international stage. In this episode, Nat dissects the impact of the Monroe Doctrine and its complex legacy in Latin America.

Sources:

Transcript

0:00:00.160,0:00:03.919
hi everybody and welcome back to another

0:00:02.159,0:00:07.680
episode of how did we not know that

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my name is jack i’m matt and today

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matt is going to be talking about the

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monroe doctrine

0:00:11.280,0:00:16.560
yeah yeah yeah yeah the monroe doctrine

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i’m super excited because okay so

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the two of us are studying for the

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foreign service officer test

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but like we really we really don’t talk

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about it as often but

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um you can’t talk about the history of

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u.s foreign policy without talking about

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the monroe doctrine

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because it’s arguably like the most

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influential piece

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of u.s foreign policy in our history

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so i’m super excited to talk about it um

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we’re going to start off

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by flashing back to the early 1820s

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and at this time several latin american

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countries had won their independence

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from

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either spain or portugal so in 1812 the

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u.s had recognized

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the new nations of chile argentina

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mexico and peru but both

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the us and britain were worried that

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like

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other european nations were going to

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come in and colonize these countries

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later in the future

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and they were especially worried about

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russia

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because in 1821 russian czar

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alexander the first had claimed

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sovereignty

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over territory in the pacific northwest

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so that ranged from

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like alaska to the oregon territory and

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he banned four

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ships from approaching the coast and

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america was like

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um what the heck they were like really

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worried that all these european

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nations were going to come and grab all

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this territory that

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the us was trying to grab right and so

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president james monroe he’s president at

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the time

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and he is scared of foreign intervention

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in the americas and he wanted to create

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a joint

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u.s british resolution that would

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ban further colonization in latin

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america by other european powers

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but secretary of state john quincy

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adams he he goes to president monroe and

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he’s like hey

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let’s ditch britain because it would

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actually limit future opportunities for

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the us to expand its territory

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if we collaborated with britain and then

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also like britain might decide to

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colonize these

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territories or these countries in the

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region

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and so john quincy adams he was like

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really focused on trade

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in latin america south america and

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he thought that like european trade was

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the greatest obstacle

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in the us’s uh economic expansion

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and so he didn’t want anything to do

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with britain and so he

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convinces president monroe to draft a

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statement

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of unilateral u.s policy that would

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establish the u.s as the protector of

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the

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entire western hemisphere

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so on december 2nd 1823

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president monroe gives his annual speech

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to congress

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and in it he explains the idea of what

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would later be known as the monroe

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doctrine

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even though it was actually like mostly

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written by john quincy adams

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and it’s only a few paragraphs in his

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entire speech but

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it’s so significant like it has a

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lasting effect that we still see today

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and so in a nutshell the monroe doctrine

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states that the us

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is the protector of the entire western

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hemisphere and nobody else can touch it

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and there are three main concepts in his

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speech

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so the first is that the old world and

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the new world were different

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and should be two distinct spheres of

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influence so remember like when

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like the uh when the pilgrims went to

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america and they’re like oh this is the

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new world

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old world is like all the european

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countries so they’re like okay we’re

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different

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let’s not bother each other the second

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concept is that european powers couldn’t

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colonize latin america

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and the third is the concept of

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non-interference

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and so any attempt by a european power

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to

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exert its influence in the western

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hemisphere would be seen as a threat to

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u.s

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security and so in turn the u.s

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wouldn’t interfere in the political

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affairs of europe

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or with existing european colonies in

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the western hemisphere

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so does that make sense yeah so when we

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it when you like the monroe doctrine is

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it just

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we’re signing it or do we have to get

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europe to sign it too

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we’re like literally no one’s even

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signing it that’s the thing

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saying it he’s literally just he gives a

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speech and he’s like hey

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this is this is a thing now like the us

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we’re the protector of the western

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hemisphere and if europe tries to come

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in like

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that’s going to be a threat to us and so

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we’re going to fight you

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okay so no one acknowledged it just like

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president said it

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yeah that’s it yeah he’s like he just

0:05:04.560,0:05:09.039
declared it

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like which yeah so

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obviously like this is pretty insane

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because at the time the u.s

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is like a really young country and it’s

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a very minor player on the world stage

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and also it has like no

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military or naval power to back this up

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like he’s just

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he’s just saying it but yeah because

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this is 1812

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right is that what you said okay um oh

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sorry no 1823

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okay so yeah so this is after the war of

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1812 so i think we were kind of

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feeling cocky at the time oh yeah

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for no good reason because if you

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watched war of 1812 you know how that

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went down

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yeah it wasn’t anything to be like super

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proud

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yeah but yeah and so we were like

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feeling really good about ourselves

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um but yeah the rest of the world pretty

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much ignores

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president monroe and they’re like okay

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cool whatever

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um no one takes it seriously and

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question two

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i mean how would everyone else

0:06:08.560,0:06:12.560
acknowledge it because he gives a speech

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but then did they distribute it

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to everyone else did they send

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messengers or is it just you said this

0:06:16.400,0:06:19.520
to

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some people and like no one else knows

0:06:19.520,0:06:22.560
about it

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i don’t know like maybe like newspapers

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reported on it

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and then like word got sent to other

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countries but yeah i really don’t know

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you can’t just like live stream it yeah

0:06:32.479,0:06:37.280
look like um yeah i don’t know how they

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even can you imagine it’s like a game of

0:06:37.280,0:06:40.080
telephone right if you’re trying to like

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spread the news

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and then by the time it gets to like

