Texas Was A Country?

Minisode #12: Monetarist Economics How Did We Not Know That

Everybody has an opinion! In another episode of the Econ With Jac series, Jac covers Monetarist Economics: a direct criticism of Keynesian Economics. Tweet us @HDWNKT with your thoughts on an Econ With Jac mini-series! Check out FSO Compass here: https://fsocompass.com/hdwnkt Help us improve the quality of our podcast by contributing to our Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/HowDidWeNotKnowThat — Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hdwnkt/support
  1. Minisode #12: Monetarist Economics
  2. Why Are Israel And Palestine Fighting?
  3. Minisode #11: Realism
  4. Who Shot Bob Marley?
  5. Minisode #10: Keynesian Economics

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Show Notes

Before President James K. Polk, America looked a lot smaller than it does today. In this episode, Nat gives an overview of the Mexican-American War and how it changed the landscape of our country forever.

Sources:

Transcript

0:00:00.170,0:00:06.210
okay um hi everyone welcome to another

0:00:04.080,0:00:08.189
episode of how did we not know that I’m

0:00:06.210,0:00:14.070
one of your hosts my name is Jack and

0:00:08.189,0:00:17.820
I’m Matt and yes yeah and that’s that’s

0:00:14.070,0:00:21.980
us okay so today NAT will be presenting

0:00:17.820,0:00:24.449
on a topic that she chose go ahead now

0:00:21.980,0:00:27.510
yes I’m going to be talking about the

0:00:24.449,0:00:30.000
mexican-american war yeah

0:00:27.510,0:00:32.369
do you know much about that I know

0:00:30.000,0:00:34.170
nothing I’m guessing that William

0:00:32.369,0:00:35.790
McKinley is this the one who led us

0:00:34.170,0:00:38.879
through a result the spanish-american

0:00:35.790,0:00:42.030
war the spanish-american war so okay so

0:00:38.879,0:00:44.489
different things yeah so these are two

0:00:42.030,0:00:47.160
different things um yeah this war was

0:00:44.489,0:00:50.309
actually led by President James K Polk

0:00:47.160,0:00:50.879
um I did not know much about him as a

0:00:50.309,0:00:54.530
president

0:00:50.879,0:00:57.270
so I ever heard of him yeah yeah okay um

0:00:54.530,0:00:59.160
yeah I feel like I learned about the

0:00:57.270,0:01:02.579
mexican-american war maybe in high

0:00:59.160,0:01:05.850
school briefly um but like we didn’t

0:01:02.579,0:01:08.159
talk a lot about it also my dad is from

0:01:05.850,0:01:10.560
Mexico so like we’ll talk about it once

0:01:08.159,0:01:12.689
in a while but like I really didn’t know

0:01:10.560,0:01:14.610
the details of the war so like I had

0:01:12.689,0:01:16.280
heard about it and I was like let me

0:01:14.610,0:01:18.840
look into it a little bit more um

0:01:16.280,0:01:21.060
because it was recently Cinco de Mayo I

0:01:18.840,0:01:25.080
was thinking about past you know

0:01:21.060,0:01:27.840
us-mexico relations so yeah so as you do

0:01:25.080,0:01:29.130
on Cinco de Maya that’s how you

0:01:27.840,0:01:31.860
celebrate Cinco de Mayo

0:01:29.130,0:01:34.710
but yeah so I decided to look into this

0:01:31.860,0:01:36.659
war a little bit more so yeah so like I

0:01:34.710,0:01:39.600
said earlier it was led by President

0:01:36.659,0:01:41.970
James K Polk he was considered actually

0:01:39.600,0:01:45.600
one of the last strong presidents until

0:01:41.970,0:01:48.119
the Civil War so he was a he was a

0:01:45.600,0:01:51.119
really strong leader whether or not you

0:01:48.119,0:01:53.729
agree with his actions uh that’s the kid

0:01:51.119,0:01:55.409
I asked when he was president so he

0:01:53.729,0:01:57.990
would have been before Abraham Lincoln

0:01:55.409,0:02:01.229
and so like way back yeah so he was

0:01:57.990,0:02:06.210
actually elected in 1844 and he only

0:02:01.229,0:02:07.920
served one term from 1845 to 1849 so

0:02:06.210,0:02:11.310
this is a while back and he was a

0:02:07.920,0:02:13.000
Democrat and his whole deal was that he

0:02:11.310,0:02:16.150
was a huge supporter of manaphy

0:02:13.000,0:02:19.030
destiny manifest destiny and he wanted

0:02:16.150,0:02:21.160
to expand u.s. territory like all across

0:02:19.030,0:02:23.560
North America basically he wanted to

0:02:21.160,0:02:26.650
take over as much land as possible like

0:02:23.560,0:02:30.730
his whole campaign was at the Oregon

0:02:26.650,0:02:33.940
Territory should be reapplied and then

0:02:30.730,0:02:36.100
Texas should be Rhian –ax so we’re

0:02:33.940,0:02:37.180
gonna get it to Texas a little bit later

0:02:36.100,0:02:39.940
all right

0:02:37.180,0:02:42.220
we annexed is like we removed them like

0:02:39.940,0:02:44.550
they’re not part of us the annex is

0:02:42.220,0:02:48.400
basically like you take an independent

0:02:44.550,0:02:50.410
nation and then you like you make it a

0:02:48.400,0:02:54.730
part of your nation so you okay so we

0:02:50.410,0:02:56.530
wanted to take Texas okay this is the

0:02:54.730,0:02:59.110
part I did not know about at the time

0:02:56.530,0:03:01.030
Texas was a country it was called the

0:02:59.110,0:03:03.280
Republic of Texas but I believe that

0:03:01.030,0:03:06.100
literally if you meet anyone from Texas

0:03:03.280,0:03:07.990
they act like it’s a country still so I

0:03:06.100,0:03:09.580
was like doing my research on the

0:03:07.990,0:03:12.160
Republic of Texas and there’s a lot of

0:03:09.580,0:03:14.290
very like patriotic websites dedicated

0:03:12.160,0:03:16.959
to the whole country but yeah for nine

0:03:14.290,0:03:20.620
years it was an independent nation which

0:03:16.959,0:03:23.200
I did not know they’re like most likely

0:03:20.620,0:03:28.930
to split from the rest of the United

0:03:23.200,0:03:32.220
States likely to yeah yeah so the whole

0:03:28.930,0:03:34.870
time like James Polk really wanted to I

0:03:32.220,0:03:37.750
wanted to annex the Republic of Texas

0:03:34.870,0:03:40.269
and additionally on top of all this he

0:03:37.750,0:03:43.530
also settled a border dispute with

0:03:40.269,0:03:47.290
Britain and he gained control of

0:03:43.530,0:03:51.100
Washington Oregon Idaho and then parts

0:03:47.290,0:03:53.709
of Montana and Wyoming so this is so why

0:03:51.100,0:03:57.130
yeah if you look at a map of the u.s.