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chile they’re like who

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who’s protecting us like wait those guys

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really

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okay is that a nation aren’t they

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british

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like didn’t canada just burn down their

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white house or something

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like i thought they were done though

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um yeah i’m sure yeah i’m sure like

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other countries

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in latin america are just like what

0:07:05.280,0:07:12.319
okay um yeah but okay so then like

0:07:08.880,0:07:13.039
in 1833 british forces occupy the

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falkland

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islands off the coast of argentina i

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know about this

0:07:16.240,0:07:19.680
yeah i really want to visit the falkland

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islands

0:07:19.680,0:07:23.840
yeah yeah yeah falkland islands very

0:07:21.919,0:07:25.599
interesting history but yeah so

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british forces occupy the islands and

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it’s off the coast of argentina

0:07:27.680,0:07:33.919
so it’s technically the us’s

0:07:30.800,0:07:36.479
sphere of influence but the us decides

0:07:33.919,0:07:37.039
not to invoke the doctrine probably

0:07:36.479,0:07:38.319
because

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they don’t actually have like the

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military power to stop them

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so britain comes and they take over the

0:07:42.639,0:07:47.520
islands and the u.s does nothing and so

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people are like okay

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great job however as time passes

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and the us’s military and economic

0:07:55.280,0:07:59.120
strength grows

0:07:56.639,0:07:59.759
it actually starts to follow through

0:07:59.120,0:08:02.639
with

0:07:59.759,0:08:03.039
the monroe doctrine so the first example

0:08:02.639,0:08:06.080
of this

0:08:03.039,0:08:10.000
is in 1867 so this is

0:08:06.080,0:08:12.319
right after the civil war ended in 1865

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and the u.s has a lot more military

0:08:12.319,0:08:18.319
power because of the civil war right

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and so at the time mexico is being ruled

0:08:18.319,0:08:21.520
by

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emperor maximilian who had been put into

0:08:21.520,0:08:25.759
power by the french government because

0:08:23.360,0:08:26.560
mexico owed france a lot of debt so

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they’re like okay

0:08:26.560,0:08:30.319
we’re gonna put this guy in charge of

0:08:28.400,0:08:33.279
you um

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and the us they don’t like that france

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has so much influence

0:08:34.640,0:08:38.959
in their neighboring country’s politics

0:08:37.360,0:08:41.599
and so they decide to provide

0:08:38.959,0:08:42.880
military and diplomatic support to

0:08:41.599,0:08:44.880
benito flores

0:08:42.880,0:08:47.519
who is the president of the mexican

0:08:44.880,0:08:50.000
republic and

0:08:47.519,0:08:50.880
emperor maximilian is executed on the

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orders of

0:08:50.880,0:08:54.800
benito forest so that’s like a big deal

0:08:54.240,0:08:58.080
though

0:08:54.800,0:09:01.200
yeah we we supported that and

0:08:58.080,0:09:02.240
helped make that happen and so that kind

0:09:01.200,0:09:04.240
of like

0:09:02.240,0:09:05.920
not only does that like solidify our

0:09:04.240,0:09:06.720
commitment to the monroe doctrine but it

0:09:05.920,0:09:08.880
shows that

0:09:06.720,0:09:10.320
hey we actually have the power to follow

0:09:08.880,0:09:13.440
through with this

0:09:10.320,0:09:17.040
uh definition i’m always confused on

0:09:13.440,0:09:19.360
the us’s relation with france like i

0:09:17.040,0:09:20.640
i need a timeline of do we like them do

0:09:19.360,0:09:22.240
we not like them because

0:09:20.640,0:09:24.720
we’re allies at one point for the

0:09:22.240,0:09:26.080
american revolution and now we’re not

0:09:24.720,0:09:28.800
now we’re trying to make sure that they

0:09:26.080,0:09:32.160
don’t expand territory it’s

0:09:28.800,0:09:32.480
yeah i also am like very confused about

0:09:32.160,0:09:35.920
that

0:09:32.480,0:09:37.279
also i just watched uh hamilton on

0:09:35.920,0:09:40.240
disney plaza and so like

0:09:37.279,0:09:42.000
yeah there’s like uh lafayette and like

0:09:40.240,0:09:44.320
he’s a good guy but then i don’t know

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now we don’t like france and so

0:09:44.320,0:09:49.839
yeah i feel like we always liked france

0:09:46.480,0:09:52.480
though we love our french viewers

0:09:49.839,0:09:54.560
like i feel like because even when they

0:09:52.480,0:09:56.640
had the revolution we still were

0:09:54.560,0:09:58.800
like thomas jefferson is like lobbying

0:09:56.640,0:10:00.720
for us to still like send funds and like

0:09:58.800,0:10:04.160
help france out in their revolution

0:10:00.720,0:10:05.920
and then we decide not to yeah you know

0:10:04.160,0:10:07.519
what i think like the root of the

0:10:05.920,0:10:08.959
problem isn’t like whether or not we

0:10:07.519,0:10:11.600
like france right now it’s just like we

0:10:08.959,0:10:14.800
don’t want them to have influence

0:10:11.600,0:10:16.480
in the region um sorry i have like

0:10:14.800,0:10:18.160
something in my eye

0:10:16.480,0:10:19.839
yeah i just think we we don’t want them

0:10:18.160,0:10:22.160
to have influence

0:10:19.839,0:10:24.480
like on mexico’s politics just because

0:10:22.160,0:10:27.279
we want the whole hemisphere to

0:10:24.480,0:10:27.680
to ourselves we’re not at all we’re like

0:10:27.279,0:10:29.760
yeah

0:10:27.680,0:10:31.360
it’s not about them it’s like it’s not

0:10:29.760,0:10:34.560
you it’s me

0:10:31.360,0:10:37.760
to me not that we don’t like you we want

0:10:34.560,0:10:40.880
all of this to ourselves without yeah

0:10:37.760,0:10:42.160
without any uh pushback so so yeah i

0:10:40.880,0:10:45.680
think that’s what it is

0:10:42.160,0:10:48.800
but i don’t know france yeah shout

0:10:45.680,0:10:53.360
french viewers but yeah so

0:10:48.800,0:10:56.320
after this um the us is propelled by

0:10:53.360,0:10:57.760
manifest destiny and it continues to

0:10:56.320,0:11:00.560
expand its influence

0:10:57.760,0:11:01.360
all around the world so we see america

0:11:00.560,0:11:04.079
is acquiring

0:11:01.360,0:11:05.519
a bunch of overseas territory from the

0:11:04.079,0:11:08.560
spanish-american war

0:11:05.519,0:11:09.279
which we’ll cover soon hopefully and

0:11:08.560,0:11:12.560
then

0:11:09.279,0:11:15.440
also in the pacific islands um

0:11:12.560,0:11:16.959
and this helps solidify the us’s role as

0:11:15.440,0:11:19.839
a world power

0:11:16.959,0:11:20.399
and it also gives like the necessary

0:11:19.839,0:11:22.480
strength

0:11:20.399,0:11:24.160
again to back up this doctrine so we’re

0:11:22.480,0:11:25.519
just like acquiring land and we’re like

0:11:24.160,0:11:29.680
yes we are

0:11:25.519,0:11:32.640
like we are a major world player and

0:11:29.680,0:11:34.079
like what the big changing point um is

0:11:32.640,0:11:36.880
in 1904

0:11:34.079,0:11:38.880
when european creditors were threatening

0:11:36.880,0:11:40.079
to send in armed forces to latin

0:11:38.880,0:11:44.160
american countries

0:11:40.079,0:11:47.200
who hadn’t paid back their debt yet and

0:11:44.160,0:11:47.519
so president theodore roosevelt he steps

0:11:47.200,0:11:50.399
in

0:11:47.519,0:11:52.800
and he sends u.s marines to nicaragua

0:11:50.399,0:11:54.959
haiti and the dominican republic

0:11:52.800,0:11:57.600
in order to ward off these european

0:11:54.959,0:12:00.160
creditors and he says

0:11:57.600,0:12:02.000
quote in the western hemisphere the

0:12:00.160,0:12:03.279
adherence of the united states to the

0:12:02.000,0:12:05.680
monroe doctrine

0:12:03.279,0:12:06.720
may force the united states however

0:12:05.680,0:12:09.360
reluctantly

0:12:06.720,0:12:10.079
in a flag in flagrant cases of such

0:12:09.360,0:12:12.800
wrongdoing

0:12:10.079,0:12:13.839
or impotence to the exercise of an

0:12:12.800,0:12:17.360
international

0:12:13.839,0:12:19.040
police power unquote and so

0:12:17.360,0:12:20.959
yeah yeah go ahead as you say that’s

0:12:19.040,0:12:22.399
really interesting because

0:12:20.959,0:12:24.240
i’ve been like doing some research on

0:12:22.399,0:12:26.800
the haiti revolution and so

0:12:24.240,0:12:27.600
with haiti’s revolution and them owing

0:12:26.800,0:12:29.519
debts to

0:12:27.600,0:12:31.120
france which were ridiculous we’ll talk

0:12:29.519,0:12:32.959
about it in another episode

0:12:31.120,0:12:34.320
but it’s interesting that the monroe

0:12:32.959,0:12:37.680
doctrine had

0:12:34.320,0:12:38.320
them maybe defend like haiti and these

0:12:37.680,0:12:41.360
like

0:12:38.320,0:12:42.800
other central american countries when a

0:12:41.360,0:12:44.320
lot of these countries are refusing to

0:12:42.800,0:12:46.399
do trade with haiti because of that

0:12:44.320,0:12:48.959
revolution

0:12:46.399,0:12:50.800
thoughts on that that’s interesting yeah

0:12:48.959,0:12:52.399
okay honestly i don’t know too much

0:12:50.800,0:12:54.160
about the haiti

0:12:52.399,0:12:56.160
haitian revolution so i’m really excited