0:03:53.709,0:03:59.070
like before James President Polk and

0:03:57.130,0:04:03.519
then after President Polk it’s like

0:03:59.070,0:04:05.560
insane and so during his campaign he

0:04:03.519,0:04:09.310
also said he wanted to acquire the

0:04:05.560,0:04:11.410
southwest part of what is now today the

0:04:09.310,0:04:13.780
u.s. but he wanted to control all those

0:04:11.410,0:04:15.850
states by buying it but Mexico kept

0:04:13.780,0:04:18.940
saying like no we don’t want to sell it

0:04:15.850,0:04:22.030
oh so before then that Southwest was all

0:04:18.940,0:04:24.380
territory of Mexico like California New

0:04:22.030,0:04:27.590
Mexico Nevada

0:04:24.380,0:04:30.440
California was even Mexico’s okay what

0:04:27.590,0:04:32.570
about um like in the North II no not

0:04:30.440,0:04:35.330
northeast the Northwest area so like

0:04:32.570,0:04:37.940
Oregon and Washington was that whose was

0:04:35.330,0:04:40.280
that yeah I believe it was like British

0:04:37.940,0:04:42.950
control because that’s when comes in and

0:04:40.280,0:04:44.780
etc settles that border dispute but also

0:04:42.950,0:04:47.390
like we have to remember like before

0:04:44.780,0:04:51.350
that it was like Native American land

0:04:47.390,0:04:54.890
right like first and foremost but right

0:04:51.350,0:04:56.990
right so yeah let me jump to the

0:04:54.890,0:04:58.880
Republic of Texas because this is what

0:04:56.990,0:05:02.330
really may be interested in the whole

0:04:58.880,0:05:04.700
topic so after Mexico gains independence

0:05:02.330,0:05:07.310
from Spain so side note if you didn’t

0:05:04.700,0:05:09.170
know Mexico was a Spanish colony um so

0:05:07.310,0:05:12.560
then in Mexico gains its independence

0:05:09.170,0:05:14.780
and they allow us settlers to start

0:05:12.560,0:05:16.970
living in Texas in the state of Texas

0:05:14.780,0:05:20.120
and once this happens like the

0:05:16.970,0:05:23.860
population of Texas booms and but this

0:05:20.120,0:05:26.270
like really reduces the amount of

0:05:23.860,0:05:29.360
Mexicans living in Texas so now it’s

0:05:26.270,0:05:31.820
like mostly us settlers rather than

0:05:29.360,0:05:34.220
actual Mexicans living in Texas and so

0:05:31.820,0:05:36.830
because of this newest settlers like

0:05:34.220,0:05:39.980
revolt against Mexico and they claim

0:05:36.830,0:05:43.010
independence from the country of Mexico

0:05:39.980,0:05:44.630
in 1836 and so there’s a whole Texas

0:05:43.010,0:05:45.770
revolution that’s where I don’t know if

0:05:44.630,0:05:48.590
you’ve heard of like the Battle of the

0:05:45.770,0:05:50.990
Alamo I feel like the crown yeah I know

0:05:48.590,0:05:53.900
nothing about it I always really

0:05:50.990,0:05:59.000
remember the Alamo but yeah and they

0:05:53.900,0:06:01.760
like we’re fighting against Mexico okay

0:05:59.000,0:06:04.250
so when US settlers were fighting

0:06:01.760,0:06:08.590
against Mexico so it’s us settlers

0:06:04.250,0:06:12.139
versus like Mexican soldiers and now

0:06:08.590,0:06:14.960
settlers would okay so that’s

0:06:12.139,0:06:17.330
you say remember that Alamo I gotta look

0:06:14.960,0:06:19.340
into that I don’t know something like

0:06:17.330,0:06:21.860
the Battle of the Alamo but it was one

0:06:19.340,0:06:24.860
of the battles within the Texas

0:06:21.860,0:06:27.379
Revolution yeah I wonder why they don’t

0:06:24.860,0:06:30.710
want to forget that remember the Alamo I

0:06:27.379,0:06:33.259
did it looking to be honest like battles

0:06:30.710,0:06:35.449
are not it like my strong suit they’re

0:06:33.259,0:06:38.659
not what I’m most interested in so as

0:06:35.449,0:06:41.090
well that’s fair yeah through the

0:06:38.659,0:06:43.039
battles but yeah it’s like a rabbit hole

0:06:41.090,0:06:44.840
to I feel like when you look at one

0:06:43.039,0:06:46.819
battle it’ll connect to like multiple

0:06:44.840,0:06:51.319
other ones and then you just can’t get

0:06:46.819,0:06:54.199
it out right right yeah so Texas gains

0:06:51.319,0:06:55.819
independence and at first the US didn’t

0:06:54.199,0:06:58.520
want to incorporate it into the Union

0:06:55.819,0:07:02.150
because the northern states didn’t want

0:06:58.520,0:07:03.199
another new slave state so at the time

0:07:02.150,0:07:06.050
there was like a pretty good balance

0:07:03.199,0:07:07.460
between like slave states and non slave

0:07:06.050,0:07:09.289
states so they were like oh we don’t

0:07:07.460,0:07:13.909
need another safe safe so please don’t

0:07:09.289,0:07:15.919
please don’t join us actually it was a

0:07:13.909,0:07:17.990
pretty risky move because the Mexican

0:07:15.919,0:07:21.169
government was also encouraging border

0:07:17.990,0:07:23.599
raids and they warned that like if the

0:07:21.169,0:07:26.750
US tried to annex Texas it would lead to

0:07:23.599,0:07:28.879
war and so yeah it was a pretty risky

0:07:26.750,0:07:31.310
move and if you’re wondering like what

0:07:28.879,0:07:34.129
the Republic of Texas was like as a

0:07:31.310,0:07:37.189
country for the most part they really

0:07:34.129,0:07:39.169
had no money like credit or governmental

0:07:37.189,0:07:41.300
structures it was really hard to

0:07:39.169,0:07:44.289
establish a strong government because

0:07:41.300,0:07:47.060
they were constantly fighting against

0:07:44.289,0:07:50.089
like Mexican soldiers and then also

0:07:47.060,0:07:53.719
Native American tribes and yeah so it

0:07:50.089,0:07:56.659
was not really it it like it was a

0:07:53.719,0:08:02.000
independent nation but yeah it was not a

0:07:56.659,0:08:05.500
very strong nation so in 1844 the

0:08:02.000,0:08:08.770
president before President James Polk

0:08:05.500,0:08:13.939
who his name is President John Tyler

0:08:08.770,0:08:16.129
also don’t know much about him he right

0:08:13.939,0:08:19.159
before he leaves office he proposes a