0:12:54.160,0:12:56.800
to learn more about that in a future

0:12:56.160,0:13:00.560
episode

0:12:56.800,0:13:02.320
but yeah and also like just like overall

0:13:00.560,0:13:03.360
with this whole like oh you can’t

0:13:02.320,0:13:06.560
colonize

0:13:03.360,0:13:08.480
latin america like i not to be like

0:13:06.560,0:13:11.440
super cynical but i don’t think it’s

0:13:08.480,0:13:13.040
like out of like reasons of like oh we

0:13:11.440,0:13:14.560
have a pure heart like we don’t want you

0:13:13.040,0:13:15.839
to be colonized i think it’s just we

0:13:14.560,0:13:18.560
don’t want

0:13:15.839,0:13:20.000
european powers influenced in our

0:13:18.560,0:13:23.040
quote-unquote backyard

0:13:20.000,0:13:24.720
so to do with um

0:13:23.040,0:13:26.720
our relation with haiti too it’s like

0:13:24.720,0:13:28.880
yeah we’re not gonna let these

0:13:26.720,0:13:31.440
debtors come in but not because we’re

0:13:28.880,0:13:34.000
like yeah not because we like you guys

0:13:31.440,0:13:34.959
but it’s because we don’t want them

0:13:34.000,0:13:37.279
having power

0:13:34.959,0:13:38.000
near us so i think yeah that’s where

0:13:37.279,0:13:42.959
this

0:13:38.000,0:13:45.199
gets tricky and yeah but like regardless

0:13:42.959,0:13:46.720
like this like theodore roosevelt

0:13:45.199,0:13:49.199
literally says we’re the international

0:13:46.720,0:13:49.920
police power of the western hemisphere

0:13:49.199,0:13:53.680
which is

0:13:49.920,0:13:57.199
a huge deal and like his whole

0:13:53.680,0:13:59.680
viewpoint his whole um foreign policy

0:13:57.199,0:14:01.519
theory i guess would later be known as

0:13:59.680,0:14:04.880
the big stick policy

0:14:01.519,0:14:07.279
because he has this davis slogan towards

0:14:04.880,0:14:08.000
foreign policy speak softly and carry a

0:14:07.279,0:14:11.440
big stick

0:14:08.000,0:14:15.120
you will go far so this basically means

0:14:11.440,0:14:17.839
that like hey let’s focus on negotiation

0:14:15.120,0:14:20.000
and cooperation but also like don’t

0:14:17.839,0:14:21.760
forget we have all this military power

0:14:20.000,0:14:23.839
and we’re really not afraid to use it

0:14:21.760,0:14:25.120
against you if we need to

0:14:23.839,0:14:26.880
so that’s kind of what the big stick

0:14:25.120,0:14:29.120
policy is and

0:14:26.880,0:14:31.600
actually like in a speech he tells the

0:14:29.120,0:14:33.600
audience remember the monroe doctrine

0:14:31.600,0:14:34.959
will be respected as long as we have a

0:14:33.600,0:14:37.839
first class navy

0:14:34.959,0:14:39.839
so he is really like adamant like

0:14:37.839,0:14:40.639
president roosevelt is really adamant

0:14:39.839,0:14:43.600
about

0:14:40.639,0:14:44.320
expanding u.s influence all around the

0:14:43.600,0:14:47.440
world

0:14:44.320,0:14:49.279
um and yeah expanding the interpretation

0:14:47.440,0:14:52.320
of the monroe doctrine

0:14:49.279,0:14:52.880
uh and so this might seem like common

0:14:52.320,0:14:55.920
sense

0:14:52.880,0:14:56.639
today because it’s kind of like it’s

0:14:55.920,0:14:58.639
really shaped

0:14:56.639,0:14:59.680
what our foreign policy strategy looks

0:14:58.639,0:15:02.720
like today so we

0:14:59.680,0:15:05.600
kind of see similar thoughts um

0:15:02.720,0:15:07.120
and theories today but like this is

0:15:05.600,0:15:07.760
really crazy at the time because if you

0:15:07.120,0:15:10.160
think about

0:15:07.760,0:15:10.880
other empires at the time like the

0:15:10.160,0:15:13.519
spanish

0:15:10.880,0:15:15.120
empire french british empire like their

0:15:13.519,0:15:16.959
whole theory has kind of just been to

0:15:15.120,0:15:18.800
like send a bunch of

0:15:16.959,0:15:20.560
ships and like military power and just

0:15:18.800,0:15:21.839
like go to war with like all these

0:15:20.560,0:15:23.760
territories

0:15:21.839,0:15:25.519
but then roosevelt comes in and he’s

0:15:23.760,0:15:28.480
like okay yeah we could

0:15:25.519,0:15:30.399
send in military power but it’s more

0:15:28.480,0:15:31.920
about like scaring people

0:15:30.399,0:15:33.680
and like threatening you through

0:15:31.920,0:15:35.440
negotiation so it’s

0:15:33.680,0:15:36.720
i don’t know i just thought it’s really

0:15:35.440,0:15:37.279
interesting because it’s a pretty big

0:15:36.720,0:15:41.360
change

0:15:37.279,0:15:43.440
um and yeah so obviously roosevelt

0:15:41.360,0:15:44.399
expands the interpretation of the monroe

0:15:43.440,0:15:48.000
doctrine

0:15:44.399,0:15:51.120
and it basically justifies military

0:15:48.000,0:15:55.120
interventions in latin america and the

0:15:51.120,0:15:58.079
caribbean um so it’s a really big deal

0:15:55.120,0:15:58.639
but then president so then we flash

0:15:58.079,0:16:01.839
forward

0:15:58.639,0:16:04.639