0:08:16.129,0:08:21.680
Treaty of annexation to the republic of

0:08:19.159,0:08:25.160
texas so he also really wants to annex

0:08:21.680,0:08:27.140
Texas and this treaty is defeated in the

0:08:25.160,0:08:29.990
again because it would upset the slave

0:08:27.140,0:08:32.330
state free state balance and then

0:08:29.990,0:08:34.340
clovers go war with Mexico so they did

0:08:32.330,0:08:36.530
early no no thank you

0:08:34.340,0:08:39.289
however like pretty much like right

0:08:36.530,0:08:42.860
before he like a couple months before he

0:08:39.289,0:08:44.990
leaves office he actually does president

0:08:42.860,0:08:47.750
Tyler manages to get a congressional

0:08:44.990,0:08:51.980
resolution passed and this resolution is

0:08:47.750,0:08:55.880
signed into law on March 1st 1845 and so

0:08:51.980,0:08:58.160
then President John Tyler leaves office

0:08:55.880,0:09:00.560
President James Polk assumes office and

0:08:58.160,0:09:04.250
Texas and it’s officially admitted to

0:09:00.560,0:09:07.460
the Union on December 29 1845 so the

0:09:04.250,0:09:10.790
same day President Polk assumes office

0:09:07.460,0:09:13.280
Texas is right and the Union is like the

0:09:10.790,0:09:17.840
northern states right the Union is like

0:09:13.280,0:09:20.660
all the it’s like a you know okay it

0:09:17.840,0:09:23.180
just means the US then but yeah and I’d

0:09:20.660,0:09:25.810
it like a non slave state its Civil War

0:09:23.180,0:09:29.210
then you have like Union say

0:09:25.810,0:09:31.750
Confederates like my time it’s like the

0:09:29.210,0:09:35.270
Union is like it’s just everything okay

0:09:31.750,0:09:37.940
what side was Texas on for the Civil War

0:09:35.270,0:09:41.120
do you remember their Confederate

0:09:37.940,0:09:43.610
they’re like Oh in the south and they

0:09:41.120,0:09:46.910
were also a safe State so okay Shane

0:09:43.610,0:09:48.410
yeah so this is like yeah again just a

0:09:46.910,0:09:49.660
reminder like this is all right before

0:09:48.410,0:09:53.300
the Civil War

0:09:49.660,0:09:56.750
mmm like gives you a better yeah

0:09:53.300,0:09:58.550
understanding so even though like Mexico

0:09:56.750,0:10:01.160
was like hey if you guys annex Texas

0:09:58.550,0:10:02.960
we’re gonna go to war with you they

0:10:01.160,0:10:05.860
actually don’t end up declaring war

0:10:02.960,0:10:08.380
however like tensions start rising

0:10:05.860,0:10:11.960
because there’s huge border disputes

0:10:08.380,0:10:15.050
like even though the u.s. annexed Texas

0:10:11.960,0:10:16.400
like Texas is a huge state and so even

0:10:15.050,0:10:20.750
within that state there were border

0:10:16.400,0:10:23.390
disputes over like weird where the two

0:10:20.750,0:10:26.780
countries split off so basically Mexico

0:10:23.390,0:10:29.540
claims that this USS River is the border

0:10:26.780,0:10:33.140
but the US wants the Rio Grande to be

0:10:29.540,0:10:35.600
the border and so like they’re fighting

0:10:33.140,0:10:38.480
and arguing and within that border like

0:10:35.600,0:10:39.740
there’s a lot of like small little

0:10:38.480,0:10:45.519
permission I guess you would call them

0:10:39.740,0:10:51.079
like not official battles a skirmish is

0:10:45.519,0:10:54.920
actual term squirmish but I had like a

0:10:51.079,0:10:57.380
scuffle or something yeah I don’t know

0:10:54.920,0:10:59.029
yeah scrimmage scrimmage is like sports

0:10:57.380,0:11:01.670
when it’s like not a real game it’s a

0:10:59.029,0:11:03.529
scrimmage yeah okay maybe that’s what

0:11:01.670,0:11:08.990
I’m thinking of either way they’re like

0:11:03.529,0:11:14.570
my minor little stuff Oh war yet however

0:11:08.990,0:11:17.300
so July 1845 so Hulk and so this is

0:11:14.570,0:11:19.339
before like Texas is officially declared

0:11:17.300,0:11:21.019
a state right but this is kind of like

0:11:19.339,0:11:22.490
after resolutions have been passed so

0:11:21.019,0:11:24.709
they’re like okay it’s pretty much gonna

0:11:22.490,0:11:27.440
be official so will President Polk send

0:11:24.709,0:11:29.120
US troops to this like disputed land

0:11:27.440,0:11:33.320
that’s between the new Estes and the Rio

0:11:29.120,0:11:36.290
Grande and then in November 1845

0:11:33.320,0:11:39.110
President Polk sends a diplomat named

0:11:36.290,0:11:43.430
John Slidell to Mexico in order to seek

0:11:39.110,0:11:46.430
like boundary adjustments however in

0:11:43.430,0:11:48.949
they also want to like by California and

0:11:46.430,0:11:51.079
New Mexico but this doesn’t work out and

0:11:48.949,0:11:52.940
they kind of Mexico kind of shoots them

0:11:51.079,0:11:54.470
down they’re like no like we’re good we

0:11:52.940,0:11:59.000
just want to keep all of our land like

0:11:54.470,0:12:01.130
please leave us alone and because like

0:11:59.000,0:12:03.139
President Polk is very determined to

0:12:01.130,0:12:06.500
acquire all this land so he sends

0:12:03.139,0:12:08.480
general Zachary Taylor to the mouth of

0:12:06.500,0:12:12.139
the Rio Grande so this is kind of like

0:12:08.480,0:12:14.839
okay where this is official and we’re

0:12:12.139,0:12:18.010
taking this over basically so on April

0:12:14.839,0:12:20.810
25th 1846 the next year basically

0:12:18.010,0:12:23.420
Mexican Calvary attacks a group of US

0:12:20.810,0:12:26.810
soldiers in this disputed zone between

0:12:23.420,0:12:29.240
the two rivers and this these US troops

0:12:26.810,0:12:33.829
are under the command of general Zachary

0:12:29.240,0:12:39.019
Taylor and so about a dozen Americans

0:12:33.829,0:12:41.329
are killed and additionally Mexican

0:12:39.019,0:12:43.910
troops laid siege to an American fort

0:12:41.329,0:12:46.269
along the Rio Grande and so they kind of

0:12:43.910,0:12:48.019
like won this little battle and then

0:12:46.269,0:12:49.390
like after this

0:12:48.019,0:12:52.320
so after there they’re like winning