to the cold war 21st century

0:16:01.839,0:16:05.279
oh sorry this is not the clover okay

0:16:04.639,0:16:07.839
okay

0:16:05.279,0:16:09.680
so then if we flash forward to president

0:16:07.839,0:16:12.399
franklin d roosevelt

0:16:09.680,0:16:13.040
he replaces the big stick policy with

0:16:12.399,0:16:16.240
the good

0:16:13.040,0:16:18.160
neighbor policy and this focuses on

0:16:16.240,0:16:20.639
cooperation and trade

0:16:18.160,0:16:23.040
rather than military force in order to

0:16:20.639,0:16:25.440
improve relations in latin american

0:16:23.040,0:16:27.199
with latin american countries and so for

0:16:25.440,0:16:29.600
example the organization

0:16:27.199,0:16:30.720
for american states is created in order

0:16:29.600,0:16:32.480
to strengthen

0:16:30.720,0:16:35.120
cooperation in the western hemisphere

0:16:32.480,0:16:38.320
and it still exists today which is cool

0:16:35.120,0:16:40.320
uh but this does not stop future leaders

0:16:38.320,0:16:41.680
from using the monroe doctrine in order

0:16:40.320,0:16:44.079
to justify

0:16:41.680,0:16:45.920
military invention interventions in the

0:16:44.079,0:16:48.560
western hemisphere

0:16:45.920,0:16:50.639
so president john f kennedy actually

0:16:48.560,0:16:54.079
invoked the monroe doctrine

0:16:50.639,0:16:56.560
during the cuban missile crisis in 1962

0:16:54.079,0:16:58.560
when he ordered an air and naval

0:16:56.560,0:17:01.199
quarantine of cuba

0:16:58.560,0:17:02.399
after the soviet union started building

0:17:01.199,0:17:04.959
missile launching

0:17:02.399,0:17:06.319
sites there and so that’s a big deal

0:17:04.959,0:17:08.160
because again like

0:17:06.319,0:17:09.360
if you think about it like the us really

0:17:08.160,0:17:12.959
doesn’t have

0:17:09.360,0:17:15.679
the right to like go send

0:17:12.959,0:17:16.319
um i guess forces there and like police

0:17:15.679,0:17:18.640
things but

0:17:16.319,0:17:20.319
because of this monroe doctrine like it

0:17:18.640,0:17:23.919
really establishes

0:17:20.319,0:17:26.720
our foreign policy strategy and our role

0:17:23.919,0:17:27.360
our perceived role in the region and

0:17:26.720,0:17:30.640
because

0:17:27.360,0:17:32.880
we send these troops to cuba

0:17:30.640,0:17:34.799
um and have this quarantine there which

0:17:32.880,0:17:35.679
basically means like we like blockade it

0:17:34.799,0:17:39.039
and we’re like hey

0:17:35.679,0:17:41.200
no one can come in or out um so after

0:17:39.039,0:17:43.039
several days of this the soviet union

0:17:41.200,0:17:45.919
begins to dismantle

0:17:43.039,0:17:47.280
its sights and withdraw its missiles so

0:17:45.919,0:17:49.679
it’s effective it works

0:17:47.280,0:17:51.200
um which also like cuban missile crisis

0:17:49.679,0:17:52.400
like we should cover that in a future

0:17:51.200,0:17:56.320
episode oh definitely

0:17:52.400,0:17:59.600
um so after this after

0:17:56.320,0:18:03.200
uh jfk and the cuban missile crisis you

0:17:59.600,0:18:05.919
rarely hear presidents explicitly use

0:18:03.200,0:18:08.320
the word monroe doctrine to justify

0:18:05.919,0:18:10.400
their foreign policy decision making

0:18:08.320,0:18:12.320
but like even if they’re not saying it

0:18:10.400,0:18:15.840
out loud the monroe doctrines

0:18:12.320,0:18:18.080
history and its legacy nonetheless

0:18:15.840,0:18:20.080
influenced their opinions and their

0:18:18.080,0:18:20.559
perspective of america’s role in the

0:18:20.080,0:18:22.640
region

0:18:20.559,0:18:24.720
um so do you know like what the most

0:18:22.640,0:18:28.000
recent use of the monroe doctrine

0:18:24.720,0:18:31.200
has been maybe like an example yeah

0:18:28.000,0:18:34.400
so i think well that’s the thing is like

0:18:31.200,0:18:36.960
um presidents don’t really

0:18:34.400,0:18:39.679
say like they don’t really use the

0:18:36.960,0:18:42.640
monroe doctrine explicitly to justify

0:18:39.679,0:18:44.000
like what their decision-making um and

0:18:42.640,0:18:45.760
they don’t really say like oh i’m gonna

0:18:44.000,0:18:47.200
use the monroe doctrine because again

0:18:45.760,0:18:49.440
it’s just a declaration

0:18:47.200,0:18:50.240
like it’s not really a treaty so i think

0:18:49.440,0:18:52.160
jfk

0:18:50.240,0:18:54.400
was like the last one to say like hey

0:18:52.160,0:18:54.960
like talk about them in rhode island and

0:18:54.400,0:18:58.640
be like

0:18:54.960,0:19:01.760
this gives us the right and the power

0:18:58.640,0:19:05.440
to intervene in cuba’s affairs

0:19:01.760,0:19:07.919
um but like as

0:19:05.440,0:19:10.240
yeah but that doesn’t mean that like the

0:19:07.919,0:19:12.640
u.s has a very long history of

0:19:10.240,0:19:13.679
intervening in the regional affairs of

0:19:12.640,0:19:16.000
latin america

0:19:13.679,0:19:17.280
so yeah so the history of u.s influence

0:19:16.000,0:19:19.280
in latin america

0:19:17.280,0:19:20.720
is very controversial and pretty

0:19:19.280,0:19:23.200
polarizing but

0:19:20.720,0:19:25.360
i believe that all americans should be

0:19:23.200,0:19:26.000
aware of all of our country’s history

0:19:25.360,0:19:28.240
not just

0:19:26.000,0:19:29.600
the fun stuff so i’m going to attempt to

0:19:28.240,0:19:32.880
give a very very

0:19:29.600,0:19:35.520
brief and unbiased overview of the

0:19:32.880,0:19:37.280
modern history of u.s influence in the

0:19:35.520,0:19:39.360
region

0:19:37.280,0:19:40.799
and yeah i’m just gonna be presenting

0:19:39.360,0:19:43.600
facts so

0:19:40.799,0:19:45.280
so let’s start with president reagan um

0:19:43.600,0:19:48.480
so president ronald reagan

0:19:45.280,0:19:50.960
sent military aid to el salvador

0:19:48.480,0:19:52.080
during his administration so in the

0:19:50.960,0:19:55.039
1980s

0:19:52.080,0:19:56.160
a civil war broke out in the country and

0:19:55.039,0:19:58.480
the u.s government

0:19:56.160,0:19:59.280
sent billions of dollars worth of

0:19:58.480,0:20:02.480
economic

0:19:59.280,0:20:05.280
and military aid in order to support

0:20:02.480,0:20:06.640
the salvadoran government so they could

0:20:05.280,0:20:08.799
defeat the

0:20:06.640,0:20:10.240
leftist forces that were trying to

0:20:08.799,0:20:12.480
overthrow the government

0:20:10.240,0:20:14.159
so they wanted the government to remain

0:20:12.480,0:20:15.440
in power they didn’t want them to be

0:20:14.159,0:20:19.360
overthrown

0:20:15.440,0:20:23.600
and 75 000 people died in this conflict

0:20:19.360,0:20:27.280
so yeah it’s a really significant event

0:20:23.600,0:20:28.159
and yeah when you say leftists what does

0:20:27.280,0:20:31.760
that

0:20:28.159,0:20:34.159
mean yeah like politically left

0:20:31.760,0:20:35.840
so people label them as like either

0:20:34.159,0:20:39.280
socialist or communist

0:20:35.840,0:20:42.320
okay yeah um

0:20:39.280,0:20:44.880
and so probably one of the most

0:20:42.320,0:20:46.159
well-known events in president reagan’s

0:20:44.880,0:20:50.000
foreign policy career

0:20:46.159,0:20:52.480
was the us’s involvement in nicaragua

0:20:50.000,0:20:53.520
in what would later be known as the iran

0:20:52.480,0:20:56.960
contra affair

0:20:53.520,0:21:00.240
so have you heard of this before okay

0:20:56.960,0:21:02.240
so actually the iran contra affair is

0:21:00.240,0:21:04.559
especially controversial

0:21:02.240,0:21:05.840
um and of course just a reminder jack

0:21:04.559,0:21:08.640
and i are trying to create an

0:21:05.840,0:21:10.480
apolitical and unbiased environment so

0:21:08.640,0:21:12.320
when we discuss these historical events

0:21:10.480,0:21:15.440
so i’m just going to give a very brief

0:21:12.320,0:21:19.120
overview of facts only so

0:21:15.440,0:21:19.919
in nicaragua there are anti-communist

0:21:19.120,0:21:22.640
contras

0:21:19.919,0:21:23.520
that are battling the communist

0:21:22.640,0:21:25.520
government

0:21:23.520,0:21:28.000
um it’s the communist sandinista

0:21:25.520,0:21:29.039
government so it’s communist versus

0:21:28.000,0:21:30.960
anti-communist

0:21:29.039,0:21:32.080
like a theme we see a lot through

0:21:30.960,0:21:34.640
history

0:21:32.080,0:21:37.039
um and so president reagan supported the

0:21:34.640,0:21:40.400
contras the anti-communist contras

0:21:37.039,0:21:42.840
and he argued that they were the quote

0:21:40.400,0:21:44.240
moral equivalent of the founding fathers

0:21:42.840,0:21:47.200
unquote

0:21:44.240,0:21:48.400
um and at the time the contras received

0:21:47.200,0:21:51.760
much of their funding

0:21:48.400,0:21:55.679
from drug trafficking so

0:21:51.760,0:21:58.880
yeah and across so across the world

0:21:55.679,0:22:00.080
in lebanon seven americans were being

0:21:58.880,0:22:02.640
held hostage

0:22:00.080,0:22:04.480
by iranian-backed terrorists from the

0:22:02.640,0:22:06.720
group hezbollah

0:22:04.480,0:22:08.559
and so sorry like there’s so many

0:22:06.720,0:22:10.720
countries involved in this thing so i

0:22:08.559,0:22:12.080
it’s very confusing and that’s why i

0:22:10.720,0:22:16.240
think a lot of americans

0:22:12.080,0:22:18.640
like maybe don’t understand it fully so

0:22:16.240,0:22:19.840
so yeah they’re in lebanon but they’re

0:22:18.640,0:22:23.600
held by

0:22:19.840,0:22:25.919
iranian terrorists um and so iran

0:22:23.600,0:22:26.720
actually wanted to buy weapons from the

0:22:25.919,0:22:28.880
us

0:22:26.720,0:22:31.200
because at this time they’re at war with

0:22:28.880,0:22:34.559
iraq so they need weapons for their war

0:22:31.200,0:22:37.440
but the us has a trade embargo with

0:22:34.559,0:22:39.280