0:12:49.390,0:12:54.570
general Taylor calls in for reinforce

0:12:52.320,0:12:56.180
and this reinforcement is like they have

0:12:54.570,0:12:59.600
a lot of better weapons and our killer

0:12:56.180,0:13:02.690
artillery so like basically after that

0:12:59.600,0:13:04.649
there’s like a lot more battles but

0:13:02.690,0:13:06.839
basically I think once we call

0:13:04.649,0:13:10.019
reinforcements and we get congressional

0:13:06.839,0:13:12.120
support we’re able to like attack all of

0:13:10.019,0:13:15.089
these all of the Mexican troops that are

0:13:12.120,0:13:17.040
being sent and yeah and then we

0:13:15.089,0:13:19.740
basically win like everything after this

0:13:17.040,0:13:22.319
yeah so this little so because we kind

0:13:19.740,0:13:24.360
of lost this little upset President Polk

0:13:22.319,0:13:26.190
was like really really pissed and he

0:13:24.360,0:13:28.110
goes to Congress and he’s like hey like

0:13:26.190,0:13:29.819
we really need to declare war because

0:13:28.110,0:13:31.500
like so far you guys have been kind of

0:13:29.819,0:13:34.350
lenient I know you don’t want to upset

0:13:31.500,0:13:36.899
like the balance between the states but

0:13:34.350,0:13:39.120
like they’re attacking us so we have to

0:13:36.899,0:13:41.430
go to war so on May 13th Congress

0:13:39.120,0:13:43.199
declares war and again there’s

0:13:41.430,0:13:44.670
opposition from all the northern states

0:13:43.199,0:13:47.370
they’re like please don’t do this

0:13:44.670,0:13:48.959
um and additionally there’s throughout

0:13:47.370,0:13:51.449
this whole mexican-american war there’s

0:13:48.959,0:13:54.060
actually no official declaration of war

0:13:51.449,0:13:56.360
from Mexico so this is just kind of like

0:13:54.060,0:14:00.329
on the American side so I think that’s

0:13:56.360,0:14:02.430
important to keep in mind uh so after

0:14:00.329,0:14:04.620
this after this all happens the

0:14:02.430,0:14:06.870
mexican-american war goes into full

0:14:04.620,0:14:09.959
fledge so just to give you a little like

0:14:06.870,0:14:18.149
overview of the war as a whole so it

0:14:09.959,0:14:20.550
lasts from 1846 to 1847 Flick fought

0:14:18.149,0:14:23.339
mainly on foreign soil so I thought that

0:14:20.550,0:14:24.990
was super interesting yeah maybe that’s

0:14:23.339,0:14:28.440
why we don’t care about it so much

0:14:24.990,0:14:31.230
because it wasn’t on US soil yeah yeah

0:14:28.440,0:14:34.050
it was fought mostly on Mexican

0:14:31.230,0:14:36.870
territory and I mean the whole purpose

0:14:34.050,0:14:40.439
was like for territorial acquisition and

0:14:36.870,0:14:42.209
like so it’s yeah maybe that’s why we

0:14:40.439,0:14:44.760
don’t really talk about it as much but

0:14:42.209,0:14:46.889
there’s a lot of like high morale on the

0:14:44.760,0:14:49.290
US side because at this time we have a

0:14:46.889,0:14:51.149
really strong Navy our government

0:14:49.290,0:14:52.800
leadership is super strong as well and

0:14:51.149,0:14:54.300
then our economy is doing a lot better

0:14:52.800,0:14:56.370
than Mexico so everyone’s pretty

0:14:54.300,0:14:59.069
confident that we’re going to win this

0:14:56.370,0:15:01.829
um and additionally at this point

0:14:59.069,0:15:03.870
there’s only around seventy five

0:15:01.829,0:15:05.050
thousand Mexicans that are currently

0:15:03.870,0:15:07.060
living north of the

0:15:05.050,0:15:09.190
Rio Grande so because of this it’s like

0:15:07.060,0:15:11.980
really easy to conquer these lands

0:15:09.190,0:15:13.140
so wait before you on where is the Rio

0:15:11.980,0:15:16.060
Grande

0:15:13.140,0:15:19.019
that’s actually a little like a spoiler

0:15:16.060,0:15:22.899
that’s our that’s a current like border

0:15:19.019,0:15:27.790
a natural border between the u.s. and

0:15:22.899,0:15:32.970
Mexico oh I see okay Texas today I guess

0:15:27.790,0:15:35.740
ah so yeah it’s a really big river and

0:15:32.970,0:15:38.440
yeah it’s spoiler alert that’s that’s

0:15:35.740,0:15:42.850
not creme order today so I guess we know

0:15:38.440,0:15:44.440
how this ends but yeah you’re like

0:15:42.850,0:15:47.740
saving it for later it’s why you didn’t

0:15:44.440,0:15:51.040
tell me it’s fine I feel like yeah

0:15:47.740,0:15:55.540
people probably know but you know yeah

0:15:51.040,0:15:58.899
and but yeah so I guess there’s a lot of

0:15:55.540,0:16:01.540
battles there’s I could list them off is

0:15:58.899,0:16:03.579
the Battle of Buena Vista in February

0:16:01.540,0:16:05.649
1847

0:16:03.579,0:16:08.440
there’s the Battle of Veracruz the

0:16:05.649,0:16:10.360
Battle of Mexico City and again I kind

0:16:08.440,0:16:13.329
of like I’m just listing these off I

0:16:10.360,0:16:14.920
don’t mean to like diminish the I guess

0:16:13.329,0:16:17.500
the importance of these battles and like

0:16:14.920,0:16:21.670
make light of it I just I’m not I don’t

0:16:17.500,0:16:23.589
think I’m person qualified hungry yeah

0:16:21.670,0:16:26.380
these battles I don’t really have a

0:16:23.589,0:16:28.089
strong knowledge of like military and

0:16:26.380,0:16:30.880
like artillery like during this period

0:16:28.089,0:16:33.850
so yeah if you would like to learn more

0:16:30.880,0:16:37.390
please go ahead and look at history calm

0:16:33.850,0:16:40.480
has some amazing about these battles but

0:16:37.390,0:16:44.020
um so now I’m going to jump to like

0:16:40.480,0:16:45.970
Mexico’s perspective so Mexico is like

0:16:44.020,0:16:48.070
not doing great they’ve won they’ve lost

0:16:45.970,0:16:50.380
sorry they’ve lost pretty much every

0:16:48.070,0:16:55.209
battle um and it doesn’t look like

0:16:50.380,0:16:57.550
they’re gonna win and so they in a put

0:16:55.209,0:17:01.240
in like an act of desperation they turn

0:16:57.550,0:17:03.279
to general Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana

0:17:01.240,0:17:05.939
and so let me tell you a little bit

0:17:03.279,0:17:09.240
about this guy see the guy kind of a

0:17:05.939,0:17:13.839
wild wild record so he’s this very

0:17:09.240,0:17:16.929
charismatic leader uh who was actually

0:17:13.839,0:17:18.339
kind of a former dictator in Mexico um

0:17:16.929,0:17:19.990
and

0:17:18.339,0:17:23.409
you at this point in time he was

0:17:19.990,0:17:24.819
currently living in exile in Cuba so he

0:17:23.409,0:17:26.500
had like been arrested in Mexico and

0:17:24.819,0:17:28.750
they’re like get out like we don’t want

0:17:26.500,0:17:32.740
you anymore you’re kind of you’re too

0:17:28.750,0:17:36.640
much for us until in Cuba which was a

0:17:32.740,0:17:39.580
Spanish colony at the time however so

0:17:36.640,0:17:41.529
general Santa Anna like so they’re

0:17:39.580,0:17:43.419
Mexico is like you’re a really good

0:17:41.529,0:17:46.029
military leader so like we kind of need

0:17:43.419,0:17:48.429
you right now and Santa I was like okay

0:17:46.029,0:17:50.529
I’ll be there but I can’t really like

0:17:48.429,0:17:53.919
get there because like there’s so many

0:17:50.529,0:17:55.659
US naval blockades blocking my path like

0:17:53.919,0:17:58.750
I can’t get to Mexico from Cuba

0:17:55.659,0:17:59.289
and so what he does is he so general

0:17:58.750,0:18:02.470
Santa Anna

0:17:59.289,0:18:06.970
like talks to well I guess communicate

0:18:02.470,0:18:10.690
somehow through mail Oh carrier pigeons

0:18:06.970,0:18:12.940
or something so somehow he gets in touch

0:18:10.690,0:18:17.260
with President Polk and he’s like hey

0:18:12.940,0:18:19.120
like if you allow me to return to Mexico

0:18:17.260,0:18:21.970
and pass through all your naval

0:18:19.120,0:18:24.370
blockades I’m gonna end this war in

0:18:21.970,0:18:26.740
terms favorable to the US so he’s like

0:18:24.370,0:18:28.570
I’m gonna help out the US and they’re

0:18:26.740,0:18:30.580
like he’s like don’t worry like Mexico

0:18:28.570,0:18:33.549
wants me back but I’m not gonna let them

0:18:30.580,0:18:36.669
like win and so President Polk was like

0:18:33.549,0:18:40.390
okay cool like thanks you can go ahead

0:18:36.669,0:18:42.450
like so general Santana he makes it to

0:18:40.390,0:18:44.980
Mexico and then he immediately

0:18:42.450,0:18:46.630
double-crosses President Polk by taking

0:18:44.980,0:18:48.190
control of the Mexican army and then

0:18:46.630,0:18:51.100
leading it it’s a battle and like

0:18:48.190,0:18:54.220
straight thing the Mexican army he’s

0:18:51.100,0:18:54.850
like I played you so I’m honestly not

0:18:54.220,0:18:57.549
surprised

0:18:54.850,0:19:00.070
I don’t know how President Polk was like

0:18:57.549,0:19:03.010
yeah that sounds cool like his defense

0:19:00.070,0:19:05.770
like this general had been exiled from

0:19:03.010,0:19:07.510
Mexico and they like kinda all hated him

0:19:05.770,0:19:09.340
and they’re like okay so he made the

0:19:07.510,0:19:11.559
case like I don’t even look like Mexico

0:19:09.340,0:19:15.360
I’m gonna help you guys we’re not on the

0:19:11.559,0:19:18.669
same side so but okay well because of

0:19:15.360,0:19:19.870
general Santana the war lasts for almost

0:19:18.669,0:19:22.779
two years

0:19:19.870,0:19:24.760
so I mean it probably would’ve lasted a

0:19:22.779,0:19:28.360
lot shorter because the u.s. was like

0:19:24.760,0:19:32.200
doing so well before he came um so yeah

0:19:28.360,0:19:32.679
because his arrival and then his kind of

0:19:32.200,0:19:35.769
like

0:19:32.679,0:19:37.539
shaping of the whole army yeah it lasts

0:19:35.769,0:19:38.980
for like a lot longer than the US had

0:19:37.539,0:19:41.049
expected they kind of thought it was

0:19:38.980,0:19:44.350
going to be like really quick over and

0:19:41.049,0:19:48.639
done but it kind of dragged on a lot

0:19:44.350,0:19:52.450
longer they had expected and so yeah

0:19:48.639,0:19:54.249
there’s so many battles one battle that

0:19:52.450,0:19:56.740
I did want to go into a little bit more

0:19:54.249,0:20:01.179
detail about what’s called the Bear Flag

0:19:56.740,0:20:05.440
Revolt which is which was from June to

0:20:01.179,0:20:08.950
July in 1846 and so remember how I said

0:20:05.440,0:20:10.600
earlier um California used to be part of

0:20:08.950,0:20:13.059
Mexico that’s why I like in California

0:20:10.600,0:20:17.950
there’s so many like city names and

0:20:13.059,0:20:21.639
places that are like in Spanish huh and

0:20:17.950,0:20:24.759
so again in California there are a lot