against iran which means they can’t do

0:22:37.440,0:22:42.799
trade with them

0:22:39.280,0:22:45.600
and so some national security leaders to

0:22:42.799,0:22:46.320
president reagan suggested that an arms

0:22:45.600,0:22:49.039
deal with

0:22:46.320,0:22:51.280
iran would lead to the release of the

0:22:49.039,0:22:53.919
american hostages in lebanon

0:22:51.280,0:22:55.120
and would also improve relations with

0:22:53.919,0:22:58.080
lebanon

0:22:55.120,0:23:00.080
and furthermore the funds that the u.s

0:22:58.080,0:23:02.960
would receive from this arms deal

0:23:00.080,0:23:04.559
could be used to support the contras in

0:23:02.960,0:23:07.679
nicaragua

0:23:04.559,0:23:08.000
but congress had just passed legislation

0:23:07.679,0:23:10.559
that

0:23:08.000,0:23:12.000
limited the power of the cia and the

0:23:10.559,0:23:15.120
department of defense

0:23:12.000,0:23:15.840
in international conflicts so the cia

0:23:15.120,0:23:19.120
would have to

0:23:15.840,0:23:22.000
funnel this money to nicaragua secretly

0:23:19.120,0:23:22.480
and so there are debates over who knew

0:23:22.000,0:23:24.559
what

0:23:22.480,0:23:26.320
was happening especially whether or not

0:23:24.559,0:23:30.400
president reagan knew about

0:23:26.320,0:23:32.000
the secret funds being sent to nicaragua

0:23:30.400,0:23:33.520
and so i that’s where i’m just going to

0:23:32.000,0:23:36.240
leave it at that you can

0:23:33.520,0:23:37.120
do further research that’s that’s really

0:23:36.240,0:23:39.919
hard to follow

0:23:37.120,0:23:41.679
i think i need like a whiteboard drawing

0:23:39.919,0:23:44.640
it’s really like i wish i could

0:23:41.679,0:23:46.000
have it yeah i we need so when we get

0:23:44.640,0:23:48.640
enough income we will

0:23:46.000,0:23:50.720
put it into getting animators to draw

0:23:48.640,0:23:53.360
that out

0:23:50.720,0:23:54.880
oh that’d be so great exciting that’s

0:23:53.360,0:23:57.840
the next step that’s

0:23:54.880,0:23:59.840
my goal that’s my dream for us um yeah

0:23:57.840,0:24:03.120
no that’s like

0:23:59.840,0:24:05.200
confusing to me basically like to

0:24:03.120,0:24:07.039
i guess to summarize in one sentence

0:24:05.200,0:24:09.600
like

0:24:07.039,0:24:11.679
the money that was received from this

0:24:09.600,0:24:12.240
trade deal with iran who was kind of

0:24:11.679,0:24:15.279
like an

0:24:12.240,0:24:18.960
enemy at the time uh

0:24:15.279,0:24:22.240
was used to support rebel

0:24:18.960,0:24:23.679
forces in nicaragua but that had to be

0:24:22.240,0:24:27.279
done in secretly because

0:24:23.679,0:24:29.520
it was not technically legal so

0:24:27.279,0:24:32.000
so that we supported we didn’t support

0:24:29.520,0:24:34.720
rebel groups in iran but we supported

0:24:32.000,0:24:37.600
rebel groups in nicaragua and why did we

0:24:34.720,0:24:41.039
support the rebel groups in nicaragua

0:24:37.600,0:24:43.120
because they were anti-communist and

0:24:41.039,0:24:45.039
was communist there it goes there it

0:24:43.120,0:24:48.000
goes um

0:24:45.039,0:24:49.520
yeah so lebanon hold up why we why are

0:24:48.000,0:24:51.279
we even in lebanon why do we have

0:24:49.520,0:24:52.240
american soldiers that were captive in

0:24:51.279,0:24:55.120
lebanon

0:24:52.240,0:24:56.799
they were they were uh i think if four

0:24:55.120,0:24:58.400
of them were diplomats and then three of

0:24:56.799,0:25:00.159
them were like contractors

0:24:58.400,0:25:01.679
so they were out there like working

0:25:00.159,0:25:04.159
building stuff

0:25:01.679,0:25:05.520
oh and then they just got taken captive

0:25:04.159,0:25:08.080
or hostage yeah

0:25:05.520,0:25:09.039
so they’re in lebanon chilling but then

0:25:08.080,0:25:11.200
this iranian

0:25:09.039,0:25:12.480
back like this iranian terrorist group

0:25:11.200,0:25:14.080
hezbollah they come

0:25:12.480,0:25:15.919
they’re like in lebanon and they’re like

0:25:14.080,0:25:18.320
oh you’re americans like

0:25:15.919,0:25:19.279
we’re taking you hostage in order to

0:25:18.320,0:25:22.559
like

0:25:19.279,0:25:26.320
yeah leverage for leverage and

0:25:22.559,0:25:27.039
yeah okay yeah well interesting super

0:25:26.320,0:25:28.960
complex

0:25:27.039,0:25:31.200
yeah i don’t even the middle east

0:25:28.960,0:25:33.600
conflict i ran in iraq

0:25:31.200,0:25:34.400
they’re in conflict i don’t know what

0:25:33.600,0:25:37.520
that’s about

0:25:34.400,0:25:40.000
yeah yeah we we could do a whole season

0:25:37.520,0:25:43.279
just about the middle east like honestly

0:25:40.000,0:25:47.440
like yeah we should complex history

0:25:43.279,0:25:50.240
um yeah but that’s

0:25:47.440,0:25:51.679
that is a brief summary of the iran

0:25:50.240,0:25:56.400
country affair

0:25:51.679,0:25:58.159
um but so like regardless uh like