0:20:21.639,0:20:26.889
of us settlers not as many as there were

0:20:24.759,0:20:29.860
in Texas but they’re still like a good

0:20:26.889,0:20:32.529
amount of US settlers in California and

0:20:29.860,0:20:34.269
so this there’s a small group of these

0:20:32.529,0:20:36.159
settlers that actually rebelled against

0:20:34.269,0:20:39.399
the Mexican government and then they

0:20:36.159,0:20:43.269
proclaimed the state of California as an

0:20:39.399,0:20:44.799
independent republic and so they yeah so

0:20:43.269,0:20:47.080
they like me they called it like the

0:20:44.799,0:20:51.249
fair flag state and they had a whole

0:20:47.080,0:20:53.379
bear flag okay is that the one that we

0:20:51.249,0:20:57.759
still have today that’s the one we still

0:20:53.379,0:20:59.889
have today okay yeah so I also make

0:20:57.759,0:21:01.869
sense to you I would say Texas is the

0:20:59.889,0:21:03.129
first state that I would be like yeah

0:21:01.869,0:21:05.110
they’re definitely gonna be their own

0:21:03.129,0:21:05.950
country and then California is a close

0:21:05.110,0:21:09.100
second

0:21:05.950,0:21:11.529
mm-hmm yeah yeah yeah I was like okay

0:21:09.100,0:21:13.720
this makes a lot more sense like

0:21:11.529,0:21:17.110
everything is clicking into place yeah

0:21:13.720,0:21:18.820
like however so the Republic of Texas

0:21:17.110,0:21:22.720
lasted for about nine years

0:21:18.820,0:21:27.190
but the Bear Flag state only lasted

0:21:22.720,0:21:30.129
about like three weeks because it’s so

0:21:27.190,0:21:31.690
embarrassing it’s pretty rough so like

0:21:30.129,0:21:33.220
basically like they were both against

0:21:31.690,0:21:34.929
the Mexican government they raise their

0:21:33.220,0:21:37.570
flag and then like about three weeks

0:21:34.929,0:21:39.850
later like the US military starts

0:21:37.570,0:21:42.249
occupying California they were like oh

0:21:39.850,0:21:43.840
we didn’t realize you’re like you’re

0:21:42.249,0:21:45.999
like this whole war is happening and

0:21:43.840,0:21:46.539
you’re like trying to claim all this

0:21:45.999,0:21:50.019
territory

0:21:46.539,0:21:53.259
so yeah so California actually joins a

0:21:50.019,0:21:55.029
union in the year 1850 and yeah the Bear

0:21:53.259,0:22:03.690
Flag became the official state flag in

0:21:55.029,0:22:06.579
1911 Wow so after all these battles um

0:22:03.690,0:22:08.799
Santa Ana hee general Santa Anna in

0:22:06.579,0:22:11.799
Mexico he’s not getting a lot of support

0:22:08.799,0:22:14.889
because even though like he did help

0:22:11.799,0:22:18.099
strengthen the Mexican army like there’s

0:22:14.889,0:22:20.679
only so much you could do um or he could

0:22:18.099,0:22:23.919
do because the u.s. just had a lot

0:22:20.679,0:22:26.409
better I guess artillery and like

0:22:23.919,0:22:30.279
weapons and yeah they had more funding

0:22:26.409,0:22:33.849
and so general Santa Anna quickly loses

0:22:30.279,0:22:36.909
public support and so he resigns slash

0:22:33.849,0:22:38.709
is pretty much overthrown it’s so kind

0:22:36.909,0:22:41.319
of like yeah they pretty much kick him

0:22:38.709,0:22:43.119
out and he’s exiled again and he like he

0:22:41.319,0:22:45.219
lives all over the world in exile it’s

0:22:43.119,0:22:49.299
crazy you people should look into his

0:22:45.219,0:22:52.799
bio he he lived a wild life really did

0:22:49.299,0:22:55.209
he lived everywhere um and so after this

0:22:52.799,0:22:56.919
so the US has won all these battles and

0:22:55.209,0:22:58.719
at this point in time they’re pretty

0:22:56.919,0:23:01.719
much just waiting for a new government

0:22:58.719,0:23:04.419
that’s capable of negotiations like to

0:23:01.719,0:23:08.709
form into place so they pretty much won

0:23:04.419,0:23:12.129
so flash forward nice word why do I okay

0:23:08.709,0:23:14.769
fast forward to February 2nd 1848 the

0:23:12.129,0:23:18.369
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed

0:23:14.769,0:23:20.889
and so this treaty between the u.s. and

0:23:18.369,0:23:23.499
Mexico establishes the Rio Grande as a

0:23:20.889,0:23:24.729
US Mexican border which is the border

0:23:23.499,0:23:27.399
that select this today

0:23:24.729,0:23:29.919
and then Mexico officially recognizes

0:23:27.399,0:23:32.109
u.s. annexation of Texas and is like

0:23:29.919,0:23:34.479
okay you guys can keep it and then

0:23:32.109,0:23:38.889
Mexico additionally agrees to sell

0:23:34.479,0:23:41.499
California and the rest of its territory

0:23:38.889,0:23:45.819
north of the Rio Grande for fifteen

0:23:41.499,0:23:49.629
million dollars plus assumption of

0:23:45.819,0:23:53.109
certain damages claims and so how much

0:23:49.629,0:23:56.499
is that in today’s yeah I was gonna

0:23:53.109,0:24:00.540
that’s a lie 50 million in like the

0:23:56.499,0:24:03.179
1800s but yeah

0:24:00.540,0:24:07.470
yeah I can’t imagine that’s gotta be

0:24:03.179,0:24:14.540
like try double-digit billion maybe yeah

0:24:07.470,0:24:14.540
yeah um so I can’t really find

0:24:14.570,0:24:18.889
I can’t keep finding conflicting numbers

0:24:16.369,0:24:23.109
but basically it was a lot a lot of

0:24:18.889,0:24:26.389
money yeah good for Mexico make them pay

0:24:23.109,0:24:27.919
sounds like they got bullied right and I

0:24:26.389,0:24:30.799
was like actually kind of surprised that

0:24:27.919,0:24:32.659
like they still paid Mexico for the

0:24:30.799,0:24:33.649
territory I was like I kind of assumed

0:24:32.659,0:24:35.629
the worst and they were just gonna be

0:24:33.649,0:24:36.889
like well you law so it’s not just like

0:24:35.629,0:24:40.009
not ours now

0:24:36.889,0:24:42.440
yeah but this treaty so this treaty

0:24:40.009,0:24:44.539
actually added an additional five

0:24:42.440,0:24:49.549
hundred twenty five thousand square

0:24:44.539,0:24:51.949
miles to the US so it’s crazy so so okay

0:24:49.549,0:24:53.989
the aftermath of the war is insane

0:24:51.949,0:24:57.799
because Mexico loses about a third of

0:24:53.989,0:25:01.039
its territory so the u.s. gains

0:24:57.799,0:25:03.349
California Arizona New Mexico and then

0:25:01.039,0:25:06.379
parts of Utah Nevada Wyoming and

0:25:03.349,0:25:08.569
Colorado so again if you look at a map

0:25:06.379,0:25:10.969
before and after the mexican-american

0:25:08.569,0:25:15.679
war it’s crazy how much land was

0:25:10.969,0:25:18.259
acquired um and so even though President

0:25:15.679,0:25:20.539
Polk had won the war he actually lost

0:25:18.259,0:25:23.119
public support because the war had

0:25:20.539,0:25:25.489
lasted about like two years and it was

0:25:23.119,0:25:27.019
really bloody and like it costs the US a

0:25:25.489,0:25:28.369
lot of money and they were kind of like

0:25:27.019,0:25:30.440
we thought this was going to be like

0:25:28.369,0:25:33.649
less than a year but you kind of dragged

0:25:30.440,0:25:36.529
out and so yeah people are upset with

0:25:33.649,0:25:39.709
him and additionally this war reignited

0:25:36.529,0:25:42.319
the slavery debate and it ultimately

0:25:39.709,0:25:44.449
results in a civil war in the 1860s so

0:25:42.319,0:25:47.269
this was like a precursor to the civil

0:25:44.449,0:25:49.849
war because people started like I guess

0:25:47.269,0:25:52.129
yeah regretting this debate because all

0:25:49.849,0:25:54.139
these states a lot of them are going to

0:25:52.129,0:25:55.339
end up is people are arguing are they

0:25:54.139,0:25:56.809
going to be like slave states are they

0:25:55.339,0:26:00.339
gonna be free states and the whole

0:25:56.809,0:26:04.789
debate ensues and so yeah okay he’s not

0:26:00.339,0:26:07.819
doing well with the polls he doesn’t

0:26:04.789,0:26:10.159
seek reelection and he actually so

0:26:07.819,0:26:13.729
President Polk actually passes away in

0:26:10.159,0:26:15.889
June 18-49 pretty much right after he

0:26:13.729,0:26:20.539
leaves office and he’s 53 at the time

0:26:15.889,0:26:22.729
and so in the next election so if you’re

0:26:20.539,0:26:26.690
wondering who like who becomes president

0:26:22.729,0:26:28.110
after James Polk so remember a general

0:26:26.690,0:26:30.929
Zachary Taylor from early

0:26:28.110,0:26:32.669
so he had me he was the one who like led

0:26:30.929,0:26:34.409
all the US troops to fight against

0:26:32.669,0:26:37.620
Mexico and because of this he became

0:26:34.409,0:26:41.960
like a national hero so he actually wins

0:26:37.620,0:26:45.990
the next election however so so

0:26:41.960,0:26:48.600
president Zachary Taylor is in office

0:26:45.990,0:26:51.210
however he actually becomes severely ill

0:26:48.600,0:26:54.269
and he passes away sixteen months after

0:26:51.210,0:26:55.769
his inauguration Wow

0:26:54.269,0:26:59.760
yeah I was gonna say I’ve never heard of

0:26:55.769,0:27:02.130
Zachary Taylor I cuz he yeah he passed

0:26:59.760,0:27:06.059
away like really quickly after he

0:27:02.130,0:27:09.360
assumed office and so he is Millard

0:27:06.059,0:27:12.179
Fillmore and he assumes office after

0:27:09.360,0:27:14.279
that so that’s also never heard of

0:27:12.179,0:27:17.549