0:25:56.400,0:25:59.279
despite all this controversy like the

0:25:58.159,0:26:01.760
fact is that

0:25:59.279,0:26:03.760
the u.s saw themselves as a police power

0:26:01.760,0:26:04.480
and as a regional watchdog in latin

0:26:03.760,0:26:08.400
america

0:26:04.480,0:26:12.279
they like saw themselves as

0:26:08.400,0:26:16.000
like having the power to interfere in

0:26:12.279,0:26:16.320
nicaragua’s affairs right and like even

0:26:16.000,0:26:17.840
if

0:26:16.320,0:26:20.400
no one ever said anything about the

0:26:17.840,0:26:21.360
monroe doctrine like the legacy in the

0:26:20.400,0:26:23.600
history

0:26:21.360,0:26:25.600
of our foreign policy in latin america

0:26:23.600,0:26:26.240
is like rooted in the monroe doctrine so

0:26:25.600,0:26:29.039
that’s why

0:26:26.240,0:26:30.640
like it’s significant um and then

0:26:29.039,0:26:33.760
finally like the last

0:26:30.640,0:26:37.120
event i want to talk about is

0:26:33.760,0:26:40.480
on december 20th 1989 when

0:26:37.120,0:26:43.200
president george h.w bush decided to

0:26:40.480,0:26:45.039
invade panama in order to oust the

0:26:43.200,0:26:48.559
country’s military dictator

0:26:45.039,0:26:52.080
his name was manuel noriega

0:26:48.559,0:26:54.720
and he had been indicted in the u.s on

0:26:52.080,0:26:55.279
drug trafficking charges so we literally

0:26:54.720,0:26:58.080
were like

0:26:55.279,0:26:58.880
hey we want to arrest you even though

0:26:58.080,0:27:01.919
he’s like

0:26:58.880,0:27:04.960
um he’s like a country’s leader or like

0:27:01.919,0:27:06.000
you’re in charge of sending drugs um in

0:27:04.960,0:27:08.400
and out of

0:27:06.000,0:27:09.520
panama and so we’re gonna arrest you so

0:27:08.400,0:27:12.960
literally like

0:27:09.520,0:27:14.880
uh we the u.s sent 9000 troops

0:27:12.960,0:27:16.720
to meet up with the 12 000 troops that

0:27:14.880,0:27:20.080
were already stationed in panama

0:27:16.720,0:27:23.120
and they kind of like blockaded

0:27:20.080,0:27:26.159
uh noriega and

0:27:23.120,0:27:27.039
he yeah eventually he surrendered and he

0:27:26.159,0:27:29.520
was arrested

0:27:27.039,0:27:30.320
and then he was like sent back to the us

0:27:29.520,0:27:33.279
and he

0:27:30.320,0:27:34.799
was sentenced to 40 years in u.s federal

0:27:33.279,0:27:37.440
prison

0:27:34.799,0:27:38.880
with and yeah and again like the fact

0:27:37.440,0:27:41.679
that

0:27:38.880,0:27:43.760
um yeah the whole role is international

0:27:41.679,0:27:46.960
police power regional watchdog

0:27:43.760,0:27:48.320
rooted in the mineral doctrine wow the

0:27:46.960,0:27:51.039
monroe doctrine has

0:27:48.320,0:27:51.600
a very complicated legacy and it’s easy

0:27:51.039,0:27:54.240
to see

0:27:51.600,0:27:56.640
how much its interpretation has changed

0:27:54.240,0:27:58.720
since it was created in the 1800s

0:27:56.640,0:28:00.159
at first it was supposed to prevent

0:27:58.720,0:28:02.320
european powers from

0:28:00.159,0:28:03.600
interfering in the western hemisphere

0:28:02.320,0:28:05.679
but over time

0:28:03.600,0:28:07.360
it would be used to support u.s

0:28:05.679,0:28:09.840
intervention in the affairs

0:28:07.360,0:28:10.880
of latin american countries so

0:28:09.840,0:28:12.399
regardless of

0:28:10.880,0:28:13.919
like whether or not you support the

0:28:12.399,0:28:16.320
modern road doctrine or

0:28:13.919,0:28:18.480
its interpretation most people agree

0:28:16.320,0:28:20.320
that it’s one of the most influential

0:28:18.480,0:28:23.039
policies in u.s history

0:28:20.320,0:28:24.240
and it’s had a huge effect in shaping

0:28:23.039,0:28:26.720
our foreign policy

0:28:24.240,0:28:27.520
strategy and like what the world looks

0:28:26.720,0:28:30.480
like today

0:28:27.520,0:28:32.320
and it’s just so crazy to see how a few

0:28:30.480,0:28:34.799
paragraphs in this speech

0:28:32.320,0:28:36.799
given in the 1800s has significantly

0:28:34.799,0:28:40.480
changed america’s role

0:28:36.799,0:28:43.520
on the world stage and in the region

0:28:40.480,0:28:45.039
so yeah that’s basically the monroe

0:28:43.520,0:28:46.960
doctrine

0:28:45.039,0:28:48.799
it’s wild and it’s so important

0:28:46.960,0:28:51.120
especially for people who

0:28:48.799,0:28:53.200
are looking uh to take the foreign

0:28:51.120,0:28:54.799
service officer test or are interested

0:28:53.200,0:28:55.360
in the history of u.s foreign policy

0:28:54.799,0:28:58.320
like

0:28:55.360,0:28:58.720
this is so significant so yeah great

0:28:58.320,0:29:00.480
yeah

0:28:58.720,0:29:01.840
thank you nat for breaking that down for

0:29:00.480,0:29:13.250
us really enjoyed it

0:29:01.840,0:29:25.840
me it was fun to talk about

0:29:13.250,0:29:27.919
[Music]

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