president

0:27:14.279,0:27:20.070
yikes yeah I just automatically assumed

0:27:17.549,0:27:24.110
I was like okay this is before the Civil

0:27:20.070,0:27:24.110
War so like Abraham Lincoln’s next

0:27:25.620,0:27:30.500
[Music]

0:27:27.529,0:27:34.049
favorite prezi

0:27:30.500,0:27:36.840
yeah so that’s pretty much the Mexican

0:27:34.049,0:27:39.000
American War one quick thing I did want

0:27:36.840,0:27:42.179
to talk about so it was recently a sink

0:27:39.000,0:27:45.059
was a mile and so there’s a lot of like

0:27:42.179,0:27:46.830
misconception about what like sinkhole

0:27:45.059,0:27:48.779
or they might actually celebrates so I

0:27:46.830,0:27:51.659
wanted to ask you if you know like what

0:27:48.779,0:27:54.330
the celebration behind Cinco de Mayo is

0:27:51.659,0:27:56.399
like why that’s a yeah I hope I get this

0:27:54.330,0:27:58.649
right because you know my best family

0:27:56.399,0:28:01.529
friends are Mexican American so I’m

0:27:58.649,0:28:06.419
pretty sure Cinco de Mayo is when the

0:28:01.529,0:28:07.769
the Mexican army had to okay but this is

0:28:06.419,0:28:09.929
probably completely wrong but I thought

0:28:07.769,0:28:12.779
the French army was trying to take over

0:28:09.929,0:28:15.299
Mexico and the Mexicans had like maybe

0:28:12.779,0:28:17.639
like a fifth of the size of like the

0:28:15.299,0:28:20.399
French army and like way less resources

0:28:17.639,0:28:21.269
but they somehow won and like we’re able

0:28:20.399,0:28:24.269
to sell

0:28:21.269,0:28:27.090
yeah keep you go yeah no you’re like

0:28:24.269,0:28:29.159
completely 100 percent correct yes all

0:28:27.090,0:28:30.990
right cool cool cuz a lot of people

0:28:29.159,0:28:33.779
think it’s like oh Mexico’s independence

0:28:30.990,0:28:35.639
day but it’s a holiday that celebrates

0:28:33.779,0:28:37.799
yeah the day that they won this battle

0:28:35.639,0:28:40.500
against the French army in the shrinko

0:28:37.799,0:28:41.940
Mexican War so nice like Mexico ends up

0:28:40.500,0:28:43.950
losing this war but this

0:28:41.940,0:28:46.889
it was like really significant because

0:28:43.950,0:28:49.200
like the odds were not in their favor

0:28:46.889,0:28:51.080
but they still want so definitely yeah I

0:28:49.200,0:28:52.740
know okay I’m so glad I got that right

0:28:51.080,0:28:56.159
dr. barrows

0:28:52.740,0:29:00.299
I love you guys yeah we love it so yeah

0:28:56.159,0:29:02.639
that’s amazing work nice thank you for

0:29:00.299,0:29:04.950
sharing today I think it even though

0:29:02.639,0:29:07.830
like it president and Pope lost the

0:29:04.950,0:29:09.570
favor in turn it is like good because it

0:29:07.830,0:29:13.289
sparks the slavery debate which was

0:29:09.570,0:29:16.289
necessary for moving forward 100% 100%

0:29:13.289,0:29:19.379
and yeah yeah again like these maps like

0:29:16.289,0:29:21.899
before and after the war like how much

0:29:19.379,0:29:25.710
the US grows is crazy

0:29:21.899,0:29:29.100
and yeah I mean I didn’t realize like I

0:29:25.710,0:29:31.559
knew we had that Mexico like lost a lot

0:29:29.100,0:29:33.559
of its territory to territory to the US

0:29:31.559,0:29:36.360
but yeah you look at these maps and it’s

0:29:33.559,0:29:38.250
so crazy to think about they Mexico

0:29:36.360,0:29:40.590
literally lost a third of its territory

0:29:38.250,0:29:43.340
in this war so yeah they really smell

0:29:40.590,0:29:46.159
like they got pushed around a bit so

0:29:43.340,0:29:48.450
synchrony Maya always a big deal that

0:29:46.159,0:29:51.169
we’re like we’re done with this thing

0:29:48.450,0:29:53.730
but it might happen after this

0:29:51.169,0:29:58.080
mexican-american war before yeah it’s

0:29:53.730,0:30:00.600
after so it’s in 1862 nice so yeah and

0:29:58.080,0:30:02.850
actually like see code a mile is not

0:30:00.600,0:30:04.649
really celebrated as much in Mexico

0:30:02.850,0:30:06.750
itself like my family that lives in

0:30:04.649,0:30:08.820
Mexico like they don’t really celebrate

0:30:06.750,0:30:11.250
it I think I’m like Pueblo where the

0:30:08.820,0:30:12.720
battle was fought I think like the

0:30:11.250,0:30:14.730
people living there celebrate it more

0:30:12.720,0:30:18.659
but it’s really like it some was an

0:30:14.730,0:30:20.639
American honestly I feel like we just

0:30:18.659,0:30:24.559
took it over so we could have coupons on

0:30:20.639,0:30:24.559
like taco is there something that day

0:30:26.490,0:30:38.789
[Music]

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